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Volume 9, Issue 3 April - June 2007
Common Security and the discussions at the second annual Land Forces
Global War on Terror Symposium in Islamabad, Pakistan April 10-
12, 2007.
Professor B.F. Griffard As part of an on-going effort to outline
a comprehensive and collaborative strategy
Operations and Gaming Division, CSL toward terrorism the Vice Chief of the Army
A major criticism of the Coalition Staff, Pakistan, the Chief of Staff, U.S. Army,
strategies in Afghanistan and Iraq is their and the Commander, U.S. Army Central co-
heavy dependence on the military element of hosted this year’s symposium. Organized around
the theme “Common Security and the Global
THE CENTER FOR power; portrayed by many critics as a failure
War on Terror,” it provided a forum for Chiefs
STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP to understand the environment within which
these battles are being fought. To emphasize of Staff of the Armies from the 22 attending
U.S. ARMY WAR COLLEGE this point, British operations during the nations in the U.S. Central Command area
of responsibility and surrounding region to
CARLISLE, PENNSYLVANIA Malayan Emergency are presented as a model
meet and confer on common threats, and
for successful counter-insurgency efforts.
However, placed in perspective, the Coalition
has been involved in Afghanistan since 2001,
and Iraq since 2003; the Malayan Emergency
lasted 12 years.
Without a doubt planning for the post-
major combat operations phases lacked
prescience; yet, as is being demonstrated
in Pakistan, Afghanistan and Iraq, there
remains a requirement to kill terrorists while
attempting the win the hearts and minds of
the extremists. More importantly, Coalition
military hearts and minds initiatives are short
term; long term success requires international
political will, and national governments that
INSIDE THIS ISSUE can govern and provide for the security of their
citizens. Many of the symposium speakers
• Common Security and reinforced this premise by emphasizing that
LTG R. Steven Whitcomb, Commander,
the affected populations have become inured
The Global War on to the presence of the military and the media,
U.S. Army Central (USARCENT)
welcomed symposium participants.
Terror therefore they will begin to believe when
other agencies of government become more the political, socioeconomic or ideological
• Mobile Technologies and relevant in the fight. motivations of terrorists. These discussions
National Security Addressing the Issue led to three strategic conclusions. First, in
combating transnational terrorism the use
• Unified Quest 2007 The global reach of transnational terrorism of military force alone has not and will not
became apparent after the attacks on the United
Capstone Wargame States on September 11, 2001. Protected by
yield desired results. Second, win the “hearts
and minds” of the people. Such a strategy
the Taliban in Afghanistan, al-Qaeda and its
• JLASS Wargame Unique international network posed a major threat to
addresses the root causes of terrorism by
removing the sense of deprivation that leads
to All Senior Level War the stability and security of many nations of a population to support terrorist operations
Colleges the world. The risk was especially acute within and recruitment. The third inference was that
the regions encompassed in the United States the emphasis on the term “war” detracts from
• Linking Strategic Mission Central Command area of responsibility. To the multi-dimensional nature of the counter
counter this threat Coalition Forces initiated terrorism struggle.
Command to Operational Operation Enduring Freedom in October
Battle Command 2001 and Operation Iraqi Freedom in March Supporting the Commander
2003. In both cases a decisive military victory The U.S. Army War College (USAWC)
has been followed by extensive counter Center for Strategic Leadership (CSL)
terrorist/counter insurgency operations. It and the Near East South Asia Center for
is the tactics and techniques employed in Strategic Studies (NESA) assisted the U.S.
these on-going operations that framed the Army Central (USARCENT) command
staff in identifying subject matter experts credit cards in Kenya. You can pay for cab fare bureaucratic clearance policies regarding the
and speakers. Professor Bernard F. Griffard, or for fish with your cell phone. Cell towers monitoring of mobile technology. Mobile
USAWC/CSL, reprised his role from the 2006 are being raised in Lake Victoria to allow fish- will continue to grow in significance and the
Land Forces Symposium (LFS), and served as erman to call to shore with their catch num- U.S. can either be helped or hurt depending
the symposium’s co-moderator. He shared bers as they set out to market. Mobile phones on whether it is prepared to support the good
duties with Dr. Pervaiz Cheema, the Director are ubiquitous in Asia. There are over 400 aspects of the technology and/or counter
of the Islamabad Policy Research Institute million users in China. Farmers receive crop the bad. This will require the international
(IPRI). LTG (R) David Barno, Director market prices from the Chinese government development of acceptable norms, treaties
NESA, served as a principal panelist. via text messaging in order to allow them to reflective of the ability of nations to exploit
The CSL Issue Paper detailing this event harvest at the best possible time. the capability and counter the negative
can be accessed at Panel 3 considered the impact of mobile aspects of it, and a nimbleness of response
mil/usacsl/publications/IP03-07.pdf. technology on social behavior and the secu- that is currently the antithesis of our bureau-
rity sphere. As we know, terrorist groups are cratic processes.
CSL networked. Sunni extremist groups use mul- The 3D internet (web 3.0) will be the
Mobile Technologies tiple websites to solicit donations. Terrorists world of our children and grandchildren. It
and National Security recruit, conduct knowledge management (e.g. will complete the globalization process by
the “Encyclopedia of Jihad”), and conduct per- allowing everyone access to (virtually) every-
Professor Dennis M. Murphy ception management and disruptive attacks on one else on the planet. The implications are
Director, Information in Warfare Group the web. There will continue to be increased huge from a political, economic and social
sophistication of existing uses of infromation perspective. In this world the power of the
Professor Murphy, participated in a
technology (IT) and greater emphasis on IT nation-state may be usurped by the power
workshop entitled “Bringing the Web to the
for both disruptive and destructive attacks. of the corporation, the power of the loosely
Streets: New Technologies Leveraging New
Policy should target IT use by anticipating IT organized franchise and even the power of
Behaviors” on 27 April 2007 at the Meridian
capabilities and targeting information flows. the individual. By “wiring the world” and
International Center in Washington, DC.
Mobile phones are closed platforms that allow providing access to it by all the chances of
The workshop was sponsored by the Open
aggregated demand to reduce risk (e.g. I’ll go democratization taking hold are increased
Source Center, Department of State, and the
to the protest if 10,000 other people agree since the power of autocrats and dictators is
Global Futures Forum. The seminar focused
to go). However, cell phones are “persistent diminished. On the other hand it provides
on “mobile technologies” which, at least cur-
worlds,” i.e. everything is logged and thereby a platform for the disaffected voice. Perhaps
rently, is principally focused on cell phone
traceable. the latter is best quelled by ensuring that eco-
usage and capabilities. Four panels provided
The final panel looked at technology nomic prosperity is achieved through the use
insights and then answered questions.
“over the horizon.” This panel considered of mobile technologies to reduce that angry
The first panel considered political impli-
the future of technology and looked specifi- population. In any case, the U.S. needs to be
cations of mobile technologies. There are
cally at “web 3.0”, that is virtual worlds like proactive in managing this information envi-
numerous examples of cell phone SMS (text)
2nd Life and others. 2nd Life is attractive as ronment to a positive end.
messaging shaping political campaigns and
an opportunity to socialize where there is no CSL
mobilizing/revolutionizing politics. It is used
need to compete and can be exploited as a
both to call people to popular protests as well
tool for learning. Web 3.0 is generally about Unified Quest 2007
as used by governments to provide misinfor- Capstone WarGame
being inside a 3D world that is low-cost and
mation in order to quell such protests. Text
emotive. Multinational corporations see Mr. John Auger, Booz Allen Hamilton
messaging is the medium of choice in overseas
a movement (that is here now) where they
countries. It bypasses mass media and mobi- Professor Jim Kievit, OGD, CSL
will plan and execute business plans in the
lizes an already persuaded populace as a means
3D internet world. One presenter cautioned The Collins Center hosted the Army’s
of lightweight engagement. An example
to be attuned to social change which he Title 10 Capstone Wargame, Unified Quest
includes the popular uprising in Spain after
described as having a low chance of happen- 2007 (UQ07), from April 29 through 4 May
the subway bombings, where text messaging
ing but great impact if it did. As of last year 2007. As the Army’s Executive Agent, the
rose 40% above normal within two days of
over 50% of the world’s population lived in Training and Doctrine Command cospon-
the attacks. Cell phones currently contain
cities for the first time in history. The Chi- sored the event with U.S. Joint Forces Com-
the technology to text, provide news, video,
nese and Indians are producing decent $4000 mand (JFCOM) and U.S. Special Opera-
sound, voice, radio and internet. Mobile is
cars. He predicted that mobile phones will tions Command (SOCOM). The UQ07
pervasive in the third world. 97% of Tanza-
soon be supercomputers in people’s pockets. Capstone Wargame is the premier concept
nians have access to mobile phones. Mobile
This event had important national secu- development wargame and also the capstone
coverage exists throughout Uganda. There are
rity and military implications. Mobile tech- event to the Army’s FY07 Future Warfare
100 million handsets in sub-Saharan Africa.
nology can be used as a political and eco- Study Plan. Over 350 representatives from
Radio is the only media device more prevalent
nomic enabler to advance democracy in its the joint and interagency communities par-
than mobile. Small laptops add to the mobile
purest sense by empowering individuals. On ticipated in UQ07. Using a scenario initi-
tech phenomena. $100 laptops currently in
the other hand, it can be used to spread dis- ated, seminar panel format (with embedded
development are nearly indestructible.
information and to incite hatred among the U.S./Allied, Adversarial, and Coalition/
Panel 2 considered the economic implica-
disaffected. While standard cell phone mes- Neutral components), UQ07 participants
tions of mobile technologies. 59% of mobile
saging can usually be tracked it can also use employed a full-spectrum campaign plan-
phones are in the developing world–over 7
prepaid cards to mobilize quickly, conduct ning approach to identify and examine both
million mobile subscribers in Kenya alone.
an operation and then shut down with little regional and broader strategic issues which
Efforts are under way to develop African
or no traceability. From a national security influence campaign planning and the fram-
specific mobile applications, e.g. distributing
perspective, the U.S. needs to consider cur- ing of necessary actions and objectives essen-
commodity prices (such as vegetable prices) to
rent privacy laws, international treaties and tial for the challenges to be addressed.
local village producers. Cell phones are used as
UQ07 objectives included: JLASS Wargame Unique response to scripted events.
• Promoting a shared understanding of the to all Senior Level War At the end of each exercise day, a Coun-
enemy and the “Long War” with emphasis on cil of Elders, comprised of faculty from each
employing and sustaining forces capable of
Colleges of the SLCs, the Director of AFWI, and the
conducting “Full-Spectrum Operations.” Colonel Michael Gould Exercise Director (provided by the Army War
• Identifying the governance, demo- Operations and Gaming Division, CSL
College), gather to adjudicate the decisions
graphic, economic, scientific, technological, made by the student cells, and set the stage
and military operational factors to consider The Joint Land, Aerospace, Sea Simu- for the next day’s injects and learning objec-
in framing national security strategy and lation (JLASS) elective and wargame is a tives. Much of the ground work for the game
operational planning for the “Long War.” unique opportunity for select senior level is done over the entire preceding year by the
• Determining how the above listed fac- college (SLC) students. This elective is the JLASS Steering Group, a composed of faculty
tors can be integrated and exploited against only Joint elective that is offered at each of and controllers that meet six times a year to
a range of possible competitors/opponents. the SLCs and provides an opportunity for resolve issues and plan the way ahead.
• Identifying operational challenges, the students to interact over the course dura- Students begin the academic phase of
implications, and suggesting possible solu- tion with fellow students across all SLCs. JLASS at their respective SLCs between
tions affecting our capability to conduct The wargame, conducted at Maxwell Air October and January, varied by school cur-
Full-Spectrum Operations for a conflict Force Base, culminates the learning experi- riculum and electives schedule. During this
spanning several decades. ence by bringing all of the students together “distributed” phase, the students interact
The UQ07 Capstone Wargame design to execute their war plans in a world scenario thru video teleconferencing and other col-
included two separate wargame environ- based in the future, and facing a myriad of laborative planning and coordination venues.
ments. The first wargame environment global issues and conflicts. Late in the planning process, select students
contained four operational-level, regionally Now in its 24th year, every April the JLASS from each notional staff gather with the stu-
based panels, each working on a separate wargame brings together representation dents at the Industrial College of the Armed
campaign plan in response to specific opera- from the Air War College, Army War Col- Forces, who play the JCS/CJCS/SecDef and
tional and strategic factors. The four panels lege, Industrial College of the Armed Forces, other NSC members, to resolve force flow
included: Middle East (2008–2016), Latin Marine Corps War College, College of Naval and priority issues. The stage is then set for
America (2008–2016), Africa 2008–2016), Warfare, National War College, and Joint the trip to Maxwell.
and Middle East–Future (2016–2020). The Special Operations University for an intense In the end, besides operating in a stress
second wargame environment was a Global five-day engagement addressing key strate- filled environment as key strategic leaders, the
Strategic Panel which examined strategic and gic and operational level issues. Over 100 students also are given opportunity to interact
operational issues in a global context, beyond students, mentored by some 25 faculty and with students from their sister colleges. This
the four regional panels, and explored cam- over 85 controllers, descend on the College interaction undoubtedly leads to networking
paign design and campaign planning for this of Aerospace Doctrine, Research and Educa- that will continue the length of their service,
global environment. Each panel contained tion’s Air Force Wargaming Institute (AFWI) and beyond, as they serve and fight together.
within it “Blue” (including an imbedded to tackle issues that simulate issues these stra- Several top ranking officials, to include the
“Red Team”), Adversarial “Red,” and “Green” tegic leaders will face upon graduation. Vice Chief of Staff for the Army, General
Team members. These teams worked an Just as their war planning is designed to Richard Cody, share that their experience in
action, reaction, and counteraction meth- be realistic, the students will face real world JLASS as a student has better prepared them
odology to frame and reframe as necessary obstacles, such as media and public pres- for the challenges they have faced in the years
operational issues associated with a campaign sures, during game execution. A fictional subsequent to their enrollment. Based on
design process. news station, the Global News Network, and comments like these, and end of course sur-
The UQ07 Capstone Wargame insights “Early Worm” fictional news summary pro- veys, the JLASS wargame and elective have
were presented to a Senior Leader Seminar vide the informational and public opinion continued to grow and improve as an oppor-
on 4 May hosted by the Chief of Staff, Army, facet of the world that impact student deci- tunity to train and develop strategic leaders
General Casey; and including the TRADOC sion making. Approximately 20 Reserve and for a complex world where an understanding
Commander, General Wallace; the Deputy National Guard public affairs specialists from of joint and interagency procedures is para-
Commander of JFCOM, Lieutenant Gen- across the U.S. portray the media and pro- mount to their success.
eral Wood; the Deputy Commander of duce these critical venues of information.
SOCOM, Lieutenant General Wagner; and a The major learning objectives of the
number of other senior military, interagency, JLASS exercise include planning, applying,
and multi-national officials.
and adjusting national and theater level stra- MISSION COMMAND TO
Ongoing and future analytic efforts tegic plans and policies. This is done through
related to UQ07 will incorporate all the mul- each SLC being designated as either a Com- OPERATIONAL BATTLE
tiple and diverse observations, issues, and batant Commander and staff, or key Joint COMMAND (Part 1 of 2)
insights from the Capstone Wargame as well Staff and Interagency members. Controllers
as from the year-long Future Warfare Study role play every facet of the government and MAJ Kyle Burley
effort in order to provide a more detailed the interagency process, from the President
executive summary describing and outlining
Strategic Experiential Education Group
to the State Department to the Department
“this ‘Long War’,” provide information for of Homeland Security. The exercise is a two- The Strategic Experiential Education
an operational command white paper, and sided, computer-supported wargame that Group (SEEG) supports senior leader educa-
also provide the foundation for a future edi- takes place 10 years in the future. Issues, tion by providing practical, experiential, and
tion of TRADOC Pamphlet 525-3. ranging from homeland security and natu- immersive learning environments. These
Planning is already underway for Unified ral disaster to reserve mobilization, strate-
Quest 2008, projected to be held at the Col- environments can create learning opportuni-
gic mobility and global force management ties beyond those encountered in the seminar
lins Center in the Spring of 2008. are played out through student moves in room. They can amplify specific teaching
points through experiences such as: con- abled command tools as they are with their Battle Command is now one of the Battle-
straining time resources, compelling the use favorite cellular phone or personal data assis- field Functional Areas, along with maneuver
of intuitive skills, and altering surrounding tant. This is a paradigm shift for senior lead- and effects. Army Battle Command Systems
physical conditions. ers previously accustomed to text and verbal- like Force XXI Battle Command Brigade
Over the past few months the SEEG ly based procedures; to become leaders who and Below (FBCB2), an on-board maneuver
has begun laying the groundwork for link- can rapidly attain situational understanding based system, are dynamically increasing our
ing strategic level Mission Command to op- through battlespace visualization made possi- combat capabilities, through the planning
erational and tactical level Battle Command. ble by a network-enhanced digital command and mission preparation and spatial aware-
Mission Command is “the conduct of mili- environment. A specific example of this ness capabilities they provide to the soldier.
tary operations through decentralized execu- paradigm shift which has great potential at “Battle Command as a Weapons System”
tion based upon mission orders for effective the operational level is Command Post of the or BCAWS, a force modernization concept
mission accomplishment. It requires an envi- Future (CPoF). integrated into emerging Army doctrine,
ronment of trust and mutual understanding” CPoF is a Battle Command System which was discussed in detail at the recent Battle
(FM 6-0). Battle Command is “the exercise operational commanders and headquarters Command User’s Conference in May 2007.
of commanding operations against a hostile, staffs in both Iraq and Afghanistan absolutely Battle Command Systems are the tools with
thinking enemy” (FM 3-0). It is important rely on for timely situational awareness. It has which the Army prepares for combat, plans
to differentiate Battle Command, or at the truly made battlefield visualization a reality. operations, passes orders, and reports situa-
Strategic level, Mission Command, from the A more detailed discussion of CPoF will tions at the tactical level. Their use provides
term “Command and Control.” Mission follow in the next Collins Center Update as a network-enabled capability that gives the
Command and Battle Command are relat- Part 2 of this article. U.S. Army and sister services superiority in
ed to Command and Control (C2) but the Now that systems like CPoF are being the digital battlespace.
terms are not synonymous. Mission Com- used by senior commanders and their staffs SEEG personnel have attended several
mand and Battle Command elements are from Battalion to Multi-National Force level conferences over the past quarter, with the
focused on the effects of command on the in Iraq, in Afghanistan, as well as in support focus on providing tools to enable strategic
enemy. In contrast, C2 is the “exercise of of Joint and Interagency Missions, it is obvi- Mission Command just as Battle Command
authority and direction…over assigned and ously prudent that USAWC provide learn- has been enabled at the tactical level. SEEG
attached forces in the accomplishment of the ing experiences which will allow our leaders has attended the Battle Command Training
mission. Commanders perform command to be adept and conversant with CPoF and Capability Users Conference and Joint Land
and control functions through a command supporting Battle Command tools. One of Aerospace and Sea Simulation Exercise in
and control system” (FM 6-0). C2 is the the Exercise Objectives for the 2008 Strate- April, the DoD Modeling and Simulation
backbone of functions and systems on which gic Decision Making Exercise is to “…apply and Battle Command User’s Conferences in
commanders exercise Battle Command. competencies required by strategic leaders in May, and the National Simulation Center
Since many of the simulation tools used to a complex, fast-moving environment.” To- Gaming Seminar in June. SEEG researchers
create immersive learning environments are day DoD staffers may spend most of their attended each of these with the purpose of
inherently based on digital technology, these time using e-mail, cell-phone, or video-tele- obtaining and modifying existing tools that
environments can simultaneously expose our conference. However, those in contact with will provide USAWC students with “Senior
strategic leaders to C2 and Battle Command operational headquarters will need to under- Leader Knowledge, Skills, and Attributes”
decision-making support tools. This second- stand the user interface of the information that directly affect “Deciding”’ by creating a
ary effect of experience with technology tools they are receiving from subordinate com- senior leader environment that replicates not
within a simulated environment is additive mands in order to translate it to the Strategic only the “Volatility, Uncertainty, Complex-
to the education being received. Today’s Joint, Interagency, Intergovernmental, Mul- ity, and Ambiguity” of that environment, but
fight and tomorrow’s planning environment tinational environment for national policy also provides the command tools to operate
requires senior leaders to be “Power Users” and military campaign planning. effectively within it.
who are just as familiar with technology-en- At the tactical and operational levels, CSL
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