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SUPERPAVEGYRATORYCOMPACTORS

TheAsphaltPavement TechnologyProgramisan integrated,nationaleffortto improvethelongterm performanceandcost effectivenessofasphalt pavements.Managedbythe FederalHighwayAdministration throughpartnershipswithState highwayagencies,Industryand academiatheprograms primarygoalsaretoreduce congestion,improvesafety,and fostertechnologyinnovation. Theprogramwasestablishedto developandimplement guidelines,methods, proceduresandothertoolsfor useinasphaltpavement materialsselection,mixture design,testing,construction andqualitycontrol.

ThisTechnicalBriefprovidesanoverviewofthegyratory issuesthataffectstheperformanceofasphaltpavements. Background


TheSuperpavemixdesignprocedurefeaturestheSuperpavegyratory compactor(SGC)forcompactingspecimensofhotmixasphalt.The primaryoperatingparametersfortheSGCincludethepressure appliedtothespecimenduringcompaction;thespeedof gyration/rotation;thenumberofgyrationsappliedtothespecimen; andtheangleofgyration.Valuesfortheseparameterswere establishedduringthedevelopmentoftheSuperpavesystemunder theStrategicHighwayResearchProgram.Itiscorrectlyand commonlyassumedthatgyratorycompactorsinwhichthegyration angle,speedofgyration,andappliedpressureareproperlycalibrated willproducehotmixasphaltspecimenshavingsimilarvolumetric properties. Inrecentyears,however,thisbasicassumptionoftheequivalencyof properlycalibratedcompactorshasbeencalledintoquestion. Reportsofreplicatespecimens,compactedondifferentSGCunits, exhibitingsignificantlyvaryingvolumetricpropertiesfocusedscrutiny ontheangleofgyration.Proceduresforcalibrating/validatingthe gyrationpressureandspeedmaybeconsideredrelativelygenericand universal;however,proceduresforcalibratingtheangleofgyration wereuniquetospecificmodelsofgyratorycompactor.Inaddition, theangleofgyrationwasmeasuredexternally(outsidethe specimenmold)andrelativetotheframeoftheSGC.Itwas theorizedthatcomplianceoftheSGCframeunderloaddetrimentally affectedthemeasurementofthegyrationanglethus,renderingthe calibrationoftheSGCsuspect.

OfficeofPavementTechnology FHWAHIF11032 December2010

TheFederalHighwayAdministration(FHWA)ledanefforttodeveloptechnologyforauniversal methodformeasuringtheangleofgyrationonallcompactorsfrominsidethespecimenmold. Subsequently, internalanglemeasurementdeviceswererefinedandmarketedbyprivatemanufacturers. AssociatedresearchdemonstratedthattheuseoftheinternalangleofgyrationtocalibrateSGCunits couldresultinreplicatespecimenshavingmoreconsistentvolumetricproperties. However,therearenumerouspotentialsourcesofvariabilityrelatedtotheproductionofalaboratory compactedhotmixasphaltspecimen.Itisimportantthatpractitionersrecognizeandminimizeall suchsourcesofvariabilityinadditiontotheuseofinternalangleofgyrationtocalibratetheSGC. TheFHWAExpertTaskGrouponMixturesandAggregates(ETG)developedthisdocumentwithtwo primarygoals:(1)tohelppractitionersaddressallpotentialsourcesofvariabilityinproducing compactedhotmixasphaltspecimens;and(2)provideabriefhistoryofthedevelopmentofthe concepts,practices,andequipmentformeasuringtheinternalangleofgyrationandthedevelopment ofspecificationsforimplementingtheuseoftheinternalangleintoroutinepractice.

SourcesofVariabilityinDeterminingtheBulkSpecificGravity(Gmb)ofHot MixAsphalt(HMA)
Itisimportanttorecognizethatvariabilityinthebulkspecificgravity(Gmb)ofacompactedhotmix asphalt(HMA)specimencanstemfromanumberofsources.Priortoadjustingsettingsonthe Superpavegyratorycompactor(SGC),theseexternalsourcesofvariabilityshouldbeinvestigated.If problemsarediscovered,theseissuesshouldbesettledinsofaraspossible.Abriefdiscussionofsome potentialsourcesofvariabilityfollows.

SGCMaintenance
Studiesrelatedtotheangleofgyrationappliedtoahotmixasphaltspecimenhaveindicatedthatthe physicalconditionofagivenSGCaffectstheresultingmeasuredangleofgyration.Ataminimum, recommendedmaintenanceitemslistedintheUsersManualforeachSGCmustbeperformedatthe recommendedtaskfrequencies. Inadditiontoroutinemaintenanceissues,usersarecautionedthatpartsofSGCunitssubjectto wear,i.e.bearings,rollers,etc.,shouldbeperiodicallycheckedforcondition.SGCmanufacturerscan provideinformationrelatedtospecificpartsandindicationsofexcessivewear.SGCpartsshowing excessivewearshouldbereplaced.
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SGCCleanliness
TheSGCmustbekeptascleanaspossible,includingallsurfaces,rollers,plates,andmolds.Table1 reportstheresultsofasmallstudytodemonstratetheeffectofanintrusionunderthegyratory compactormoldbaseplate.Ingeneral,thedatainTable1suggeststhatanintrusionunderthebase plateof0.1mmcoulddecreasetheeffectiveinternalangleofgyrationbyapproximately0.05degrees; givencurrentspecificationsrelatedtotheinternalangleofgyration,suchachangeissignificant. Table1.EffectofIntrusionsUnderSGCBasePlateonInternalAngleofGyration
Thicknessof Intrusion2 UnderBase Plate3 (mm) 0.0 0.19 0.45 0.62 0.0 0.18 0.39 0.61 0.0 0.21 0.45 0.61 0.0 0.19 0.37 0.58

Mold A A A A B B B B C C C C D D D D
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Average InternalAngle4 (deg) 1.145 1.002 0.860 0.850 1.155 1.048 0.915 0.885 1.153 1.043 0.892 0.875 1.150 1.030 0.883 0.875

FourSGCMoldswereusedinthestudy;averageinternal molddiametersrangedfrom149.81mmto149.96mm 2 Intrusionswerecreatedbyaffixingsuccessive1x1squares ofducttapetothebottomcenterofthebaseplate 3 OneSGCBasePlatewasusedinthestudy;theaverage diameterofthebaseplatewas149.66mm 4 TheAverageinternalanglerepresentsthreereplicate measurementsperformedwithaRAMdevice

Molds
TheFHWAExpertTaskGroupforMixturesandAggregates(ETG)iscontinuingtostudytheissueof excessivemoldwear,withthegoalofrecommendingpossiblespecificationlimitsforSGCmolds. CurrentmolddiameterspecificationsincludedinAASHTOT312liststheinsidediameterspecification as149.90to150.00mm;however,thismeasurementismadeatthetopandbottomedgesofthemold ratherthanintheareainwhichcompactionoccurs.Itisunclearatwhatdiametergreaterthan 150.00mm(intheareaofcompaction)moldwearbecomesexcessiveandsignificantlyaffectsthe volumetricpropertiesoftheHMAspecimen. Thereisalsoaspecificationregardingthediameterofthebottommoldplate;however,the specificationdoesnotaddressthegapbetweenthebottommoldplateandthemolditselfinother words,thedifferencebetweentheinsidemolddiameterandthebottommoldplate.Therehasbeen speculationthatthisgap,ifexcessive,couldaffecttheinternalanglemeasurement,andultimately,the volumetricpropertiesofcompactedHMAspecimens. SGCmoldsshouldbecheckedforexcessivewearbymeasuringtheinsidediameterintheareaofthe moldwallsubjecttocompaction,i.e.1to5inchesfromthebottom.Figure1showsexamplesofinside diametermeasurements.AASHTOT312liststheinsidediameterspecificationas149.9to150.0mm, measuredatthetopandbottomofthemold.
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5 Distance from Bottom of Mold (in)

Thismoldexhibits wear.

0 149.80

149.85

149.90

149.95

150.00

150.05

150.10

150.15

150.20

Mold Inside Diameter (mm)

Figure1.ExampleofSGCMoldDiameterMeasurement
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Figure2summarizesdatacollectedinastudyoftheeffectofthebaseplate/moldgap.Inthisstudy, variouscombinationsofmoldandbaseplateswereusedwithfourmodelsofgyratorycompactor. ReplicatemeasurementsofinternalanglewereobtainedusingtheRapidAngleMeasurement(RAM) device.AsshowninFigure2,formold/plategapsrangingfrom0.24mmto0.62mmtherewasno consistenteffectofthegapsizeoninternalanglealthoughthedatadoessuggestapotential decreaseininternalanglewithincreasinggapsize. 1.40 1.38 1.36 1.34 1.32 1.30 1.28 T4141 1.26 1.24 P125x 1.22 1.20 PG2 1.18 1.16 Brov 1.14 1.12 1.10 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 Figure2.EffectofSGCMoldInternalDiameter/BasePlateGaponInternalAngle AstudywasconductedattheUniversityofArkansastoinvestigatetherelationshipbetweeninternal molddiameterandbulkspecificgravityofcompactedHMAspecimens.FourHMAmixeswereusedin thestudy:(1)9.5mm,PG6422fieldmixcompactedto65gyrations;(2)12.5mm,PG7622fieldmix compactedto50gyrations;(3)12.5mm,PG7022laboratorymixcompactedto100gyrations;and(4) 25mm,PG7022laboratorymixcompactedto100gyrations.Threemodelsofgyratorycompactor Troxler4141,Pine125x,andPineG2wereusedtocompactspecimens.Theinternaldiameterofthe moldsforeachcompactorweremeasuredstartingthebottom,andin1inchincrementsfromthe bottomtoatotalheightabovethebottomof7inches.ThreereplicatespecimensofHMAwere compactedineachmoldused,foreachmixinthestudy. Figures35showtherelationshipbetweenthemaximummeasuredinternaldiameteroftheSGCmold andtheaveragebulkspecificgravityofthereplicatespecimenscompactedinthemold,fortheTroxler
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InternalAngle(deg)

DifferenceinBasePlateandCylinderDiameters(mm)

4141,Pine125x,andPineG2,respectively.WhilethedatashowninFigures35hintatageneraltrend ofincreasingbulkspecificgravitywithincreasinginternalmolddiameter,thereisnotasignificant differenceinbulkgravityvalues.Itisreasonabletoconcludethat,forthediametersmeasuredinthis study,valuesslightlyexceedingthemaximumspecifiedvalueof150.00mmdonotappearto significantlyaffectthebulkspecificgravityofcompactedHMAspecimens.

Troxler4141
2.540 2.520 BulkSpecificGravity,Gmb 2.500 2.480 2.460 2.440 2.420 2.400 2.380 2.360 149.90 149.92 149.94 149.96 149.98 150.00 150.02 150.04 150.06 150.08

MaximumSGCMoldInternalDiameterMeasurement(mm)

Figure3.RelationshipBetweenSpecimenDensityandSGCMoldDiameter,Troxler4141

Pine125x
2.540 2.520 2.500 2.480 2.460 2.440 2.420 2.400 2.380 2.360 2.340 150.10 150.15 150.20 150.25 150.30 150.35 150.40 150.45 150.50 150.55 BulkSpecificGravity,Gmb

MaximumSGCMoldInternalDiameterMeasurement(mm)

Figure4.RelationshipBetweenSpecimenDensityandSGCMoldDiameter,Pine125x

PineG2
2.540 2.520 BulkSpecificGravity,Gmb 2.500 2.480 2.460 2.440 2.420 2.400 2.380 149.90 149.95 150.00 150.05 150.10 150.15 150.20 150.25

MaximumSGCMoldInternalDiameterMeasurement(mm)

Figure5.RelationshipBetweenSpecimenDensityandSGCMoldDiameter,PineG2

SamplingandTesting
ApotentiallysignificantsourceofvariabilityinGmbofcompactedHMArelatestosamplingandtesting. Inmanycases,relativelycoarsegradedHMA,suchasSuperpaveandStoneMatrixAsphalt(SMA)may increasethepotentialforsegregationduringsamplingandsubsequentsamplehandling/preparation (i.e.splitting,SGCmoldloading).IndustrygroupssuchastheNationalAsphaltPavementAssociation (NAPA)andtheAsphaltInstitute(AI)provideinformationrelatingtobestpracticesassociatedwith samplingandhandling.StepsmustbetakentoensurethatallpersonsinvolvedinHMAsamplingand preparationsadheretobestpractices. Itshouldberecognizedthatanymaterialtestcontainsinherentvariability.Thisisthecasewiththe determinationofbulkspecificgravity(Gmb).AASHTOandASTMmaterialtestmethodstypically containstatementsconcerningtheprecisionofthemethod.Onekeypieceofinformationinthe precisionandbiasstatementregardstheD2stheacceptablerangeoftwotestresults.For example,twopersonsshouldbeabletodeterminetheGmbofthesameHMAspecimensothatthe differenceinthetwotestresultsislessthanthestatedD2slimitsforthetestmethod.Ifthis consistentlyprovesnottobethecase,athoroughexaminationshouldbeconductedofallsteps
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includedinthetestmethodtoensurethateachpersonperformingthetestisindeedperformingthe testaccordingtothetestmethod. Addressingallthepotentialsourcesofvariabilitypreviouslydiscussedshouldbethefirststep(s) takenbyalaboratorythatexperiencesdifficultiesinobtainingconsistent,verifiableGmbvaluesfor compactedhotmixasphaltspecimens.

DeterminationofSGCBias
ForlaboratoriesthatexperiencedifficultiesinproducingconsistentGmbvaluesthatverifyamongtwo ormoregyratorycompactors(andhaveinvestigatedandaddressedthosesourcesofvariabilitylisted inthepreviousSection),asecondstepindefiningthepotentialproblemistodeterminewhetherabias existsamongcompactors.Todothis,oneormorecomparisonstudiesmaybeperformed.Abrief outlineofthosestepsnecessaryforasuccessfulcomparisonstudyfollows.Itisassumedinthe discussionsthatallSGCsareproperlycalibratedusingcurrentmanufacturersrecommendations and/orapplicablespecifications. HotMixAsphalt(HMA)tocomparetwoormorecompactors,aconsistentmixtureisvital.Ideally,a plantproducedmixtureissampledatthehotmixplantandsplitintospecimensizes(generally4500to 5000g)onsitewithoutreheatingthemix.IflaboratorypreparedHMAisused,extremecaution mustbeusedtoensurethateachseparatebatchispreparedaggregateblending,mixing, aging/heatingasconsistentlyaspossible. NumberofSpecimens/Mixescomparisonstudiesrelatedtogyratorycompactorsmaybeperformed foraparticularHMAmixture,orforavarietyofmixtures.Ahighernumberofmixturesincludedina comparisonstudyprovidesamorecompletepictureoftherelationshipbetweentwoormore compactors.Inaddition,mixturevarietyvariousnominalmaximumaggregatesizes,numberof gyrations,andbindergradeaddstothecompletenessofthecomparison.ItisnotedthatAASHTOPP 35(theoriginalspecificationusedtovalidateagyratorycompactor)recommendsaminimumoffour mixturesfortheSGCvalidationprocess.Aminimumofsix(6)HMAspecimensshouldbecompactedin eachSGCforeachmixtureused. CompactionandTestingitisapparentthatthenumberofspecimensinvolvedinacomparisonstudy rangesfromaminimumof12toapotentiallyverylargevalue.Greatcaremustbetakentoensure thateachHMAspecimenistreatedasequallyaspossible.Someissuesrelatedtothisconsideration follow.
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Randomness:specimensshouldbeselectedforcompactionandtestingusingablindrandom process.Thatis,eachindividualspecimenischosenfromthepoolofspecimensusingarandom processandassignedtoaparticularcompactor.Itisalsorecommendedthatcompactionand testingbeperformedrandomlythatis,avoidcompactingallofthespecimensforaparticular compactoratonetime,beforemovingtothenextcompactor.Thisrecommendationholdsforthe testingsequenceallofthespecimensproducedbyonecompactorshouldnotbetestedasa grouppriortothespecimensfromasubsequentcompactor. Operator:insofaraspossible,thesameoperatorshouldperformallcompactionandtesting activities.Thisisparticularlyimportantfortesting,toavoidorlimitinherentoperatorrelated variabilityintestresults. DataAnalysis:twonumbersrelatedtoGmbtestresultsareusedtocomparecompactors.Brief commentsrelatedtothecomparisonfollow. a. Mean:themeanGmbofspecimenscompactedonsubjectSGCunitsisthebottomlineofthe comparisoneffort.Twoanalysesshouldbeperformed: (1)statisticalcomparison,inwhichmeanvaluesarecomparedusingstatisticaltestssuchasthe Studentsttestorananalysisofvariance,orFtest.Forcomparisonsofmeanvalues,thet testistypicallyused.Theseanalysistoolswillindicatewhetherastatisticaldifferenceexists betweenthedatasets. (2)practicalcomparison,inwhichthemeanvaluesareexaminedtoestimatethepractical effectadifferenceinmeanvalueswillhaveondeterminingmixturepropertiessuchasairvoids, VMA,etc.Insomecases,testresultsdisplayingastatisticallysignificantdifferencemaybe judgedtobecloseenoughtoavoidhavingapracticaleffectonmixtureproperties. b. StandardDeviation:thestandarddeviationofGmbmaybeusedtojudgethevariabilityofHMA specimendensityexhibitedbyacompactor.However,personsconductingcomparisonstudies arestronglycautionedtousestandarddeviationresultswithcarethestandarddeviationof testresultscontainsthevariabilityoftheGmbtestmethoditself.AnAnalysisofVariance (ANOVA)maybeusedtocomparestandarddeviationvalues. BasedonthecomparisonofmeanGmbvalues,aquantifiablebiasamongtwoormoreSGCunitsmaybe identified.Thatbiasmaybetakenintoaccountinfuturemixtureverificationactivities,orfurther investigationsintoreducingoreliminatingthebiasmaybepursued.

Establishingtheexistenceofaquantifiablebiasamongcompactorsmaybeadesirablesecondstep takenbyalaboratorythatexperiencesdifficultiesinobtainingconsistent,verifiableGmbvaluesfor compactedhotmixasphaltspecimens.

UsingtheDynamicInternalAngle(DIA)toCalibratetheSGC
Onceallpotentialsourcesofvariabilityhavebeenaddressedandabiashasbeendemonstrated betweentwoormorecompactors,anadditionalproceduremightbeperformedbya laboratory/agencytoreduceoreliminatedifferencesinGmbproducedbyvariousgyratorycompactors. ThediscussionthatfollowshighlightsamethodforcalibratingSGCunitsusinganinternalangleof gyration.

BackgroundonVariability
Asearlyas20002001,growingevidenceshowedthatanHMAmixturecompactedwithdifferent SuperpaveGyratoryCompactors(SGCs)couldresultinsignificantlydifferentdensitiesandairvoids (1,2,3,4).Carefullycontrolledexperimentsshowedthattheairvoidscandifferasmuchas1.0percent whenthesametechnicianmoldsasetofspecimensintwodifferent,butproperlycalibratedSGCs(1). Furthermore,datafromtheAASHTOMaterialsReferenceLaboratoryindicatedthatthemultilab precisionofSGCcompactedspecimensbyaccreditedlaboratorieswassopoorthattheacceptable rangeofairvoidsbetweentwolabsmaybeasmuchas1.8percent(2).ThisdifferenceimpededHMA mixdesignprocesses,createddisputesbetweencontractorQCresultsandagencyQAresults,and causedconfusionabouttheappropriatecompactiveefforttouseforselectingdesignasphaltcontents. ItisimportanttonotethatnoparticularbrandofSGCwaslabeledasbeingcorrectorincorrect,right orwrong.However,itisnecessarytorecognizethatthemachinesreactdifferentlytoasphaltmixture shearresistanceduringcompaction,andthatthesereactiondifferencesmayresultindifferent propertiesofthecompactedHMAsamples.Figure6illustratesthedifferencesobtainedfromtwo brandsofSGCs.ThisdatawasprovidedfromresearchperformedattheNationalCenterforAsphalt Technology(NCAT)onvalidationoftheSuperpaveNdesigntable(4).TheXandYaxesarethenumberof gyrationstoachievetheinitialinplacedensityfromawidespectrumofprojects.Thefactthatallthe datalieabovetheLineofEqualityclearlyshowsthatfewergyrationsarerequiredforBrand1 compactortoachievethesamedensityasBrand2compactor. ItwastheorizedthatthencurrentrequirementsforcalibratingSGCsinAASHTOT312usingthe externalangleofgyrationdidnotsufficientlylimittheparallelnessofthetopandbottomplates
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duringthegyratorycompactionprocess.AconfoundingfactoristhateachSGCmanufacturerutilizeda differentapproachtomeasuringtheangleofgyrationofthemold(external).Therefore,itwasnot beenpossibletoindependentlyverifythecriticalparametersofthecompactionprocessforeachtype ofmachinewithasinglecalibrationtechnique.DifferencesinframecomplianceofeachSGC,and differencesincalibrationtechnique,ledtobiasesinpropertiesofcompactedHMAsamplesfrom machinetomachine.

ANewApproach:TheDynamicInternalAngle
Startingin1998,FHWAsTunerFairbankHighwayResearchCenterdevelopedadevicetomeasurethe angleofgyrationfrominsidethemold.ThedevicewasinitiallyreferredtoastheAVK(Angle ValidationKit)andisnowknowastheDynamicAngleValidatororDAV.
120.0

100.0

y = 1.3832x R2 = 0.9584

1.0041

80.0 Brand 2 SGC

60.0

40.0

Line of Equality

20.0

0.0 0.0 20.0 40.0 60.0 Brand 1 SGC 80.0 100.0 120.0

Figure6.IllustrationofBiasAmongSGCBrands(4) Figure7isanexampleoftheoutputfromtheoriginalAVK(nowDAV),withtheinstrumentpositioned atthebottomofthemold.Theupperlineshowstheanglemeasuredateachgyration.Typicallythe databetween10andabout90gyrationswereaveragedtodeterminetheangleateachposition.The bottomlineshowsthetemperaturerecordedinsidetheDAVthatwasusedtoensurethatthe electroniccomponentswerenotdamaged.

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FHWAusedtheDAVtodeterminetheeffectiveinternalangleoftheoriginalfirstarticleSGCsmade byPineInstrumentCo.andTroxlerElectronicsLabs(5).Thesemachineshaveservedasthe standardstowhichothermakesandmodelshavebeenevaluated.Theirmeasurementsshowedthat theoriginalPineSGChadaninternalangleof1.18whensettoanexternalangleof1.25asrequired byAASHTOT312.Likewise,theoriginalTroxlerSGChadaninternalangleof1.14whensetuptoan externalangleof1.25.Thetargetfortheeffectiveinternalanglewasthussetas1.16,theaverageof thosetwomachines.


1.40 1.38 1.36 1.34 1.32 1.30 1.28 1.26 1.24 1.22 1.20 1.18 1.16 1.14 1.12 1.10 1.08 1.06 1.04 1.02 1.00 0 10 20 30 40 50 Angle Count 60 70 80 90 70

60

Angle (deg.)

50
Temp (C)

40

30

20 100

Figure7.ExampleOutputfromAngleValidationKit(AVK) FHWAinitiallyestablishedatoleranceoftheeffectiveinternalangleat0.02.Thisrangewas calculatedtolimittheeffectoftheangleonselectingasphaltcontentwithin0.1percent(5). Tolerancefortheeffectiveinternalanglewasconsistentwiththeanglestandardbasedonexternal moldmeasurements,wasshowntobeanappropriaterangeinthe1996SGCruggednessstudy(6).

EarlyExperimentalResultsUsingInternalAngleofGyration
Proofwasneededthatchangingtoaneffectiveinternalanglecalibrationprocedurewouldremoveor significantlyreducethebiasbetweenresultsfromdifferentSGCs.Eightlaboratoriesparticipatedinan experimenttoassesstheeffectivenessofproposedprocedure.Thisvolunteercooperativeeffort includedmostoftheSGCmodelsusedthroughouttheUSAandawiderangeofmixturetypes.Table2 presentsthegeneralscopeofthecooperativeresearch.
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Table2.ResearchScopeofInitialInternalAngleCooperativeStudy
Laboratory Asphalt Institute APAC, Inc. NCAT FHWA Florida DOT Pine Instrument Co. Troxler Electronic Labs University of Arkansas Mix Sizes 12.5mm, 25.0mm 9.5mm 4.75mm 9.5 mm, 12.5 mm, 19.0 mm 12.5mm 9.5mm, 12.5mm, 19.0mm, 25.0mm 9.5mm, 19.0mm 12.5mm Superpave Gyratory Compactors Evaluated Pine AFGC125X, Trolxer 4140 Interlaken, Pine AFGC125X, Pine AFG1, Troxler 4140, Troxler 4141 Pine AFGC125X, Troxler 4140, Troxler 4141 Troxler 4140, TestQuip Brovold Pine AFGC125X, Trolxer 4140 Pine AFGC125X, Pine AFG1, Pine AFGB Troxler 4140, Troxler 4141 Pine AFGC125X, Trolxer 4140

TheprimaryobjectiveofthisresearcheffortwastocalibrateSGCstoaneffectiveinternalangleof 1.160.02withtheDAV,andthenmakecomparisonsofspecimenscompactedwiththedifferent SGCs.Comparisonsweremadeonthebasisofairvoidcontents.Anexampleofaplotusedtomake comparisonsamongtheresultsfromdifferentSGCsisshowninFigure8.

Calibrated to 1.25 degrees External

Air Voids

3.5

4.0

4.5

Calibrated to 1.16 degrees Internal


Pine G1 Pine 125X Troxler 4140 Troxler 4141

Air Voids

3.5

4.0

4.5

Figure8.ExampleResultsfromInitialInternalAngleCooperativeStudy
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TheresultsfromthecooperativestudygenerallyindicatedthattheDAVcalibrationprocedure removedsomeofthebiasbetweentheSGCs.Inparticular,comparisonsofdatafromPineandTroxler compactorswereimproved20to100percent.Theaveragereductioninthebiasbetweenthesetwo manufacturerswasabout50percent.Asexpected,resultsfrommodelsofthesamemanufacturer (TroxlertoTroxler,PinetoPine)continuedtomatchwellwhenusingtheDAVprocedure.

InitialImplementationoftheDynamicInternalAngleCalibrationProcedure
TheinitialprocedureforusingtheDynamicAngleValidator(DAV)wasdevelopedasAASHTOPP48. ThisprocedurerequiredtheDAVtobeinsertedintoacompactionmoldwithhotmixasphalt,to provideameasureofthedynamicinternalanglewhilethecompactorwasunderload.Inaddition, theprocedurerequiredinternalanglemeasurementstobeconductedwiththeDAVunitunderthe mix(forthebottominternalangle)andwiththeDAVunitabovethemix(forthetopinternal angle).ProceduresforcalibratingSGCsviatheinternalangleofgyrationusinghotmixasphalt presentedanumberofpotentiallysignificantissues.Thediscussionthatfollowsherewasadapted frominformationprovidedbytheDAVTaskGroupsponsoredbytheMixturesandAggregatesETGand ASTMsubcommitteeD04.25.

TimeRequiredforAngleDetermination
Measurementsoftheinternalanglewererequiredatmultiplepositionsinthemolds.Replicate measurementsateachpositionwerealsonecessarytoassuregreateraccuracyofthedata.Theoverall timetocompletethemeasurementsandanalysisforanengineerorlabtechnicianexperiencedwith theprocedurewastypicallyfourtoeighthours.Notably,asecondgenerationDAVdevice(theDAV 2)wasintroducedinthesummerof2004.ThetimerequiredforSGCcalibrationusinghotmixasphalt wassubsequentlyreduced;however,afullcalibrationcontinuedtorequireanumberofhoursto complete.

ExtrapolationandFullHeightMethods
SomeSuperpavegyratorycompactormoldsarenottallenoughtoaccommodatetheDAVandthe volumeofloosemixtureforastandard115mmHMAspecimen.Tosolvethisproblem,amethodwas developedinwhichtheinternalanglemeasurementsweremadeusingspecimensattwosmaller heights.Thedatafromtheinternalmeasurementsatthetwosmallerheightswereusedto extrapolatetotheinternalangleforafullsizedspecimen.Figure9illustratestheconcept. Independentmeasurementsmadeonreplicatespecimenscompactedtoheightsofapproximately30 mmand70mmareusedtolinearlyextrapolatetotheangleforafullsize(115mm)specimen.This
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processwasrequiredforbothtopandbottominternalangles.Theextrapolatedtopandbottom angleswerethenaveragedtodeterminetheeffectiveinternalangleofgyration. Figure9.ExtrapolationMethodforDeterminingDynamicInternalAngle Datacollectedfromseverallaboratoriesinitiallyindicatedtheextrapolationmethodyieldedaninternal anglecomparabletothatobtainedusingfullheightspecimens.Figure10showssuchdata.The differenceininternalanglesderivedusingbothmethodsisnotstatisticallysignificantatthe0.05level. Thisplotalsoshowsa0.02bandaroundthelineofequality.Inallcasesbutone,theinternalangle fromextrapolationfallswithinthisrangecomparedtothefullheightangle.Itisnotedthatthe uncertaintyofananglemeasurementusingtheDAVisalsoapproximately0.02.Thus,differencesin internalanglesasshownintheplotfallwithintheprojectedaccuracyoftheDAVdevice.Itwas concludedthateitheranglemeasurementmethod,fullheightorextrapolation,yieldedthesame averageinternalangleofthegyratorycompactor. However,additionaldataweregeneratedandpresentedtotheMixturesandAggregatesETGin September2006whichrefutedtheconclusionthatalinearextrapolationprocedurewouldyieldan internalangleofgyrationequivalenttothatvaluemeasuredusingafullheightspecimen(8).
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Internal Angle of Gyration (degrees) 1.50 1.45 1.40 1.35 1.30 1.25 1.20 1.15 1.10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 Specimen Height (mm)
Average Internal Angle Top Angle (individual DAV result) Top Angle (best fit) Bottom Angle (individual DAV result) Bottom Angle (best fit) target height (115 mm) angle at target height

1.151

T AVG
120 130 140

Internal Angle - Extrapolated (deg)

1.28 1.26 1.24 1.22 1.20 1.18 1.16 1.14 1.12 1.10 1.10 1.12 1.14 1.16 1.18 1.20 1.22 1.24 1.26 1.28

"Best Fit" line: y = 0.9554 x + 0.0493 r2 = 0.916

AFG1A AFGC 125X Interlaken Test Quip 1:1 Line "+0.02" line "-0.02" line

Internal Angle - Full Height Specimen (deg)

Figure10.ComparisonofInternalAngleValuesUsingFullHeight SpecimensandtheExtrapolationProcedure

HMAMixforSGCCalibration
Researchindicatedthatthestiffnessofthemixtureusedduringtheinternalanglemeasurementshad aneffectontheresultingangle.Ingeneral,stiffermixturesdevelopmoreresistancetocompaction andcausemorestrainwithintheframeoftheSGC,whichmayresultinalowereffectiveinternalangle. Therefore,calibratingtwoormoreSGCunitsusingaparticularHMAmixturewillnotnecessarily ensurethatthoseunitswillproducespecimenshavingsimilarGmbvaluesforallHMAmixtures.

MEASUREMENTOFTHEDYNAMICINTERNALANGLEUSINGSIMULATED LOADING
Anumberofadvancementsconcerningthemeasurementofeffectiveinternalangleoccurredfrom 20032006.Theoriginalinternalangledeviceandprocedure(theAVK,laterDAV)wasformalizedwith theapprovalofAASHTOPP48,andwasincludedasanoptioninAASHTOT31203,thespecificationfor gyratorycompaction.However,anumberofsignificantissueswereidentifiedduringthe implementationoftheoriginalprocedure,asdetailedearlier.Inresponsetoconcernsregardingthe useofhotmixasphaltfordeterminingthedynamicinternalangle,twodeviceshavebeendeveloped thatwillinducealoadinaSuperpavegyratorycompactorsimilartothatinducedbyHMAduring compaction.
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ThetheorybehindtheloadingplacedonagyratorycompactorbyHMAhasbeendescribedbyBahia (9).ProceduresdevelopedformechanicallysimulatingtheloadplacedontheSGCarebasedonthis work.ThetwosimulatedloaddevicesincludetheRapidAngleMeasurement(RAM)andtheHotmix Simulator(HMS).TheHMSisusedinconjunctionwiththeDynamicAngleValidator(DAV).

RapidAngleMeasurement(RAM)Device.
Dalton(10)providesanexcellentsynopsisofthegyratoryloadtheorysuggestedbyBahia.Asynopsis oftheconceptusedbytheRAM(showninFigure11)tosimulategyratoryloadingispresentedhere. Figure11.RapidAngleMeasurement(RAM)Device. Ingeneral,theforcesactingwithintheSGCmoldduringcompactionproducealoadgradientacrossthe faceoftheHMAspecimen(11).Thisgradientmayberepresentedbyasinglepointloadactingata distanceawayfromthecenteraxisofthemold.Thisoffsetdistancemaybetermedtheeccentricity, asillustratedinFigure12.TheRAMsimulatestheeccentricpointloadapproachthroughtheuseof tworaisedcontactringsofspecifieddiameteraffixedtothetopandbottomfacesofthedevice.The diameter(orradius)oftheseringsprovidesaknowneccentricityforarotatingpointload. SGCLoadGradient RepresentationofLoad GradientbyPointLoad Figure12.EccentricPointLoadConceptUsedbytheRAMtoSimulateGyratoryLoad
17

Figure13showsaproductionmodelRAMwithadditionalcontactrings;theringsareaffixedtothe devicebeneaththewearingplate(shownontheuppersurfaceofthedevice).Figure14isaschematic illustratinghowtheraisedringensuresasingle,rotatingpointofcontactbetweentheloadplatensof anSGCandtheRAMunit.Tracesoftwodifferentdiametercontactringsarevisibleonthesurfaceof thewearingplateinFigure13. Figure13.ProductionmodelRapidAngleMeasurement(RAM)withContactRings. Figure14.RAMSimulationofSingleEccentricPointLoad HallandEasleydevelopedaninitialestimateoftheprecisionoftheanglemeasurementprovidedthe RAMin2004(12).Table3summarizesthemean,repeatabilitystandarddeviation(sr),reproducibility standarddeviation(sR),andtheestimateofthe95percentrepeatabilityandreproducibilitylimitsfor
18 Raised Contact SinglePoint

theRAMdevicewhenusedonthecompactormodelsfeaturedinthestudy.AsshowninTable3,the repeatabilityoftheRAMmetorexceededthevalueassumed(0.02)fortheoriginalDAVdevicefor mostmajorbrandsofSuperpavegyratorycompactor. Table3.InitialEstimateofthePrecisionoftheDynamicInternalAngleMeasurement UsingtheRapidAngleMeasurement(RAM)(12) Superpave Gyratory x sr sR r R Compactor PineAFG1A 1.168 0.0034 0.0122 0.0094 0.0342 PineAFGC125X 1.147 0.0047 0.0126 0.0131 0.0353 PineAFGB1A 1.149 0.0017 0.0102 0.0049 0.0285 Troxler4140 1.054 0.0095 0.0127 0.0267 0.0355 Troxler4141 1.100 0.0029 0.0108 0.0081 0.0304 where:

x averageofstudydata sr repeatabilitystandarddeviation sR reproducibilitystandarddeviation


repeatabilityacceptablerangeoftwotestresults(d2s: 95%limit) reproducibilityacceptablerangeoftwotestresults R (d2s:95%limit)

HotMixSimulator(HMS)
TheHotMixSimulator(HMS)wasintroducedintheSpringof2004.TheHMSisafixturethatisusedin conjunctionwiththeDynamicAngleValidator(DAV)whichsimulatestheloadingplacedonthe Superpavegyratorycompactorbyhotmixasphalt.Figure15showstheHMS.Brovold(13)provides generalguidancerelatingtothetheorybehindthemethodofsimulatingshearresistanceusedbythe HotmixSimulator(HMS);aschematicofthebasicmechanicalrelationshipsisshowninFigure16. Gyratoryforceistransmittedthroughapointofcontactbetweenthesurfaceofanupperdome(ofthe HMS)andtheinsideofaconeshapeddepressionmachinedintotheHMSupperplate(showninFigure 15).Ashearforceiscreatedbythewedgeangle,.Thisshearforceformsonemomentcoupleacting ontheDAV/HMSunit.Anothermomentcoupleiscreatedthroughthegyratoryforce(F)actingata
19

distanceawayfromthecenterofthemold(recallthatthepointofforcecontactisontheoutsideof thedomestructure). Resolutionofforces(andresultingmoments)leadstoanexpressionfortheeccentricity,shownas Equation1. e=tan*115/2Eq.1 where:e=eccentricity(mm) =angleofdepressioninupperHMSplate(rad)

Figure15.TheHotmixSimulator(HMS)AttachmenttotheDynamicAngleValidator(DAV)
115
d

Eccentric loading on cone with angle

mm

mold

Shear Force F

Figure16.OperationalschematicoftheHotmixSimulator(HMS)
20

HallandEasleydevelopedaninitialestimateoftheprecisionoftheanglemeasurementprovidedby theDAV2/HMScombinationin2006(14).Table4summarizesthemean,repeatabilitystandard deviation(sr),reproducibilitystandarddeviation(sR),andtheestimateofthe95percentrepeatability andreproducibilitylimitsfortheDAV2devicewhenusedonthecompactormodelsfeaturedinthe study.AsshowninTable4,therepeatabilityoftheDAV2meetsorexceedsthevalueassumed(0.02) fortheoriginalDAVdeviceformostmajorbrandsofSuperpavegyratorycompactor. Table4.InitialEstimateofthePrecisionoftheDynamicInternalAngleMeasurementUsingthe DynamicAngleValidator(DAV2)withtheHotmixSimulator(14) Superpave Gyratory Compactor PineAFG1A Pine AFGC125X PineAFGB1A Troxler4140 Troxler4141 where:

x
1.179 1.153 1.134 0.982 1.137

sr
0.0044 0.0026 0.0031 0.0049 0.0120

sR
0.0062 0.0042 0.0078 0.0080 0.0144

r
0.0123 0.0072 0.0087 0.0138 0.0336

R
0.0174 0.0117 0.0219 0.0225 0.0404

x sr sR r

averageofstudydata repeatabilitystandarddeviation reproducibilitystandarddeviation repeatabilityacceptablerangeoftwotest results (d2s:95%limit) reproducibilityacceptablerangeoftwotest results (d2s:95%limit)

ADDITIONALCONSIDERATIONSFORTHEDYNAMICINTERNALANGLE

GyratoryFrameStiffnessConcepts
Asmentionedpreviously,themeasuredvalueoftheinternalangleofgyrationappearstoberelatedto thestiffnessoftheHMAmix(realorsimulated)usedinthedetermination.Themostlikelymajor
21

contributingfactortothisphenomenonisthestiffnessoftheframeoftheSGC.Simulatedloading devicessuchastheRAMandHMSallowthecontrolofloadeccentricity(simulatingtheshear resistanceofferedbyHMAmixesofvaryingstiffness)tocreateaknowntiltingmomentcouplingonthe deviceinsidetheSGCmold.Aplotoftheappliedtiltingmomentversusthemeasuredinternalangle providesarepresentationoftheframestiffnessforagivenSGC.Thegeneralrelationshipbetween tiltingmomentandeccentricityisshowninEquation4. Moment(Nm)=eccentricity(mm)*SGCForce(N)/1000Eq.4 AtypicalvalueforSGCForce(at600kPapressure)isapproximately10,602N. Figures17and18areplotsoftiltingmomentversusmeasuredinternalangleforfivemodelsof Superpavegyratorycompactor,fromongoingstudiesbeingperformedbytheUniversityofArkansas usingproductionmodelRAMandDAV2/HMSunits.Relativeframestiffnessisassessedbycomparing theslopeofthelinesshownonthegraph.Foreaseofcomparison,theslopeforeachdataset(in deg/Nm)isshowninthelegendofthefigure.Itisapparentthatrealdifferencesoccurinthe measuredinternalangle,forthesamecompactor,whenusingdifferentsimulatedloads.These differencesininternalanglecanbesignificant,consideringtheoriginalinternalanglespecificationfor compactionis1.160.02degrees(AASHTOT312). Table5summarizestheframestiffness(slopeoftheinternalangleversustiltingmomentline)as evaluatedbytheRAMandDAV2/HMSforthefiveSGCunitsintheUniversityofArkansasstudy.Itis notedthatthesinglepointshownforeachangleinFigures17and18representstheaverageofthree anglemeasurements. Theframestiffnessphenomenoncomplicatesthecomparisonofdynamicinternalanglevalues measuredusingsimulatedloadingdeviceswiththosemeasuredusinghotmixasphalt.Foradirect comparison,anequivalenteccentricitymustbedeterminedforthehotmixasphaltusedinthe measurement.Researchtocharacterizehotmixasphaltmixturesintermsofequivalenteccentricity (toallowsuchcomparisons)hasnotsuccessfullyidentifiedanysuchrelationshipssuitablefor implementationintoroutinepractice(15).

22

Figure17.ComparisonofSGCframestiffnessusingtheRapidAngleMeasurementDevice(RAM). Table5.ComparisonofSGCFrameStiffnessValuesRAMandDAV2/HMS SGCFrameStiffness(deg/Nm) SuperpaveGyratoryCompactor Internal Angle Pine PineAFG1 PineAFGB1 Troxler4141 Troxler4140 Device AFGC125 RAM DAV2/HMS
23

0.00041 0.00030

0.00047 0.00043

0.00031 0.00028

0.00060 0.00052

0.00140 0.00184

Figure18.ComparisonofSGCframestiffnessusingtheHotmixSimulator(HMS).

TemperatureIssues
Oneissuethataroseduringresearchstudiesandspecificationsubcommitteemeetingsregardingthe measurementofinternalanglerelatestothetemperatureoftheSGCmoldusedduringangle measurements.Obviously,themostexpedientmethodformeasuringinternalangleistouseSGC moldsatroomtemperature;however,itisrecognizedthatduringcompaction,allsurfaceswillbe heated.Thusthequestionofthesuitabilityofusingroomtemperaturemoldsisvalid. Figure19showsacomparisonofinternalanglesmeasuredonvariousSGCmodelsusingbothhot androomtemperaturemolds,conductedbytheFloridaDOTusingaRAMwith44mmdiameter
24

contactring.Apairedttestconductedonthedataindicatesthatthedifferencesbetweeninternal anglesmeasuredhotandcoldarenotsignificantatasignificanceleveloffivepercent( =0.05).


Internal Angle (Hot vs. Cold Mold) - FL DOT
Hot Mold 1.30 1.25 Cold Mold

Internal Angle (deg)

1.20 1.15 1.10 1.05 1.00

Pine AFGC125x

Brovold

Troxler 4140

Servopac

Pine AFG1

Superpave Gyratory Compactor Model

Figure19.ComparisonsofInternalAngleValuesusingHotandRoomTemperatureSGCMolds. (DatacourtesyofFloridaDepartment.ofTransportation) AhotversuscoldstudyusingtheRAMdeviceconductedattheUniversityofArkansasissummarized inTable6.DifferencesininternalangleforthisstudygenerallyagreewiththeFloridaDOTstudy, exceptthattherelativelylargeeffectoftemperatureontheAFGB1(Brovold)compactornotedinthe FloridaDOTstudy(seeFigure19)isnotreflectedintheArkansasstudy.InTable6,differences betweenhotandcoldinternalanglevaluesarenotconsistentacrossRAMcontactringsizes,noris thereanapparentpatternassociatedwithringsize.Itisalsonotedthat,whilethemajorityof comparisonsshowthehotmoldangletobelessthantheassociatedcoldmoldangle,some measurementsshowingthecoldmoldtobethelesseranglewererecorded.Theseresultssuggestthat aconsistent,quantifiabledifferencedoesnotexistbetweenanglemeasurementstakenwithhotand coldcompactionmolds.AstatisticalpairedttestperformedontheArkansasdataindicates differencesincoldversushotanglesarenotsignificant(tstat=1.181,comparedtotcritical=2.145). ThedatapresentedheremaysuggestthattemperatureeffectsarenotidenticalfordifferentSGC models.However,thevariability/uncertaintyassociatedwiththemeasurementoftheinternalangle usingtheRAMmustalsobeconsidered.Thedifferencesshownininternalanglemeasurements betweenhotandcoldmoldsare,inalmostallcases,withintherepeatabilitylimitsfortheRAM(Table 3).Thus,thedifferencesinangleshowncannotbesolelyassignedtoeffectsoftemperature.Itmust benoted,however,thatrecentanecdotalreportshavesurfacedwhichpurporttodemonstrate significantdifferencesinmeasuredinternalangleattributabletotesttemperature.
25

Table6.EffectofMoldTemperatureonMeasuredInternalAngle(UniversityofArkansas). Contact Ring Diameter (mm) Pine 35 AFGC125x 44 60 Pine 35 AFGC1 44 60 Brovold 35 (Pine 44 AFGB1) 60 Troxler 35 4140 44 60 SGC Model Internal Angle (deg) Cold Hota Difference Mold Mold (Cold-Hot) 1.187 1.155 1.128 1.185 1.156 1.140 1.176 1.157 1.136 1.193 1.099 1.042 1.181 1.151 1.116 1.185 1.170 1.136 1.164 1.147 1.130 1.189 1.086 1.056 0.006 0.004 0.012 0.000 -0.014 0.004 0.012 0.010 0.006 0.004 0.013 -0.014

35 1.208 1.199 44 1.150 1.132 60 1.063 1.083 a Hot refers to a mold temperature of approximately 300F

Troxler 4141

0.009 0.018 -0.020

ComparisonofInternalAngleMeasurementSystems
Currently,therearethreeprimarymethodsfordeterminingtheinternalangleofgyrationDAVwith mix,DAVwiththeHMS,andtheRAM.Twoquestions,then,arise:(1)howdothemethodscompare? and(2)arethemethodsinterchangeable?Adirectcomparisonofanglemeasurementstakenusing hotmixasphaltwithDAVandmeasurementstakenusingeithersimulatedloadingmethodisdifficult duetotheuncertaintyofestablishingthetiltingmomentappliedtotheSGCbythehotmixasphalt. ResearchrecentlycompletedbytheAsphaltInstituteandtheUniversityofArkansas,amongothers, concludedthatadefinitiverelationshipbetweenthestiffnessofagivenHMAmixturetoaparticular equivalenteccentricityappliedusingtheRAMortheHMSdidnotexistforthemixturesstudied(15). Comparisonsbetweenthetwosimulatedloadingsystems,theRAMandtheDAV/HMS,arepossible whenmadeonthebasisofappliedtiltingmoment.Table7showsacomparisonofinternalangles
26

measuredusingaproductionmodelRAM(with44mmcontactring)andanearly production/prototypeDAV/HMSsystem(witha21degHMScone).Thetiltingmomentforeach systemiscalculatedusingequation4.Forpurposesofcomparison,theappliedSGCforceforeach systemistakenasthenominal10,602N.ThecalculatedtiltingmomentsfortheRAMisshownas Equation5.ThecalculationfortheeccentricityoftheDAV/HMS(witha21degcone)isshownin Equation6;theDAV/HMStiltingmomentcalculationisshownasEquation7(takenfromEquation3). RAMMoment(Nm)=22mm*10,602N/1000=233.2Nm(Equation5) DAV/HMSeccentricity=tan((radians)21deg)*115/2=22.07mm(Equation6) DAV/HMSMoment(Nm)=22.07mm*10,602N/1000=234.0Nm(Equation7) Thus,thebestdirectcomparisonoftheinternalanglevaluesgeneratedbytheRAMandDAV/HMS usesthe44mmRAMcontactringandthe21degHMScone. ThedatashowninTable7representtheaverageofthreereplicatetestsoneachcompactorusingeach device.Thetwosimulatedloadingdevicesdonotappeartoprovidethesamevalueforinternalangle atasimilarappliedtiltingmoment.Singlefactoranalysisofvariance(ANOVA)testsperformedonthe dataindicatethedifferencesinaverageinternalanglearesignificantforthePineG1andPine125x compactors.However,anexaminationoftheactualdifferencesinaverageinternalanglevalues betweenthetwosimulatedloaddevicessuggeststhat,inpracticalterms,thedifferencesnotedmay notbesignificant.

ASTMComparisonStudyandCurrentAASHTO/ASTMSpecifications
In2007,Dukatzheadedacomprehensivestudyfocusedonestablishingtheprecisionandbiasofthe internalanglemeasurementusingsimulatedload,sponsoredbytheAmericanSocietyforTestingand Materials(ASTM)asInterlaboratoryStudy(ILS)151(16).Thisstudyalsoprovidedacomprehensive comparisonofinternalangleresultsgeneratedbythetwosimulatedloaddevices.Thestudy,which included28SGCsrepresentingthemajormodelscurrentlyinservice,9laboratories/agencies,and12 internalangleinstruments(6RAMdevicesand6DAV/HMSdevices),hasbeengenerallyacknowledged aslikelymorerepresentativeofroutinefieldconditionsthanpreviouseffortsbyHallandothers.
27

Table7.ComparisonofRAM(44mmcontactring)andDAV/HMS(21degcone) Average Internal Angle, deg Std. Deviation, 3 replicates RAM DAV/HMS 1.177 1.193 0.0076 0.0025 1.143 0.0029 Brovold 1.165 0.0087 1.157 0.0020 1.160 0.0021 No

Compactor Pine G1

Difference Significant?a Yes

Pine 125x

Yes

Troxler 1.057 1.051 4140 0.0029 0.0026 Troxler 1.137 1.155 4141 0.0161 0.0096 a ANOVA (F-test) with level of significance
= 0.05

No No

ThemajorfindingsoftheILS151study,asreportedbyDukatz,aresummarized: Theacceptablerangeoftwointernalanglemeasurements(d2s)forsingleoperatorsis0.03 degrees; Theacceptablerangeoftwointernalanglemeasurements(d2s)formultipleoperatorsis0.04 degrees; Thereisnoconsistent,significantdifferenceinanglemeasurementsgeneratedbytheRAMand DAV/HMSinstruments,acrossthemajorSGCbrands/modelstypicallyinserviceintheU.S.


28

Table8reproducesthesummaryprecisionstatisticsfromtheILS151study. Table8.SummaryStatisticsfromtheASTMILS151Study(16)

ThecompletetextofthefullprecisionstatementfromtheILS151studyfollows: 13.1TheprecisionisbasedonanInterlaboratoryStudy(ILS#151)thatwasconductedin 2007usingASTME691PracticeforConductinganInterlaboratoryStudytoDetermine thePrecisionofaTestMethodandASTMPracticeC670forPreparingPrecision StatementsforTestMethodsforConstructionMaterials.ILS#151involved27 laboratories,whichfeatured5Troxler(DAVIIHMS)and6PineInstrumentsAFLS1(RAM) internalangleinstrumentsandthefollowingSGCmodels:TroxlerElectronics4140, 4141,and414x;PineInstrumentsAFG1,AFG2,AFGB1,AFGC125X;IPCServoPac;and Interlaken.Withinthestudytheinternalanglemeasurementsrangedfrom1.014to 1.290degrees. SingleInstrumentPrecisionthesingleoperatorstandarddeviationofasingletest resulthasbeenfoundtobe0.011degrees.Therefore,resultsoftwoproperlyconducted measurementsbythesameoperatorwiththesameinstrumentinthesameSGCshould notdifferbymorethan0.03degrees3. MultiInstrumentPrecisionthemultiinstrumentstandarddeviationofasingletest resulthasbeenfoundtobe0.015degrees.Therefore,theresultsofproperlyconducted measurementsbydifferentoperatorsusingdifferentinstrumentsinthesameSGC shouldnotdifferbymorethan0.04degrees3.
29

Thesenumbersrepresent,respectively,the(1s)and(d2s)limitsasdescribedinASTM PracticeC670forPreparingPrecisionStatementsforTestMethodsforConstruction Materials. 13.2BiasSincethereisnoacceptedreferencedevicesuitablefordeterminingthe biasinthismethod,nostatementofbiasismade.

CurrentgyratorycompactionspecificationsrelatedtothecalibrationoftheSGCincludingAASHTO T312,andAASHTOPP58/ASTMD7115(governingthemeasurementofinternalangleusingsimulated loading)drawheavilyonthestudiespreviouslydescribed,includingtheprecisionandbiasdata reportedbyDukatz.

RelationshipBetweenInternalAngleandAirVoidsforCompactedHMA
Asstatedpreviously,currentspecificationsrelatedtothemeasurementanduseoftheinternalangle ofgyration,e.g.ASTMD7115AASHTOT312,andAASHTOPP58,requirethattheinternalangleof gyrationbesetat20.20.35mrad(1.160.02degrees).However,basedonprecisiondatagenerated byDukatz(16)andHall(12,14),thesuitabilityoftheangletolerancewasquestioned.TheFederal HighwayAdministration(FHWA)ExpertTaskGrouponMixturesandConstruction(ETG)commissioned astudytodeterminetherelationshipbetweeninternalangleandairvoidsforcompactedhotmix asphaltspecimens.ThestudywascompletedbytheFHWAMobileAsphaltLaboratoryandthe UniversityofArkansasin2008.CompletedetailsofthestudyareprovidedbyHall(17). Twohotmixasphalt(HMA)mixtureswereusedintheinvestigation,includingafinegraded,9.5mm nominalmaximumaggregatesizemixwithanunmodifiedPG6422binder,andacoarsegraded,12.5 mmnominalmaximumaggregatesizemixwithapolymermodifiedPG7622binder.Fiveinternal angleswereselectedfortesting:15.0mrad(0.86deg);18.5mrad(1.06deg);20.2mrad(1.16deg);22 mrad(1.26deg);and25.5mrad(1.46deg). Figures20and21illustratetherelationshipbetweentheinternalangleofcompactionandthe associatedairvoidsofcompactedspecimens.Figure1showstheresultsfromtheFHWAMobile AsphaltLaboratory,usingtheServoPaccompactor.Figure2showstheresultsfromtheUniversityof Arkansaslaboratory,usingthePineAFG2compactor.ItisapparentfromthedatapresentedinFigures 20and21,thattheresultsaresimilarandconsistentbetweenthetwolaboratories/compactors.The PineAFG2compactorproducedspecimenswithslightlylowerairvoidsthanthevaluesexhibitedbythe specimenscompactedwiththeServoPaccompactor.Figures20and21alsoincluderegression statisticsforlinearbestfitrelationshipsbetweeninternalangleandairvoids.
30

Ofparticularinterestforthisprojectistheslopeoftheangleversusvoidsrelationship.Thisslope quantifiestheeffectofchangesintheangleofgyrationontheairvoidsofcompactedspecimens. Table9summarizestheslopevaluesrecordedinthisstudy.


6.0

FHWAMobileAsphaltLab
5.0 4.0 3.0 2.0 1.0 0.0 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6

AirVoids(%)

AverageInternalAngle(deg) 9.5mm/6422/N65 9.5mm/6422/N100 12.5mm/7622/N50 y = 5.6156x+10.308 y = 3.2887x + 6.4957 y=3.9072x+8.4638 R=0.9702 R = 0.9763 R=0.9998

Figure20.RelationshipBetweenInternalAngleandAirVoidsFHWA/ServoPacCompactor

31

6.0

UniversityofArkansas
5.0 4.0 3.0 2.0 1.0 0.0 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6

AirVoids(%)

AverageInternalAngle(deg) 12.5mm/7622/N50 y = 5.6032x+10.021 y=3.1528x+5.9717 y=4.0769x+7.8908 R=0.9881 R=0.9558 R=0.9957 9.5mm/6422/N65 9.5mm/6422/N100

Figure21.RelationshipBetweenInternalAngleandAirVoidsU.ofArkansas/PineAFG2 Compactor Table9.SlopeofInternalAngleversusAirVoids Slope of Internal Angle - versus - Air Voids FHWA U of A (ServoPac) (Pine AFG2) 9.5 mm -3.288 -3.152 PG 64-22 N100 9.5 mm -3.907 -4.076 PG 64-22 N65 12.5 mm -5.615 -5.603 PG 76-22 N50 Theresultsfromthe9.5mmmixcompactedusing100gyrationsmaynotbeasrepresentativeas resultsfromtheotherspecimensets,duetotherelativelylowairvoidlevels.Focusing,then,onthose
32

resultsfromthe9.5mmmixat65gyrationsandthe12.5mmmixat50gyrations,theslopesshownin Table9rangefrom3.907to5.615,withanaveragevalueof4.800.Thus,onaverage,anincreasein internalangleof0.01degreeswouldresultinadecreaseof0.048percentairvoids.Inmoregeneral terms,itisreasonabletoexpresstherelationshipas:achangeininternalangleof0.01degreesresults inanaveragechangeinairvoidsof0.05percent.However,theexactrelationshipbetweeninternal angleandairvoidsmaybemixturespecific.

SummaryandRecommendations
Inmanystates,hotmixasphalt(HMA)specimenscompactedusingdifferentSuperpaveGyratory Compactors(SGCs)exhibitdifferentdensities(orairvoids).Anumberoffactorsmightcontributeto suchdifferences.Arecommendedapproachtoidentifyingandminimizingcause(s)ofairvoid differencesamongcompactorsissummarizedasfollows: 1. EnsurethateachSGCisproperlymaintainedingoodworkingorder.Ataminimum,all maintenanceactivitiesrecommendedbytheSGCmanufacturershouldbeperformedatthe specifiedtimeinterval.Inadditiontoroutinescheduledmaintenanceitems,eachSGCshouldbe thoroughlyinspectedformechanicalwearbyaqualifiedservicetechnicianatleastonceperyear (ormoreofteniftheunitexperiencesheavyusage). 2. EnsurethateachSGCisclean.Buildupofbinderandmixontheworkingsurfacesandinternal mechanismsofacompactormayleadtovariationsinthecompactioneffortsuppliedbytheunitto thehotmixspecimen. 3. PeriodicallyinspecteachcompactionmoldforeachSGCunitforphysicaldefects,pits,etc. Measuretheinternaldiameterofeachmoldintheregionwheremixiscompacted(approximately 2to6inchesfromthebottom).Considerremovinganymoldsusedforpreparingspecimensfor acceptancetestingthatshowaninternaldiametergreaterthan150.0mm.EnsurethatSGCmolds arecleaned.Buildupofbinderand/orhotmixasphaltinsideacompactionmoldmayleadto variationsinthedensityofHMAspecimens. 4. IfabiasbetweentwoSGCunitsissuspected(andallrecommendationsinitems1through3 abovehavebeencompleted),performacomparisonstudyasdescribedinthisdocument. 5. Whenallrecommendationsinitems1through4(above)havebeencompletedandademonstrated biasexistsbetweentwoormoreSGCunits,differencesinairvoidsamongHMAspecimensmaybe reducedbycalibratingeachSGCusingtheinternalangleofgyration.CurrentAASHTOandASTM testmethodsrequirethecalibrationbeperformedusingsimulatedloadtechniques.


33

References
1. Buchanan,S.,SuperpaveGyratoryCompactorAngleVerification,presentationtotheMixDesign TaskGroupoftheSoutheastAsphaltUser/ProducerGroup,Jackson,MS,November,2001, 2. AASHTOMaterialsReferenceLaboratory,preliminarydataprovidedfromNCHRP926,February 2002. 3. Harman,T.,AnUpdateontheAngleValidationKit,presentationgiventotheTRBSuperpaveMix andAggregatesExpertTaskGroup,DenverCO,February2002. 4. West,R.,UsingtheDynamicAngleValidationKittoCalibrateSuperpaveGyratoryCompactors, presentationtotheTRBSuperpaveMixandAggregatesExpertTaskGroup,DenverCO,February 2002. 5. AlKhateeb,G.,C.Paugh,K.Stuart,T.Harman,andJ.DAngelo,TargetandToleranceStudyforthe AngleofGyrationUsedintheSuperpaveGyratoryCompactor(SGC),compendiumofpapers(CD ROM),AnnualMeetingoftheTransportationResearchBoard,Washington,D.C.,2002. 6. Perdomo,D.,R.McGennis,T.Kennedy,andV.Anderson,RuggednessEvaluationofAASHTOTP4, ExperimentalResults,preparedfortheFHWAOfficeofTechnologyApplications,March1996. 7. Harman,T.,andC.Paugh,DynamicInternalAngle(DIA)MeasurementintheTroxlerSuperpave GyratoryCompactorLinearityStudy,studyconductedbytheFHWATurnerFairbankHighway ResearchCenter,October2001. 8. Hall,K.D.,InternalAngleofGyrationfortheSuperpaveGyratoryCompactorVI:JudgmentDay, presentationtotheFHWAExpertTaskGrouponMixturesandAggregates,Washington,D.C., September2006. 9. Guler,M.;H.Bahia,P.J.Bosscher,andM.E.Plesha,DeviceforMeasuringShearResistanceofHot MixAsphaltinGyratoryCompactor,TransportationResearchRecord1723,TRB,NationalAcademy ofSciences,Washington,DC(2000)116124. 10. Dalton,F.,ComparisonofTwoInternalAngleMeasurementDevicesforSuperpaveGyratory Compactors,Report200301,RevisionA,PineInstrumentCompany,GroveCity,PA,May2003. 11. Cominsky,R.,R.Leahy,andE.Harrigan,LevelOneMixDesign:MaterialsSelection,Compaction,and Conditioning,StrategicHighwayResearchProgramReportSHRPA408,NationalAcademyof Sciences,Washington,D.C.,1994. 12. Hall,K.D.,andT.Easley,EstablishmentofthePrecisionoftheRapidAngleMeasurement(RAM) DeviceforSuperpaveGyratoryCompactors,TransportationResearchRecord1929,TRB,National AcademyofSciences,Washington,DC(2005)97103. 13. Brovold,T.,TechnicalDiscussionofTestQuipsHotMixSimulatorTheory,providedtotheauthorby T.Brovold,October,2003. 14. Hall,K.D.,andT.Easley,EstablishmentofthePrecisionoftheDynamicAngleValidation(DAV) DeviceforSuperpaveGyratoryCompactors,10thAnnualConferenceonAsphaltPavements, InternationalSocietyforAsphaltPavements,Quebec,Canada,2006. 15. Anderson,M.,K.D.Hall,andM.Huner,UsingMechanicalMixtureSimulationDevicesfor DeterminingandCalibratingtheInternalAngleofGyrationinaSuperpaveGyratoryCompactor, TransportationResearchRecord1970,TRB,TheNationalAcademies,Washington,D.C.(2006),99 105.
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16. Dukatz,E.,InterlaboratoryStudytoEstablishPrecisionStatementsforASTMD7115StandardTest MethodforMeasurementofSuperpaveGyratoryCompactor(SGC)InternalAngleofGyrationUsing SimulatedLoading,ResearchReportRR:D041028,AmericanSocietyforTestingandMaterials, WestConshohocken,PA,2008. 17. Hall,K.,RelationshipBetweenInternalAngleofGyrationandAirVoidsfortheSuperpaveGyratory Compactor,compendiumofpapers(CDROM),AnnualMeetingoftheTransportationResearch Board,Washington,D.C.,2009.

Acknowledgements
ThisTechBriefistheresultofanFHWAMixturesExpertTaskGroupactivitytoprovidethelatest informationontheuseoftheSuperpaveGyratoryCompactor.MembersincludedKevinHall (UniversityofArkansas),ErvDukatz(MathyConstructionCompany),ToddLynn(OldCastleCompany), RogerPyle(PineInstruments),TomBrovold(TestQuip),KenBrown(TroxlerLaboratories)andRandy West(NationalCenterforAsphaltTechnology).

FurtherInformation
ContactForinformationrelatedtoasphaltmixtures,pleasecontactthefollowing: FederalHighwayAdministrationAsphaltPavementTechnologyTeam JohnBukowskijohn.bukowski@dot.gov(OfficeofPavementTechnology) JackYoutcheffjack.youtcheff@dot.gov(OfficeofInfrastructureR&D) TomHarmantom.harman@dot.gov(Pavement&MaterialsTechnicalServiceTeam) ThisTechBriefwasdevelopedbytheOfficeofPavementTechnologyaspartoftheFederalHighway Administrations(FHWAs)AsphaltPavementTechnologyProgram. DistributionThisTechBriefisbeingdistributedaccordingtoastandarddistribution.Direct distributionisbeingmadetotheResourceCentersandDivisions. NoticeThisTechBriefisdisseminatedunderthesponsorshipoftheU.S.Departmentof Transportationintheinterestofinformationexchange.TheTechBriefdoesnotestablishpoliciesor regulations,nordoesitimplyFHWAendorsementoftheconclusionsorrecommendations.TheU.S. Governmentassumesnoliabilityforthecontentsortheiruse. FHWAprovideshighqualityinformationtoserveGovernment,industry,andthepublicinamanner thatpromotespublicunderstanding.Standardsandpoliciesareusedtoensureandmaximizethe quality,objectivity,utility,andintegrityofitsinformation.FHWAperiodicallyreviewsqualityissuesand adjustsitsprogramsandprocessestoensurecontinuousqualityimprovement.
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