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Qualitative research

Qualitative Research

Direct (Nondisguised)

Indirect (Disguised)

Focus Groups

Depth Interviews

Projective Techniques

unmarried professional women & elderly women – different lifestyles .Focus Groups • Consist of 8-12 people • Lesser than 8 unlikely to generate the momentum & group dynamics necessary for group discussion • Greater than 12 – not conducive for a meaningful interaction • Homogenous in terms of demographic & socioeconomic characteristics • A women’s group cannot contain married homemakers with young children.

Focus Groups • Participants shd hv adequate experience with the issue being discussed • Participants who hv already participated in numerous focus groups shd not be included • Ambience – relaxed informal • Light refreshments may be provided • 1.ideas.insights .5 hours • Time needed to establish rapport & the participants come out with feelings.5.2.

transcription & analysis • Video taping – benefit – capture facial expressions & body language • Video taping.Focus Groups • Clients may observe the discussion through a one way mirror • Discussion is audio/video taped for replay.disadv – cost very high • Skill of the moderator very high-trained professional .

Focus Groups • Moderator has to establish rapport & make the participants comfortable • Has to be able to elicit insights • Has to keep the discussion moving forward • Pg 136-138 • Pg 140-142 Cellular Handset .

Key Qualifications of the Moderator • Kindness & Firmness • Permissive & alert to the group’s distractions • Must encourage & stimulate personal inolvement • Must encourage participants to be more specific about generalised comments by feigning incomplete understanding .

Key Qualifications of the Moderator • Encourage unresponsive members to participate • Must be able to improvise & alter the planned outline • Sensitivity .

Advantages of Focus Groups • rapport increases. the group gets stimulated to express freely • Snowballing • Spontaneity • Security • Specialised personnel needed for analysis .

Depth Interviews • Unstructured method of obtaining qualitative data • Similar to Focus groups. attitudes & feelings . but happens one-toone • Probed by a highly skilled interviewer to uncover underlying motivations. beliefs.

Depth Interviews • There is a rough outline but the interviewer’s probing & wording of questions will depend on the replies of the interviewee • Probing for Intelligence –pg 149 .

Projective Techniques • Word Association Tests • Sentence Completion Tests • Thematic Apperception Tests .

Class Exercise • • • • • • • Nescafe Coffee Cadbury Chocolate Management Education Dove soap Ariel Ezee Close Up .

‘money’. ‘shopping’. ’parking’.Word association Tests • Respondents are presented with a list of words • Test words interspersed with filler words • For Department store. ‘quality’. • The responses are asked of the respondent • The responses noted down by the interviewer .’value’. ‘ambience’. ’location’. staff’. ‘billing’ . ‘price’.

Word Association Tests • The responses are analysed in terms of – number of times a particular word is used The amount of time elapsed in giving a response(more than 3 seconds)(hesitation) The number of respondents who do not respond at all to a test word within a reasonable amount of time. .unfavorable or neutral.(emotional block) • Responses categorised in terms of favorable.

Sentence Completion Tests • I shop at Mango/Zara because …………. • I buy Tata Salt because ……………. • I bought a Blackberry because …………. • I have an Aircel connection because………. ..

Sentence Completion Tests • May provide more information about customer than word association tests • More direct stimulus • The purpose of the study can’t be disguised .

inconvenience. delays caused due to bad weather • Socially desirable responses • “Do you think your neighbor is afraid to fly? “ • Heightened security measures .What will the Neighbors Say? • “ Are you afraid to fly? “ • Reasons given for not flying were cost.

creative .Thematic Apperception Tests • • • • • • Picture/Cartoon A series of pictures ordinary & unusual Needs to build a story What he will do when put in such a situation Ego defenses are low.unimaginative . subconscious feelings An individual maybe characterised as impulsive.

Advantages of Projective Techniques • May elicit responses that the subject may be unwilling to give • When issues are personal. sensitive or subject to strong social norms .