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CHAPTER 3

MEASURING YIELD

CHAPTER SUMMARY

In Chapter 2 we showed how to determine the price of a bond, and we described the relationship

between price and yield. In this chapter we discuss various yield measures and their meaning for

evaluating the relative attractiveness of a bond. We begin with an explanation of how to compute

the yield on any investment.

COMPUTING THE YIELD OR INTERNAL RATE OF RETURN

ON ANY INVESTMENT

The yield on any investment is the interest rate that will make the present value of the cash flows

from the investment equal to the price (or cost) of the investment.

Mathematically, the yield on any investment, y, is the interest rate that satisfies the equation.

1 2 3

1 2 3

(1 (1 (1 (1

N

N

CF CF CF CF

P = + + +. . .+

+ y + y + y + y ) ) ) )

where CF

t

= cash flow in year t, P = price of the investment, N = number of years. The yield

calculated from this relationship is also called the internal rate of return.

Solving for the yield (y) requires a trial-and-error (iterative) procedure. The objective is to find the

yield that will make the present value of the cash flows equal to the price. Keep in mind that the yield

computed is the yield for the period. That is, if the cash flows are semiannual, the yield is a

semiannual yield. If the cash flows are monthly, the yield is a monthly yield. To compute the simple

annual interest rate, the yield for the period is multiplied by the number of periods in the year.

Special Case: Investment with Only One Future Cash Flow

When the case where there is only one future cash flow, it is not necessary to go through the

time-consuming trial-and-error procedure to determine the yield. We can use the below equation.

1 =

/ 1

P

CF

y

n

n

.

Annualizing Yields

To obtain an effective annual yield associated with a periodic interest rate, the following formula

is used:

effective annual yield = (1 + periodic interest rate)

m

1

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where m is the frequency of payments per year. To illustrate, if interest is paid quarterly and the

periodic interest rate is 8% / 4 = 2%), then we have: the effective annual yield = (1.02)

4

1 =

1.0824 1 = 0.0824 or 8.24%.

We can also determine the periodic interest rate that will produce a given annual interest rate by

solving the effective annual yield equation for the periodic interest rate. Solving, we find that:

periodic interest rate = (1 + effective annual yield)

1/m

1. To illustrate, if the periodic quarterly

interest rate that would produce an effective annual yield of 12%, then we have: periodic interest

rate = (1.12)

1/4

1 = 1.0287 1 = 0.0287 or 2.87%.

CONVENTIONAL YIELD MEASURES

There are several bond yield measures commonly quoted by dealers and used by portfolio

managers. These are described below.

Current Yield

Current yield relates the annual coupon interest to the market price. The formula for the current

yield is: current yield = annual dollar coupon interest / price. The current yield calculation takes

into account only the coupon interest and no other source of return that will affect an investors

yield. The time value of money is also ignored.

Yield to Maturity

The yield to maturity is the interest rate that will make the present value of the cash flows equal

to the price (or initial investment). For a semiannual pay bond, the yield to maturity is found by

first computing the periodic interest rate, y, which satisfies the relationship:

1 2 3

+ + + ... + +

(1 ) (1 ) (1 ) (1 ) (1 )

n n

C C C C M

P

y y y y y

=

+ + + + +

where P = price of the bond, C = semiannual coupon interest (in dollars), M = maturity value (in

dollars), and n = number of periods (number of years 2).

For a semiannual pay bond, doubling the periodic interest rate or discount rate (y) gives the yield

to maturity, which understates the effective annual yield. The yield to maturity computed on the

basis of this market convention is called the bond-equivalent yield.

It is much easier to compute the yield to maturity for a zero-coupon bond because we can use:

1 =

/ 1

P

M

y

n

.

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The yield-to-maturity measure takes into account not only the current coupon income but also

any capital gain or loss that the investor will realize by holding the bond to maturity. In addition,

the yield to maturity considers the timing of the cash flows.

In practice, bond calculator software is available to calculate the bonds price and its yield to

maturity.

Yield To Call

The price at which the bond may be called is referred to as the call price. For some issues, the

call price is the same regardless of when the issue is called. For other callable issues, the call

price depends on when the issue is called. That is, there is a call schedule that specifies a call

price for each call date.

For callable issues, the practice has been to calculate a yield to call as well as a yield to maturity.

The yield to call assumes that the issuer will call the bond at some assumed call date and the call

price is then the call price specified in the call schedule. Typically, investors calculate a yield to

first call or yield to next call, a yield to first par call, and yield to refunding.

Mathematically, the yield to call can be expressed as follows:

P =

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

1 2 3

*

1 1 1 1 1

n* n*

C C C C M

+ + + . . .+ +

y y y y y + + + + +

where M* = call price (in dollars) and n* = number of periods until the assumed call date

(number of years times 2). For a semiannual pay bond, doubling the periodic interest rate (y)

gives the yield to call on a bond-equivalent basis.

Yield To Sinker

The yield calculated assuming the bond will be retired at a specific sinking fund payment date is

called the yield to sinker. The calculation is the same as the yield to maturity and the yield to

call: use the sinking fund date of interest and the sinking fund price.

Yield To Put

If an issue is putable, it means that the bondholder can force the issuer to buy the issue at

a specified price. As with a callable issue, a putable issue can have a put schedule. The schedule

specifies when the issue can be put and the price, called the put price.

When an issue is putable, a yield to put is calculated. The yield to put is the interest rate that

makes the present value of the cash flows to the assumed put date plus the put price on that date

as set forth in the put schedule equal to the bonds price. The formula is the same as for the yield

to call, but M* is now defined as the put price and n* is the number of periods until the assumed

put date. The procedure is the same as calculating yield to maturity and yield to call.

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Yield To Worst

A practice in the industry is for an investor to calculate the yield to maturity, the yield to every

possible call date, and the yield to every possible put date. The minimum of all of these yields is

called the yield to worst.

Cash Flow Yield

Some fixed income securities involve cash flows that include interest plus principal repayment.

Such securities are called amortizing securities. For amortizing securities, the cash flow each

period consists of three components: (i) coupon interest, (ii) scheduled principal repayment, and

(iii) prepayments. For amortizing securities, market participants calculate a cash flow yield. It is

the interest rate that will make the present value of the projected cash flows equal to the market

price.

Yield (Internal Rate of Return) for a Portfolio

The yield for a portfolio of bonds is not simply the average or weighted average of the yield to

maturity of the individual bond issues in the portfolio. It is computed by determining the cash

flows for the portfolio and determining the interest rate that will make the present value of the

cash flows equal to the market value of the portfolio.

Yield Spread Measures for Floating-Rate Securities

The coupon rate for a floating-rate security changes periodically based on the coupon reset

formula. This formula consists of the reference rate and the quoted margin. Since the future

value for the reference rate is unknown, it is not possible to determine the cash flows. This

means that a yield to maturity cannot be calculated. Instead, there are several conventional

measures used as margin or spread measures cited by market participants for floaters. These

include spread for life (or simple margin), adjusted simple margin, adjusted total margin, and

discount margin.

The most popular of these measures is discount margin. This measure estimates the average

margin over the reference rate that the investor can expect to earn over the life of the security.

POTENTIAL SOURCES OF A BONDS DOLLAR RETURN

An investor who purchases a bond can expect to receive a dollar return from one or more of

these sources: (i) the periodic coupon interest payments made by the issuer, (ii) any capital gain

(or capital lossnegative dollar return) when the bond matures, is called, or is sold, and

(iii) interest income generated from reinvestment of the periodic cash flows.

Any measure of a bonds potential yield should take into consideration each of these three

potential sources of return. The current yield considers only the coupon interest payments.

No consideration is given to any capital gain (or loss) or interest on interest. The yield to

maturity takes into account coupon interest and any capital gain (or loss). It also considers the

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interest-on-interest component. Implicit in the yield-to-maturity computation is the assumption

that the coupon payments can be reinvested at the computed yield to maturity.

The yield to call also takes into account all three potential sources of return. In this case, the

assumption is that the coupon payments can be reinvested at the yield to call. Therefore, the

yield-to-call measure suffers from the same drawback as the yield to maturity in that it assumes

coupon interest payments are reinvested at the computed yield to call. Also, it presupposes that

the issuer will call the bond on some assumed call date.

The cash flow yield also takes into consideration all three sources as is the case with yield to

maturity, but it makes two additional assumptions. First, it assumes that the periodic principal

repayments are reinvested at the computed cash flow yield. Second, it assumes that the

prepayments projected to obtain the cash flows are actually realized.

Determining the Interest-On-Interest Dollar Return

The interest-on-interest component can represent a substantial portion of a bonds potential

return. The coupon interest plus interest on interest can be found by using the following

equation:

( )

1 1

n

r

C

r

(

+

(

where r denotes the semiannual reinvestment rate.

The total dollar amount of coupon interest is found by multiplying the semiannual coupon

interest by the number of periods: total coupon interest = nC

The interest-on-interest component is then the difference between the coupon interest plus

interest on interest and the total dollar coupon interest, as expressed by the formula

interest on interest =

( )

1 1

n

r

C nC

r

(

+

(

.

Yield To Maturity and Reinvestment Risk

The investor will realize the yield to maturity at the time of purchase only if the bond is held to

maturity and the coupon payments can be reinvested at the computed yield to maturity. The risk

that the investor faces is that future reinvestment rates will be less than the yield to maturity at

the time the bond is purchased. This risk is referred to as reinvestment risk.

There are two characteristics of a bond that determine the importance of the interest-on-interest

component and therefore the degree of reinvestment risk: maturity and coupon. For a given yield

to maturity and a given coupon rate, the longer the maturity, the more dependent the bonds total

dollar return is on the interest-on-interest component in order to realize the yield to maturity at

the time of purchase. In other words, the longer the maturity, the greater the reinvestment risk.

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For a given maturity and a given yield to maturity, higher coupon rates will make the bonds

total dollar return more dependent on the reinvestment of the coupon payments in order to

produce the yield to maturity anticipated at the time of purchase.

Cash Flow Yield and Reinvestment Risk

For amortizing securities, reinvestment risk is even greater than for nonamortizing securities.

The reason is that the investor must now reinvest the periodic principal repayments in addition to

the periodic coupon interest payments.

TOTAL RETURN

In the preceding section we explain that the yield to maturity is a promised yield. At the time of

purchase an investor is promised a yield, as measured by the yield to maturity, if both of the

following conditions are satisfied: (i) the bond is held to maturity and (ii) all coupon interest

payments are reinvested at the yield to maturity.

The total return is a measure of yield that incorporates an explicit assumption about the

reinvestment rate.

The yield-to-call measure is subject to the same problems as the yield to maturity. First, it

assumes that the bond will be held until the first call date. Second, it assumes that the coupon

interest payments will be reinvested at the yield to call.

Computing the Total Return for a Bond

The idea underlying total return is simple. The objective is first to compute the total future

dollars that will result from investing in a bond assuming a particular reinvestment rate. The total

return is then computed as the interest rate that will make the initial investment in the bond grow

to the computed total future dollars.

APPLICATIONS OF THE TOTAL RETURN (HORIZON ANALYSIS)

Using total return to assess performance over some investment horizon is called horizon

analysis. When a total return is calculated over an investment horizon, it is referred to as

a horizon return.

An often-cited objection to the total return measure is that it requires the portfolio manager to

formulate assumptions about reinvestment rates and future yields as well as to think in terms of

an investment horizon.

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CALCULATING YIELD CHANGES

The absolute yield change (or absolute rate change) is measured in basis points and is the

absolute value of the difference between the two yields as given by

absolute yield change =initial yield new yield 100.

The percentage change is computed as the natural logarithm of the ratio of the change in yield as

shown by

percentage change yield = 100 ln (new yield / initial yield).

KEY POINTS

- For any investment, the yield or internal rate of return is the interest rate that will make the

present value of the cash flows equal to the investments price (or cost). The same procedure

is used to calculate the yield on any bond.

- The conventional yield measures commonly used by bond market participants are the current

yield, yield to maturity, yield to call, yield to sinker, yield to put, yield to worst, and cash flow

yield.

- The three potential sources of dollar return from investing in a bond are coupon interest,

reinvestment income, and capital gain (or loss).

- Conventional yield measures do not deal satisfactorily with all of these sources. The current

yield measure fails to consider both reinvestment income and capital gain (or loss). The yield

to maturity considers all three sources but is deficient in assuming that all coupon interest can

be reinvested at the yield to maturity.

- The risk that the coupon payments will be reinvested at a rate less than the yield to maturity is

called reinvestment risk. The yield to call has the same shortcoming; it assumes that the

coupon interest can be reinvested at the yield to call. The cash flow yield makes the same

assumptions as the yield to maturity, plus it assumes that periodic principal payments can be

reinvested at the computed cash flow yield and that the prepayments are actually realized.

- Total return is a more meaningful measure for assessing the relative attractiveness of a bond

given the investors or the portfolio managers expectations and planned investment horizon.

- The change in yield between two periods can be calculated in terms of the absolute yield

change or the percentage yield change.

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ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS FOR CHAPTER 3

(Questions are in bold print followed by answers.)

1. A debt obligation offers the following payments:

Years from

Now

Cash Flow to Investor

1 $2,000

2 $2,000

3 $2,500

4 $4,000

Suppose that the price of this debt obligation is $7,704.What is the yield or internal rate of

return offered by this debt obligation?

The yield on any investment is the interest rate that will make the present value of the cash flows

from the investment equal to the price (or cost) of the investment.

Mathematically, the yield on any investment, y, is the interest rate that satisfies the equation:

P =

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

1 2 3

1 2 3

1 1 1 1

N

N

CF

CF CF CF

+ + + . . .+

+ y + y + y + y

where CF

t

= cash flow in year t, P = price of the investment, and N = number of years. The yield

calculated from this relationship is also called the internal rate of return. To solve for the yield (y)

without the use of an advanced financial tool, we can use a trial-and-error (iterative) procedure.

The objective is to find the interest rate that will make the present value of the cash flows equal to

the price. To compute the yield for our problem, different interest rates must be tried until the

present value of the cash flows is equal to $7,704 (the price of the financial instrument). Trying an

annual interest rate of 10% gives the following present value:

Years from Now

Promised Annual Payments

(Cash Flow to Investor)

Present Value

of Cash Flow at 10%

1 $2,000 $1,818.18

2 $2,000 $1,652.89

3 $2,500 $1,878.29

4 $4,000 $2,732.05

Present value = $8,081.41

Because the present value of $8,081.41 computed using a 10% interest rate exceeds the price of

$7,704, a higher interest rate must be used, to reduce the present value. Trying an annual interest

rate of 13% gives the following present value:

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Years from Now

Promised Annual Payments

(Cash Flow to Investor)

Present Value

of Cash Flow at 13%

1 $2,000 $1,769.91

2 $2,000 $1,566.29

3 $2,500 $1,732.63

4 $4,000 $2,453.27

Present value = $7,522.10

Because the present value of $7,522.10 computed using a 13% interest rate is below the price of

$7,704, a lower interest rate must be used, to reduce the present value. Trying an annual interest

rate of 12% gives the following present value:

Years from Now

Promised Annual Payments

(Cash Flow to Investor)

Present Value

of Cash Flow at 12%

1 $2,000 $1,785.71

2 $2,000 $1,594.39

3 $2,500 $1,779.45

4 $4,000 $2,542.07

Present value = $7,701.62

Using 12%, the present value of the cash flow is $7,701.62, which is almost equal to the price of

the financial instrument of $7,704. Therefore, the yield is close to 12%. The precise yield using

Excel or a financial calculator is 11.987%.

Although the formula for the yield is based on annual cash flows, it can be generalized to any

number of periodic payments in a year. The generalized formula for determining the yield is

=1

=

(1 + )

N

t

t

t

CF

P

y

where CF

t

= cash flow in period t, and n = number of periods.

Keep in mind that the yield computed is the yield for the period. That is, if the cash flows are

semiannual, the yield is a semiannual yield. If the cash flows are monthly, the yield is a monthly

yield. To compute the simple annual interest rate, the yield for the period is multiplied by the

number of periods in the year.

2. What is the effective annual yield if the semiannual periodic interest rate is 4.3%?

To obtain an effective annual yield associated with a periodic interest rate, the following formula

is used:

effective annual yield = (1 + periodic interest rate)

m

1

where m is the frequency of payments per year. In our problem, the periodic interest rate is

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a semiannual rate of 4.3% and the frequency of payments is twice per year. Inserting these

numbers, we have:

effective annual yield = (1.043)

2

1 = 1.087849 1 = 0.087849 or about 8.785%.

3. What is the yield to maturity of a bond?

The yield to maturity is the interest rate that will make the present value of the cash flows equal

to the price (or initial investment). For a semiannual pay bond, the yield to maturity is found by

first computing the periodic interest rate, y, which satisfies the relationship:

P =

( )

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

2 3

1

1 1 1 1

n n

C C C C M

+ + + . . .+ +

y

y y y y

+

+ + + +

where P = price of the bond, C = semiannual coupon interest (in dollars), M = maturity value

(in dollars), and n = number of periods (number of years times 2).

It is much easier to compute the yield to maturity for a zero-coupon bond because we can use:

1 =

/ 1

P

M

y

n

.

The yield-to-maturity calculation takes into account not only the current coupon income but also

any capital gain or loss that the investor will realize by holding the bond to maturity. In addition,

the yield to maturity considers the timing of the cash flows.

4. What is the yield to maturity calculated on a bond-equivalent basis?

For a semiannual pay bond, doubling the periodic interest rate or discount rate (y) gives the yield

to maturity, which understates the effective annual yield. The yield to maturity computed on the

basis of this market convention is called the bond-equivalent yield.

5. Answer the below questions.

(a) Show the cash flows for the following four bonds, each of which has a par value of

$1,000 and pays interest semiannually.

Bond Coupon Rate (%) Number of Years to Maturity Price

W 7 5 $884.20

X 8 7 $948.90

Y 9 4 $967.70

Z 0 10 $456.39

Bond W has cash flows of 0.07($1,000) / 2 = $35 for semiannual periods from periods 1 to 10.

At the end of period 10, Bond W pays back the par of $1,000 and its semiannual interest for

a total payment of $1,000 + $35 = $1,035.

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Bond X has cash flows of 0.08($1,000) / 2 = $40 for semiannual periods from periods 1 to 14. At

the end of period 14, Bond X pays back the par of $1,000 and its semiannual interest for a total

payment of $1,000 + $40 = $1,040.

Bond Y has cash flows of 0.09($1,000) / 2 = $45 for semiannual periods from periods 1 to 8. At

the end of period 8, Bond Y pays back the par of $1,000 and its semiannual interest for a total

payment of $1,000 + $45 = $1,045.

Bond Z has cash flows of 0($1,000) / 2 = $0 for semiannual periods from periods 1 to 20. At the

end of period 20, Bond Z pays back the $1,000 and its semiannual interest for a total payment of

$1,000 + $0 = $1,000.

Below we show these cash flows in table format.

Period

Cash Flow

for Bond W

Cash Flow

for Bond X

Cash Flow

for Bond Y

Cash Flow

for Bond Z

1 $35 $40 $45 $0

2 $35 $40 $45 $0

3 $35 $40 $45 $0

4 $35 $40 $45 $0

5 $35 $40 $45 $0

6 $35 $40 $45 $0

7 $35 $40 $45 $0

8 $35 $40 $1,045 $0

9 $35 $40 $0

10 $1,035 $40 $0

11 $40 $0

12 $40 $0

13 $40 $0

14 $1,040 $0

15 $0

16 $0

17 $0

18 $0

19 $0

20 $1,000

(b) Calculate the yield to maturity for the four bonds.

The yield to maturity is computed in the same way as the internal rate of return; the cash flows

are those that the investor would realize by holding the bond to maturity. For a semiannual pay

bond, the yield to maturity is found by first computing the periodic interest rate, y, which

satisfies the relationship

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P =

( )

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

2 3

1

1 1 1 1

n n

C C C C M

+ + + . . .+ +

y

y y y y

+

+ + + +

where P = price of the bond, C = semiannual coupon interest (in dollars), M = maturity value (in

dollars), and n = number of periods (number of years times 2).

For a semiannual pay bond, doubling the periodic interest rate or discount rate (y) gives the yield

to maturity. However, annualizing the yield by doubling the periodic interest rate understates the

effective annual yield. Despite this, the market convention is to compute the yield to maturity by

doubling the periodic interest rate, y that satisfies our equation. The yield to maturity computed

on the basis of this market convention is called the bond-equivalent yield.

The computation of the yield to maturity requires a trial-and-error procedure. To illustrate the

computation, we first look at bond W. The cash flows for this bond are ten coupon payments of

$35 every six months and the principal of $1,000 to be paid in ten six-month periods from now.

To get y using our equation given above, different interest rates must be tried until the present

value of the cash flows is equal to the price. In doing this, we get the following yield to

maturities for the four bonds.

For bond W, we get a periodic interest rate real close to 5%. This is seen below.

Years from

Now

Promised Annual Payments

(Cash Flow to Investor)

Present Value

of Cash Flow at 5%

1 $35 $33.33

2 $35 $31.75

3 $35 $30.23

4 $35 $28.79

5 $35 $27.42

6 $35 $26.12

7 $35 $24.87

8 $35 $23.68

9 $35 $22.56

10 $1,035 $635.40

Present value = $884.17

Using 5%, the present value of the cash flow is $884.17, which is almost equal to the price of the

financial instrument of $884.20. Therefore, the periodic interest rate is close to 5%. The precise

yield using Excel or a financial calculator is 4.99964%. Doubling the periodic interest rate of 5%

gives a yield to maturity of 10% (doubling 4.99964% gives 9.99928%).

For bond X, we get an interest rate real close to 4.50%. Using this rate, the value of the cash flow

is $951.59, which is almost equal to the price of the financial instrument of $948.90. Therefore,

the yield is close to 4.5%. The precise periodic interest rate using Excel or a financial calculator

is 4.5271%. Doubling the periodic interest rate of 4.5% gives a yield to maturity of 9% (doubling

4.5271% gives 9.0542%).

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For bond Y, we get an interest rate near 5%. Using this rate, the value of the cash flow is

$967.68, which is almost equal to the price of the financial instrument of $967.70. Therefore, the

yield is close to 5%. The precise periodic interest rate using Excel or a financial calculator is

5.11078%. Doubling the periodic interest rate of 5% gives a yield to maturity of 10% (doubling

5.11083% gives 10.2215%).

For bond Z, we get an interest rate close to 4%. Using this rate, the value of the cash flow is

$456.39, which is equal to the price of the financial instrument of $456.39. Therefore, the yield

is virtually 4%. The precise periodic interest rate using Excel or a financial calculator is

3.99965%. Doubling the periodic interest rate of 4% gives a yield to maturity of 8% (doubling

3.99965% gives 7.9993%).

6. A portfolio manager is considering buying two bonds. Bond A matures in three years

and has a coupon rate of 10% payable semiannually. Bond B, of the same credit quality,

matures in 10 years and has a coupon rate of 12% payable semiannually. Both bonds are

priced at par.

(a) Suppose that the portfolio manager plans to hold the bond that is purchased for three

years. Which would be the best bond for the portfolio manager to purchase?

The shorter term bond will pay a lower coupon rate but it will likely cost less for a given market

rate. Since the bonds are of equal risk in terms of credit quality (the maturity premium for the

longer term bond should be greater), the question when comparing the two bond investments is:

What investment will be expected to give the highest cash flow per dollar invested? In other

words, which investment will be expected to give the highest effective annual rate of return? In

general, holding the longer term bond should compensate the investor in the form of a maturity

premium and a higher expected return. However, as seen in the discussion below, the actual

realized return for either investment is not known with certainty.

To begin with, an investor who purchases a bond can expect to receive a dollar return from

(i) the periodic coupon interest payments made by the issuer; (ii) any capital gain (or capital

lossnegative dollar return) when the bond matures, is called, or is sold; and, (iii) interest

income generated from reinvestment of the periodic cash flows. The last component of the

potential dollar return is referred to as reinvestment income. For a standard bond (our situation)

that makes only coupon payments and no periodic principal payments prior to the maturity date,

the interim cash flows are simply the coupon payments. Consequently, for such bonds the

reinvestment income is simply interest earned from reinvesting the coupon interest payments.

For these bonds, the third component of the potential source of dollar return is referred to as the

interest-on-interest component.

If we are going to compute a potential yield to make a decision, we should be aware of the fact

that any measure of a bonds potential yield should take into consideration each of the three

components described above. The current yield considers only the coupon interest payments.

No consideration is given to any capital gain (or loss) or interest on interest. The yield to

maturity takes into account coupon interest and any capital gain (or loss). It also considers the

interest-on-interest component. Additionally, implicit in the yield-to-maturity computation is the

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assumption that the coupon payments can be reinvested at the computed yield to maturity. The

yield to maturity is a promised yield and will be realized only if the bond is held to maturity and

the coupon interest payments are reinvested at the yield to maturity. If the bond is not held to

maturity and the coupon payments are reinvested at the yield to maturity, then the actual yield

realized by an investor can be greater than or less than the yield to maturity.

Given the facts that (i) one bond, if bought, will not be held to maturity, and (ii) the coupon

interest payments will be reinvested at an unknown rate, we cannot determine which bond might

give the highest actual realized rate. Thus, we cannot compare them based upon this criterion.

However, if the portfolio manager is risk inverse in the sense that she or he doesnt want to buy a

longer term bond, which will likely have more variability in its return, then the manager might

prefer the shorter term bond (bond A) of three years. This bond also matures when the manager

wants to cash in the bond. Thus, the manager would not have to worry about any potential capital

loss in selling the longer term bond (bond B). The manager would know with certainty what the

cash flows are. If these cash flows are spent when received, the manager would know exactly

how much money could be spent at certain points in time.

Finally, a manger can try to project the total return performance of a bond on the basis of the

planned investment horizon and expectations concerning reinvestment rates and future market

yields. This permits the portfolio manager to evaluate which of several potential bonds

considered for acquisition will perform best over the planned investment horizon. As we just

argued, this cannot be done using the yield to maturity as a measure of relative value. Using total

return to assess performance over some investment horizon is called horizon analysis. When

a total return is calculated over an investment horizon, it is referred to as a horizon return. The

horizon analysis framework enables the portfolio manager to analyze the performance of a bond

under different interest-rate scenarios for reinvestment rates and future market yields. Only by

investigating multiple scenarios can the portfolio manager see how sensitive the bonds

performance will be to each scenario. This can help the manager choose between the two bond

choices.

(b) Suppose that the portfolio manager plans to hold the bond that is purchased for six

years instead of three years. In this case, which would be the best bond for the portfolio

manager to purchase?

Similar to our discussion in part (a), we do not know which investment would give the highest

actual realized return in six years when we consider reinvesting all cash flows. If the manager

buys a three year bond, then there would be the additional uncertainty of now knowing what

three-year bond rates would be in three years. The purchase of the ten-year bond would be held

longer than previously (six years to three years) and render coupon payments for a six period that

are known. If these cash flows are spent when received, the manager will know exactly how

much money could be spent at certain points in time. Not knowing which bond investment would

give the highest realized return, the portfolio manager would choose the bond that fits the firms

goals in terms of maturity.

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(c) Suppose that the portfolio manager is managing the assets of a life insurance company

that has issued a five-year guaranteed investment contract (GIC). The interest rate that the

life insurance company has agreed to pay is 9% on a semiannual basis. Which of the two

bonds should the portfolio manager purchase to ensure that the GIC payments will be

satisfied and that a profit will be generated by the life insurance company?

The portfolio manager needs to generate a semiannual cash flow of 9% semiannual basis for five

years. Bond A will only lock in a 10% cash flow per dollar invested for three years. However,

bond B will lock in a 12% cash flow per dollar invested for ten years. Thus, the portfolio

manager would choose bond B and hopefully be able buy as many of these bonds as are needed

to generate the cash flows required to meet the five-year guaranteed investment contract.

7. Consider the following bond:

Coupon rate = 11%

Maturity = 18 years

Par value = $1,000

First par call in 13 years

Only put date in five years and putable at par value

Suppose that the market price for this bond $1,169.

(a) Show that the yield to maturity for this bond is 9.077%.

First of all, we compute the internal return based upon the cash flows if the bond is held to

maturity. We get 4.5385%. For a semiannual pay bond, doubling the periodic interest rate (y)

gives the yield to maturity on a bond-equivalent basis. Thus, taking 4.5385% times two gives us

a yield to maturity equal to 9.077%.

We can also verify that the yield to maturity is 9.077% by using this rate to compute the value of

the bond to determine if it is $1,169. In doing this, we first compute the present value of the

coupon payments where C is the annuity coupon payment and N is the number of periods. We

have:

( )

1

1

1

N

y

C

y

(

(

+

(

(

=

( )

36

1

1

1 .045385

$55

0.045385

(

(

(

= $55[17.57569] = $966.663.

We next compute the present value of the maturity value where M is the par value of $1,000.

We get:

( )

1

1

N

M

y

(

(

+

=

( )

36

1

$1, 000

1.045385

(

(

= $1,000[0.2023273] = $202.327.

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Thus when a 9.077% / 2 = 4.5285% semiannual interest rate is used, the present value of the cash

flows is $966.663 + $202.327 = $1,168.99 or about $1,169. Thus, the yield to maturity for this

bond is 9.077%.

(b) Show that the yield to first par call is 8.793%.

First of all, we compute the internal return based upon the cash flows if the bond is held for 13

years. We get 4.39651%. For a semiannual pay bond, doubling the periodic interest rate (y) gives

the yield to call on a bond-equivalent basis. Taking 4.39651% times two gives us a yield to first

par call of 8.793%.

We can also verify the yield to call is 8.793% by using this rate to compute the value of the bond

to determine if it is $1,168.99. Doing this, we first compute the present value of the coupon

payments where N is now the number of periods until the bond is assumed to be called. We get:

( )

1

1

1

N

y

C

y

(

(

+

(

(

=

26

1

1

(1 .043965)

$55

0.043965

(

(

(

= $55[15.314173] = $842.280.

We next compute the present value of the maturity value under the assumption it will be called in

13 years where M is now M* (which is the call price in dollars), and n is now n* (which is the

number of periods until the assumed call date, e.g., number of years times 2). We get:

( )

*

1

*

1

N

M

y

(

(

+

(

=

( )

26

1

$1, 000

1.043965

(

(

= $1,000[0.3267123] = $326.712.

When a semiannual interest rate of 8.793% / 2 = 4.3965% is used, the present value of the cash

flows is $842.280 + $326.712 = $1,168.992 or about $1,169. Thus, the yield to call for this bond

is 8.793%.

(c) Show that the yield to put is 6.942%.

First of all, we compute the internal return based upon the cash flows if the bond is held for

5 years. We get 3.4710%. For a semiannual pay bond, doubling the periodic interest rate (y)

gives the yield to put on a bond-equivalent basis. Taking 3.4710% times two gives us a yield to

put of 6.9420%.

We can also verify the yield to put is 6.942% by using this rate to compute the value of the bond

to determine if it is $1,168.99. Doing this, we first compute the present value of the coupon

payments where N is now the number of periods until the bond is assumed to be sold. We get:

( )

1

1

1

N

y

C

y

(

(

+

(

(

=

10

1

1

(1 .03471)

$55

0. 03471

(

(

(

= $55[8.328775] = $458.083.

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We next compute the present value of the maturity value under the assumption the put will be

exercised five years where M is now M* (which is the put price in dollars), and n is now n*

(which is the number of periods until the put date, e.g., number of years times 2). We get:

( )

*

1

*

1

N

M

y

(

(

+

(

=

( )

10

1

$1, 000

1.03471

(

(

= $1,000[0.7109769] = $710.977.

When a 6.942% / 2 = 3.471 % semiannual interest rate is used, the present value of the cash

flows is $458.083 + $710.977 = $1,169.06 or about $1,169. Thus, the yield to put for this bond is

6.942%.

(d) Suppose that the call schedule for this bond is as follows:

Can be called in eight years at $1,055

Can be called in 13 years at $1,000

And suppose this bond can only be put in five years and assume that the yield to first par

call is 8.535%.What is the yield to worst for this bond?

A practice in the industry is for an investor to calculate the yield to maturity, the yield to every

possible call date, and the yield to every possible put date. The minimum of all of these yields is

called the yield to worst. If the bond is called in eight years at $1,055, then we can compute the

yield to maturity and get 8.535%. If the bond is called in thirteen years at $1,000, then we can

compute the yield to maturity and get 8.793%. If the bond is put in five years, the yield to

maturity is 6.942%. Since the latter is the lowest, the yield to worse for this bond is 6.942%.

8. Answer the below questions.

(a) What is meant by an amortizing security?

Amortized securities are fixed income securities whose cash flows include scheduled principal

repayments prior to maturity. That is, the cash flow in each period includes interest plus principal

repayment.

For amortizing securities, reinvestment risk is even greater than for nonamortizing securities.

The reason is that the investor must now reinvest the periodic principal repayments in addition to

the periodic coupon interest payments. Moreover, the cash flows are monthly, not semiannually

as with nonamortizing securities. In brief, the investor must not only reinvest periodic coupon

interest payments and principal, but must do it more often. This increases reinvestment risk.

(b) What are the three components of the cash flow for an amortizing security?

As stated in part (a), an amortizing security includes both interest plus principal repayment.

However, we must also note that the amount the borrower can repay in principal may exceed the

scheduled amount. This excess amount of principal repayment over the amount scheduled is

called a prepayment. Thus, for amortizing securities, the cash flow each period consists of three

components: (1) coupon interest, (2) scheduled principal repayment, and (3) prepayments.

(c) What is meant by a cash flow yield?

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For amortizing securities, market participants calculate a cash flow yield. It is the interest rate

that will make the present value of the projected cash flows equal to the market price. The

difficulty in computing a cash flow yield is projecting what the prepayment will be in each

period.

9. How is the internal rate of return of a portfolio calculated?

The yield for a portfolio of bonds is not simply the average or weighted average of the yield to

maturity of the individual bond issues in the portfolio. It is computed by determining the cash

flows for the portfolio and determining the interest rate that will make the present value of the

cash flows equal to the market value of the portfolio. Mathematically, the yield, y, on a portfolio

(like any investment) is the interest rate that satisfies the equation:

P =

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

2 3 1

1 2 3

1 1 1 1 + + + +

N

N

C C

C C

+ + + . . .+

y y y y

.

This expression can be rewritten in shorthand notation as

=1

=

(1 + )

N

t

t

t

CF

P

y

where CF

t

= cash flows from all investments in the portfolio for year t, P = price of the

investment (or present value of the portfolios cash flows), N = number of years, and y is the

yield or internal rate of return.

Absent an advance calculator or computer program, solving for the yield (y) requires a trial-and-error

(iterative) procedure. The objective is to find the interest rate that will make the present value of the

cash flows equal to the price. An example demonstrates how this is done. Suppose that all

investments in the portfolio selling for $903.10 promises to make the following annual payments:

Years from

Now

Promised Annual Payments

(Cash Flow to Investor)

1 $100

2 $100

3 $100

4 $1,000

To compute the portfolio internal rate of return, different interest rates must be tried until the

present value of the cash flows is equal to $903.10 (the price of the financial instrument). Trying

an annual interest rate of 10% gives the following present value:

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Years from

Now

Promised Annual Payments

(Cash Flow to Investor)

Present Value

of Cash Flow at 10%

1 $100 $90.91

2 $100 $82.64

3 $100 $75.13

4 $1,000 $683.01

Present value = $931.69

Because the present value computed using a 10% interest rate exceeds the price of $903.10,

a higher interest rate must be used, to reduce the present value. If a 12% interest rate is used, the

present value is $875.71, computed as follows:

Years from

Now

Promised Annual Payments

(Cash Flow to Investor)

Present Value

of Cash Flow at 12%

1 $100 $89.29

2 $100 $79.72

3 $100 $71.18

4 $1,000 $635.52

Present value = $875.71

Using 12%, the present value of the cash flow is less than the price of the financial instrument.

Therefore, a lower interest rate must be tried, to increase the present value. Using an 11%

interest rate:

Years from

Now

Promised Annual

Payments

(Cash Flow to Investor)

Present Value

of Cash Flow at 11%

1 $100 $90.09

2 $100 $81.16

3 $100 $73.12

4 $1,000 $658.73

Present value = $903.10

Using 11%, the present value of the cash flow is equal to the price of the portfolio. Therefore, the

yield is 11%.

Keep in mind that the yield computed is now the yield for the period. That is, if the cash flows

are semiannual, the yield is a semiannual yield. If the cash flows are monthly, the yield is

a monthly yield. To compute the simple annual interest rate, the yield for the period is multiplied

by the number of periods in the year.

10. What is the limitation of using the internal rate of return of a portfolio as a measure of

the portfolios yield?

The limitation lies in the assumption about how the periodic cash flows will be invested. For

example, implicit in the internal rate of return computation is the assumption that the portfolio

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51

cash flows can be reinvested at the computed internal rate of return. Additionally, when we

compute an internal rate of return, we annualized interest rates by multiplying by the number of

periods in a year (we call the resulting value the simple annual interest rate). For example,

multiplying by 2 annualizes a semiannual yield. Alternatively, an annual interest rate is

converted to a semiannual interest rate by dividing by 2. This simplified procedure for

computing the annual interest rate given a periodic (weekly, monthly, quarterly, semiannually,

and so on) interest rate is not accurate. To obtain an effective annual yield associated with

a periodic interest rate, the following formula is used:

effective annual yield = (1 + periodic interest rate)

m

1

where m is the frequency of payments per year. For example, suppose that the periodic interest

rate is 4% and the frequency of payments is twice per year. Inserting in the values we get:

effective annual yield = (1.04)

2

1 = 1.0816 1 = 0.0816 or 8.16%.

This is different from 8.00%, which we get by multiplying 4.00% times two.

11. Suppose that the coupon rate of a floating-rate security resets every six months at

a spread of 70 basis points over the reference rate. If the bond is trading at below par

value, explain whether the discount margin is greater than or less than 70 basis points.

If the bond is trading below par value, then the discount margin or assumed annual spread (basis

points) will be greater than 70 basis points. This is because the spread must increase to make the

present value of the cash flows less than the par value. This is illustrated in Exhibit 3-1 where the

bond is trading below par and the spread (basis points) had to increase in order for the present

value of the cash flows to fall to a level to equal the current trading value.

12. An investor is considering the purchase of a 20-year 7% coupon bond selling for $816

and a par value of $1,000. The yield to maturity for this bond is 9%.

Answer the below questions.

(a) What would be the total future dollars if this investor invested $816 for 20 years earning

9% compounded semiannually?

To determine the future value of any sum of money invested today, we use the below equation:

P

n

= P

0

(1 + r)

n

where n = number of periods, P

n

= future value n periods from now (in dollars),

P

0

= original principal (in dollars), and r = interest rate per period (in decimal form). Inserting in

our values, we have: P

n

= P

0

(1 + r)

n

= $816(1.045)

40

= $816(5.8163645) = $4,746.15.

(b) What are the total coupon payments over the life of this bond?

The total dollar amount of coupon interest is found by multiplying the semiannual coupon

interest by the number of periods: total coupon interest = nC. Thus, the total coupon payments

are: nC = 40($35) = $1,400.00.

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(c) What would be the total future dollars from the coupon payments and the repayment of

principal at the end of 20 years?

There are several ways to approach this problem. One method is to compute the present value of

the cash flows and then multiply this by the future value factor for a lump sum. Another method

(which involves less work) is to compute the future value of all the cash flows. For this method,

we would (i) compute the future value of the annuity cash flows which is the coupon interest

plus interest on interest, and (ii) add the par value which occurs at maturity which is M = $1,000.

The equation is:

P

n

= coupon interest plus interest on interest + M =

( )

1 1

n

r

C

r

(

+

(

+ M

where P

n

is the future value of all cash flows at time N, C is the amount of the semiannual

coupon annuity in dollars, r = annual interest rate / number of times interest paid per year (where

we assume interest in reinvested at r), n = number of times interest paid per year times the

number of years, and M = par value at the end of the period.

Using this formula and inserting our values, we have:

(d) For the bond to produce the same total future dollars as in part (a), how much must the

interest on interest be?

We can note that the future value of the interest payment just computed in part (c) is $3,746.06

and the coupon payments over the life of the bond computed in part (b) is $1,400. The different

is the interest on interest, which is $2,346.06.

Another way of computing the interest on interest is to note that it is the difference between the

coupon interest plus interest on interest and the total dollar coupon interest, as expressed by

the formula:

interest on interest =

( )

1 1

n

r

C

r

(

+

(

nC.

Inserting in our values gives:

045 . 0

1 ) 045 (1.

35 $

40

(

40($35) = $35[107.03032] $1,400

= $3,746.06 $1,400.00 = $2,346.06.

( )

1 1

n

n

r

P = C

r

(

+

(

+ M =

40

(1.045 1 )

$35

0.045

(

(

+ $1,000 = $35[107.03032] + $1,000

= $3,746.06 + $1,000 = $4,746.06.

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(e) Calculate the interest on interest from the bond assuming that the semiannual coupon

payments can be reinvested at 4.5% every six months and demonstrate that the resulting

amount is the same as in part (d).

Since the computation assumes interest on interest is invested at 4.5% we have the same

computation given in part (d) where the yield to maturity of 4.5% was used in computation. Once

again, we have:

interest on interest =

( )

1 1

n

r

C

r

(

+

(

nC

where r is still 4.5%. Inserting in our values gives:

( )

40

1.045 1

$35

0.045

(

(

(

40($35) =

$35[107.03032] $1,400 = $3,746.06 $1,400.00 = $2,346.06 which is the same amount as in

part (d).

13. What is the total return for a 20-year zero-coupon bond that is offering a yield to

maturity of 8% if the bond is held to maturity?

For zero-coupon bonds, none of the bonds total dollar return is dependent on the interest-on-interest

component, so a zero-coupon bond has zero reinvestment risk if held to maturity. The yield earned

on a zero-coupon bond held to maturity is equal to the promised yield to maturity. This is because

whenever one can reinvest the coupon payments at the yield to maturity, then the total return will be

the same as the yield to maturity. Thus, the total return is 8%.

14. Explain why the total return from holding a bond to maturity will be between the yield

to maturity and the reinvestment rate.

The yield to maturity is based upon the coupon payments and the current market value of the

bond. The yield to maturity is below (above) the coupon rate if the current market value is above

(below) the par value. If one could reinvest the coupon payments at the yield to maturity, then

the total return would be the same as the yield to maturity. If you reinvest the coupon payment

below the yield to maturity, you earn a total return below from the yield to maturity. To illustrate

assume the yield to maturity is 9% and you reinvest at 8%. Then your total return would have to

lie between 9% and 8%. Similarly, if you are able to invest above the yield to maturity of 9%,

say 10%, your total return will have to lie between 9% and 10%. In either case, it is true to say

that your total return from holding a bond to maturity will be between the yield to maturity and

the reinvestment rate.

15. For a long-term high-yield coupon bond, do you think that the total return from

holding a bond to maturity will be closer to the yield to maturity or the reinvestment rate?

For a longer term bond the future value of the coupon payments will be greater than the future

value of the par value (which is simply the par value). For example, consider a 20-year bond

paying 14% and selling at par. The future value of the $70 semiannual interest payments for 40

periods will be about $13,974 and the future value of the par value is $1,000. If the reinvestment

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rate falls to 10%, the future value of the $70 semiannual interest payments for 40 periods will fall

to about $8,456 while the future value of the par value remains unchanged at $1,000. Thus, the

total future dollars will be $8,456 + $1,000 = $9,456. The total return will be about:

1/

total future dollars

1

purchase price of bonds

h

(

(

=

1/40

$9, 456

1

$1, 000

(

(

= [9.456]

0.025

1 = 1.05777 1 = 0.05777.

Taking this semiannual rate time two and converting to percentage renders a total return of about

0.1155 or about 11.55%. This is closer to the reinvestment rate of 10% than the yield to maturity

of 14%.

If the reinvestment rate increases to 18%, the future value of the interest payments will rise to

about $23,652 giving the total future dollars of $23,652 + $1,000 = $24,652. The total return will

be about:

1/

total future dollars

1

purchase price of bonds

h

(

(

= 1

000 , 1 $

652 , 24 $

40 / 1

= [24.652]

0.025

1 = 1.0834 1 = 0.0834.

Taking this semiannual rate time two and converting to percentage renders a total return of

0.1668 or 16.68%. This is closer to the reinvestment rate of 18% than the yield to maturity

of 14%.

We conclude that for a long-term high-yield coupon bond, that the total return from holding

a bond to maturity will be closer to the reinvestment rate than the yield to maturity.

16. Suppose that an investor with a five-year investment horizon is considering purchasing

a seven-year 9% coupon bond selling at par. The investor expects that he can reinvest the

coupon payments at an annual interest rate of 9.4% and that at the end of the investment

horizon two-year bonds will be selling to offer a yield to maturity of 11.2%. What is the

total return for this bond?

The investor has a five-year investment horizon to purchase a seven-year 9% coupon bond for

$1,000. The yield to maturity for this bond is 9% since it is selling at par. The investor expects to

be able to reinvest the coupon interest payments at an annual interest rate of 9.4% and that at the

end of the planned investment horizon the then-two-year bond will be selling to offer a yield to

maturity of 11.2%. The total return for this bond is found as follows:

Step 1: Compute the total coupon payments plus the interest on interest, assuming an annual

reinvestment rate of 9.4%, or 4.7% every six months. The coupon payments are $45 every six

months for five years or ten periods (the planned investment horizon). Computing the total

coupon interest plus interest on interest, we get:

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coupon interest plus interest on interest =

(1 + 1 )

n

r

C

r

(

(

=

047 . 0

1 ) 047 . (1

45 $

10

(

= $45[12.40162]

= $558.14.

Step 2: Determining the projected sale price at the end of five years, assuming that the required

yield to maturity for two-year bonds is 11.2%, is accomplished by calculating the present value

of four coupon payments of $45 plus the present value of the maturity value of $1,000,

discounted at 5.6%. As seen below, the projected sale price is $961.53.

projected sale price = present value of coupon payments + present value of par value

=

( )

1

1

1

n

r

C

r

(

(

+

(

+

1

n

M

( + r )

(

(

=

4

1

1

(1.056)

$45

0.056

(

(

(

+

4

$1, 000

(1.056)

(

(

= $45[3.4970813] + $1,000[0.8041634] = $157.37 + $804.16 = $961.53.

Step 3: Adding the amounts in steps 1 and 2 gives total future dollars of $558.14 + $961.53 =

$1,519.67.

Step 4: To obtain the semiannual total return, compute the following:

1/

total future dollars

1

purchase price of bonds

(

(

h

=

1/10

$1, 519.67

1

$1, 000

(

(

= [1.63840]

0.1

1

= 1.042738 1 = 0.042738 or 4.2738%.

Step 5: Double 4.2738%, for a total return of about 8.55%.

17. Two portfolio managers are discussing the investment characteristics of amortizing

securities. Manager A believes that the advantage of these securities relative to

nonamortizing securities is that because the periodic cash flows include principal

repayments as well as coupon payments, the manager can generate greater reinvestment

income. In addition, the payments are typically monthly so even greater reinvestment

income can be generated. Manager B believes that the need to re-invest monthly and the

need to invest larger amounts than just coupon interest payments make amortizing

securities less attractive. Whom do you agree with and why?

For amortizing securities, reinvestment risk is even greater than for nonamortizing securities.

The reason is that the investor must now reinvest the periodic principal repayments in addition to

the periodic coupon interest payments. Moreover, the cash flows are monthly, not semiannually

as with nonamortizing securities. Consequently, the investor must not only reinvest periodic

coupon interest payments and principal, but must do it more often. This increases reinvestment

2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

56

risk. Thus, one would tend to agree with manager B. However, manager A may feel that interest

rates will increase so as to make reinvestment income greater. However, if the borrower prepays

early (by accelerating the periodic principal repayment) then manager A would never realize the

opportunity to reinvest at a greater rate. Also, if rates fall then manager A would be stuck with

investing greater cash flows with amortizing securities relative to nonamortizing securities.

In regard to accelerating the periodic principal repayment, nonamortizing securities typically

allow for a greater acceleration of the periodic principal repayment for the borrower who will

tend to prepay when interest rates decline. Consequently, if a borrower prepays when interest

rates decline, the investor faces greater reinvestment risk because he or she must reinvest the

prepaid principal at a lower interest rate. If this is case, then manager As choice of amortizing

securities may do a better job of avoiding reinvestment risk.

18. Assuming the following yields:

Week 1: 3.84%

Week 2: 3.51%

Week 3: 3.95%

Answer the below questions.

(a) Compute the absolute yield change and percentage yield change from week 1 to week 2.

The absolute yield change (or absolute rate change) is measured in basis points and is the

absolute value of the difference between the two yields as given by

absolute yield change =initial yield new yield 100.

Inserting in our yields where Week 1s yield is the initial yield and Week 2s yield is the new

yield, we get:

absolute yield change =3.84% 3.51% 100 = 33 basis points.

The percentage change is computed as the natural logarithm of the ratio of the change in yield as

shown by

percentage change yield = 100 ln (new yield / initial yield).

Inserting in our yields where Week 1s yield is the initial yield and Week 2s yield is the new

yield, we get:

percentage change yield = 100 ln (3.51% / 3.84%) = 8.99%.

2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

57

(b) Compute the absolute yield change and percentage yield change from week 2 to week 3.

The absolute yield change (or absolute rate change) is measured in basis points and is the

absolute value of the difference between the two yields as given by

absolute yield change =initial yield new yield 100.

Inserting in our yields where Week 2s yield is the initial yield and Week 3s yield is the new

yield, we get:

absolute yield change =3.51% 3.95% 100 = 44 basis points.

We see that there has been a greater change in basis point compared to (a).

The percentage change is computed as the natural logarithm of the ratio of the change in yield as

shown by

percentage change yield = 100 ln (new yield / initial yield).

Inserting in our yields where Week 2s yield is the initial yield and Week 3s yield is the new

yield, we get:

percentage change yield = 100 ln (3.95% / 3.51%) = 11.81%.

We see that unlike part (a), the percentage change yield has now increased. Keep in mind that

these are weekly percentage changes and if annualized they would be extraordinarily large.

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