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Mid-Semester Examination
UCE-502: Water Supply Engineering
B.E. – Civil Engineering
Instructor: Dr. Akepati S. Reddy
Date: 28-09-2013 Time: 2 hours (01-00 - 03-00 Hrs.) Max. Marks: 50

Roll No.:………………..
- Please assume if any requisite data is not given (but clearly state all such assumptions made)
- Please attempt all the subparts of a question at one place
Q.1 Answer the following:
1.1 Write note on IS 10500?
IS 10500 2012 – drinking water specifications.
Lists the drinking water quality parameters (in 6 tables)
Prescribes desired limits and permissible limits for parameters and also specifies methods for the sampling and analysis
1.2 Define the terms ‘Service Factor’ and ‘Maximum Day Demand’?
Service factor indicates the fraction of the total population provided with a service (say water supply or sewer connection)
Maximum demand of water per day over one year period usually taken for the design year (MDD occurs usually on
festival days)
1.3 Write note on ‘Intake Cribs’?
For taking from a river/stream or from a lake
a concrete intake crib is used.
The crib is a submerged structure structured
to avoid sediment and floating material
flowing with the intake water.
Usually has a screen to filter and take in the

1.4 Write note on Hydraulic Ram?
Hydraulic ram is a high head – low capacity
pump used in hill areas for lifting water from
valley to human habitations.
Sudden closer of a valve or gate results in
water hammering problem and propogation of
pressure wave on the upstream side. This
pressure pushes some water through a non-
return valve and pumps to elevations even
greater than 1 km.

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1.5 Write note on Scour Velocity?
The liquid flow velocity at which a settled particle will get resuspended can be taken as the scour velocity.
It is estimated by Camp’s formula:
( ) | |
p S
d SG K R
V ÷ =

| ÷
µ µ

Here Ks is taken as 0.8
K is taken 0.04 - 0.06 depending on whether the particles are sticky or not.
Typical values of ‘f’ are 0.02 - 0.03
1.6 Write note on ‘Air Release Valve’?
Air release valves are used on the water
transimission lines at locations where
accumulation is possible.
These have a float t hat plugs the opening
when no air is present. Otherwise it opens and
allows air to escape or air to enter the pipeline
breaking the vacuum.

1.7 Differentiate ‘Break Point’ from the ‘Exhaustion Point’?
Break point and exhaustion points are come across in the adsorption columns and ion exchange columns.
Break point refers to the point at which the contaminant concentration in the treated water/wastewater coming out just
crossed the desired value usually taken as 5% of the concentration in the influent.
Exhaustion point refers to the point at which the total adsorption column/ ion-exchange column is exhausted and the
contaminant comes out almost not removed (contaminant concentration in the effluent is 95% of that in the influent).
1.8 Write note on ‘Sludge Blanket unit’?
In coagulation-flocculation-settling process
three units, namely flash mixing, flocculation
and settling tanks are used.
In the sludge blanket unit all the three tanks are
integrated into a single structure that is known
as sludge blanket unit.
These are used when wastewater/water to be
treated is relatively less

Marks: 2x8 = 16
Q.2 Answer the following:
2.1 An empty 500 mL capacity volumetric flask weighs 200 grams. This flask after filling with a filter medium to the mark is
weighing 750 grams. Then the flask with the filter medium is filled with water to the mark and weighted. Weight of the
flask with water and filter medium is 1150 grams. Find the bulk density and density of the filter medium?
Mass of filter medium: (750-200)=550 g
Bulk density of filter medium: 550/500=1.1 g/ml or 1100 kg/m3

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Volume occupied by filter medium: 500 – (1150-750) = 100 mL
Density of the filter medium: 550/100 = 5.5 g/mL or 5500 kg/m3
2.2 Write note on the Water Quality index (WQI) calculation?
Monitored values for the selected parameters are converted into common scale units by using parameter transformation
The parameter values in common scale units are multiplied with the respective parameter’s relative importance values.
Weighted parameter values are aggregated to obtain the water quality index value.
Maximum operator, minimum operator, sum, geometric mean or arithmetic mean are used for aggregation.
2.3 Population record of a city is as given below:
Year Population (in 1000s) Year Population (in 1000s)
1951 98 1991 270
1961 120 2001 340
1971 160 2011 400
1981 220
Forecast the city’s population in the year 2026 by the Sigmoid Growth Method?

P0, P1 and P2 are taken as 98 for 1951, 220 for 1981 and 400 for 2011 respectively.
Value of ‘n’ is taken as 6 decades
P saturated: ((2x98x220x400)-(220x220x(98+400))/(98x400-220x220) = 745
Value of ‘a’: ln((745-400)/400) = -0.1479
Value of ‘b’: (1/6)xln((98x(745-220))/(220x(745-98)) = -0.1696
Population forecasted for the year 2026: 745/(1+exp(-0.1479+(-0.1696x1.5))) = 446
Here Delta t is taken as 1.5 decades
On a horizontal 100 mm diameter water supply pipeline a Venturimeter with mercury as a manometric fluid has been
provided for facilitating the flow measurement. At one point of time, if the manometric fluid level difference of the
venturimeter was monitored as 7.5 cm, find the water flow rate in the pipeline at that time?

Take the throat diameter of the venture meter (not given) as 40 mm
Take discharge coefficient (cd) for the venture meter (not given) as 0.8
Assuming SG of Hg as 13.5, the manometric fluid level difference in terms of water column is 0.075x(13.5-1) = 0.94 m
Flow through a venture meter = h g


a1 and a2 are pipe and venture throat flow cross-sectional areas respectively (a1: 7,85x10-3 m2; and a2: 1.26x10-3 m2)
g is acceleration due gravity (taken as 9.81)
Flow rate: 001113 . 0 94 . 0 81 . 9 2
10 85 . 7
10 26 . 1
10 26 . 1
8 . 0
= × ×

Marks:4x4 = 16
Q.3 Answer the following:
3.1 What is System Head-capacity Curve? Construct this curve for a pump system provided for pumping water, at the rate of
≤300 m
/hour, from an Underground Reservoir to an Elevated Service Reservoir? Static head of the pump system is 25
m. Piping length of the pump system is 40 m. Cumulative minor loss coefficient (∑K) for the system is 7.5 (this excludes
both entry and exit losses). Maximum flow velocity allowed in the piping is 3.0 m/sec.
Pipe diameter considered (to carry upto 300 m3/hr flow at a maximum velocity of 3 m/sec.): 200 mm
Static head: 25 m
Pipe length: 40 m

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Taking friction factor ‘f’ (not given) as 0.05
Equivalent pipe length accounting for minor losses, (7.5+1+0.5)K: = 9x0.2/0.05 = 36 m
Equivalent length is calculated by (L=KD/f)
Entry loss and exit losses were taken as 0.5 v2/2g and v2/2g respectively
Overall length of the pipe: 40+36 = 76 m
Estimation of head loss for different flow rates using
f h
= equation:
(in m/sec.)
(in m3/hr)
Head loss
(Dh) (in m)
Total head (Th)
(Sh+Dh) (in m)
0.5 56.55 0.242 25.242
1.0. 113.1 0.968 25.968
1.5 169.7 2.178 27.178
2.0 226.2 3.872 28.872
2.5 282.8 6.050 31.050
3.0 339.3 8.712 33.712
3.2 Describe the step-by-step procedure for the water supply pipe network analysis by Hardy-Cross Method?
1. Skeletonization of the water distribution system
– Construct water distribution network of nodes and links (multiple loops)
– Find out and record lengths of the links/pipes
– Workout water extractions and additions for all the nodes
– Water distribution storage reservoirs and pumps are also part of the network
2. Label all the nodes and the pipes, arrange in loops, assume flow direction in each of the pipes, and assume flows in
the pipelines through water balancing at each of the nodes
– Assign positive or negative signs to indicate flow direction (clock-wise direction a positive sign and anti-
clock-wise direction a negative sign)
3. Find diameters for each of the pipes
4. Compute ‘K’ value
5. Head loss value and head loss/flow rate values for all the pipes
6. Compute flow correction for each of the loops
5 2
a L
KQ h =
7. If the flow correction is significant, add the flow correction for each of the pipes in loop
– In case of shared pipes among the loops apply the correction as below
loop shared the for correction flow loop the for correction flow Q Q
÷ + =
– Addition of flow correction can result in change in the sign of the flow (or flow direction)
8. Repeat the steps 4 to 6 till the flow corrections for all the loops become insignificant
9. Once flow corrections become insignificant, find flow velocities in each of the pipes and check whether they are
within the acceptable range or not
– If not, adjust diameters of all those pipes for increasing or decreasing the flow velocities
10. If any of the pipe diameters are changed, repeat the steps 3-9 till the flow velocities in all the pipes are within the
– Acceptable flow velocity range: 0.9 to 1.5 m/sec. (designed for max. hourly flow or MDD + fire demand –
whichever is larger)
11. Once flow velocities in all the pipes are within the range, find pressure at each of the nodes
12. Identify the node with the minimum pressure and adjust pressures at all the nodes to satisfy the minimum pressure
requirements (3.0 m WC is considered as the minimum)
3.3 Design a water transmission line for transmitting 5 MLD water over 1.2 km distance? Flow velocity during average flow
should be 1.0 m/sec. Also find flow velocity in the transmission line for the maximum flow condition of 1.3 times the

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average flow?
Average flow: 0.0579 m3/sec.
Maximum flow: 0.0752 m3/sec.
Take depth of flow in the channel as half the channel width during average flow: w=2h
Flow cross sectional area during average flow: 0.0579 m2
Channel width: 0.340 m
Depth of flow: 0.170 m
Hydraulic radius during average flow: wh/(w+2h) = 0.085
Slope of the channel:

n V
S = 0.006
‘n’ is taken as 0.015
Transmission line inlet and outlet elevation difference: 7.224 m
Flow velocity and flow depth when flow is 1.3 times the average flow is obtained through solving the following intrinsic
2 34 . 0
34 . 0
164 . 5
221 . 0


This equation is obtained from Manning’s equation from replacing V with Q/wh and R with wh/(w+2h)
Value of h: 0.208
Flow velocity: 1.064 m
Marks: 3x6 = 18

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