ISO SAP082313M12 Rev. 0
Proudly developed in the United States of America August 2013
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and SAP2000
b
Moment redistribution factor in a member
f
Partial safety factor for load
m
Partial safety factor for material strength
c
Maximum concrete strain, 0.0035
s
Strain in tension steel
'
s
Strain in compression steel
Notation 3  3
Concrete Frame Design Hong Kong CP 2004
3.2 Design Load Combinations
The design loading combinations define the various factored combinations of
the load cases for which the structure is to be checked. The design loading
combinations are obtained by multiplying the characteristic loads by
appropriate partial factors of safety,
f
(CP 2.3.1.3). If a structure is subjected
to dead load (DL) and live load (LL) only, the design will need only one
loading combination, namely 1.4 DL +1.6 LL. However, in addition to the
dead load and live load, if the structure is subjected to wind (WL), and
considering that those loads are subject to reversals, the following load
combinations for ultimate limit state should be considered (CP 2.3.2, Table
2.1):
1.4 DL +1.6 LL
1.0 DL 1.4 WL (CP 2.3.2.1)
1.4 DL 1.4 WL
1.2 DL +1.2 LL 1.2 WL
These are the default load combinations. In addition to these load
combinations, the code requires that all buildings be capable of resisting a
notional design ultimate horizontal load applied at each floor or roof level. The
notional load should be equal to 0.015 times the dead load (CP 3.1.4.2). It is
recommended that the user define additional load cases to consider notional
load in the program.
Live load reduction factors, as allowed by some design codes, can be applied to
the member forces of the live load case on a memberbymember basis to
reduce the contribution of the live load to the factored loading.
3.3 Design Strength
The design strength for concrete and steel are obtained by dividing the
characteristic strength of the material by a partial factor of safety,
m
. The
values of
m
used in the program are listed as follows (CP 2.4.3.2, Table 2.2).
1.15, for reinforcement,
1.50, for concrete in flexure and axial load, and
1.25, for shear strength without shear reinforcement.
m
(CP 2.4.3.2,
Table 2.2)
3  4 Design Load Combinations
Chapter 3  Design for CP 2004 Hong Kong
3.4 Column Design
The user may define the geometry of the reinforcing bar configuration of each
concrete column section. If the area of reinforcing is provided by the user, the
program checks the column capacity. However, if the area of reinforcing is not
provided by the user, the program calculates the amount of reinforcing required
for the column. The design procedure for the reinforced concrete columns of
the structure involves the following steps:
Generate axial force/biaxial moment interaction surfaces for all of the
different concrete section types of the model. A typical biaxial interaction
surface is shown in Figure 31. When the steel is undefined, the program
generates the interaction surfaces for the range of allowable reinforcement
from 0.8 to 6 percent (CP 9.5.1).
Calculate the capacity ratio or the required reinforcing area for the factored
axial force and biaxial (or uniaxial) bending moments obtained from each
loading combination at each station of the column. The target capacity
ratio is taken as one when calculating the required reinforcing area.
Design the column shear reinforcement.
The following three subsections describe in detail the algorithms associated
with these steps.
3.4.1 Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces
The column capacity interaction volume is numerically described by a series of
discrete points that are generated on the threedimensional interaction failure
surface. In addition to axial compression and biaxial bending, the formulation
allows for axial tension and biaxial bending considerations (CP 6.2.1.4a). A
typical interaction diagram is shown in Figure 31.
Column Design 3  5
Concrete Frame Design Hong Kong CP 2004
Figure 31 A typical column interaction surface
The coordinates of these points are determined by rotating a plane of linear
strain in three dimensions on the section of the column (CP 6.1.2.4). See Figure
32. The linear strain diagram limits the maximum concrete strain, at the
extremity of the section, to
c,max
(CP 6.1.2.4) as shown by the following:
( )
2
,max
2
0.0035 for 60 N/mm
0.0035 0.00006 60 for 60 N/mm
cu
c
cu cu
f
f f
=
>
The formulation is based consistently on the basic principles of ultimate
strength design and allows for any doubly symmetric rectangular, square, or
circular column section (CP 6.2.1.4a, CP Figure 6.1).
The stress in the steel is given by the product of the steel strain and the steel
modulus of elasticity, ,
s s
E and is limited to the design strength of the steel,
The area associated with each reinforcing bar is placed at
( )
1.15 .
y
f
3  6 Column Design
Chapter 3  Design for CP 2004 Hong Kong
Figure 32 Idealized strain distribution for generation of interaction surface
the actual location of the center of the bar and the algorithm does not assume
any simplifications in the manner in which the area of steel is distributed over
the crosssection of the column (such as an equivalent steel tube or cylinder).
See Figure 33.
Column Design 3  7
Concrete Frame Design Hong Kong CP 2004
The concrete compression stress block is assumed to be rectangular, with a
stress value of 0.67 0.45
cu m u
f f = (CP 6.1.2.4, CP Figure 6.1). See Figure
33. The interaction algorithm provides corrections to account for the concrete
area that is displaced by the reinforcement in the compression zone.
Figure 33 Idealization of stress and strain distribution in a column section
3.4.2 Check Column Capacity
The column capacity is checked for each loading combination at each output
station of each column. In checking a particular column for a particular loading
combination at a particular location, the program uses the following steps:
Determine the factored moments and forces from the load cases and the
specified load combination factors to give , , , , and .
x y x y
N V V M M
Determine the additional moments due to slender column effect. Compute
moments due to minimum eccentricity.
Determine total design moments by adding the corresponding additional
moments to the factored moments obtained from the analysis. Determine
3  8 Column Design
Chapter 3  Design for CP 2004 Hong Kong
whether the point, defined by the resulting axial load and biaxial moment
set, lies within the interaction volume.
The following three subsections describe in detail the algorithms associated
with these steps.
3.4.2.1 Determine Factored Moments and Forces
Each load combination is defined with a set of load factors corresponding to
the load cases. The factored loads for a particular load combination are
obtained by applying the corresponding load factors to the load cases, giving
, , , , and .
x y x y
N V V M M
3.4.2.2 Determine Additional Moments
The determination of additional moments depends on whether the frame is
braced or unbraced against sidesway (CP 6.2.1.1(d)). For unbraced
columns, additional moment is automatically considered in the Pdelta
analysis. But for braced columns, further calculation is required for stability
of individual column members.
3.4.2.2.1 Braced Column
The additional moment in a braced column in a particular plane is the product
of the axial load and the lateral deflection of the column in that plane (CP
6.2.1.3),
, =
add u
M Na (CP 6.2.1.3(a))
where,
u
a is the deflection at the ultimate limit state, which is obtained from
u a
a Kh = and (CP 6.2.1.3)
2
1
.
2000
e
a
l
b
 
=

\ .
(CP 6.2.1.3)
In the preceding equations,
Column Design 3  9
Concrete Frame Design Hong Kong CP 2004
e
l is the effective length in the plane under consideration. It is obtained
from
0
,
e
l l = (CP 6.2.1.1(e))
where is the effective length factor, and
0
l is the unsupported length
corresponding to instability in the major or minor direction of the element,
. In calculating the value of the effective length, the factor is
conservatively taken as 1. However, the program allows the user to overwrite
this default value.
b
is the dimension of the column in the plane of bending considered.
h is also the dimension of the column in the plane of bending considered.
K
is the correction factor to the deflection to take care of the influence of the
axial force, and K is conservatively taken as 1.
The program then calculates the total design moments by combining the
factored moments obtained from analysis and the additional moments. If
1
M
and
2
M ( )
2 1
> M M are the initial end moments in a column member in a
particular plane, the maximum design moment for the column is taken as the
greatest of the following:
2
M (CP 6.2.1.3(b))
1 add
M M + (CP 6.2.1.3(b))
add
1
2
M
M + (CP 6.2.1.3(b))
min
N e (CP 6.2.1.3(b))
where,
i
M is the initial moment in a column due to design ultimate loads at the point
of maximum additional moment and is given by
1 2 2
0.4 0.6 0.4 .
i
M M M M = + (CP 6.2.1.3(b))
and
x y
l l
3  10 Column Design
Chapter 3  Design for CP 2004 Hong Kong
1
M and
2
M are the smaller and the larger end moments respectively. Both
moments are assumed to be positive if the column is in single curvature. If the
column is in double curvature,
1
M is assumed to be negative.
min
e is the minimum eccentricity, which is taken as 0.05 times the overall
dimension of the column in the plane of bending considered, but not more than
20 mm (CP 6.2.1.2(d)).
min
20mm.
20
h
e = (CP 6.2.1.2(d))
3.4.2.2.2 Unbraced Column
In the case of the unbraced column, it is assumed that the program analysis
includes Pdelta effects so that the analysis results include the effects of the
additional moments. Therefore, no additional computation is required. That
means moment magnification factors for moments causing sidesway are taken
as unity. However, it is recommended that for Pdelta analysis, a factor be used
to obtain a P equivalent to 1.2 DL +1.2 LL (White and Hajjar 1991).
Also, the minimum eccentricity requirements are satisfied so the design
moment should be at least
min
,
u
M Ne (CP 6.2.1.2(d))
where,
min
e is the minimum eccentricity, which is described in the previous
section. In biaxial bending, the algorithm ensures that the eccentricity exceeds
the minimum about both the axes simultaneously.
3.4.2.3 Determine Capacity Ratio
As a measure of the stress condition of the column, a capacity ratio is
calculated. The capacity ratio is basically a factor that gives an indication of
the stress condition of the column with respect to the capacity of the column.
Before entering the interaction diagram to check the column capacity, the
design forces , , and
x y
N M M are obtained according to the previous
subsections. The point
( ) x y
N,M ,M is then placed in the interaction space
shown as point L in Figure 34. If the point lies within the interaction volume,
Column Design 3  11
Concrete Frame Design Hong Kong CP 2004
the column capacity is adequate; however, if the point lies outside the
interaction volume, the column is overstressed.
This capacity ratio is achieved by plotting the point L and determining the
location of point C. The point C is defined as the point where the line OL (if
extended outwards) will intersect the failure surface. This point is determined
by threedimensional linear interpolation between the points that define the
failure surface. See Figure 34. The capacity ratio, CR, is given by the ratio
.
OL
OC
Figure 34 Geometric representation of column capacity ratio
If OL =OC (or CR =1), the point lies on the interaction surface and the
column is stressed to capacity.
3  12 Column Design
Chapter 3  Design for CP 2004 Hong Kong
If OL <OC (or CR <1), the point lies within the interaction volume and the
column capacity is adequate.
If OL >OC (or CR >1), the point lies outside the interaction volume and the
column is overstressed.
The maximum of all of the values of CR calculated from each load
combination is reported for each check station of the column along with the
controlling , , and
x y
N M M set and associated load combination number.
If the reinforcing area is not defined, the program computes the reinforcement
that will give an interaction ratio of unity.
3.4.3 Design Column Shear Reinforcement
The shear reinforcement is designed for each loading combination in the major
and minor directions of the column. In designing the shear reinforcement for a
particular column for a particular loading combination due to shear forces in a
particular direction, the following steps are involved (CP 6.2.1.4(e) and
6.1.2.5):
Calculate the design shear stress from
, ,
cv
cv
V
v A bd
A
= = where (CP 6.1.2.5(a))
The maximum allowable shear stress, v
max
is defined as:
v
max
=min(0.8
cu
f , 7 MPa) (CP 6.1.2.5(a))
If v
max
exceeds 0.8
cu
f or
2
N
mm
7 , the section area should be increased.
Calculate the design concrete shear stress from (CP 6.1.2.5(a))
c c
c
c
c c
v A
N
v
M A
NVh
v v + + = 1 6 . 0 ' with (CP 6.1.2.5(k))
Column Design 3  13
Concrete Frame Design Hong Kong CP 2004
4
1
3
1
2 1
400 100 79 . 0

.

\


.

\

=
d bd
A k k
v
s
m
c
 
=

\ .
>
=
c
sv
v yv
v v b
A
s f
(CP 6.1.2.5(b))
3.5 BeamDesign
In the design of concrete beams, the program calculates and reports the
required areas of steel for flexure and shear based on the beam moments and
shears, load combination factors, and other criteria described herein or in the
subsections that follow. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at a
user defined number of check stations along the beam span.
All of the beams are designed for major direction flexure and shear only.
Effects due to any axial forces, minor direction bending, and torsion that may
exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user.
The beam design procedure involves the following steps:
Design beam flexural reinforcement
Design beam shear reinforcement
3.5.1 Design BeamFlexural Reinforcement
The beam top and bottom flexural steel is designed at a user defined number of
check stations along the beam span. In designing the flexural reinforcement for
the major moment for a particular beam at a particular section, the following
steps are involved:
Determine the maximum factored moments
Determine the reinforcing steel
BeamDesign 3  15
Concrete Frame Design Hong Kong CP 2004
3.5.1.1 Determine Factored Moments
In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete frame beams, the factored
moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained
by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases with the
corresponding load factors.
The beam section is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum
negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations at that
section.
Negative beam moments produce top steel. In such cases, the beam is always
designed as a Rectangular section. Positive beam moments produce bottom
steel. In such cases, the beam may be designed as a Rectangular section, or T
beam effects may be included.
3.5.1.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement
In the flexural reinforcement design process, the program calculates both the
tension and compression reinforcement. Compression reinforcement is added
when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a
singly reinforced section. The user has the option of avoiding the compression
reinforcement by increasing the effective depth, the width, or the grade of
concrete.
The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block, as
shown in Figure 36 (CP 6.1.2.4(a)). Furthermore, it is assumed that moment
redistribution in the member does not exceed 10% (i.e.,
b
0.9) (CP
6.1.2.4(b)). The code also places a limitation on the neutral axis depth,
2
2
2
0.5 for 45N/ mm
0.4 for 45 < 70 N/ mm
0.33 for 70 < 100N/ mm andnomomentredistribution
cu
cu
cu
f
x
f
d
f
to safeguard against nonductile failures (CP 6.1.2.4(b)). In addition, the area
of compression reinforcement is calculated on the assumption that the neutral
axis depth remains at the maximum permitted value.
3  16 BeamDesign
Chapter 3  Design for CP 2004 Hong Kong
The design procedure used by the program, for both rectangular and flanged
sections (L and T beams), is summarized in the subsections that follow. It is
assumed that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed 0.1f
cu
A
g
(CP
6.1.2.4(a)); hence, all of the beams are designed for major direction flexure and
shear only.
Figure 36 Rectangular beam design
3.5.1.2.1 Design of a Rectangular Beam
For rectangular beams, the moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam,
M
single
, is obtained first for a section. The reinforcing steel area is determined
based on whether M is greater than, less than, or equal to M
single
. See Figure
32.
Calculate the ultimate moment of resistance of the section as singly
reinforced.
2
single
, where =
cu
M K f bd (CP 6.1.2.4(c))
BeamDesign 3  17
Concrete Frame Design Hong Kong CP 2004
2
2
2
and no moment redistribution
0.156 for 45N/ mm
' 0.120 for 45 70N/ mm
0.094 for 70 100N/ mm .
cu
cu
cu
f
K f
f
= <
<
If M M
single
, the area of tension reinforcement, A
s
, is obtained from
( )
,
0.87
s
y
M
A
f z
=
where (CP 6.1.2.4(c))
0.5 0.25 0.95 ,
0.9
K
z d d
= +
`
2
2
2
, for 45N/ mm,
0.45
, for 45 70N/ mm,
0.40
, for 70 100N/ mm,
0.36
cu
cu
cu
d z
f
d z
x f
d z
f
= <
<
2
. =
cu
M
K
f bd
This is the top steel if the section is under negative moment and the
bottom steel if the section is under positive moment.
If M >M
single
, the area of compression reinforcement, '
s
A , is given by
( )
( )
single
,
s
s cu c
M M
A
f f d d
where d' is the depth of the compression steel from the concrete
compression face, and
( )
1 0.87 ,
=
s s s y
d
f E f
x
(CP 6.1.2.4 (c), 3.2.6, Fig. CP 3.9)
3  18 BeamDesign
Chapter 3  Design for CP 2004 Hong Kong
2
2
2
, for 45N/ mm,
0.45
, for 45 70N/ mm,
0.40
, for 70 100N/ mm,
0.36
cu
cu
cu
d z
f
d z
x f
d z
f
= <
<
0.5 0.25 .
0.9
= +
`
K
z d
This is the bottom steel if the section is under negative moment. From
equilibrium, the area of tension reinforcement is calculated as
( )
single single
.
( )
0.87
= +
s
y
y
M M M
A
f d d
f z
(CP 6.1.2.4(c))
3.5.1.2.2 Design as a T Beam
Flanged BeamUnder Negative Moment
The contribution of the flange to the strength of the beam is ignored. The
design procedure is therefore identical to the one used for Rectangular beams,
except that in the corresponding equations,b is replaced by .
w
b See Figure 37.
Flanged BeamUnder Positive Moment
With the flange in compression, the program analyzes the section by
considering alternative locations of the neutral axis. Initially, the neutral axis is
assumed to be located in the flange. Based on this assumption, the program
calculates the exact depth of the neutral axis. If the stress block does not extend
beyond the flange thickness, the section is designed as a rectangular beam of
width b
f
. If the stress block extends beyond the flange width, the contribution
of the web to the flexural strength of the beam is taken into account. See Figure
37.
Assuming the neutral axis is in the flange, the normalized moment is computed
as
BeamDesign 3  19
Concrete Frame Design Hong Kong CP 2004
2
. =
cu f
M
K
f b d
Then the moment arm is computed as
0.5 0.25 0.95 ,
0.9
K
z d d
= +
`
the depth of neutral axis is computed as
2
2
2
, for 45N/ mm,
0.45
, for 45 70N/ mm,
0.40
, for 70 100N/ mm,
0.36
cu
cu
cu
d z
f
d z
x f
d z
f
= <
<
the depth of compression block is given by
a =
2
2
2
0.9 for 5 N/mm
0.8 for 45 < 70 N/mm
0.72 for 70 < 100 N/mm
cu
cu
cu
x f
x f
x f
4 ,
,
.
If a h
f
, the subsequent calculations for A
s
are exactly the same as
previously defined for the Rectangular section design. However, in that
case, the width of the compression flange, b
f
, is taken as the width of the
beam, b, for analysis. Whether compression reinforcement is required
depends on whether
> K K
.
If a >h
f
, calculation for A
s
is performed in two parts. The first part is for
balancing the compressive force from the flange, C
f
, and the second part is
for balancing the compressive force from the web, C
w
, as shown in Figure
33.
In that case, the ultimate resistance moment of the flange is given by
3  20 BeamDesign
Chapter 3  Design for CP 2004 Hong Kong
the balance of moment taken by the web is computed as
and
the normalized moment resisted by the web is given by
Figure 37 T beam design
If K
w
K
1
, the beam is designed as a singly reinforced concrete beam. The
area of steel is calculated as the sum of two parts, one to balance
compression in the flange and one to balance compression in the web.
where
BeamDesign 3  21
Concrete Frame Design Hong Kong CP 2004
0.5 0.25 0.95 .
0.9
= +
`
w
K
z d d
If K
w
K', compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as
follows:
The ultimate moment of resistance of the web only is given by
2
. =
uw cu w
M K f b d
The compression reinforcement is required to resist a moment of
magnitude
.
w uw
M M
The compression reinforcement is computed as
( )
( )
,
w uw
s
s cu c
M M
A
f f d d
where,
d' is the depth of the compression steel from the concrete
compression face, and
1 0.87 .
s s c y
d
f E f
x
 
=

\ .
The area of tension reinforcement is obtained from equilibrium
1
,
0.87 0.5
(
= + +
(
(
f
uw w uw
s
y f
M
M M M
A
f d h z d d
where
0.5 0.25 0.95 .
0.9
= + +
`
k
z d d
3  22 BeamDesign
Chapter 3  Design for CP 2004 Hong Kong
Special Case
If
2
f cu
M B f bd ,
0,
=
s
A
( )
( )
1 2
0.87 0.5
+
=
cu w f
s
y f
M k f b d k d h
A
f d h
(CP 6.1.2.5(d))
where,
cu
1
f
k =
<
<
2
2
2
0.100 for 45N/ mm
0.072 for 45 70N/ mm
0.054 for 70 100N/ mm, and
cu
cu
f
f
2
2
2
0.45 for 45N/mm
0.32 for 45 70N/mm
0.24 for 70 100N/mm
cu
2 cu
cu
f
k = f
f
<
<
,
,
.
3.5.1.3 Minimumand MaximumTensile Reinforcement
The minimum flexural tensile steel required for a beam section is given by the
following table, which is taken from CP Table 9.1 (CP 9.2.1.1), with interpolation
for reinforcement of intermediate strength:
Section Situation
Definition of
percentage
Minimum percentage
f
y
=250 MPa f
y
=460 MPa
Rectangular 100
bh
A
s
0.24 0.13
BeamDesign 3  23
Concrete Frame Design Hong Kong CP 2004
Section Situation
Definition of
percentage
Minimum percentage
f
y
=250 MPa f
y
=460 MPa
T or L beam with
web in tension
f
w
b
b
<0.4 100
h b
A
w
s
0.32 0.18
f
w
b
b
0.4 100
h b
A
w
s
0.24 0.13
T beam with web
in compression
100
h b
A
w
s
0.48 0.26
L beam with web
in compression
100
h b
A
w
s
0.36 0.20
The minimum flexural compression steel, if it is required at all, provided in a
rectangular beam or T beam section is given by the following table, which is
taken from CP Table 9.1 (CP 9.2.1.1), with interpolation for reinforcement of
intermediate strength:
Section Situation
Definition of
percentage
Minimum
percentage
Rectangular
100
s
A
bh
0.20
T beam
Web in tension
100
s
f f
A
b h
0.40
Web in compression
100
s
w
A
b h
0.20
In addition, an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression
reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.04 times the gross crosssectional area
(CP 9.2.1.3).
3  24 BeamDesign
Chapter 3  Design for CP 2004 Hong Kong
3.5.2 Design BeamShear Reinforcement
The shear reinforcement is designed for each loading combination in the major
and minor directions of the column. In designing the shear reinforcement for a
particular beam for a particular loading combination due to shear forces in a
particular direction, the following steps are involved (CP 6.1.2.5):
Calculate the design shear stress as
, , where = =
cv
cv
V
v A bd
A
(CP 6.1.2.5(a))
The maximum allowable shear stress, v
max
is defined as:
v
max
=min(0.8
cu
f , 7 MPa) (CP 6.1.2.5(a))
If v exceeds either 0.8
cu
f or
2
N
mm
7 , the section area should be in
creased.
Calculate the design concrete shear stress from
c c
c
c
c c
v A
N
v
M A
NVh
v v + + = 1 6 . 0 ' (CP 6.1.2.5(k))
1 1
3 4
1 2
100 0.79 400
,
   
=
 
\ . \ .
s
c
m
A k k
v
bd d
(CP 6.1.2.5(c))
where,
1
k is the enhancement factor for support compression,
and
1
k is conservatively taken as 1, (CP 6.1.2.5(g))
1
3
2
1, and
25
 
=

\ .
cu
f
k (CP 6.1.2.5(c))
1.25.
m
= (CP 2.4.3.2)
However, the following limitations also apply:
BeamDesign 3  25
Concrete Frame Design Hong Kong CP 2004
100
0.15 3,
s
A
bd
(CP 6.1.2.5(c))
4
0.67formemberswithoutshearreinforcement,
1.00formemberswithshearreinforcement,
400
d
 

\ .
(CP 6.1.2.5(c))
1.
d
V
M
(CP 6.1.2.5(k))
Calculate the design average shear stress that can be carried by minimum
transverse rebar, ,
r
v as follows:
( )
2 2
2
3
2
2
3
2
N N
mm mm
N
mm
N
mm
0.4 if 40
0.4 if 40 80
40
80
0.4 if 80
40
cu
cu
r cu
cu
f
f
v f
f
 
= <

\ .
>
= (CP 6.1.2.5)
3  26 BeamDesign
Chapter 4
Design Output
4.1 Overview
The program creates design output in different formats graphical display,
tabular output, and member specific detailed design information.
The graphical display of design output includes input and output design
information. Input design information includes design section labels, Kfactors,
live load reduction factors, and other design parameters. The output design
information includes longitudinal reinforcing, shear reinforcing, torsional
reinforcing and column capacity ratios. All graphical output can be printed.
The tabular output can be saved in a file or printed. The tabular output includes
most of the information that can be displayed. This is generated for added
convenience to the designer.
The member specific detailed design information shows the details of the
calculation from the designers point of view. It shows the design forces,
design section dimensions, reinforcement, and some intermediate results for all
of the load combinations at all of the design sections of a specific frame
member. For a column member, it also can show the position of the current
state of design forces on the column interaction diagram.
4  1
Concrete Frame Design Hong Kong CP 2004
In the following sections, some of the typical graphical display, tabular output,
spreadsheet output, and member specific detailed design information are
described. The HK CP 04 design code is described in this manual.
4.2 Graphical Display of Design Information
The graphical display of design output includes input and output design
information. Input design information includes design section label, Kfactors,
live load reduction factor, and other design parameters. The output design
information includes longitudinal reinforcing, shear reinforcing, torsion
reinforcing, column capacity ratio, beamcolumn capacity ratio, joint shear
check, and other design information.
The graphical output can be produced in color or in grayscaled screen display.
The active screen display can be sent directly to the printer.
4.2.1 Input and Output
Input design information for the HK CP 04 code includes the following:
Design sections
Design framing type
Live load reduction factors (RLLF)
Unbraced length, Lfactors, for major and minor direction of bending
Effective length factors, Kfactors, for major and minor direction of bend
ing
C
m
factors, for major and minor direction of bending
ns
factors, for major and minor direction of bending
s
factors, for major and minor direction of bending
The output design information that can be displayed consists of the following:
Longitudinal reinforcing area
4  2 Graphical Display of Design Information
Chapter 4  Design Output
Longitudinal reinforcing area as percent of concrete gross area
Shear reinforcing areas per unit spacing
Column PMM interaction ratios
Torsion reinforcing
General reinforcing details
Use the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Display Design Info
command to plot input and output values directly on the model in the active
window. Clicking this command will access the Display Design Results form.
Select the Design Output or Design Input option, and then use the dropdown
lists to choose the type of design data to be displayed, such as longitudinal
reinforcement, rebar percentages, shear reinforcing and so on. Click the OK
button on the form to close the form and display the selected data in the active
window.
The graphical displays can be viewed in 2D or 3D mode. Use the various
toolbar buttons (e.g., Set Default 3D View, Set XY View) to adjust the view,
or use the View menu > Set 2D View or View menu > Set 3D View
commands to refine the display.
The graphical display in the active window can be printed by clicking the File
menu > Print Graphics command, the Print Graphics button on the toolbar,
or the Ctrl+G keyboard shortcut. The display also can be captured as a bit map
file (.bmp) using one of the subcommands on the File menu > Capture
Picture command, or as a metafile (.emf) using one of the subcommands on
the File menu > Capture Enhanced Metafile command. The captured picture
file can then be used in popular graphics programs, including Paint and
PowerPoint. Alternatively, the standard Windows screen capture command
(click the Print Screen button on the keyboard) can be used to create a screen
capture of the entire window, or use the Alt+Print Screen command to capture
only the "top layer," such as a form displayed from within the program.
By default, graphics are displayed and printed in color, assuming a color
printer is available. Use the Options menu > Colors > Output command to
change default colors, as necessary, including changing the background color
from the default black to white. A white background can be useful when
printing design output to save ink/toner. In addition, the Options menu >
Graphical Display of Design Information 4  3
Concrete Frame Design Hong Kong CP 2004
Colors > Set Active Theme command can be used to view or print graphics in
grayscale.
4.3 Tabular Display of Design Output
The tabular design output can be sent directly to a printer or saved to a file. The
printed form of the tabular output is the same as that produced for the file
output except that the font size is adjusted for the printed output.
The tabular design output includes input and output design information that
depends on the design code chosen. For the HK CP 04 code, the tabular output
includes the following. All tables have formal headings and are self
explanatory, so further description of these tables is not given.
Input design information includes the following:
Concrete Column Property Data
 Material label
 Column dimensions
 Reinforcement pattern
 Concrete cover
 Bar area
Concrete Beam Property Data
 Material label
 Beam dimensions
 Top and bottom concrete cover
 Top and bottom reinforcement areas
Concrete Column Property Data
 Material label
 Column dimensions
 Reinforcement pattern
 Concrete cover
 Bar area
Load Combination Multipliers
 Combination name
4  4 Tabular Display of Design Output
Chapter 4  Design Output
 Load types
 Load factors
Concrete Design Element Information
 Design section ID
 Factors for major and minor direction of bending
 Unbraced length ratios for major and minor direction of
bending, Lfactors
 Live load reduction factors (RLLF)
Concrete Moment Magnification Factors
 Section ID
 Element type
 Framing type

ns
factors

s
factors
The output design information includes the following:
Column design Information
 Section ID
 Station location
 Total longitudinal reinforcement and the governing load combina
tion
 Major shear reinforcement and the governing load combination
 Minor shear reinforcement and the governing load combination
Beam Design Information
 Section ID
 Station location
 Top longitudinal reinforcement and the governing load combination
 Bottom reinforcement and the governing load combination
 Longitudinal torsional reinforcement and the governing load combi
nation
 Major shear reinforcement and the governing load combination for
shear and torsion design
Tabular output can be printed directly to a printer or saved in a file using the
File menu > Print Tables command. A form will display when this command
is used. Depress the F1 key on the keyboard to access the Help topic specific to
Tabular Display of Design Output 4  5
Concrete Frame Design Hong Kong CP 2004
that form, which will identify the types of output available (e.g., plain text with
or without page breaks, rich text format Word document, and so on).
4.4 Member Specific Information
Member specific design information shows the details of the calculation from
the designer's point of view. It includes the geometry and material data, other
input data, design forces, design section dimensions, reinforcement details, and
some of the intermediate results for the selected member. The design detail
information can be displayed for a specific load combination and for a specific
station of a column or beam member. For columns, member specific design
information also can show the position of the current state of design forces
using a column interaction diagram.
After an analysis has been performed and the Design menu > Concrete
Frame Design > Start Design/Check command has been used, access the
detailed design information by right clicking a frame member to display the
Concrete Column Design Information form if a column member was right
clicked or the Concrete Beam Design Information form if a beam member was
right clicked. Table 41 identifies the types of data provided by the forms.
The longitudinal and shear reinforcing area are reported in their current units,
which are displayed in the dropdown list in the lower right corner of the
program window. Typically, the longitudinal reinforcing area is reported in in
2
,
mm
2
, cm
2
and so on. Shear reinforcing areas typically are reported in in
2
/in,
mm
2
/mm, cm
2
/cm and so on.
Table 41 Member Specifi c Data for Columns and Beams
Column Beam
Load combination ID
Station locations
Longitudinal reinforcement area
Major shear reinforcement areas
Minor shear reinforcement areas
Load combination ID
Station location
Top reinforcement areas
Bottomreinforcement areas
Longitudinal reinforcement for torsion design
Shear reinforcement area for shear
Shear reinforcement area for torsion design
4  6 Member Specific Information
Chapter 4  Design Output
Table 41 Member Specific Data for Columns and Beams
Buttons on the forms can be used to access additional forms that provide the following data
Overwrites
Element section ID
Element framing type
Codedependent factors
Live load reduction factors
Effective length factors, K, for major
and minor direction bending
C
m
factors for major and minor bend
ing
s
factors for major and minor direc
tions
Summary design data
Geometric data and graphical represen
tation
Material properties
Minimumdesign moments
Moment factors
Longitudinal reinforcing areas
Design shear forces
Shear reinforcing areas
Shear capacities of steel and concrete
Torsion reinforcing
Interaction diagram, with the axial
force and biaxial moment showing the
state of stress in the column
Detailed calculations for flexural details,
shear details, joint shear, and beam/ col
umn capacity ratios
Overwrites
Element section ID
Element framing type
Codedependent factors
Live load reduction factors
Effective length factors, K, for major and
minor direction bending
C
m
factors for major and minor bending
s
factors for major and minor directions
Summary design data
Geometric data and graphical representa
tion
Material properties
Design moments and shear forces
Minimumdesign moments
Top and bottomreinforcing areas
Shear capacities of concrete and steel
Shear reinforcing area
Torsion reinforcing area
The load combination is reported by its name, while station data is reported by
its location as measured from the Iend of the column. The number of line
items reported is equal to the number of design combinations multiplied by the
number of stations. One line item will be highlighted when the form first
displays. This line item will have the largest required longitudinal reinforcing,
unless any design overstress or error occurs for any of the items. In that case,
the last item among the overstressed items or items with errors will be
highlighted. In essence, the program highlights the critical design item.
If a column has been selected and the column has been specified to be checked
by the program, the form includes the same information as that displayed for a
designed column, except that the data for a checked column includes the
capacity ratio rather than the total longitudinal reinforcing area. Similar to the
Member Specific Information 4  7
Concrete Frame Design Hong Kong CP 2004
design data, the line item with the largest capacity ratio is highlighted when the
form first displays, unless an item has an error or overstress, in which case, that
item will be highlighted. In essence, the program highlights the critical check
item.
The program can be used to check and to design rebar in a column member.
When the users specifies that the program is to check the rebar in the column,
the program checks the rebar as it is specified. When the user specifies that the
program design the rebar configuration, the program starts with the data
specified for rebar and then increases or decreases the rebar in proportion to the
relative areas of rebar at the different locations of rebar in the column.
4.4.1 Interactive Concrete Frame Design
The interactive concrete frame design and review is a powerful mode that
allows the user to review the design results for any concrete frame design, to
revise the design assumptions interactively, and to review the revised results
immediately.
Before entering the interactive concrete frame design mode, the design results
must be available for at least one member. That means the design must have
been run for all the members or for only selected members. If the initial design
has not been performed yet, run a design by clicking the Design menu >
Concrete Frame Design > Start Design/Check of Structure command.
There are three ways to initiate the interactive concrete frame design mode:
Click the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Start Design/Check
of Structures command to run a design.
Click the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Display Design Info
command to access the Display Design Results form and select a type of
result.
Click the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Interactive Con
crete Frame Design command.
After using any of the three commands, right click on a frame member to enter
the interactive Concrete Frame Design Mode and access the Concrete Column
Design Information form if a column member was right clicked or the
4  8 Member Specific Information
Chapter 4  Design Output
Concrete Beam Design Information form if a beam member was right clicked.
These forms have Overwrites buttons that accesses the Concrete Frame
Design Overwrites form. The form can be used to change the design sections,
element type, live load reduction factor for reducible live load, and many other
design factors. See Appendix D for a detailed description of the overwrite
items. When changes to the design parameters are made using the Overwrites
form, the Concrete Beam or Column Design Information forms update
immediately to reflect the changes. Then other buttons on the Concrete Beam
or Column Design Information forms can be used to display additional forms
showing the details of the updated design. See the Member Specific
Information section of this chapter for more information.
In this way, the user can change the overwrites any number of times to produce
a satisfactory design. After an acceptable design has been produced by
changing the section or other design parameters, click the OK button on the
Concrete Beam or Column Design Information forms to permanently change
the design sections and other overwrites for that member. However, if the
Cancel button is used, all changes made to the design parameters using the
Concrete Frame Design Overwrites form are temporary and do not affect the
design.
4.5 Error Messages and Warnings
In many places of concrete frame design output, error messages and warnings
are displayed. The messages are numbered. A complete list of error messages
and warnings used in Concrete Frame Design for all the design codes is
provided in Appendix E. However, all of the messages are not applicable to the
HK CP 04 code.
Error Messages and Warnings 4  9
Appendix A
Second Order PDelta Effects
Typically, design codes require that second order Pdelta effects be considered
when designing concrete frames. They are the global lateral translation of the
frame and the local deformation of members within the frame.
Consider the frame object shown in Figure A1, which is extracted from a story
level of a larger structure. The overall global translation of this frame object is
indicated by . The local deformation of the member is shown as . The total
second order Pdelta effects on this frame object are those caused by both and
.
The program has an option to consider Pdelta effects in the analysis. When
Pdelta effects are considered in the analysis, the program does a good job of
capturing the effect due to the deformation shown in Figure A1, but it does
not typically capture the effect of the deformation (unless, in the model, the
frame object is broken into multiple elements over its length).
A  1
Concrete Frame Hong Kong CP 2004
Figure A1 The Total Second Order PDelta Effects on a
Frame Element Caused by Both and
Consideration of the second order Pdelta effects is generally achieved by
computing the flexural design capacity using a formula similar to that shown in
the following equation.
M
CAP
= aM
nt
+bM
lt
where,
M
CAP
= Flexural design capacity required
M
nt
= Required flexural capacity of the member assuming there is
no joint translation of the frame (i.e., associated with the
deformation in Figure A1)
M
lt
= Required flexural capacity of the member as a result of
lateral translation of the frame only (i.e., associated with the
deformation in Figure A1)
a = Unitless factor multiplying M
nt
b = Unitless factor multiplying M
lt
(assumed equal to 1 by the
program; see the following text)
When the program performs concrete frame design, it assumes that the factor b
is equal to 1 and calculates the factor a. That b =1 assumes that Pdelta effects
have been considered in the analysis, as previously described. Thus, in general,
when performing concrete frame design in this program, consider Pdelta
effects in the analysis before running the program.
A 2 Second Order PDelta Effects
Appendix B
Member Unsupported Lengths and
Computation of KFactors
The column unsupported lengths are required to account for column slenderness
effects. The program automatically determines the unsupported length ratios,
which are specified as a fraction of the frame object length. Those ratios times
the frame object length give the unbraced lengths for the members. Those ratios
can also be overwritten by the user on a memberbymember basis, if desired,
using the overwrite option.
There are two unsupported lengths to consider. They areL
33
and L
22
, as shown in
Figure B1. These are the lengths between support points of the member in the
corresponding directions. The length L
33
corresponds to instability about the 33
axis (major axis), and L
22
corresponds to instability about the 22 axis (minor
axis).
B  1
Concrete Frame Design Hong Kong CP 2004
Figure B1 Axis of bending and unsupported length
In determining the values for L
22
and L
33
of the members, the program
recognizes various aspects of the structure that have an effect on these lengths,
such as member connectivity, diaphragm constraints and support points. The
program automatically locates the member support points and evaluates the
corresponding unsupported length.
It is possible for the unsupported length of a frame object to be evaluated by the
program as greater than the corresponding member length. For example, assume
a column has a beam framing into it in one direction, but not the other, at a floor
level. In that case, the column is assumed to be supported in one direction only at
that story level, and its unsupported length in the other direction will exceed the
story height.
B  2 Member Unsupported Lengths and Computation of KFactors
Appendix C
Concrete Frame Design Preferences
The Concrete Frame Design Preferences are basic assignments that apply to
all of the concrete frame members. Table C1 lists the Concrete Frame Design
Preferences for the Hong Kong CP 2004. Default values are provided for all
preference items. Thus, it is not necessary to specify or change any of the
preferences. However, at least review the default values to ensure they are
acceptable. Some of the preference items also are available as member
specific overwrite items. The Overwrites are described in Appendix D.
Overwritten values take precedence over the preferences.
Table C1 Design Criteria
Item
Possibl e
Values
Default
Value
Description
MultiResponse
Case Design
Envelopes,
StepbyStep,
Last Step,
Envelopes
All,
StepbyStep
All
StepbyStep
Toggle for design load combinations
that include a time history designed for
the envelope of the time history, or
designed stepbystep for the entire
time history. If a single design load
combination has more than one time
history case in it, that design load
combination is designed for the enve
lopes of the time histories, regardless
of what is specified here.
C  1
Concrete Frame Design Hong Kong CP 2004
Item
Possibl e
Values
Default
Value
Description
Number
Interaction
Curves
Multiple of 4
4
24
Number of equally spaced interaction
curves used to create a full 360 deg
interaction surface (this item should be
a multiple of four). We recommend 24
for this item.
Number
Any odd value
5
11
Number of points used to define a
single curve in a concrete frame;
should be odd.
Consider
Minimum
Eccentricity
No, Yes Yes
Toggle to consider if minimum eccen
tricity should be considered in design.
Gamma (Steel)
>0 1.15
The strength reduction factor for shear
and torsion.
Gamma
(Concrete)
>0 1.50
The strength reduction factor for shear
in structures that rely on special
moment resisting frames or special
reinforced concrete structural walls to
resist earthquake effects.
Gamma
(Concrete Shear)
>0 1.25
The strength reduction factor for shear
and torsion.
Phi (Pattern Live
Load Factor)
0 0.75
The strength reduction factor for shear
in structures that rely on special
moment resisting frames or special
reinforced concrete structural walls to
resist earthquake effects.
Utilization Factor
Limit
>0 0.95
Stress ratios that are less than or equal
to this value are considered accepta
ble.
C  2 Preferences
Appendix D
Concrete Frame Overwrites
The concrete frame design overwrites are basic assignments that apply only to
those elements to which they are assigned. Table D1 lists concrete frame design
overwrites for Hong Kong CP 2004. Default values are provided for all
overwrite items. Thus, it is not necessary to specify or change any of the
overwrites. However, at least review the default values to ensure they are
acceptable. When changes are made to overwrite items, the program applies the
changes only to the elements to which they are specifically assigned.
Table D1 Design Criteria
Item
Possible
Values
Default
Value
Description
Current
Design
Section
Any defined
concrete
section
Analysis
section
The design section for the selected
frame objects. When this overwrite is
applied, any previous auto select
section assigned to the frame object
is removed.
D  1
Concrete Frame Design Hong Kong CP 2004
Item
Possible
Values
Default
Value
Description
Element
Type
Sway,
NonSway
From
Reference
Frame type per moment frame
definition given in Hong Kong CP
2004.
Live Load
Reduction
Factor
0 Calculated
The reduced live load factor. A
reducible live load is multiplied by this
factor to obtain the reduced live load
for the frame object. Specifying 0
means the value is program
determined.
Unbraced
Length Ratio
(Major)
0 Calculated
Unbraced length factor for buckling
about the frame object major axis.
This item is specified as a fraction of
the frame object length. Multiplying
this factor times the frame object
length gives the unbraced length for
the object. Specifying 0 means the
value is program determined.
Unbraced
Length Ratio
(Minor)
0 Calculated
Unbraced length factor for buckling
about the frame object minor axis.
Multiplying this factor times the frame
object length gives the unbraced
length for the object. Specifying 0
means the value is program
determined. This factor is also used in
determining the length for
lateraltorsional buckling.
Effective
Length Factor
(Major)
0 Calculated
Effective length factor for buckling
about the frame object major axis.
This item is specified as a fraction of
the frame object length. Specifying 0
means the value is program
determined.
Effective
Length Factor
(Minor)
0 Calculated
Effective length factor for buckling
about the frame object minor axis.
This item is specified as a fraction of
the frame object length. Specifying 0
means the value is program
determined.
D 2 Concrete Frame Design Overwrites
Appendix D
Item
Possible
Values
Default
Value
Description
Moment Co
efficient (Cm
Major)
0 Calculated
Unitless factor for major axis bending,
used in determining the interaction
ratio. This item only applies to frame
objects with columntype current
design sections. Program
determined value means it is
calculated for each element for each
load combination uniquely.
Specifying 0 means the value is
program determined.
Moment Co
efficient (Cm
Minor)
0 Calculated
Unitless factor for minor axis bending,
used in determining the interaction
ratio. This item only applies to frame
objects with columntype current
design sections. Program
determined value means it is
calculated for each element for each
load combination uniquely.
Specifying 0 means the value is
program determined.
Nonsway
Moment
Factor (Dns
Major)
0 Calculated
Unitless moment magnification factor
for nonsway majoraxis bending
moment. This item only applies to
frame objects with columntype
current design sections. Program
determined value means it is
calculated for each element for each
load combination uniquely.
Specifying 0 means the value is
program determined.
Nonsway
Moment
Factor (Dns
Minor)
0 Calculated
Unitless moment magnification factor
for nonsway minoraxis bending
moment. This item only applies to
frame objects with columntype
current design sections. Program
determined value means it is
calculated for each element for each
load combination uniquely.
Specifying 0 means the value is
program determined.
Concrete Frame Design Overwrites D  3
Concrete Frame Design Hong Kong CP 2004
Item
Possible
Values
Default
Value
Description
Sway Mo
ment Factor
(Ds Major)
0 Calculated
Unitless moment magnification factor
for sway majoraxis bending moment.
Specifying 0 means the value is
program determined. The program
determined value is taken as 1
because it is assumed that PDelta
effects were specified to be included
in the analysis, and thus no further
magnification is required. This item
only applies to frame objects with
columntype current design sections.
Sway Mo
ment Factor
(Ds Minor)
0 Calculated
Unitless moment magnification factor
for sway minoraxis bending moment.
Specifying 0 means the value is
program determined. The program
determined value is taken as 1
because it is assumed that PDelta
effects were specified to be included
in the analysis, and thus no further
magnification is required. This item
only applies to frame objects with
columntype current design sections.
D 4 Concrete Frame Design Overwrites
Appendix E
Error Messages and Warnings
Table E1 provides a complete list of Concrete Errors messages and Warnings.
Table E1 Error Messages
Error Num
ber
Description
1 Beam concrete compression failure
2 Reinforcing required exceeds maximum allowed
3 Shear stress exceeds maximum allowed
4 Column design moments cannot be calculated
5 Column factored axial load exceeds Euler Force
6 Required column concrete area exceeds maximum
7 Flexural capacity could not be calculated for shear design
8 Concrete column supports nonconcrete beam/column
E  1
Concrete Frame Design Hong Kong CP 2004
Error Num
ber
Description
9 115 / > k L r , 2 0 < zeta_ , 10 < . eta (GB50010 7.3.10)
10 Column is overstressed for PMM
11 Axial compressive capacity for concrete exceeded (TBM 6.4.2)
12 Beam frames into column eccentrically (11.6.3)
13 Torsion exceeds maximum allowed
14 Reinforcing provided is below minimum required
15 Reinforcing provided exceeds maximum allowed
16 Tension reinforcing provided is below minimum required
17 30 / > k L r (GB 7.3.10)
21
The column is not ductile. Beam/column capacity ratio is not
needed.
22
The load is not seismic. Beam/column capacity ratio is not
needed.
23
There is no beam on top of column. Beam/column capacity ratio
is not needed.
24
At least one beam on top of column is not of concrete.
Beam/column capacity ratio is not calculated.
25
The column on top is not of concrete. Beam/column capacity ratio
is not calculated.
26
The station is not at the top of the column. Beam/column capacity
ratio is not needed.
27 The column is not ductile. J oint shear ratio is not needed.
E  2 Error Messages and Warnings
Appendix E
Error Num
ber
Description
28 The load is not seismic. J oint shear ratio is not needed.
29
There is no beam on top of column. J oint shear ratio is not
needed.
30
At least one beam on top of column is not of concrete. J oint shear
ratio is not calculated.
31
The column on top is not of concrete. J oint shear ratio is not
needed.
32
The station is not at the top of the column. J oint shear ratio is not
needed.
33 Beam/column capacity ratio exceeds limit.
34 J oint shear ratio exceeds limit.
35 Capacity ratio exceeds limit.
36
All beams around the joint have not been designed.
Beam/column capacity ratio is not calculated.
37
At least one beam around the joint has failed. Beam/column ca
pacity ratio is not calculated.
38
The column above the joint has not been designed. Beam/column
capacity ratio is not calculated.
39
The column above the joint has failed. Beam/column capacity
ratio is not calculated.
40
All beams around the joint have not been designed. J oint shear
ratio is not calculated.
41
At least one beam around the joint has failed. J oint shear ratio is
not calculated.
Error Messages and Warnings E 3
Concrete Frame Design Hong Kong CP 2004
Error Num
ber
Description
42
The column above the joint has not been designed. J oint shear
ratio is not calculated.
43
The column above the joint has failed. J oint shear ratio is not
calculated.
45
Shear stress due to shear force and torsion together exceeds
maximum allowed.
E  4 Error Messages and Warnings
References
HK CP, 2004. Code of Practice for Structural Use of Concrete 2004 (HK CP 04),
Building Department, 12/F18/F Pioneer Centre, 750 Nathan Road,
Mongkok, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
CSI, 2008b. CSI Analysis Reference Manual, Computers and Structures, Inc.,
Berkeley, California.
White, D. W. and J . F. Hajjar, 1991. Application of SecondOrder Elastic
Analysis in LRFD: Research to Practice, Engineering J ournal, American
Institute of Steel Construction, Inc., Vol. 28, No. 4, 1991.
i