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Documenting Sources Using Turabian or Chicago

A sample bibliography in the style of Kate Turabians Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses and Dissertations, 6th ed, 1996. Updated and compared with Chicago Manual of Style, 15th ed. 2003.

Susan J. C. Bissett 2005

You must cite your sources!

No kidding! Citing sources is the American way to write!

Documentation is needed for


Direct Quotation Paraphrasing Summarizing

Documentation is key to building a bibliography.

Direct Quotes
Lincoln appeals to the emotions of his audience during his first inaugural address: The mystic chords of memory, stretching from every battle-field and patriot grave to every living heart and hearthstone all over this broad land, will yet swell the chorus of the Union when again touched, as surely they will be, by the better angels of our nature. 1
Lincoln, First Inaugural Address, 1861, ed. K. W. Jennison, The Essential Lincoln, New York: Franklin Watts, 1971, 157-169.
1. Abraham

Direct Quotation
It is best to use a direct quotation whenever The original language is official legal or scientific terminology, The original language is especially expressive, beautiful, or otherwise significant, It is necessary to present someones exact words without any interpretation or change, You wish first to present an authors exact words, then to give your interpretation of those words.

Paraphrasing
Lincolns first inaugural address tugs at the heartstrings of his audience. He appeals to the people of North and South to remember their treasured shared heritage of constitutional government, so that the nation could continue united, despite ongoing disagreements. 2
Its not exactly 2. Abraham Lincoln, First Inaugural Address, what was said, 1861, ed. K. W. Jennison, The Essential Lincoln, New but it still needs York: Franklin Watts, 1971, 157-169 to be cited!

Paraphrasing
Paraphrasing gives you the opportunity to explain the original source by Putting someone elses thoughts into your own words, Making those thoughts clearer and more to the point, Applying thoughts from one context to another context, Giving further examples of how the idea works.

Summarizing
The first volume of Carl Sandburgs biography of Abraham Lincoln covers his childhood, youth, and early adult years.3
Carl Sandburg, Carl, Abraham Lincoln: The Prairie Years and the War Years, New York: Harcourt Brace, 1926, 1939.
3.

Why use Turabian?


Turabian is a students version of the Chicago Manual of Style. Turabian (or Chicago) is the preferred citation style for history, political science, or religion. It can also used in literature, art and library science. Turabian and Chicago styles are reviewed and brought up to date periodically.

Citation Options
Footnotes? Bibliography? Whatever happened to Parenthetical References and Works Cited?

Although the Turabian Manual does have a parenthetical reference style, the footnote-bibliography style is required at UCC. So thats what youll see here

Whats a Bibliography?
A bibliography is an alphabetical list of all the information sources used to research a topic. For each source, full bibliographic detail is listed. This includes author, title, volume, year of publication, page numbers, etc. A bibliography is found at the end of a research paper. This is usually not annotated. Annotated bibliographies contain a brief description of each source following the bibliographic entry.

(Sample) Bibliography
Barclay, Linwood. Science Gives Aphrodite a Pain in the Butt. Toronto Star 21 September 2002. (Ontario Edition). K02. http://lexis-nexis.com/universe Butler, Judith. Antigones Claim. New York: Columbia University Press, 2000. Lefkowitz, Mary R. Greek gods, human lives: what we can learn from myths. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2003. Lefkowitz, Mary R. and Maureen B. Fant, comps. Womens Life in Greece and Rome: A Source Book in Translation. 2nd ed. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992. Morpheus. Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org Schein, Seth L. Verbal Adjectives in Sophocles: Necessity and Morality. Classical Philology 93, no.4 (1998) 293-307. http://search.epnet.com. Bibliography entries are listed in alphabetical order. Entries are single spaced, with one space between entries. Format your entries with a HANGING INDENT. A period separates each complete citation element.

Sample Annotated Bibliography Entry


Lefkowitz, Mary R. and Maureen B. Fant, comps. Womens Life in Greece and Rome: A Source Book in Translation. 2nd ed. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992. Lefkowitz has gathered primary documents from ancient Greece and Rome that shed light on the status of women in those societies. Documents in this collection include wills, funeral orations, and letters, as well as excerpts from philosophers, ancient historians, and religious and medical writings.
In an annotated bibliography, each bibliography entry is followed by a paragraph describing the contents of the material sited. The entry should have a hanging indent. The annotation may have a paragraph indent. The list is in alphabetical order by the first element of each bibliography entry.

Capitalize the first and last words of titles, and all other words in the title, except
Articles (a, an, the) Prepositions (of, in between, among, etc.) Coordinating conjunctions (and, but, or, etc.) The to in an infinitive (When to Move)

Italicize OR Underline: Use Quotation Marks:


Titles of whole published works (books, journals, newspapers, long poems, etc. Titles of shorter works, chapters of books, articles in a magazine; also unpublished works.

Whats a Footnote?
Footnotes (found at the bottom of the page) tell the reader exactly where the information cited can be found. The first note indicating use of a source will give full bibliographic information (author, title, date of publication, publisher, etc.) plus the page number for the information cited. Additional footnotes immediately following the first can be noted with Ibid. (meaning in the same place), followed by the page number for the information cited. Additional footnotes referring to a previous note, but not immediately following list the authors name (title of work when necessary) and the page number.

Sample Footnotes on a Page


Suzy Smartstudent April 1, 2008 History XYZ Prof. Quark It was conventionally understood in the ancient world that women were to be silent in public places. Valerius Maximus refers scathingly to those women whom neither the condition of their nature nor the cloak of modesty could keep silent in the Forum or the courts.23 Deutero-Paul advised churches to suffer not a woman to teachbut to be in silence.24 Argumentativeness in a woman was associated with low morals.25
footno
23.

tes

Valerius Maximus, Memorable Deeds and Sayings, comps. Mary R. Lefkowitz and Maureen B. Fant, Womens Life in Greece and Rome: A Source Book in Translation, (Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992),151. 24. 1 Tim. 2:12, (King James Version). 25. Maximus, 152.

Oh NO!! Not FOOTNOTES!! ANYTHING but footnotes!!

Actually, footnotes are easy to make on a computer.

Making footnotes on the computer


File Edit View Insert
Break Page Nos Symbol OtherStuff

Format

Tools

Table

Window

Help

Reference

Footnote Caption Cross Reference Tables

1. Place the cursor in the place in your text where a footnote should go. 2. Click Insert on the toolbar. 3. Then click Reference and select Footnote.

4. A box will pop up, and you can type the information (use the N forms). 5. The computer will automatically insert a superscript numeral at the point where the footnote is needed, and will number each footnote at the bottom of the page. 6. If you need to add additional footnotes in the middle of a paragraph, the computer will automatically renumber all the footnotes in your document.

Follow These Examples


B N This example will be the correct bibliography entry. This example will be the correct form for a footnote.

The following pages contain citation examples for many different kinds of information. On each page, you will see two examples for each item cited. Follow the format and punctuation for each citation given.

A Book by a Single Author


B North, John. Stonehenge: A New Interpretation of Prehistoric Man and the Cosmos. New York: The Free Press, 1996. N North, Stonehenge: A New Interpretation of Prehistoric Man and the Cosmos (New York: The Free Press, 1996), 54.
page where the information was found.

1John

The bibliography entry has a hanging indent. The footnote has a paragraph indent. In the bibliography entry, periods separate complete citation elements (author, title, publication info) In the footnote, commas are used. In the footnote, publication information is contained in parentheses.

A Book by More Than One Author


B Winter, Jay, and Blaine Baggett. The Great War and the Shaping of the 20th Century. New York: Penguin Books, 1996. N Winter and Blaine Baggett, The Great War and the Shaping of the 20th Century (New York: Penguin Books USA, 1996), 54. Page w
here inform ation is fou nd
1Jay

Only in the bibliography entry, the first author is listed last name first, so that it can be alphabetized by the authors last name. All subsequent authors are listed with the first name first. In the footnote, all authors are listed with the first name first. Footnotes cite specific information, in this example, found on page 54.

A Book with More Than One Editor


B Roses, Lorraine Elena and Ruth Elizabeth Randolph, eds. Harlem Renaissance and Beyond: Literary Biographies of 100 Black Women Writers 19001945. Boston: G. K. Hall, 1990. 14 Lorraine Elena Roses and Ruth Elizabeth N Randolph, eds., Harlem Renaissance and Beyond: Literary Biographies of 100 Black Women Writers 19001945, (Boston: G. K. Hall, 1990), 67. Page where
informatio

n is found

Treat an edited book just like a book by one or two authors, but add eds. after the editors names.

A Book with an Author AND an Editor


B Baldwin, James. Baldwin: Collected Essays. Edited by Toni Morrison. New York: Library of America, 1998. N James Baldwin, Baldwin: Collected Essays. ed. Toni Morrison, (New York: Library of America, 1998), 582-87.

List the author first. In the footnote, list the editor after the title, with ed. before her name. Spell out Edited by in the Bibliography entry. Treat translators (trans.) or compilers (comp.) like editors.

A Book with No Author


B Internships 2005. Lawrenceville, NJ: Thomson and Petersons, 2004. Institute Press, Internships 2005, (Lawrenceville, NJ: Thomson and Petersons 2004), 381.
23 Smithsonian

When there is no author or editor listed, the bibliography or footnote will begin with the title. In this footnote, we are citing specific information found on page 381. The information is cited to a section of the book titled Smithsonian Institute Press. The section title is in quotation marks and the title is italicized.

A Reprinted or Paperback Edition


B Dunbar, Paul Laurence. Poems of Cabin and Field. New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1896, 1899; Reprint, Salem, N. H.: Ayer, 1991. N Laurence Dunbar, Poems of Cabin and Field (New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1896, 1899; reprint, Salem, N.H.: Ayer, 1991) 39 (page citations are to the reprint edition).
page where the information was found.
17Paul

Note: State reprint before the original edition when citing a reprint.

An Organization as an Author
B

Congressional Quarterly Inc. The CQ 2003 Almanac Plus: 108th Congress, 1st Session, Vol.LIX, 2004. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, Inc. 1996. Quarterly Inc., Congress Restricts Junk E-Mail, The CQ Almanac Plus: 108th Congress, 1st Session, Vol.LIX, 2004: January-December, (Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly Inc., 2004), 18-6 18-8. Section (pages) where
info was found.
12Congressional

An organization, Congressional Quarterly, Inc., is listed both as the author (first element of citation) and as the publisher of the book above.

An Article in a Well-Known Encyclopedia


N 8New Encyclopedia Britannica: Macropedia, 15th ed., s. v. Calvin and Calvinism, by William J. Bouwsma. Note: s. v. means sub verba, or look under the word. Alternate Form:
8William J. Bouwsma, Calvin and Calvinism, in New N Encyclopedia Britannica: Macropedia, 15th ed.

Do encyclopedias have authors?

Continued

Finding the Author of an Encyclopedia Article


Encyclopedia articles DO have authors. Frequently the name will be listed at the top or the bottom of the article. In Britannica, the authors initials are listed. You can find the authors name by looking in the back of the Propedia volume. If no author is listed, cite the article by title.
So, wheres the Bibliography form?

Continued

An Article from a Well-Known Encyclopedia B Bouwsma, William J. Calvin and Calvinism. New Encyclopedia Britannica: Macropedia, 15th ed.

According to the Turabian Manual, well-known reference books need not be listed in bibliographies. The example above is intended to show students who are required to list such articles an acceptable way of doing so.

An Article from an Almanac


B Ireland. World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2004. N
7Ireland,

World Almanac and Book of

Facts, 2004.
Normally, an almanac, like an encyclopedia, would be cited in a note, but not listed in a bibliography.

An Article from a Multi-Volume Reference Book, or a Part of an Anthology (Part 1)


B Cragin, Thomas. Printing and Publishing. In The Encyclopedia of European Social History from 1350 to 2000, edited by Peter Stearns. Detroit: Gale, 2001, 5.377-406. N Cragin, Printing and Publishing, In The Encyclopedia of European Social History from 1350 to 2000, ed. Peter Stearns, (Detroit: Gale, 2001), 5.378.
Volume and page number go here
1Thomas

In this case, all volumes of the book have the same title. The volume number is indicated right before the page range (5.377406).
Continued

An Article from a Multi-Volume Reference Book, or a Part of an Anthology (Part 2)


B Ogilvie, R. M. Caesar. In The Cambridge History of Classical Literature, Vol.2, Latin Literature, edited by E. J. Kenney and W. V. Clausen. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982, 281-85.
Page range where article is found

M.Ogilvie, Caesar, In The Cambridge History of Classical Literature, Vol. 2, Latin Literature, ed. E. J. Kenney and W. V. Clausen, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982), 283. Specific cited info is
found on this page.

3R.

In this case, each volume has a different subtitle. The volume number is indicated between the title and the subtitle. Had either example been a single-volume work, no volume number would be indicated.

The Bible (Any Religious or Classic Text)


B The New Oxford Annotated Bible, 3rd ed. Edited by Michael D. Coogan. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001. B Exodus 20:1-17. In The New Oxford Annotated Bible, 3rd ed. Edited by Michael D. Coogan. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001. References are to commentary. N 33Exod. 20:1-17 (New Revised Standard Version).

Familiar religious texts are usually referred to in text, listing the abbreviated name of the book of the Bible (in Roman type, not Italic, not underlined). Chapter and verse are separated by a colon. Never cite a page number. Indicate the version of the Bible in parentheses. Religious texts are included in bibliographies only when information from a modern commentator is referred to. The usual bibliography entry is the first one above.

About Government Publications


Include these items: Country, state, city, county or other government division; legislative body, executive department, court or other government agency; subsidiary division; title of document; individual author, editor or compiler; report number; publisher; date; page range. Note: Turabians Manual for Writers contains an extensive set of examples of citation of Government documents, on pages 214-238. The following examples, for an executive branch agency in the federal government, and a Congressional document could be followed for corresponding agencies in a state government as well.
Continued

U.S. Gov Pubs (Executive Branch)


B U. S. Dept. of Education. Office for Civil Rights. Achieving Diversity: Race-Neutral Alternatives in American Education. Washington, D. C.: GPO, 2004. N S. Dept. of Education. Office for Civil Rights. Achieving Diversity: Race-Neutral Alternatives in American Education, (Washington, D. C.: GPO, 2004), 55.
1U.

As in the example above, list as author the largest government agency first (in this case, U. S.; then list the Department level, then list the office or bureau within the department.
Continued

U.S. Gov Pubs (Congressional)


B U. S. Congress. Senate, Committee on the Judiciary, Complete Transcripts of the Clarence Thomas Anita Hill Hearings. 102nd Cong., 1st sess., October 11-13 , 1991. Chicago: Academy Chicago Publishers, 1994. N U. S. Congress. Senate, Committee on the Judiciary, Complete Transcripts of the Clarence Thomas Anita Hill Hearings, 102nd Cong., 1st sess., October 11-13 , 1991, (Chicago: Academy Chicago Publishers, 1994),145.
1.

In this case, the government document was reprinted by a nongovernment publisher for sale, so that information is added at the end of the citation. Very often, the publisher of official government documents is the Government Printing Office (GPO) in Washington, D. C.

An Article from a Magazine


B Cox, Craig. The Radical Middle. Utne Reader, September-October 2004, 80-85. N Cox, The Radical Middle, Utne Reader, September-October 2004, 84-85.
4Craig

An Article from a Scholarly Journal


B Martin, Waldo E. The Black Freedom Struggle and the Enduring Dilemma of Brown. Black Scholar 34, no.2 (2004): 14-20.

E. Martin, The Black Freedom Struggle and the Enduring Dilemma of Brown, Black Scholar 34, no.2 (2004): 17-18.
volume issue

2Waldo

In these examples, each issue of the journal is paginated beginning with page one. In this case the issue number is indicated after the volume.

An Article from a Scholarly Journal (Continuous Pagination)


B Igler, David. Diseased Goods: Global Exchanges in the Eastern Pacific Basin, 1770-1850. American Historical Review 109 (June 2004): 693-719. N David Igler, Diseased Goods: Global Exchanges in the Eastern Pacific Basin, 17701850, American Historical Review 109 (June 2004): 694-5.
43

In the example above, the journal uses continuous pagination throughout the year. Therefore, we do not list the issue number.

An Article from a Newspaper


B Woolley, Wayne. Relax, Mom, There Are No Plans to Reinstate the Draft. Star Ledger (Newark) 24 September 2004, 1. N Woolley, Relax, Mom, There Are No Plans to Reinstate the Draft, Star Ledger (Newark) 24 September 2004, 1.
5Wayne

In section 11.44, Turabian states that News items from daily papers are rarely listed separately in a bibliography or reference list. Newspaper articles are usually cited in footnotes. However students required to list a newspaper could follow the bibliography format above.

A Book Review from a Journal


B Fox, Charlie. Review of Textile Town: Spartanburg, South Carolina, by Betsy Wakefield Teter, Labor History 45 (August 2004): 399-401. N Fox, Review of Textile Town: Spartanburg, South Carolina by Betsy Wakefield Teter, Labor History 45 (August 2004), 400.
6Charlie

If a book or film review is found in a magazine or newspaper, instead of a journal, cite the reviewer, the title of the book or film reviewed, and the books author or film director. Then cite the magazine or newspaper where the review is found.

An Online Book (Older Works)


B Bacon, Francis. The Advancement of Learning. Project Gutenberg, 2004.http://www.gutenberg .net/etext/5500. N Bacon, The Advancement of Learning, (1893; Project Gutenberg, 2004), http://www.gutenberg .net/etext/5500.
When necessary to break a URL, break it before a period or after a slash
6Francis

It is desirable to list the publication information, especially the date, for the source from which this electronic version was transcribed in the footnote. Electronic versions lacking this information are considered less authoritative.

An Article from an Online Journal


B Williams, Mary Frances. The Sidus Iulium, the Divinity of Men, and the Golden Age in Virgils Aeneid. Leeds International Classical Studies 2, no. 1 (2003) http://www.leeds.ac.uk/classics/lics/2003/200301.pdf. N Frances Williams, The Sidus Iulium, the Divinity of Men, and the Golden Age in Virgils Aeneid, Leeds International Classical Studies 2, no. 1 (2003), http://www.leeds.ac.uk/classics/lics/2003/200301.pdf, (accessed September 27, 2004).
13Mary

Page numbers, if available, should be listed before the Web address for the article. When required, the date of access follows the citation in the footnote.

An Article from an Online Magazine


B Berkhoff, Todd S. Bloody Battle for the Black Hats. Americas Civil War. September 2004.http://www.historynet.com/acw/ blblackhats/. N Todd S. Berkhoff, Bloody Battle for the Black Hats. Americas Civil War, September 2004, http://www.historynet.com/acw/ blblackhats/ (accessed September 27, 2004).
7

Page numbers, if available, should be listed before the Web address for the article. When required, the date of access follows the citation in the footnote.

Articles from Subscription Databases


First cite the information as its original print source, as a book, magazine or journal article, newspaper article, or whatever. Next give the URL for the article (if available) or for the database service. Add an access date in parentheses to the footnote.
Whats a subscription database? So is it free on the Web? Its a magazine or newspaper database paid for by the Library Only if youre a student here. Ask a librarian how to access from home.

A Journal Article from a Subscription Database


B Purkiss, Diane. Desire and Its Deformities: Fantasies of Witchcraft in the English Civil War. Journal of Medieval & Early Modern Studies 27 no.1 (1997): 103-132. http://search.epnet.com. N Purkiss, Desire and Its Deformities: Fantasies of Witchcraft in the English Civil War, Journal of Medieval & Early Modern Studies 27 no.1 (1997), 103132, http://search.epnet.com, (accessed September 27, 2004).
67Diane

Page numbers, if available, should be listed before the Web address for the database servoce. When required, the date of access follows the citation in the footnote.

A Magazine Article from a Subscription Database


B Klein, Joe. Bushs Iraq: A Powerful Fantasy. Time. September 27, 2004, 23. http://search .epnet.com. N Joe Klein, Bushs Iraq: A Powerful Fantasy, Time, September 27, 2004, 23, http://search.epnet.com (accessed September 28, 2004).
3

Page numbers, if available, should be listed before the Web address for the database service. When required, the date of access follows the citation in the footnote.

A Newspaper Article from a Subscription Database


B Contesting the Vote: Text of the Supreme Court Ruling on Bush v. Gore Florida Recount Case. New York Times. (December 13, 2000) Late edition: A27. http://web.lexisnexis.com/universe. N the Vote: Text of the Supreme Court Ruling on Bush v. Gore Florida Recount Case, New York Times, (December 13, 2000) Late edition, A27, http://web.lexis-nexis.com/ universe.
17Contesting

Whenever, as in this example, there is no author listed, the citation begins with the title of the article.

An Online International Document (United Nations)


B Elsen, Diane, and Hande Keklik. United Nations Development Fund for Women. Progress of the Worlds Women 2002: Gender Equality and the Millennium Development Goals. http://www.unifem .org /index.php?f_page_pid=10. N Diane, and Hande Keklik. United Nations Development Fund for Women, Progress of the Worlds Women 2002: Gender Equality and the Millennium Development Goals, http://www.unifem.org/index .php?f_page_pid=10 (accessed September 28, 2004).
36Elsen,

List these elements, when available: the authorizing body, author or editor, title of the paper, date series or publication numbers, place of publication, page reference, Web address, and access date (when required).

An Online Congressional Document


B United States Congress. Committee on Education and the Workforce. Hearing on H. R. 1119, Family Time Flexibility Act. Serial No. 108-7. March 12, 2003. http://edworkforce.house.gov/hearings/108th/wp/ wphearings.htm. N States Congress, Committee on Education and the Workforce, Hearing on H. R. 1119, Family Time Flexibility Act, Serial No. 108-7, March 12, 2003, http://edworkforce.house.gov/hearings/108th/wp/ wphearings.htm.
16United

Follow the format for a document in print, then add the Web address and access date (if required).

An Organizational Web Page


B Alan Guttmacher Institute. The Benefits of Investing in Sexual and Reproductive Health. The Guttmacher Report on Public Policy. March 2004. http://www.agiusa.org/pubs/ib2004no4.pdf. N Guttmacher Institute, The Benefits of Investing in Sexual and Reproductive Health, The Guttmacher Report on Public Policy, March 2004, http://www.agi-usa.org/pubs/ib2004no4.pdf.
69Alan

List as much as can be found: author, title of the page; title or owner of the Web site, Web address; date of access (if required).

An Academic Web Page


Wow! Thats a Super Site!

B Halsall, Paul. Internet Ancient History Sourcebook. Fordham University. http://www.fordham.edu/halsall /ancient/asbook.html. N Halsall, Internet Ancient History Sourcebook, Fordham University, http://www.fordham.edu/halsall /ancient/asbook.html, (accessed July 18, 2005).
15Paul

Site as much as can be found: Author of Content, Title of Page, Owner of Site, URL, and Date of Access, if required.

Web Page, General Format


B Umbach, Ken. Californias Velcro Crop under Challenge (1993). http://home.inreach.com /kumbach/velcro.html. N Umbach, Californias Velcro Crop under Challenge (1993), http://home.inreach .com/kumbach/velcro.html.
28Ken

Format: List as much as can be found: author, title of the page; title or owner of the Web site, Web address; date of access (if required). Continued

Caveat Lector
If the author of a Web site is not a well-respected authority on the subject, if the site is not peer-reviewed, or if you just dont know that much about the author, then it is not a good idea to base your research on the content of such a site. Web sites selected by librarians, or listed in reference books are likely to be more reliable than random searches. Look for US Government Web sites when appropriate. Web sites by professors at major universities are more reliable than student Web sites. Evaluate information found on the Web by comparing it to print resources.