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Volume 9, Issue 2 January - March 2007
Strategic Decision confidence in their ability to make
Making Exercise 2007 strategic-level decisions or recom-
mendations in a complex environ-
Colonel Phil Evans ment. The desired outcome is to
Director, Operations and Gaming
Division, CSL
ensure future strategic leaders under-
stand the complexities of the geo-
From 14-22 Mar 2007, the U.S. strategic environment, fully able to
Army War College (USAWC) consider and apply all of the elements
THE CENTER FOR resident class participated in the of national power (Diplomatic, Infor-
STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP Strategic Decision Making Exercise mational, Military and Economic) in
U.S. ARMY WAR COLLEGE 2007 (SDME 07). The SDME is a addressing future critical National
CARLISLE, PENNSYLVANIA faculty-led political-military decision- Security issues.
making collective exercise designed To that end, the students role-
to provide students an opportunity, played strategic leaders operating in
while role-playing strategic leaders seventeen different interagency and
and staffs, to integrate and apply military organizations, in two paral-
knowledge acquired previously in lel “worlds” (based on the size of the
the USAWC core curriculum. 2007 class), each operating in two strate-
marks the thirteenth iteration of this gic realms. Thus, key policy making
premier annual capstone learning bodies (the NSC, DHS, DoS, OSD,
event. and Joint Staff) and implementing
INSIDE THIS ISSUE Prior to SDME 07, the curricu- organizations (the four main military
lum core courses focused students Services, the Geographic Combat-
• Strategic Decision on thinking, reflecting and commu- ant Commands, and the UNDPKO
Making Exercise nicating at the senior-leader level in Military Staff) were manned by the
(SDME) 2007 small-group (sixteen-person semi- students in cells comprised of six
nars) forums. The SDME builds on to seventeen persons. Manning for
• International Fellows these organizations was designed to
the learning continuum, providing
Coalition Building an interactive experiential learning break the familiar seminar mold: stu-
Exercise 2007 event, or practicum, that gives the dents were deliberately scrambled so
• Science & Technology students multiple opportunities to that they had to develop key working
apply what they learned previously in relationships with new faces. Lead-
Day, and Robotics
the academic year, and gain greater ers were designated based on faculty
Equipment Exhibition recom me nd at ion s
2007 and the design and
• Ballistic Missile Defense structure of the exer-
System Readiness, cise (a two-semester
system played out
Activation, Integration
for three days each
Deployment Exercise within the two-world
• C4 Architecture at construct), which
the Dawn of Network ensured numerous
Centric Warfare oppor t unities for
st udent lear ning.
Student USPACOM Commander conducts a
media briefing
order to coach, teach and mentor
their charges. In addition, over one
hundred personnel, representing
over forty U.S. civilian and military
organizations, plus individual RC
augmentees, helped ensure that the
control structure provided a realistic
strategic environment.
In summary, the SDME is a world
class exercise designed to develop
mentally agile strategic leaders who
will operate in challenging inter-
agency, intergovernmental and mul-
tinational settings in the future. It
directly challenges the students to
apply their prior experiences and the
Students Participate in a Daily AAR knowledge they have gained in the
first seven months of their studies.
Multiple regional scenarios set in students in the Geographic Combat- Most importantly, it requires them
the year 2021, featuring crisis situ- ant Commands conducted VTCs with to think and make decisions outside
ations ranging from major combat their real-life counterparts, and were their normal comfort zone and then
operations to humanitarian assistance, able to compare notes on the issues at to understand the probable conse-
helped drive play, and supporting hand, and select students were given quences and second and third order
documentation (national strategic and the opportunity to provide Congres- effects of those decisions. SDME 07
operations-level directives, policies, sional testimony. Four of the sessions amply provided the volatile, uncer-
and plans) also framed the environ- were conducted via VTC with actual tain, complex, and ambiguous virtual
ment. Electronic communications and serving members of Congress, with environment required to develop our
coordination tools were also placed at student leaders providing testimony future strategic leaders, and SDMEs
the students’ disposal, giving them to the “HASC,” followed by direct in the future will continue to do so.
the voice, digital, and VTC capabili- feedback. Four additional sessions
ties that they would possess in the real were also conducted at Collins Hall, CSL
world. Thus enabled, the students with the “HASC” comprised of Con-
drove the interagency, military crisis gressional staffers. INTERNATIONAL FELLOWS
planning and execution, military sus- Additionally, the students benefited COALITION BUILDING
tainment, and multinational coordina- from the participation of forty distin- EXERCISE 2007
tion processes, to include conducting guished visitors from the military,
PCCs, DCs, “tank” sessions, and Mr. Ritchie Dion
diplomatic, interagency, business and Operations and Gaming Division, CSL
resourcing boards. educational realms, who attended for
SDME 07 also included other a day to interact with the students. From 7-8 March 2007, the Center
scheduled learning events designed These visitors role played a part in the for Strategic Leadership conducted
to increase exposure to the strate- exercise, acting as “special assistants the International Fellows Coalition
gic environment, including: twenty to the President,” helping the students Building Exercise 2007. This exer-
media briefings (with bright lights focus on key and essential points of the cise is part of the core curriculum for
and active reporters, all seeking atten- strategic picture. Finally, on SDME the International Fellows of the U.S.
tion); eighty short-notice individual day seven, AARs were conducted Army War College 2007.
interviews (with reporters asking the back in seminar in order to allow the The exercise consisted of a sce-
hard questions about world events); students to synthesize lessons learned nario-driven negotiation exercise
and forty-one bilateral negotiation from the overall exercise. focused on the process of conflict res-
sessions (with U.S. students oppo- The preparation and execution of olution. The forty-one International
site one of this year’s International SDME 07 demanded the full atten- Fellows were divided into seven
Fellows, each of whom role-play- tion of the USAWC faculty, which teams representing foreign ministry
ing government officials of potential provided up to two Observer Con- negotiation teams of their assigned
coalition partners). In addition, the trollers per student organization in nations. Five former U.S. Ambassa-
dors, a CSL professor and the Deputy SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY
Commandant for International Affairs DAY, AND ROBOTICS
served as mentors for each team, and EQUIPMENT EXHIBITION 2007
one former U.S. Ambassador served
as the UN Special Representative to Mr. Bill Waddell and Mr. Bob Barnes
the region. Also participating were Science and Technology Division, CSL
two officers of the Army Fellows Pro-
gram, an officer from the Air Force The Science and Technology Day
Fellows Program, and several War and Robotics Equipment Exhibition
College professors that are experts in 2007 were held in USAWC Seminar
their respective regions and in some classrooms and the Root Hall Gymna-
cases played other regional and inter- sium on Thursday, 22 February 2007.
national actors. All of these personel Robotics Day 2007 integrated the
served as subject matter experts and science of autonomous vehicles and
advised the International Fellows on robotics and associated strategic issues
the politics, militaries, economies, into the War College’s core curricu-
and cultures of the regional actors. lum. Eighteen guest instructors from
The Talon Swords robot from the
Members of the CSL staff comprised military, government and commercial Foster-Miller Corp.
a control group that ran the exercise. organizations attended each USAWC
seminars and lead the discussion on An Issue Paper covering this
The exercise, set in 2017, focused the issues regarding the integration of topic can be accessed at: http://www.
on negotiations aimed at resolving autonomous war fighting vehicles into
an unstable situation in the Caucasus future military scenarios. War College
region. The teams had to formulate CSL
students, staff and faculty and invited
and implement strategies to negotiate guests were then given opportunity to Ballistic Missile Defense
with the other nations involved in the experience robots hands-on by visit- System Readiness,
conflict as well as with those nations ing the exhibits provided by com- Activation, Integration
with paramount interests in the region mercial and military organizations. Deployment Exercise
to resolve daunting questions engen- These exhibits included air platforms
dered by a complex ongoing con- Mr. John Auger
for surveillance; ground vehicles for Booz Allen Hamilton, Inc.
flict. The exercise began with a set transportation, surveillance, medical
of scheduled bilateral negotiations support and war fighting; other vehi- In December 2002, President Bush
between various nations. This was cles for explosive ordinance disposal; stated that “the deployment of mis-
followed by a myriad of coordinated and a host of experimental platforms sile defense is an essential element of
ad hoc meetings that carried the nego- being considered for use by military our broader efforts to transform our
tiations through the morning of the organizations. In all there were 34 defense and deterrence policies and
second day. After a day and a half of different robotic vehicles featured at capabilities to meet the new threats
tough negotiations, the exercise cul- the exhibits. we face.” In 2004, the United States
minated with a Ministerial Meeting Over four hundred individuals had begun the initial fielding of the
chaired by the UN High Representa- attended the exhibits. Participants Ballistic Missile Defense, which has
tive to the region. were able to maneuver some of the the capability to meet a limited, near-
The exercise ended with a series teleoptically and remote controlled term ballistic missile threat. An inte-
of After Action Reviews conducted vehicles, and were given demon- grated system of Patriot Advanced
at the country team and entire partici- strations of some of the capabilities Capability‑3 missiles and Aegis
pant levels. The students were again of the robots. Dr. John Parmentola, Ballistic Missile Defense Standard
provided key insights into preparing the director of Army Research and Missile‑3 provides a defense against
for, executing, and following up on Laboratory Management provided short- and medium-range ballistic
their negotiations. Overall comments several lectures concerning the future missiles. Our current capability also
from the students and other partici- of technology and the use of robotics enables the engagement of interme-
pants indicated that the exercise was in future scenarios. This third itera- diate-range and intercontinental bal-
very beneficial in not only teaching tion of Robotics Day was the most listic missiles in the midcourse phase
the science of negotiating and coali- successful to date, serving to prepare using Ground-Based Interceptors.
tion building but also allowing the art future leaders in the area of technol- This layered defense is integrated
of these tasks to be practiced. ogy usage contingency operations. through the command and control,
battle management, and communi- C4 ARCHITECTURE AT tion and equipment (MTOE). Stem-
cations network, which provides the THE DAWN OF NETWORK ming from ongoing military projects
foundation for the Ballistic Missile CENTRIC WARFARE and commercial off-the-shelf equip-
Defense System (BMDS). ment, rapid fielding and operation of
The BMDS Readiness, Activation, Mr. Kevin Cogan non-standard equipment were found
Integration Deployment Exercise Science and Technology Division, CSL necessary for employment to sustain
(RAIDE) was conducted at Collins unprecedented maneuver optempo
Hall from 2-6 October 2006. RAIDE A recently published issue paper, during the combat operations phase.
is the latest in a series of exercises entitled A View of Command, Control, As so often necessity is the mother of
hosted by the Collins Center in sup- Communications and Computer (C4) invention, Operation Iraqi Freedom
port of the Missile Defense Agency Architectures at the Dawn of Network not only heralded the rapid infusion
(MDA). The RAIDE objective was Centric Warfare, takes the reader on a of new C4 methods for combat opera-
to bring together stakeholders from 70-year journey of tactical communi- tions, but it also served as the catalyst
throughout the Ballistic Defense Com- cations to gain a vision of the future for advancing ongoing programs as
munity to plan, integrate and synchro- of communications architectures by well as spawning interim augmenta-
nize their activities and schedules to measuring the exponential growth of tions for future unit rotations.
ensure the successful deployment and its enabling technology. It peers into These catalytic effects have enor-
operation of additional components to the potential strategic and operational mous implications for the future
the currently deployed BMDS. The implications of net-centric operations of netcentric operations. Whereas,
exercise focused on identifying the during the maneuver phase of com- some architecture are competing for
requirements for the deployment of a bat operations during Operation Iraqi present versus future command and
European-based system. Participants Freedom (OIF) and extrapolates this control capability, all are contributing
included representatives from OSD meaning for near- and long-term pro- to the overarching evolution of Net-
Policy, the Joint Staff, the Combat- grams of record. work Centric Warfare. Consequently,
ant Commands, the Army Corps of To accomplish this, a variety of analysis shows that migration to any
Engineers, Boeing – the lead systems perspective views are developed, one architecture is more likened to a
integrator, and others. In all, there starting with the Department of De- Rubik’s Cube where each insertion
were two hundred and fifteen attend- fense Architecture Framework Work- of communications technology is a
ees to include several senior mentors: ing Group Deskbook, a precise IEEE rotation of the cube’s column or row,
General John Piotrowski, Lieutenant standard definition of “architecture” leaving steady-state architectures per-
General Ron Hite, Vice Admiral Lyle provides a baseline for the analysis. petually elusive with its concomitant
Bien, Major General Bill Nash, and Emanating from this source, the per- strategic, operational, and acquisition
Mr. George Williams. spective views – technical, opera- implications.
The exercise resulted in a number tional, and systems – are developed The Issue Paper on this topic can
of specific classified and unclassified for the pre-OIF and OIF timeframe. be accessed at: http://www.carlisle.
recommendations that were presented Largely, these views are based on sig-
to the senior leadership of the MDA. nal unit modified table of organiza- CSL
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