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National Environmental Engineering Research Institute

(Council of Scientific and Industrial Research)


Nehru Marg, Nagpur 440 020
(QCI / NABET Accreditation : Sr.No. 102 as per the list published on May 05, 2013)
Integrated Environmental Impact Assessment of
Proposed Open Cast Mining at Ghogha-Surka,
Khadsaliya-II and Khadsaliya-I Lignite Mines,
Bhavnagar District, Gujarat
p
Sponsor
Gujarat Power Corporation Limited, Gujarat
GHOGHA SURKA
K
H
A
D
S
A
L
I
Y
A

I
I
KHADSALIYA I
Bhumbli
Ghogha
Hatab
Khadsaliya II
Koliyak
Padava
Rajpara
Surkha
Thordi
Ramdasia Nadi
Padva
Pond
Bhawanipura
Pithalpur
Kareda
Chnaya
Malpar
Badi
Nagdhaniba
Valespur
Bhainswari
Lakhanka
Gundi
Nava Ratanpur
Juna Ratanpur
Rampur
B H A V N A G A R
D I S T R I C T
May, 2013
National Environmental Engineering Research Institute
(Council of Scientific and Industrial Research)
Nehru Marg, Nagpur 440 020
QCI / NABET Accreditation : Sr.No. 102 as per the list published on May 05, 2013)
May, 2013
Integrated Environmental Impact Assessment of
Proposed Open Cast Mining at Ghogha-Surka,
Khadsaliya-II and Khadsaliya-I Lignite Mines,
Bhavnagar District, Gujarat
Sponsor
Gujarat Power Corporation Limited, Gujarat
i
CONTENTS

Item Page No.
Contents i to vii
List of Figures viii to x
List of Tables xi to xii
List of Appendices xiii
List of Annexures xiii
Executive Summary ES1 ES24


Chapter 1: Introduction 1.1 to 1.20
1.1 Preamble 1.1
1.2 Mining of Minerals in India 1.2
1.3 Brief Proposed Project 1.3
1.4 Project Proponent 1.4
1.5 Project Benefits 1.5
1.6 Prior Environmental Clearance Process 1.5
1.7 Approved Terms of Reference (ToR) for EIA Study 1.6

1.7.1
Proposed Draft ToR for Environmental Impact
Assessment (EIA)
1.6
1.7.2 MoEF Approved ToR for EIA Study 1.9
Chapter 2: Project Description 2.1 to 2.54
2.1 Need of Proposed Lignite Mines Development 2.1
2.2 Proposed Mining Project 2.1
2.3 Proposed Mine Site Leasehold Area 2.2
2.3.1 Topography and Drainage Pattern 2.3
2.4 Geology 2.4
2.4.1 Regional Geology 2.4
2.4.2 Local Geology 2.5
2.5 Lignite Reserves at Proposed Mine Sites 2.6
2.5.1 Quality of Lignite 2.6
2.6 Type of Mining 2.7
2.6.1 Opencast Mining Technology Alternatives 2.8
2.7 Planned Mining Progress (first five years) 2.11
ii
Item Page No.
2.7.1 Estimated Life of Proposed Mines 2.14
2.7.2 Backfilling & Reclamation 2.15
2.8 Machineries 2.16
2.8.1 Overburden 2.16
2.8.2 Lignite 2.17
2.8.3 Mineral Benefication 2.19
2.9 Infrastructure 2.19
2.9.1 Roads and Culverts 2.19
2.9.2 Buildings 2.19
2.9.3 Water Supply 2.20
2.9.4 Power Supply 2.20
2.9.5 Telecommunication system 2.21
2.10 Manpower 2.21
2.11 Mine Closure Plan 2.21
2.11.1 Reasons for Closure 2.21
2.11.2 Statutory Obligation 2.21
2.11.3 Ghogha-Surka 2.21
2.11.4 Khadsaliya-II 2.22
2.11.5 Khadsaliya-I 2.22
Chapter 3: Description of Environment 3.1 to 3.101
3.1 Description of Project Site and Study Area 3.2
3.2 Land Environment 3.6
3.2.1 Soil Characteristics - Baseline status 3.6
3.2.2 Physical Properties of Soil 3.7
3.2.3 Chemical Properties of Soil 3.7
3.2.4 Agriculture 3.8
3.2.5 Land Use Pattern 3.8
3.2.6 Land Use / Land cover by Satellite Image Analysis 3.9
3.2.6.1 Methodology 3.9
3.2.6.2 Accuracy Assessment 3.10
3.2.6.3 Ground Truth 3.10
3.2.6.4 Land Use / Land Cover Classification Results 3.11
iii
Item Page No.
3.3 Water Environment 3.31
3.3.1 Water Requirement and Resource 3.31
3.3.2 Baseline Status 3.32
3.3.2.1 Surface Water Quality 3.32
3.3.2.2 Groundwater Quality 3.33
3.3.2.3 Bacteriological Characteristics 3.34
3.3.2.4 Biological Characteristics 3.34
3.4 Air Environment 3.53
3.4.1 Micrometeorology 3.53
3.4.2 Ambient Air Quality Monitoring 3.54
3.4.3 Baseline Status 3.54
3.5 Noise Environment 3.60
3.5.1 Community Noise Levels 3.60
3.5.2 Baseline status 3.61
3.5 Biological Environment 3.65
3.6.1 Reconnaissance 3.65
3.6.2 Survey Methodology 3.66
3.6.3 Flora of the Study Area 3.66
3.6.4 Plant Structure and Composition in Coastal Areas 3.67
3.6.4.1 Mangroves 3.68
3.6.5 Agriculture of the Study Area 3.68
3.6.6 Fauna of the Study Area 3.68
3.6.7 Fisheries 3.69
3.7 Socio-economic Environment 3.82
3.7.1 Reconnaissance Survey 3.82
3.7.2 Survey Methodology 3.83
3.7.3 Baseline Status 3.83
3.7.3.1 Demographic Structure 3.84
3.7.3.2 Infrastructure Resource Base 3.84
3.7.3.3 Economic Activity 3.85
3.7.3.4 Health Status 3.86
3.7.4 Socio-Economic Survey 3.86
iv
Item Page No.
3.7.5 Quality of Life 3.87
Chapter 4: Impact Assessment 4.1 to 4.70
4.1 Identification of Significant Impacts 4.1
4.2 Site Specific Impacts 4.4
4.2.1 Diversion of Seasonal Rivers/Drain 4.4
4.2.2 Irrigation Canal Diversion 4.4
4.2.3 Diversion of Roads 4.5
4.2.4 Special Studies as per Prescribed ToR 4.5
4.3 Adverse Impact Mitigation Measures 4.7
4.3.1 Dust Suppression 4.8
4.3.2 Mine Pit Water for Reuse 4.8
4.3.3 Top Soil Management 4.9
4.3.4 Infrastructure 4.9
4.3.5 Disposal of Mining Machinery 4.9
4.3.6 Safety and Security 4.9
4.4 Mine Operation Phase - Prediction of Impacts 4.10
4.4.1 Land Environment 4.10
4.4.1.1 Waste Disposal 4.11
4.4.2 Water Environment 4.12
4.4.2.1 Mine Wastewater 4.13
4.4.2.2 Mine Pit Water 4.13
4.4.2.3 Acidic Mine Drainage 4.14
4.4.2.4 Mine Water Treatment 4.14
4.4.2.5 Workshop Effluents 4.17
4.4.2.6 Estimated Water Balance 4.17
4.2.2.7 Domestic Wastewater treatment 4.17
4.2.2.8 Hydro-geological Study 4.20
4.2.2.9 Impact of Mining on Groundwater Regime 4.30
4.2.2.10 Rainwater Harvesting Systems 4.32
4.2.2.11 Rainwater Harvesting Scheme 4.33
4.4.3 Air Environment 4.36
4.4.3.1 Mine Area Emissions 4.36
v
Item Page No.
4.4.3.2 Micro-Meteorology 4.38
4.4.3.3 Air Quality Predictions 4.39
4.4.4 Noise Environment 4.47
4.4.4.1 Prediction of impacts due to lignite mining
activity
4.47
4.4.4.2 Noise Due to vehicular Traffic 4.48
4.4.5 Biological Environment 4.54
4.4.6 Socioeconomic Environment 4.55
4.4.6.1 Rehabilitation & Resettlement Plan (RRAP)
4.55
4.4.6.2 Compensation for Acquisition of Land and
Other Assets
4.59
4.4.6.3 Other Benefits to Land losers
4.60
4.4.6.4 Income Restoration with Employment and
Livelihood Opportunities
4.61
4.4.6.5 Implementation
4.64
4.4.6.6 Grievance Redressal
4.66
4.4.6.7 Monitoring
4.66
4.4.6.8 Prediction of Socio-economic Impacts
4.68
Chapter 5: Environmental Management Plan 5.1 to 5.23
5.1 Land Procurement and Pre-Mining Activities 5.1
5.2 Lignite Mines Operation Phase 5.2
5.2.1 Land Environment 5.2
5.2.1.1 Land Reclamation General Procedure 5.3
5.2.2 Water Environment 5.4
5.2.2.1 Mine Pit / Acid Mine Water 5.4
5.2.2.2 Acid Mine Drainage 5.4
5.2.2.3 Work Shop Effluents 5.5
5.2.3 Air Environment 5.5
5.2.3.1 Control of fugitive dust and CO levels 5.6
5.2.3.2 Mining Equipment 5.6
5.2.3.3 Haul Roads 5.7
vi
Item Page No.
5.2.3.4 Dumping Area 5.7
5.2.4 Noise Mitigation 5.7
5.2.5 Biological Environment 5.8
5.2.5.1 Biological Reclamation 5.8
5.2.5.2 Green belt Development 5.9
5.2.5.3 Guidelines for Plantations 5.11
5.2.6 Socioeconomic Environment 5.12
5.3 Post Project Environmental Monitoring 5.12
5.3.1 Land Environment 5.12
5.3.2 Water Environment 5.13
5.3.3 Air Environment 5.13
5.3.4 Noise Environment 5.14
5.4 Occupational Safety and Health 5.14
5.5 Environment Management Cell 5.15
5.6 Budgetary Provision for EMP 5.16
Chapter 6 : Additional Studies 6.1 to 6.34
6.1 Rapid Risk Assessment & Disaster Management Plan 6.1
6.1.1 Identification of Hazards 6.2
6.1.1.1 Slope Failure
6.1.1.2 Overburden
6.1.1.3 Effect of Haulage Truck Operation on Dump
Point Stability
6.3
6.1.1.4 Measures to Prevent the Danger of
Overburden
6.4
6.1.1.5 Measures to Prevent Accidents due to
Trucks/Dumpers
6.5
6.1.1.6 Dozer Procedure on Dump 6.6
6.1.1.7 Temporary Discontinuance 6.6
6.1.1.8 Economic Repercussions of Closure of Mine
and Manpower Retrenchments
6.7
6.1.1.9 Time schedule of Abandonment 6.7
6.1.1.10 Approach to Disaster Management Plan 6.7
6.2 Tsunami Potential Risk Assessment studies 6.13
6.2.1 Background 6.13
vii
Item Page No.
6.2.2
Past Tsunamis in the Arabian Sea and future possibilities
6.13

6.2.2.1 Tsunamigenic Earthquake Source Zones in
the Arabian Sea
6.15
6.2.3 Seismological / Geomorphological / Geologicalstudies of
the proposed area
6.20

6.2.3.1 Regional Seismicity
6.20

6.2.3.2 Tectonic Settings
6.21
6.2.4
Numerical Modeling on Tsunami
6.22

6.2.4.1 Data and Methodology
6.22

6.2.4.2 Tsunami generation model
6.24

6.2.4.3 Tsunami propagation
6.25

6.2.4.4 Inundation mapping
6.26
6.2.5
Discussion and Conclusions
6.26



viii
List of Figures

Fig. No Particulars Page No.
1.1 Identified Lignite Deposits in Gujarat State 1.10
1.2 Project Location Key Map 1.11
1.3 Prior Environmental Clearance Process for Category A Projects 1.12
1.4 Proposed Mines Study Area Map showing core zone and buffer
zone
1.13
2.1 Topography and Drainage Pattern at Proposed Mine Sites 2.23
2.2 Drainage Map of the Study area 2.24
2.3 Ghogha-Surka Mine and Vicinity Contour Map 2.25
2.4 Khadsaliya-II Mine and Vicinity Contour Map 2.26
2.5 Khadsaliya-I Mine and Vicinity Contour Map 2.27
2.6 Geological Sections across the Lignite blocks- West to East 2.28
2.7 Geological Sections across the Lignite blocks- North to South 2.29
2.8 Surface Plan of Ghogha-Surka Mine 2.30
2.9 Surface Plan of Khadsaliya-II Mine 2.31
2.10 Surface Plan of Khadsaliya-I Mine 2.32
2.11 Ghogha-Surka Mine Planned Pit Position at end of 5
th
Year 2.33
2.12 Khadsaliya-II Mine Planned Pit Position at end of 5
th
Year 2.34
2.13 Khadsaliya-I Mine Planned Pit Position at end of 5
th
Year 2.35
2.14 Conceptual Mining Plan Ghogha Surka 2.36
2.15 Conceptual Mining Plan Khadsaliya-II 2.37
2.16 Conceptual Mining Plan Khadsaliya-I 2.38
2.17 Proposed Lignite Stock Yard for Three Mines 2.39
2.18 Progressive Mine Closure Plan Ghogha Surka 2.40
2.19 Progressive Mine Closure Plan Khadsaliya-II 2.41
2.20 Progressive Mine Closure Plan Khadsaliya-I 2.42
3.1.1 Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of the Study Area 3.4
3.2.1 Soil Sampling Locations 3.13
3.2.2 False Colour Composite Covering 5 km Distance Around
Core Zone
3.14
3.2.3 False Colour Composite Covering 10 km Distance Around Core
Zone
3.15
3.2.4 Landuse/Landcover within 5 km radius around Proposed Lignite
Mines after ground truth
3.16
ix
Fig. No Particulars Page No.
3.2.5 Landuse / Landcover within 10 km radius around Proposed Lignite
Mines after ground truth
3.17
3.3.1 Water Quality sampling Locations 3.36
3.4.1 Air Quality Sampling Locations in Study Area 3.56
3.4.2 Windrose at Project Site during Study Period 3.57
3.5.1 Noise Sampling Locations in Study Area 3.62
3.6.1 Biological Survey Sampling Locations in Study Area 3.70
3.7.1 Socio-economic Survey Locations in Study Area 3.90
4.1.1 Comprehensive Impact Network for Proposed Lignite Mines 4.3
4.2.1 Roads, Drains and Irrigation Canal in Core Zone 4.6
4.4.1 Schematic Diagram for Treatment of Mine Water 4.16
4.4.2 Schematic Diagram for Treatment of Workshop Effluent 4.19
4.4.3
Model Domain
4.25
4.4.4 Discretisation of model domain (A) Plan, and sections across (B)
Ghogha-Surkha Block, (B) Khadsaliya-I Block (B) Khadsaliya-II Block
4.27
4.4.5 Water table contours after (A) 0 yr, (B) 1yr, (C) 3 yrs, and (D) 5yrs 4.31
4.4.6 Water level along EW and NS cross sections 4.32
4.4.7 Methodology Adopted for Air Pollution Modelling 4.41
4.4.8 Various Activities of Opencast Mines 4.42
4.4.9 Wind rose during study period 4.43
4.4.10
Isopleths of SPM Concentrations Over Study Region due to Line
Sources
4.44
4.4.11 Predicted Noise Contours within the Mining Site Ghogha-Surka 4.50
4.4.12 Predicted Noise Contours within the Mining Site Khadsaliya-I 4.51
4.4.13 Predicted Noise Contours within the Mining Site Khadsaliya-II 4.52
5.1
Environmental Management Plan of Ghogha-Surka
5.17
5.2
Environmental Management Plan of Khadsaliya-II
5.18
5.3
Environmental Management Plan of Khadsaliya-I
5.19
5.4
Schematic Design of Greenbelt around Proposed Mines
5.20
6.1 Tsunamigenic sources threatening India. Black box show the study
area
6.29
6.2 Rupture areas of past great earthquakes along Makran seduction
zone & Indus Delta
6.29
6.3 Earthquake distribution in and around the Bhavnagar region of
Gujarat occurred within last 200 years
6.30
6.4 Topography and bathymetry in and around lignite mining deposits 6.31
x
Fig. No Particulars Page No.

6.5
Initial vertical deformation of sea floor
6.32
6.6(a) Tsunami wave travel times at 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 min. Tsunami
amplitudes are in meters
6.33
6.6(b) Tsunami wave travel times at 180, 210, 228 min. Tsunami
amplitudes are in meters
6.34
6.7 Hourly travel -time chart of tsunami wave that resulted from the
Makran earthquake
6.35
6.8
Tsunami Waveforms at three lignite mining deposit sites
6.36
6.9 Directivity map for M8 in the central part of Makran earthquake,
Strike of 250
0
of the fault directs the tsunami towards western India
6.37
6.10 Possible inundations due to various wave heights (in meters) at
proposed Sites
6.38

xi
List of Tables

Table
No.
Particulars Page No.
1.1
MoEF Approved Terms of Reference (ToR) for EIA Study
and Compliance
1.14
2.1 Project Summary 2.43
2.2 Local Geology 2.45
2.3 Quality of Lignite 2.46
2.4 Constituents in lignite ash of the three mines 2.46
2.5 Criteria for Mineable lignite block 2.47
2.6 Details of Working Benches 2.48
2.7 Projected Progress of Mining 2.49
2.8 Year wise Details of Land Degradation and proposed reclamation 2.50
2.9 Ultimate Production Capacity and Overburden of Proposed
Lignite Mines
2.51
2.10 Details of loading equipments 2.52
2.11 Details of Hauling Equipment 2.52
2.12 Details of Ancillary Equipment 2.53
2.13 Estimated Manpower Requirements 2.54
3.1.1 Monthly Rainfall for the Period 2006 to 2010 at Bhavnagar 3.5
3.2.1 Existing Land cover Details 3.18
3.2.2 Soil Sampling Locations 3.18
3.2.3 Methods Followed for Analysis of Soil Samples 3.19
3.2.4 Physical Properties of Soil 3.20
3.2.5 Chemical Properties of Soil 3.21
3.2.6 Agriculture Crops in Study Area 3.22
3.2.7 Land Use Pattern in Villages under Study Area (within buffer
zone, 10 km)
3.23
3.2.8 Ground Truth Observation 3.25
3.2.9 Relative Occurrence of different Land use/ Land cover Classes in
Study Area
3.29
3.2.10 Area Occupied by Land use / Land cover Classes in Ghogha-
Surka, Khadsaliya-II an Khadsaliya-I
3.30
3.3.1 Description of Water Sampling Locations 3.37
3.3.2 Results of Surface Water Analysis 3.38
3.3.3 Ground Water Analysis Results 3.40
xii
Table
No.
Particulars Page No.
3.3.4 Sampling Locations for Aquatic Study 3.49
3.3.5 Phytoplankton Cell Count (No./Lit.) Across Sampling Locations 3.50
3.3.6 Zooplankton Standing Stock (No./Lit.) 3.51
3.3.7 Shannon Weiner Diversity Index Across Sampling Locations 3.52
3.4.1 Air Quality Sampling Locations 3.58
3.4.2 Methods Used for Ambient Air Quality Monitoring 3.59
3.4.3 Ambient Air Quality Monitoring 3.59
3.5.1 Noise Monitoring Locations 3.63
3.5.2 Ambient Noise Levels in Study Area 3.64
3.6.1 Biological Environment Sampling Locations 3.71
3.6.2 List of Flora found in Study Area 3.72
3.6.3 List of Agricultural Crops in Study Area 3.77
3.6.4 List of Fauna found in Study Area 3.78
3.6.5 List of Estimated Marine Fish Production (District : Bhavnagar
Centre: Bhavnagar)
3.81
3.6.6 Marine Fish Production (District : Bhavnagar Centre: Ghogha) 3.81
3.7.1 Socio-economic Survey Villages 3.91
3.7.2 Demographic Structure in Study Area 3.92
3.7.3 Infrastructure Resource Base in Study Area 3.94
4.4.1 Rainfall recharge in study area 4.22
4.4.2 Layers of the Model 4.28
4.4.3 Model input parameters 4.28
4.4.4 Mining Schedule for 5 years period 4.30
4.4.5 Illustrative Water Harvesting Potential for different land uses 4.33
4.4.6 RWH Potential v/s Water Requirement in Mining Blocks
(MCM/yr)
4.34
4.4.7 Emission Details for Line Sources at Proposed Lignite Mines 4.45
4.4.8
Micrometeorological Data Used for Prediction of Impacts
Winter season
4.46
4.4.9 Expected Noise from Mining Machinery 4.53
5.1 Plant Species suggested for Green belt Development 5.21
6.1 List of tsunamis / earthquakes that affected west coast of India
and vicinity
6.39


xiii

L Li i s st t o of f A Ap pp pe en nd di i c ce es s

Appendix Particulars
I Copies of mining plan approval letters received from Ministry of Coal,
Govt. of India



L Li i s st t o of f A An nn ne ex xu ur r e es s

Annexure Particulars
1 Rehabilitation & Resettlement Plan



E Ex xe ec cu ut t i i v ve e S Su um mm ma ar r y y
1.0 Introduction
The post independence era has witnessed comprehensive industrialization in the
country including Gujarat state. Gujarat has about 2,676 million tones of lignite, about 184
million tones of bauxite and about 2.5 million tones of manganese ore reserves.
Availability of lignite in Gujarat state, has led to the establishment of lignite based Thermal
Power Plants in the state to meet the growing energy demand in the state.
The Geology & Mining Department, Govt. of Gujarat has delineated about 20 km
long lignite belt, with 270 million tonnes of geological reserves in Bhavnagar district of
saurashtra region. The discovery of lignite deposits in the region of Ghogha and
Bhavnagar talukas of Bhavnagar District, has confirmed the possibility of opening at lignite
mines.
The joint venture company, Bhavnagar Energy Company limited (BECL) a
Government of Gujarat undertaking company is setting up a lignite based power plant of
about 500MW capacity. M/s Gujarat Power Corporation Ltd, proposed lignite mines at
Ghogha-Surka, Khadsaliya-II and Khadsaliya-I mainly to feed the fuel for BECL, a pithead
power plant.
To meet the enhanced requirement of lignite for 500 MW pithead power plant the
Ghogha-Surka mining plan was revised for producing 2.25 million TPY and, the approval
was obtained on 22.12.2009 and KhadsaliyaI mine plan was also revised to produce 1.00
million TPY and the respective approval was obtained on 18.12.2009. The third mine,
Khadsaliya-II mining plan was also approved at a design capacity of 0.75 million TPY on
14.01.2010.
M/s GPCL retained CSIR-National Environmental Engineering Research Institute
to undertake Environmental Impact Assessment study including preparation of
Environmental Management Plan. The first stage in prior environmental clearance
process, i.e. scoping of EIA study through ToR approval. For proposed three lignite mines
project approved ToRs have been obtained through MoEF letter No.J-11015/202/2010-
IA.II(M) Dated 23
rd
March, 2011. The present EIA report consists of the results of the
studies carried out in accordance with the provisions given in the MoEF EIA guidance
manual as well as the approved ToR for proposed project.


ES.2

2.0 Project Description
The proposed Ghogha-Surka mine is designed at 2.25 million TPY, Khadsaliya-I at
1.00 million TPY and Khadsaliya-II mine at 0.75 million TPY lignite extraction / production
capacity. The lignite mining is proposed through mechanised opencast mining method
using conventional mining equipment hydraulic shovel and dumper combination and
transportation of lignite by dumpers to stock yard located at KhadsaliyaII lease area.
The total design capacity of proposed three mines will be 4.0 million TPY lignite
production. There will be no processing of lignite involved, however blending of lignite
from three mines will be carried out before feeding to the pithead power plant.
Proposed Mine Site
x The Mine lease areas of Ghogha-Surka (1355 ha) and Khadsaliya-I (711 ha) Block
falls within the jurisdiction of Ghogha and Bhavnagar talukas of Bhavnagar district
and Khadsaliya-II (914 ha) falls within Bhavnagar taluka.
x The mining lease area Ghogha-Surka is located between latitude 21
0
36'00 to
21
0
38'45N and longitude 72
0
11'55 to 72
0
1500E, Khadsaliya-I located between
latitude 21
0
31'25 to 21
0
33'15N and longitude 72
0
13'30 to 72
0
1455E and
Khadsaliya II in between latitude 21
0
33'15 to 21
0
36'30N and longitude 72
0
13'40
to 72
0
1525E.
x The proposed mine sites are well connected by all weather roads like Lakhanka to
Bhavnagar via Thalsar, Koliyak and Ratanpur villages and Padva to Ghogha.
Bhavnagar, the District Headquarters is about 27 km in the north west of Ghogha-
Surka block, 35 km due south of the Khadsaliya-I block and 29 km in the north
west of Khadsaliya-II block.
x Bhavnagar is the nearest railway station which is a terminal for the broad gauge
railway line connecting Bhavnagar with Ahmedabad and Bombay via Dholka and
Surendranagar Junction. There is an airport at Bhavnagar and sea ports at
Bhavnagar and Ghogha.
The proposed mines area in general is an elliptical basin like structure and is
bounded by Gulf of Khambhat in the east side.
The lignite will be used at the power plant after blending the lignite produced from
Ghogha-Surka and KhadsaliyaI & Khadsaliya-II to maintain the calorific value of lignite
feed and also with a view of conservation. Accordingly the life of mines has been worked
out as 25, 22 and 20 years for Ghogha-Surka and KhadsaliyaI & Khadsaliya-II
ES.3

respectively. The life of Khadsaliya-II mine is 20 years but the life of power plant is
considered as 25 years.
Reclamation of mined out area is proposed to be commenced partly in third year
and continue till end of mine life. The mined out area is proposed to be backfilled by
overburden removal in a systematic manner.
The strata being soft and clayey in nature, can easily be excavated directly and
loaded into the dumpers and does not require any blasting. The OB excavated will be
stacked separately on surface as OB waste dump. The top soil having a varying thickness
up to 0.3 m to 0.5 m, 1.2 m and 0.5 m will be stacked separately on the surface in
Ghogha-Surka, Khadsaliya-II and Khadsaliya-I respectively. The OB as well as top soil
dump sites were selected on non lignite bearing area.
3.0 Description of Environment
The project proponent, i.e. M/s Gujarat Power Corporation Limited (GPCL) retained
M/s Kadam Environmental Consultants (KEC), Vadodara to carry out the pre-project
(baseline) environmental studies within the impact zone for Land, Water, Air, Noise,
Biological components and got the socioeconomic study done through Sociology
Department, Bhavnagar University, Bhavnagar.
Project Site and Study Area (Core & Buffer Zones)
The lease area for Ghogha-Surka (1355.0 ha), Khadsaliya-I (711.4 ha) and
Khadsaliya-II (914.2 ha) mines, which are adjacent to each other, fall within the jurisdiction
of Bhavnagar and Ghogha Talukas in Bhavnagar district. The maximum ground
elevations in individual mine sites are: 45 m, 48.1 m, 60 m, while the ground elevation
variations are at Ghogha-Surka: 16-45m; KhadsaliyaI: 19.2-48.1m; and Khadsaliya-II: 10-
60m above MSL as per Survey of India toposheets. The mining lease area of Ghogha-
surka consists mostly of agricultural lands.
The project land area identified for Ghogha-Surka mining presents an elliptical
basin like structure bounded by Gulf of Khambhat with opening on eastern direction. The
area has, in general, plain topography in northern part while the southern part exhibits
undulated topography with low mounds. The general slope of the Ghogha-Surka ground is
towards Malesari River, which flows from west to east direction, bisecting the lease area,
and finally debouching into Gulf of Khambhat. The river Ramdasia flows through the
Khadsaliya-I and Khadsaliya-II lease area.
ES.4

There is no reserve forest in the core zone as well as in buffer zone surrounding
the proposed mine sites. The sea coast is at >1.5 km in eastern direction of the core zone
(three mines). The climate of the area is mostly tropical monsoon type. Annual rainfall
data shows wide variation and ranged between 851 mm and 141 mm. Reconnaissance of
study area was undertaken as part of the baseline studies for air, water, land, noise,
biological and socio-economic components of environment.
Baseline Status
The pre-project (baseline) status of environmental quality studies were carried out
by M/s KEC, Vadodara through field surveys for individual components during winter
season (November 2011 - January 2012) covering 10 km radial distance around the
proposed lignite mine sites.
Land Environment
x Soil characteristics were studied at Sixteen (16) villages in the study area. Standard
methods are followed for collection and analysis of soil samples.
x The texture of the soil in the study area is predominately Sandy loam, Sandy Clay
loam and medium loam with medium water holding capacity. The water holding
capacity in the soil samples ranged: 32.88 - 80.23%. The bulk density of the soil in the
study area is in the range of 0.73 to 1.49 g/cc. The porosity of soils is in the range of
48 to 63%. Sand content in the soil of the study area varies from 10.28% (in Koliyak)
to 71.28% (in Khadsaliya-I). The pH of the soil in the study area is moderately alkaline
in reaction having pH in the range of 7.26 to 8.61, except the soils of Khadsaliya-II
with a near neutral pH value of 6.88. The EC for the soil samples are in the range of
82.70 to 1379 moh/cm. Soluble state in the soil viz., calcium and magnesium were
in the range of 0.08 - 1.64 gm/kg and 0.05 to 1.39 gm/kg respectively. Sodium and
potassium in the soils are varies from 0.11 to 3.84 gm/kg and 0.04 to 0.42 gm/kg
respectively. The cation exchange capacity of the soil samples of the study area
ranged from 13.20 to 18.40 meq/100gm, which is within the range. SAR of soil
samples of the study area ranged from 0.24 to 3.76.
x The land use/land cover within study area has been derived from remote sensing
satellite image analysis. Wasteland is the most dominating feature in both 5 km & 10
km boundary around study area. It covers about 44.35 and 36.04 % of the area, in 5 &
10 km boundary, respectively. This followed by agriculture land occupying 17.98 and
15.86% of the land, in 5 and 10km boundary area, respectively.

ES.5

Water Quality
x The prevailing (pre-project) status of water quality has been assessed at 3 locations for
surface water resources and 18 sampling locations for ground water in the study area.
x During the study period, the physico-chemical characteristics of surface water
samples at different locations indicate pH: 8.01-8.39; conductivity, TDS, chloride and
sodium are in high concentrations for Ghogha pond whereas other two surface water
locations conductivity is 616 to 1540 mhos/cm and TDS is 380 to 924 mg/L
respectively; total Alkalinity: 250-320 mg/L; total Hardness 190-370 mg/L (except
Ghogha pond: 1940 mg/L); Calcium hardness: 82-600 mg/L; Sulphates: 30-296 mg/L;
Potassium: 4.6-131.2 mg/L; Chlorides: 145 to 359 mg/L (except at Ghogha pond:
11089 mg/L); Sodium: 46.7 to 119 mg/L (except at Ghogha pond: 7346 mg/L).
x Nutrients in terms of Nitrates and Total phosphates were observed from 0.08-11.98
mg/L and 0.24-1.48 mg/L respectively. The levels of DO, B.O.D and COD were
observed in the range 4.6-5.1 mg/L, 13-55 mg/L and 16-77 mg/L respectively. Padva
pond and Malesari river in the study area can be classified as C class per CPCB
classification of inland surface water of IS 229-1982.
x In ground water samples, physical parameters such as pH, TDS and Conductivity are
found in the ranges 7.39-8.5; 332-2384 mg/L and 472-3690 Pmhos/cm respectively.
Inorganic parameters such as Total Alkalinity, Total Hardness, Chloride, Sulphate,
Sodium, Potassium and Fluoride are in the range of 120-340 mg/L; 130-900 mg/L; 55-
862 mg/L; 7-273 mg/L; 13-410.9 mg/L; 0.7 to 21.7 mg/L and 0.01-0.56 mg/L
respectively. The results of nutrient and demand parameters show that Phosphate in
the range of 0.11-1.19 mg/L and Nitrate in the range of BDL-67.49 mg/L was
observed. The levels of DO were observed in the range: 2 - 3 mg/L. The BOD is <2
mg/L respectively.
x The heavy metal concentration observed in surface water samples were Chromium:
0.008 mg/L; Nickel: 0.004 mg/L in all the three locations. Cadmium: 0.003 mg/L;
Manganese: 0.01mg/L; Zinc: 0.004-0.018 mg/L in all the three locations. Copper:
<0.01 mg/L; Iron: 0.850-0.140 mg/L (except at Malesari river is 1.137 mg/L); Lead:
<0.04 mg/L in all three locations.
x The heavy metal concentrations in ground water samples have been observed as:
Chromium: <0.001 mg/L; Nickel: 0.02-0.07 mg/L; Cadmium: <0.001 mg/L;
Manganese: 0.0007-0.007 mg/L; Zinc: 0.002-0.07 mg/L; Copper: 0.003-0.08 mg/L;
ES.6

Iron: 0.01-5.6 mg/L (except Bhuteshwar: 5.6 mg/L) and Lead: 0.02 mg/L in all the
sampling locations.
x The total coliform and faecal coliform were observed in the ranges: 23-27 MPN/100ml
and 8 - 17 MPN/100ml in surface water samples whereas in ground water sources
they were below 2 MPN/100ml.
Air Environment
The baseline ambient air quality status with respect to conventional air pollutants, viz.
PM
10
, PM
2.5
, SO
2
, NOx have been assessed through 12 monitoring locations at and around
the proposed project site upto 10 km radial distance.
The high volume samplers with PM
10
separation facility fabricated according to
NEERIs design and fine dust samplers based on cascade impactor principle were used
for ambient air sampling. The PM
10
and PM
2.5
concentrations were derived

by gravimetric
method. The gaseous pollutants SO
2
and NO
x,
concentrations were analysed following
standard wet chemical methods.
The hourly micrometeorological data from continuous records have been used to
derive windrose and analysis of prevailing wind pattern during study period. . The overall
windrose diagram shows that the predominant wind direction is from WNW. The calm
condition is observed to be around 16.42%.
The results of field surveys within study area during the study period are
summarised as follows:
x The ambient temperature varied between 7.5C-31.7C with an average of 21.1C
and relative humidity was recorded up to 96%
x The maximum 24 hourly concentrations of PM
10
at different locations were found in the
range 113-185 g/m
3
during study period. Average concentrations of PM
2.5
ranged
between 36 and 47 g/m
3
.
x The 24 hourly average levels of SO
2
concentrations at individual locations are in the
range: 5.1-7.7 g/m
3
, while the maximum concentrations are observed 16.6 g/m
3
.
x The 24 hourly average levels of NO
X
at individual locations are in the range from
10.1 g/m
3
to13.2 g/m
3
, while the 98 percentile concentrations are 42.5 g/m
3
.
ES.7

Ambient Noise Levels
The baseline ambient noise levels have been monitored at 21 locations within the
study area using precision noise level meters. The observations during study period are as
follows
x The average noise levels at different villages in study area vary from 51.6 - 64.4
dB(A) in day time and 45.1 - 50.6 dB(A) during the night time
x The average day time noise levels at most of the locations except Padva, Surka
and Badi villages are above the prescribed ambient noise standards for residential
area.
x During night time, the average noise levels at all locations are exceeding
prescribed ambient noise standards for residential area.
Biological Environment
x Total 17 sampling locations were identified for biological field survey.
x The vegetation throughout study area can be classified as thorny dry deciduous
open forest type. The most dominant trees in this region are Prosopis jjuliflora,
Acacia sp., Mangifera indica, Ficus religiosa, Azadiracta indica, Butea
monosperma
x The vegetation in nearby villages mainly composed of Albizzia chinensis, Alianthus
excels, Bauhinia racemosa, Mangifera indica, Prosopis juliflora, Ficus recimosa,
Syzygium cumini, Tamarindus indica, Terminalia tomentosa etc.
x Mangroves vegetation is more near Bhavnagar, Piram Island and Ghogha showed
high density of Avicennia marina. Mangroves in the intertidal mudflats are stunted
and sparse. Avicennia marina showed single species dominance in most of the
mangroves patches. Sonneratia apetala is found either in scattered or in dense
patches at few places.
x The staple food of the people in this region is wheat. The main rainy agriculture
crops of this area are Groundnut, Sesame, Cotton, Bajra etc. whereas wheat,
gram, Cumai are the winter crops.
x Animal census data revealed that among domestic animals cattle constituted the
most abundant species, followed by Sheep and other animals.
ES.8

x Garden lizards and Indian chameleon were observed in every sampling station. In
snakes Dhaman and Cobra is noted during personal interviewing with local
peoples.
x Varieties of birds are found on the coastal area. There are many species available
in the Gulf of Khambhat area proving very good ground for roosting and
mangroves vegetation provides nesting ground to the avifauna.
x Fresh water fishes are mainly comprises of Rohu, Catla and Mrigal.
Socio-economic Environment
x The proposed lignite mines (core zone) and surrounding study area (buffer zone)
falls in two Talukas (Bhavnagar and Ghogha) of Bhavnagar district.
x The primary data was collected with the help of socio-economic survey in the
villages under the study area collected from Sarpanch, Talati-cum-Mantri of the
villages and through field observations whereas the Secondary data refers to data
generated using secondary sources, viz. census records, District statistical
abstract, primary health centers, official records etc.
x Socio-economic survey was conducted in 9 villages out of which five villages are
affected by proposed mining project due to land acquirement for the lignite mines.
x Public and Private mode of transport are available in all the villages of the study
area. State Buses, Private Mini trucks, Jeep, Taxis, Autos are mainly available as
mode of transport in the area.
x There are 41 Primary Schools, 6 Senior Secondary Schools & 5 Higher Secondary
Schools. There are no facilities of college education in study area.
x In all villages of study areas drinking water facility is satisfactory.
x Electricity connection is available in all the villages for domestic and commercial
purposes.
x The main economic base of the villages coming within the study area is agriculture.
x Education standard amongst the respondents is rather good with only around 40%
illiterate in the villages surveyed.
4.0 Impact Assessment
The Network Method has been adopted for identification of impacts, which
involves understanding of cause-condition-effect relationships between an activity and the
consequences / impacts on environmental and socioeconomic parameters.
ES.9

A Gaussian diffusion model CALINE 4 model applicable for line sources located in
flat and or complex / hilly terrain and an hemispherical wave propagation model for noise
sources are used for impact prediction.
Diversion of Seasonal Rivers/Drains/Roads
The minor drain passing through Ghogha-Surka, Malesari nadi bisecting Ghogha-
Surka mine, seasonal based Ramdasia nadi bisecting Khadsaliya-II, Shetrenji canal
passing through lease area, village roads passing through Ghogha-Surka, district highway
and katchha road connecting villages passing through Khadsaliya-II and state highway
passing through Lakhanka to Bhavnagar are to be diverted.
Adverse Impact Mitigation Measures
The R&R plan will be implemented for 14 villages to be affected due to proposed
mining project. The recommendations made in the detailed R&R plan will be strictly
implemented as per the action plan delineated in the report.
Mechanized open cast mining will be implemented at proposed mines. The top soil
from each mine site will be preserved at designated additional land for replacement during
reclamation of mined area.
The waste water generated during mining operations and through other general
facilities can be used for irrigation of various plantations after necessary treatment within
the reclaimed mine area as a part of afforestation plan.
The pit water, which has to satisfy the specifications for use in agricultural fields,
should have an additional filtration unit at the downstream of the laterite walls and near to
the discharge point for the agriculture fields.
In Ghogha-Surka lignite bearing area the topsoil stacking is proposed to be
recovered in a course of mining, the location of topsoil for initial two years is on north side
of Badi village. For Khadsaliya-II the location of topsoil preservation/stacking for first year
is on south side of Bhadbhadiya village and the topsoil stacking in Khadsaliya-I is
proposed on the non lignite bearing area which shall be recovered in a course of mining,
the location of topsoil for initial five years is on central western side of the lease area.
Mine Operation Phase - Prediction of Impacts
Land Environment
There is no forest area present in the mining lease area. The land degradation is
expected in core zone due to opencast mining activities such as site clearance / removal
of existing vegetation, top soil extraction, overburden dumps, lignite extraction etc..
ES.10

The waste generated from the mining operations during the first five year plan
period is proposed to stack partially at outside dump and partially in de-lignite area.
Outside dumps are proposed within lease areas on barren land.
The proposed overburden dumps are expected to cause land degradation
through soil erosion siltation of natural drains and also cause soil pollution acidic surface
run off as well as leachates due to expected sulfur content in overburden as well as waste
material to be dumped at identified dump sites.
Water Environment
There are no perennial rivers or any major surface water bodies within the
proposed mining study area, Malesari nadi and Ramadasia nadi are purely seasonal and
become active during monsoon season. The total water required at proposed three mine
sites is around 170, 110 and 100 m
3
/day. The major source of surface water pollution due
to mining is siltation load through surface runoff from active mining area, pumping of mine
pit water, and effluent generated from workshop.
The mine water generated during the lignite mine will be neutralised with lime
depending on the requirement and will be settled to remove suspended matter. The
amount of water consumed for dust suppression will be around 350, 250 and 224 m
3
/day
respectively at the three mines and the rest of treated mine water will be used for green
belt development within the first phase of production area. The entire mine water
generated will be collected at a central pond within the mine site and properly treated to
increase the pH levels by adding the lime water.
The wastewater generated from lignite mine may be of two types i.e. mine pit
eater and acidic mine drainage. Mine water are treated by suitable techniques by settling or
by adding coagulants or by using lime solution.
The total requirement of water for the proposed three lignite mines is 1236 m
3
/day.
Waste water generated from the three mines is 900 m
3
/day.
Hydro-geological study carried out includes:
- The impact of mining and water abstraction on the hydrogeological and
groundwater regime of within core zone and 10 km buffer zone including long-term
modelling studies,
- The impact of sea water ingress and cutting into groundwater aquifer, and
- The rain water harvesting scheme and measures for recharge of groundwater.
ES.11

To study the impact of dewatering of the mine on the sea water ingress into the
aquifers, the SEAWAT model (A 3-dimensional groundwater model) has been used after
calibration for the project area. The model was calibrated as per the available information
from the area. The model indicates that though there will be decline in the groundwater
levels in the nearby areas, but still there are no chances of ingress of sea water into the
aquifers between the mine and the sea coast due to mining.
The rainwater harvesting potential (RWH) from the mining lease area, which is in
general open land (Barren land), will 20% of the rainfall. The water collected from the
rainwater harvesting may be stored temporarily in a sump, and can be used subsequently.
- Geologically, the lignite deposit present in the Khadsaliya formations, have low
permeability.
- The groundwater modeling study indicates that due to dewatering, the water table
will decline in whole of the mining lease area. The area outside the mining lease
will also be affected, but to a lesser extent. The impact will be more towards the
Gulf of Khambat and less in other directions.
- There are little chances of sea water ingress due to mining in the area. As a
groundwater mound is expected to develop between the mine and the sea shore.
- Water balance study indicates that the groundwater recharge in the three blocks is
substantially higher than the water requirement for the mining operations. Thus the
requirement of the mining activities can be met from the available groundwater
resources.
The domestic need of water for all the three mines is 150, 98, 80 m
3
/day
respectively. The colony for the essential employees for mining project will be
constructed at Bhavnagar and hence there is no need for sewage treatment plant.
However, for workers on duty, separate treatment will be carried out. Domestic
wastewater will be treated in sewage treatment plant and the sludge will be utilized in
the horticultural activities. The treated water will be continuously transported by 10-15
m
3
capacity trucks for sprinkling the water on unpaved roads and will be operated for
continuous sprinkling each shift. The frequency of water spraying and distance of
unpaved roads to be covered in the three mines will be around 10-12 trips in each shift
covering a distance of around 20-25 km, 6-8 strips in each shift covering a distance of
around 30-35 km and 6-8 strips in each shift covering a distance of around 20-30 km
respectively.
ES.12

Air Environment
The proposed lignite opencast mining is expected to use heavy equipments like
hydraulic excavators, loaders, dumpers and dozers which act as sources generating dust
pollution along with movement of vehicles within the mining area acting as line sources.
The main air pollutants like suspended particulate matter and respirable dust arise from
excavation and transportation operation.
Two line sources covering the mine activity site one is on lignite and another one
on over burden and heavy vehicular movement areas were considered for estimating the
fugitive dust dispersion.
The micrometeorological data recorded on continuous basis during study period at
site for winter season and have been used as main source of input data for air quality
prediction model.
Fugitive dust emissions would cause marginal impacts (as the emissions are almost at
ground level). Impact of predicted GLC of particulate matter is negligible on nearby
villages.
Noise Environment
As per the geotechnical studies carried out at proposed ministry, the overburden
layers and lignite seams are soft in nature and there would be no blasting operation
required for entire proposed mining project. The noise generated due to mining operations
and movement of heavy equipments and vehicles affects the acoustical environment
surrounding the mining area. The impact of these noise sources on the receiver can be
estimated by using sound wave propagation model describe above. The background noise
levels found within the mining area and in the adjoining villages within the 10 km aerial
radius were found in the range of 43 dB(A) to 65 dB(A) during winter season.
The traffic density in the adjoining villages surrounding the proposed lignite mine
site is low. The effect of mining activity and traffic movement of dumpers/trucks will be
around within the mining activity and its impact on surrounding area of Ghogha-Surka and
Khadsaliya-I up to 1.5 km 2.0 km is varied from 34 36 dB(A) and in case of Khadsaliya
II its impact on surrounding area up to 1.35 km 2.5 km is varied from 35 39 dB(A).
Biological Environment
The mining activities affect the biological environment in a number of ways. They
result in the loss of top soil, loss of vegetation due to mining, siltation of ponds and
reservoirs during exploration, mining, construction and also high noise levels due to rock
breaking. In order to avoid loss of top fertile soil, it is handled separately so that the same
ES.13

is placed on the inert overburden thus facilitating afforestation. In order to compensate
loss of vegetation during mining, afforestation programme will be undertaken on mining
dumps. Native species will be selected for the afforestation.
Socio-economic Environment
The land for proposed mine sites has been to be acquired from 14 villages in
Bhavnagar and Ghogha talukas. There will be large number of PAPs/PAFs due to
proposed land acquirement. M/s GPCL hired the services of Dr.Prafulla Kumar Das,
retired IAS Officer, to conduct the necessary study and prepare comprehensive R&R
action plan.
x GPCL will ensure that PAPs (also called PAs, AFs or PAFs) are rehabilitated and
provided better lives and livelihoods, then the ones from which they are uprooted.
x BPL PAFs may be accorded priority in providing R&R benefits.
x GPCL recognizes that involuntary displacement of individuals from ther lands and
livelihoods, necessitated for the development of Lignite mines for the power
projects, causes immense hardships to those individuals. Well established social
and economic relationships undergo change or damage. GPCL, through this
RRAP, is determined to provide at Pre-Project, Project and Post-Project stages
better infrastructure-physical, environmental, economic, and social-to the PAPs
than their displaced environment.
x Compensation for lands to be acquired under Land Acquisition Act, 1894 (LAA) will
be on replacement cost principle arrived on the basis of negotiation with the PAPs
and as finally declared by the LAO in the Land Acquisitions Award.
x GPCL will maximize its R&R efforts to ensure that the PAPs reap benefits from the
new environment through varieties of livelihood and socio-economic opportunities.
x GPCL will implement its objectives in transparent manner. It will work in
cooperation with the PAFs, local governments, and NGOs working in the Project
Affected Area (PAA) as agreed to by GPCL in consultation with PAPs. The PAPs
will be regularly kept informed as to implementation of RRAP.
x GPCL will voluntarily act as a facilitator for realization of Government's
development goals in the PAA through its Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)
initiatives.
x Identification of the physical, environmental, economic, and social damages as a
consequence of involuntary displacement of PAPs from their agricultural lands,
ES.14

homesteads, livelihoods and social and economic resource base is being done
through independent Social Impact Assessment (SIA) study with cooperation and
participation of PAPs.
x The RRAP spells out what needs to be done at Pre-Project, Project and Post-
Project stages to provide a positive environment where the affected families
achieve a better standard of living with sustainable income and better
infrastructure-physical, environmental, economic, and social-compared to their
displaced environment in pre-project stage.
x GPCL aims at a harmonious relationship with the PAFs. PAPs have to be
organized to be participants in policy decisions on compensation negotiations,
amenities and facilities to be provided to them and other issues related to their
resettlement. Appropriate forums shall be created where the PAPS can express
their views on issues related to their rehabilitation and resettlement.
x The RRAP will be implemented expeditiously with the active participation of the
affected families.
x The special protection provided to scheduled caste, scheduled tribe and other
backward class (OBC) by the Constitution will be ensured by adequate measures
through mechanism consistent with existing laws and rules.
x The Constitutional Provisions relating to active participation of Gram Sabha and the
Panchayat Machinery will be followed.
x Grievance Redressal Mechanism is organized to attend to the complaints of PAPs
and any failure of the land requiring body to implement its commitments.
x A monitoring mechanism with local and PAP participation is worked out. This
RRAP will be communicated to the PAPs in local language as Gujarati.
The Company will provide compensations to PAPs under the LAA by consent
negotiation method and pay on the basis of the replacement value criteria. Land losers will
be provided with other benefits such as house sites, shares of the company and income
restoration with employment and livelihood opportunities.
Any Common property acquired will be replaced by similar common property and
approach to it will be built in consultation with Gram Sabha and Gram Panchayat.
ES.15

5.0 Environmental Management Plan
The potential for environmental pollution during development phase is certainly
less than the mine extraction and transportation (mining) phase. However the control of
the pollution during open cast mining is of considerable importance. Detailed measures
should be adopted for control of pollution during lignite mining phase.
Lignite Mines Operati on Phase
Land Environment
To ensure the mitigation of adverse impacts on land environment the following
measures necessary for proposed open cast mines:
x Existing land-use, topography, drainage system, water bodies and residential
areas in the surrounding buffer zone should be taken into consideration for the
mining activities in core zone.
x Location and direction of ground water flow which may influence the flow of any
contaminants in the ground water
x Disturbance of native vegetation should be minimized and vegetation retained
should be covered with flagging, fencing and sign postings.
x Top soil and sub soil should be carefully removed and stored separately seeded
with native vegetation and grasses and finally used for progressive rehabilitation.
x Treatment of haulage ways and water impoundment areas within the mine site to
reduce the dust generation as well as prevention of water/land pollution in
surrounding area.
x Deposition of waste, residual materials, junk trash should be organized.
x Physical characteristics and nutrient status of excavated overburden has to be
monitored
x Land reclamation plan should include of long term stability of slopes and surface
materials of mine pits.
Water Environment
x A water quality monitoring programme by collecting different mine water and
ground water samples should be prepared.
ES.16

x Mine pit water to be collected in a separate sump for settling suspended solids.
Depending on quality, it shall be used for dust suppression or discharged in
natural stream or supplied for agriculture use.
x The acid mine drainage collected and stored in the mine areas has to be
pumped out to a storage pond for necessary treatment. The treated water
should be used for plantations and dust suppression/ Fire water.
x Garland drains around the mine overburden has to be provided to prevent
seepage / drainage of surface water from overburden areas
x Creation of water storage in the opencast mines for settling of suspended solids
before pumping the water out of the mine.
x Provision of oil and grease traps in the maintenance workshop for cleaning
effluents and their subsequent recycling.
x To prevent the formation of acid water mine planning should be developed
incorporating reclamation of the mined area. Drainage control (both surface and
subsurface) by controlling water inflow by diversion of surface waters to prevent
entering into the mining area will minimise formation of acid drainage.
x The acid mine drainage generated in the proposed Khadsaliya II mines should
be continuously neutralised and treated to suitable use as dust suppression and
greenbelt development. There should not be any contaminated water entering
into the nearby nallahs.
x It has to be ensured that diesel powered mining vehicles are properly
maintained to minimise smoke in the exhaust emissions.
x The wastewater consisting of oil contamination from the workshop at mine site
will be collected in a cemented tank with proper lining and emulsified oil will be
removed and purified for reuse and the treated oil free water will be utilized for
greenbelt development surrounding the workshop area.
x Combustible waste shall be burnt in a controlled manner. Other wastes shall be
disposed off in an approved dump. Also, proper fencing and manned entry
points has to be maintained to prevent unauthorised entry into the construction
site.
Air Environment
x Dust generated during mining and also during handling and transportation of the
ES.17

material are controlled by water sprinkling on working zone or using water mist
sprays.
x The ambient air quality should be monitored on regular basis following standard
methodology. The main parameters to be monitored are RPM (PM
10
), PM
2.5
, CO,
SO
2
and NOx.
x Vehicles are the major sources of CO emissions in mine sites. All vehicles and
their exhausts should be well maintained and regularly tested
x Prompt removal of the dust from different sources by frequent watering on the haul
roads has to be carried out to reduce the dust generation.
x Pitch roads should be constructed at least up to the office and other important
units.
x Mining equipment and automobiles should be subjected to regular maintenance
schedule in order to reduce the exhaust emission of hydrocarbons, smoke, SO
2
,
NO
2
and CO.
x Comprehensive greenbelt around overburden dumps has to be carried out to
reduce the fugitive dust emissions in order to create clean and healthy
environment.
x Slope stabilization through plantation for dump sites as well as abandoned/ mined
areas.
Noise Mitigation
x Proper maintenance of mining machines and improvement on design of machines.
x Lining of chutes in lignite handling storage plants for noise absorption.
x Acoustically designed operations cabin for heavy duty machines used at mine site.
x Onsite workers will be provided noise protection devices like ear muffs etc.,
Biological Environment
Environmental management plan is aimed at reclamation of land i.e. treatment of
land creating conditions for pulling the land to productive use i.e. agriculture, forestry or
recreation and to maintain the aesthetic beauty as well as to avoid an adverse visual
impact. The total process of reclamation should be completed in two phases. First phase
is technical reclamation which includes backfilling of the excavation with subsoil, grading
and topsoil. The second phase is biological reclamation which is most important and
takes three to five years.
ES.18

Green belt development
Greenbelt is an important sink of air pollutants including noise. Green cover in
mining area not only help in reducing pollution level, but also improves the ecological
conditions and prevent soil erosion to great extent.
With a view to attenuate air pollutants, to act as acoustic barrier for noise
propagation from major sources, it is recommended to develop a 50-100 m wide green
belt all along the periphery of project site. From total area of 1355 ha , 914.1492 ha and
711.4247 ha of Ghogha-surka, Khadsaliya-II and Khadsaliya-I mine sites about 423 ha
(31.21% of total project site), 339 ha (37.08 % of total project site) and 265 ha(37.24% of
total project site) of land respectively will be delineated for greenbelt development.
Species Selection Criteria for Plantation
Green belts may be developed with plant species suitable to the area. Plant
species, selected for greenbelt should have rapid growth, ever green, large crown volume
and small/pendulous leave with smooth surface. All these characteristics are difficult to get
in a single species. Selection of species, preparation of dump, proper plantation, irrigation
facility and proper caring and monitoring will be helpful for complete restoration of
ecosystem as well as economic and aesthetic value of the region.
Care and Monitoring
Need based fertilizers and nutrients should be supplemented to the soil before and
after sapling plantation.
Planted species should be protected from grazing, illegal cutting and felling and by
providing tree guard or fencing.
Proper irrigation system should be developed on site so that required water supply
can be maintained for survival of plants.
The growth should be monitored for increase in height, girth and root penetration.
Use of bio-fertilizers such as hizobium and aztobactor cultures will be useful to
establish soil-plant-microbial ecosystem which is self sustainable.
Guidelines for plantation
In general, identified plant species are planted at the beginning of the rains using
pitting technique. The location of each pit will be marked according to the design
and distance of plantation. The pit size should be either 45 cm X45 cm X 45 cm or
60 cm X 60 cm X 60 cm .The size of the pits varies with type of trees.
ES.19

Socioeconomic Environment
x The R&R plan as indicated in chapter 4 shall be implemented prior to start of
mining activities
x Provision of employment opportunities at the site as well as in other allied mining
activities with necessary vocational training to the local residents
x GPCL shall also duly consider implementation of CSR in surrounding (buffer zone)
villages.
x Overall development of the area including taking up of activities related to adult
education, marketing facilities, cultural activities, family welfare programmes for
mining personnel and their families as well as the local rural inhabitants.
Occupational Safety and Health
As per the mines rules and as per guideline of Director General of Mines Safety
(DGMS) Safety of employees during operation of mines to be as follows :
x Provisions of rest shelter for mine workers with facility of drinking water.
x Awareness on safety and ensure using of personal protective equipments (PPE) by
workers.
x Regular maintenance and testing of equipments.
x Periodical medical examination of all workers.
x First Aid facility and training to workers.
x Safety measures and risk assessment in underground mining.
x Conduct of mock drill
x Safe storage & handling of explosives.
Environment Management Cell
The total environmental protection and quality assurance has to be carried out by
one person who will be responsible for the operation and maintenance of the suggested
environmental management systems. During operational phase, he will be responsible for
the following:
x To monitor and analyse air, noise, water, and soil samples on a regular basis.
x To ensure systematic and routine housekeeping at the mine site and workshop.
x The staff responsible for environmental management will make regular field visits
to ensure the pollution control measures and post-project monitoring are effectively
operated.
ES.20

6.0 Additional Studies
Rapid Risk Assessment & Disaster Management Plan
The respective mining plans for proposed lignite mines does not consistency
details related to considerable storage and handling of any major fire hazard prone
petroleum fuels/products. Hence the possibility of any fire hazards at proposed mines
could also be ruled out. However the standard fire protection/fire fighting infrastructure
facilities shall be provided at proposed Ghogha-Surka, Khadsaliya-II and Khadsaliya-I
lignite mines following the statutory requirement prescribed by Director General of Mines
Safety.
The environmental risk to general public would be negligible due to proposed
mining project. The risk at proposed opencast mines would be limited purely to potential
occupational hazards/risks to mine workers on duty as described in the following sections.
There are various factors, which can create disaster in mine. These hazards are as
follow:
a) Slope failure
b) Overburden dump
c) Heavy machinery

Measures to Prevent the Danger of Overburden are as Follows:
1. A sturdy stonewall should be built around the toe of each active dump at a
distance of about 50 m from the toe.
2. To prevent the failure of overburden slopes, especially during rainy season,
following precautions need to be taken against this hazard:
a. Proper terracing of the dump slope, with maximum bench height of 30
meters.
b. In flat areas where the dumping operations have come to an end, the
slope angle should be flattened by about 5 lower than the angle of
repose, which varies from site to site, but it is generally expected to be
around 25.
3. Planting vegetation as early as possible over the overburden dump slopes.
4. The drainage channels along the overburden dump to provide additional
protection.
ES.21

5. While doing this, a distance of over 15 m should-be left between the
overburden dump and the bench.
6. When two or more trucks are being delivered at the same time, they should
mention at least two trucks.
Measures to Prevent Accidents due to Trucks and Dumpers
x All transportation within the main working should be carried out directly under the
supervision and control of the management.
x The Vehicles must be maintained in good repairs and checked thoroughly at least
once a week by the competent person authorized for the purpose by the
Management.
x Road signs should be provided at each and every turning point especially for the
guidance of the drivers at the night.
x To avoid danger while reversing the trackless vehicles especially at the
embankment and tipping points, all areas for reversing of lorries should as far as
possible be made man free, and.
x A statutory provision of the fences, constant education... training etc. will go a long
way in reducing the incidents of such accidents.
x Haul trucks should be oriented essentially perpendicular to the bream, while
unloading.
x Load consisting of large rocks must not be over the edge. This is unsafe and may
damage equipment. Such load must in side and perched over the edge
x Dumping of overburden or waste material by dumpers and dozers should follow
certain general precautions
Dozer Procedure on Dump
1. Dozers are used on the dump to maintain the dump surface and the safety
born and to push material over the edge as required. As and when required
one or more load may be depend short of the crest to provide materials for
building and maintenance of the born or the dump surface and grade.
2. Dump material may vary considerably in its durability and strength. Material
with a high constant of waste particle or material, which deteriorates over time,
ES.22

may contribute to a variety of problems such as permeability due to breakdown
in gain size with resultant buildup at pure water, and lower shear strength.
These could result in reduced stability.
Economic Repercussions of Closure of Mine and Manpower Retrenchments
Since the mining activity is proposed to carryout by hired equipment on contract
basis except the statutory supervisory staff most of manpower shall be deployed by
contractor. The statutory manpower is proposed to transfer to other operating mines with
option of Voluntary retirement scheme. The detail of retirement scheme is proposed to
submit in final mine closure plan.
Approach to Disaster Management Plan
Disaster is a sudden occurrence of hazard with a magnitude, which could affect the
normal pattern of life in the facility and /or in vicinity causing extensive damage to life and
/or property. The Disaster Preparedness Plan gives a clear organizational structure and
elaborates the duties to be performed (including outside agencies) by each when situation
demands, so as to reduce the probability/severity of community suffering and property
damage. The activities among other things also include providing/help in arranging for
food, shelter, clothing, medical attention and other life sustaining requirements.
Planning for emergencies has to take place under following categories:
i By M/s GPCL as a precaution to the training of onsite industrial staff (On-site plan)
i By the local authority with responsibility for the well being of residents in the vicinity of
the project site (Off-site-plan)
Disaster Management / Emergency Preparedness Plan: On-Site
During an emergency in order to handle disaster / emergency situations, an
organizational chart entrusting responsibility to various personnel of Mines. The
composition of the management team is given below:
i Mine manager
i Mine In-charge
i Site Controller
i Incident Controller
i Personnel / Administrative Manager
i Communication Officer
i Fire and Security Officer
i Transport Coordinator
ES.23

i Medical Coordinator
i Occupational Health Centre
i Communication Coordinator
The responsibilities and duties of following important officials are mentioned in the
chapter 6 in detail.
Disaster Management / Emergency Preparedness Program: Off-site
Emergency is a sudden unexpected event, which can cause serious damage to
personnel life, property and environment as a whole, which necessitate evolving Off-site
Emergency Plan to combat any such eventuality. It is essential to evolve a Disaster
Control and off site Emergency Preparedness Plan to effectively make use of available
resources. If it becomes necessary to evacuate people, then this can be done in orderly
way. The different agencies involved in evacuation of people are Civil Administration (both
state and central), non Govt. organizations, factory Inspectorate and Police authorities.
The project proponent should become part of the offsite disaster management team
formulated in Ghogha and Bhavnagar Taluka.
A) Evacuation and Rehabilitation
An early decision is to taken in many cases of industrial accidents to evacuate
people in surrounding area. In general, public in nearby area will get very little time to save
themselves. The local population will have to be warned within a very short period. In case
of major disaster, evacuation is to be considered depending upon the nature of disaster
e.g. Fire, Explosion etc.
B) Action by General Public
A toxic gas release will generally threat much larger area and population
exposed to the drifting cloud of toxic gases and vapours. The time available for warning
population will depend on the point of release, wind direction and velocity.
On hearing the warning of a major Industrial accident, general public should act
immediately as follows:
i To go indoor immediately
i Shut off all doors, windows and ventilators, block all gaps with wet cloth and
curtain
i Switch off the fans, exhaust fans and air conditioners
i Extinguish the flames in the nearby vicinity
i Keep the torches handy and store water for emergency use
ES.24

i Do not engage the emergency phone lines by calling emergency services
i Cover nose and mouth with wet cloth
i Wait for further instructions from emergency services before moving out
6.2 Potential Risk Assessment studies
Institute of Seismological Research (ISR), Raisan, Gandhinagar, Gujarat carried
out the Tsunami studies. The report is enclosed in Chapter 6.
Future source zones of earthquakes that can generate tsunami in the Arabian Sea
are identified based on past seismicity and gap areas along the Makran subduction zones.
The Makran subduction zone of Iran and southern Pakistan, situated on the north-western
side of the Arabian Sea, generates great but infrequent earthquakes, mud volcanoes and
tsunamis. Indus delta of Pakistan has given rise to large earthquakes in the past. The
oldest record of tsunami is available from November 236 BC earthquake in the Arabian
Sea that set off massive sea waves in the history. Based on the long-term assessment of
large earthquakes in this region it is inferred that tsunamigenic earthquakes can occur in
near future in this region.
Furthermore, the 1945 tsunami generated due to Makran Earthquake in the
Arabian Sea was the most devastating tsunami in the history of the Arabian Sea and
caused severe damage to property and loss of life. It occurred on 28th November 1945,
21:56 UTC (03:26 IST) with a magnitude of 8.0 (Mw), originating off the Makran Coast of
Pakistan in the Arabian Sea. It has impacted as far as Mumbai in India and was noticed up
to Karnataka. More than 4,000 people were killed as a result of the earthquake and the
tsunami. In this report an attempt is made for a numerical simulation of the tsunami
generation from the Makran subduction zone, its propagation into the Arabian Sea and its
effect on three lignite mining deposits in Bhavnagar, Gujarat through the use of a
numerical model, referred to as Tsunami-N2. For this purpose, we have generated several
initial models using different sources near the Makran coast. With the help of numerical
modelling, we have estimated tsunami phases in and around the three lignite mining
deposits sites. The simulated tsunami wave results are validated at the western coast of
India with the available data source, which are in good agreement. The results suggest
that the tsunami waves reached near proposed sites after about 6-7 hours with less than
1m amplitude. The report also presents run-up elevation maps prepared using Shuttle
Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) data, showing the possible area of inundation due to
various wave heights in around the proposed lignite deposits in Bhavnagar. Results
shows that more than 8 m tsunami wave height may be affected at proposed areas in
Bhavnagar, it means the proposed area has less possibility of inundation.

Chapter 1
Introduction
1.1 Preamble
The development of a state as well as the nation depends on agriculture and
industrial growth. The post independence era has witnessed comprehensive
industrialization in the country including Gujarat state. Availability of lignite in Gujarat state,
has led to the establishment of lignite based industries, Thermal Power Plants in the state
to meet the growing energy demand in industrial and agriculture sectors.
The importance of lignite for industrialization of Gujarat state was forecasted as
early as 1946 by Venkatappaiah, a Geologist of Survey of India (GSI) after he established
the lignite deposit near Umarsar village in Lakhpat Taluka of Kutch district. The forecast
became reality in the year 1974 when Gujarat Mineral Development Corporation (GMDC)
opened its first lignite mine near Panandhro in Lakhpat Taluka of Kutch District. Since then
lignite has become the popular source of energy for various industries in Gujarat including
power sector.
At present the lignite demands in saurashtra region are met from the Panandhro
mine of Kutch district. In fact, the lignite erstwhile unaccepted solid fuel is now
supplementing in fulfilling the gap between demand and supply of coal in the state. The
locations of lignite deposits identified in Gujarat state are shown in Fig.1.1. Gujarat has
about 2,676 million tones of lignite, about 184 million tones of bauxite and about 2.5 million
tones of manganese ore reserves. The Geology & Mining Department, Govt. of Gujarat has
Chapter 1: Introduction
1.2
delineated a 20 km long lignite belt, with 270 million tonnes of geological reserves in
Bhavnagar district of saurashtra region. The discovery of lignite deposits in the region of
Ghogha and Bhavnagar talukas of Bhavnagar District, has confirmed the possibility of
opening a lignite mine to cater to the need of local industries which are currently getting
lignite from faraway places like Panandhro in Kutch district and also to cater the need of
lignite based pit head power project.
The state of Gujarat is having deficiencies in the power generation and large gap
exists between the indigenous generation and its demand. The coal for power generation
in the state is required to be transported from long distances involving heavy expenditure.
A joint venture company has been formed by Government undertaking profit making
companies like GMDC, GPCL, GSFC, GNFC, GSIL, GIPCL and GACL in the name of
Bhavnagar Energy Company limited (BECL). This joint venture, BECL, a Government of
Gujarat undertaking company is setting up a lignite based power plant of about 500MW
capacity. The proposed lignite mines project is mainly aimed to feed the fuel for this power
plant.
1.2 Mining of Minerals in India
The history of mineral development is as old as the civilization. In case of
India, the mineral production dates back to the ancient times as the mining activities can
be traced as far back as 6,000 years or so. The remains of some of the old mine
workings are a witness to this fact. A few of these workings have led to the discovery of
a number of significant mineral deposits, which are being worked in the present time.
Realising the significance of industrial development of the country, Industrial
Policy Resolution was promulgated in 1956 by the Central Government. Under this
ambitious programme of developing several industries (such as steel, non-ferrous
metals, cement, power, fertilizers etc.) were launched which required increasing
quantities of minerals. Coal was the one to have received the maximum attention for
being the basic fuel for a whole range of industries such as steel, railways and power
plants. In India, 80 per cent of mining is in coal and the balance 20 per cent is for various
metals and other raw materials such as iron, lead, bauxite, copper, zinc, gold, uranium
etc.
The entire production of lignite, petroleum and natural gas, copper, lead, zinc
ores, gold, silver, diamond, tungsten concentrates, pyrites, rock phosphate, etc. was
contributed from the mines operated under the public sector.
India has a long history of commercial coal mining, since 1774, i.e. about 240 years
old activity in the country. The majority of the coal reserves are in the states of Jharkhand,
Chapter 1: Introduction
1.3
Chhattisgarh, Orissa, Assam, West Bengal, Maharashtra, and Andhra Pradesh. There are
also lignite deposits in Jammu & Kashmir, Rajasthan, Gujarat, and Tamil Nadu. The coal
deposits in southern India are in sedimentary rocks of older Gondwana formations. Those
in the north and north-eastern mountainous regions of the country are younger tertiary
formations.
India's coal is characterized by high ash contents, but it has a low sulphur content
(generally 0.5%), low iron content in ash, low chlorine content, and low trace element
concentration. Coal is the dominant energy source in India, accounting for more than half
of the country's requirements. 70% of the countrys coal production is used for power
generation, with the remainder being used by heavy industry and public use.
Lignite, a premature variety of coal is a dark brown to black combustible mineral
formed over millions of years by the partial decomposition of plant material subject to
increased pressure and temperature in an airless atmosphere. In simple terms, lignite is a
brown coal. In its natural form, lignite is porus, light in weight and contains a high
percentage of moisture and volatile matters as compared to Fixed Carbon. Because of this,
its transportation, over long distances is uneconomical. Therefore, this fuel is
ideally suitable for running lignite based power generation plant located close to pit head.
1.3 Brief of Proposed Project
GPCL has decided to set up a lignite based power plant in the area of Ghogha-
Surka and Khadsaliya lignite deposit with a design capacity of 2x120 MW. Initially M/s
GPCL proposed Ghogha-Surka and Khadsaliya-I lignite mines in Bhavnagar district. The
Ghogha-Surka 1355 h land mine plan was approved through letter dated 22.09.1995 for a
capacity of 1.25 million TPY. The environmental clearance was also granted by MoEF
initially in 1997 for 1.25 million TPY lignite production capacity. For Khadsaliya-I, mine plan
approval was received for 0.6 million TPY on 02.06.1997. However these mines were not
opened.
The proposed lignite based power plant capacity was increased to 2x250 MW in
planning stage itself. To meet the enhanced requirement of lignite the Ghogha-Surka
mining plan was revised for producing 2.25 million TPY, the approval for revised mine plan
was obtained on 22.12.2009 and KhadsaliyaI mine plan was also revised to produce 1.00
million TPY and the respective approval was obtained on 18.12.2009. The third mine,
Khadsaliya-II mining plan was also approved with the capacity of 0.75 million TPY on
14.01.2010. The copies of mining plan approval letters received from Ministry of Coal,
Govt. of India are enclosed in Appendix-I. These mines are co-located / adjacent to each
Chapter 1: Introduction
1.4
other (Fig.1.2) in Bhavnagar district. The gross details of proposed lignite mines are as
follows:
Item Ghogha-Surka Khadsaliya-II Khadsaliya-I
Taluka Ghogha & Bhavnagar Ghogha Bhavnagar & Ghogha
Villages Malekvadar, Padva, Badi,
Hoidad, Alapar, Surka and
Rampar
Khadsaliya, Alapar,
Hatab and Bhadbhadiya,
Khadsaliya, Thalsar,
Lakhanka and Morchand
Location :
Longitude
Latitude

72
0
1155- 72
0
1500 E
21
0
3600- 21
0
3845 N

72
0
1345- 72
0
1536 E
21
0
3315- 21
0
3600 N

72
0
1330- 72
0
1455 E
21
0
3125- 21
0
3315 N
Total area of lease
(approx.)
13.55 sq.km /1355 ha. 9.14 sq.km / 914 ha. 7.11 sq.km / 711 ha.
Gross Reserves 60.68 million tonne 22.5 million tonne 27.0 million tonne
Mineable Reserve 54.68 million tonne 14.29 million tonne 21.60 million tonne
One mine pit is planned in each block. Over burden dump is planned on additional
land purchased by GPCL. The mining is proposed by mechanised opencast mining
method using conventional mining equipment, hydraulic shovel and dumper combination.
The lignite produced proposed three mines will be transported to common stock yard (near
Khadsaliya-II) by dumpers. There will be no processing of lignite except blending of lignite
from three mines as required before feeding to power plant.
1.4 Project Proponent
The Govt. of Gujarat established the Gujarat Power Corporation Limited (GPCL) in
June, 1990 in association with Gujarat Electricity Board for the purpose of raising
investment in power sector by the private entrepreneurs. The main objective of the Gujarat
Power Corporation include power generation using different fuels and establishing power
stations in various parts of the state by attracting more and more investments from the
private entrepreneurs. For this purpose, the GPCL took up the required process such as
determining suitable location for power station, preparation of technical-financial feasibility
reports, obtaining various sanctions there for, acquiring lands required, inviting proposals
from private entrepreneurs by wide advertisement on international base, calling upon
tenders from the eligible entrepreneurs and to assign the function of developing power
station by making final selection from the applicant institutions. The main objective beyond
it is to invest into power project by this company. Thereafter, main sources of investment in
Chapter 1: Introduction
1.5
power stations shall be from the income of letting necessary machineries of power sectors
or from the income of partnership in power stations.
1.5 Project Benefits
The proposed lignite mines project is planned to extract / produce total 4.0 million
TPY lignite and supply as fuel mainly to the pithead power plant of 500MW capacity with
negligible transportation cost. By developing lignite mines in this area, the distance of the
farthest industrial centre will be shortened by 200 kms. This will directly reduce the diesel
consumption on transportation of lignite to a great extent, which in itself, is in the interest of
the nation. The start of lignite mining activities in this region will not only help the industrial
development but it will also save lignite transportation cost to the consumers. These mining
activities will also open doors for direct and indirect employment opportunity in this drought
effected region of Gujarat state.
1.6 Prior Environmental Clearance Process
The environmental protection is an important and essential requirement in the
developmental process. It shall be duly integrated at every stage in industrial and
economic developments to make them sustainable over long term. In this direction, the
MoEF, Government of India formulated policies, enacted Environment (protection) Act in
1986 and stipulated regulatory procedures governing industrial and other major
developments in the country to prevent and mitigate the potential environmental &
ecological hazards due to indiscriminate exploitation of natural resources. The MoEF made
prior Environmental Clearance (EC) mandatory for certain developmental projects through
its notification dated 27.01.1994. This has been superseded by a fresh notification dated
14.09.2006, which includes scoping of environmental impact assessment study through
Terms of Reference (ToR) approval, in the process of prior environmental clearance for
scheduled development projects (Fig.1.3).
Stage (1) Scoping
Scoping in the case of category A projects, refers to the process by which the
Expert Appraisal Committee (EAC) determine detailed and comprehensive ToR addressing
all relevant environmental concerns for the preparation of Environmental Impact
Assessment (EIA) study report in respect of the identified site as well as proposed project
for which prior environmental clearance is sought.
Stage (2) Public Consultation
Public Consultation refers to the process by which the concerns of local affected
persons and others who have plausible stake in the environmental impacts of the project
Chapter 1: Introduction
1.6
are addressed as appropriate. In general the category A projects are required to
undertake Public consultation. After carrying out EIA study, the project proponent shall
submit the Draft EIA report to the respective State Pollution Control Board (SPCB) for
undertaking public consultation in accordance with the procedure prescribed in MoEF
notification.
Stage (3) Appraisal
Detailed scrutiny of EIA study documents by the EAC of MoEF, (the regulatory
authority). The impact assessment documents include final EIA report, outcome of the
public consultation including public hearing proceedings, reports of special studies etc. as
per approved ToR as submitted by the for grant of Environmental Clearance (EC).
1.7 Approval of Terms of Reference (ToR) for EIA Study
The procedure applicable for category A projects has been followed for proposed
lignite mines projects. As per MoEF notification 2006, in the first stage of scoping, the duly
filled Form-1 covering the brief details about proposed lignite mines project, estimated
usage of natural resources, identified mine sites as well as surrounding environmental
sensitivity, envisaged pollution sources, draft ToR etc. for proposed EIA studies was
submitted to EIA authority at MoEF, Govt. of India for ToR approval.
1.7.1 Proposed Draft ToR for Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)
Preparation of integrated EIA report incorporating one season environmental
baseline data at and around the proposed mine sites, viz. Ghogha-Surka, KhadsaliyaII
and KhadsaliyaI in Bhavnagar district. The study will identify, predict and evaluate the
significant environmental impacts from proposed mines project on existing environment in
the study area buffer zone, i.e. within 10 km radius around the proposed three mines
combined core zone (Fig.1.4). The study shall be carried out as per the relevant
guidelines of Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF), New Delhi.
x Various construction as well as operation activities and other concerned aspects of
the proposed opencast lignite mines project to be examined to identify probable
impacts on surrounding environmental quality, which may result from the project.
The potential environmental impacts of the project will then be predicted based on
the information collected during the site visits, information supplied by Gujarat Power
Corporation Ltd. (GPCL) using appropriate models or suitable analytical techniques
as applicable.

Chapter 1: Introduction
1.7
x The baseline scenario, the potential impacts and their evaluation will be documented
based on above studies and resulting REIA report will be submitted at the end of the
study period.
x Potential mitigative measures will be identified wherever applicable to alleviate
anticipated adverse impacts to an acceptable level. These mitigation measures and
post project environmental monitoring plan to check effectiveness of the EMP will be
documented as an Environmental Management Plan (EMP).
Objectives of the EIA study
x Monitoring pre-project (baseline) status of air, water, land, socio-economic and
biological components of the environment including noise and other parameters of
human interest.
x Identification, quantification, prediction and evaluation of significant impacts of the
proposed terminals using mathematical / simulation models.
x Identification of forest land, agricultural land, waste land, water bodies etc. in the core
zone and surrounding buffer zone through remote sensing studies
x Preparation of an Environmental Management Plan (EMP) to be adopted for
mitigation of anticipated adverse impacts.
x Delineation of the post-project environmental quality monitoring program to be
pursued by GPCL, as per the requirements of the GPCB and MoEF.
Integrated EIA Report Covering One Season Baseline Data
Collection of baseline data with respect to environmental components, viz. air,
noise, water, land, biological and socio-economic components along with the parameters of
human interest, prediction and evaluation of significant environmental impacts and
formulation of detailed environmental management plan.
Work plan under each Environmental Component
Air Environment
x Assessment of existing status of ambient air quality at and around the proposed
lignite mines and design of ambient air quality monitoring network through
appropriate screening models.
x Measurement of 24 hourly concentrations of RSPM (PM
10
), PM
2.5
, SO
2
, NOx, CO
and HC (Methane and Non-methane). Sampling will be carried out round the clock
at each station twice a week during the study period as per MoEF guidelines.
Chapter 1: Introduction
1.8
x Collection of micro-meteorological data, viz. wind speed, wind direction, relative
humidity and temperature.
x Identification, quantification and evaluation of potential atmospheric emissions.
x Prediction of impacts due to atmospheric emissions from proposed open cast
lignite mining activity through application of air quality prediction model, viz.
ISCST-3.
Noise Environment
x Assessment of present status of noise levels within the 10 km radius and
prediction of noise impacts due to proposed opencast mining project in nearby
residential / commercial / silence zones.
x Monitoring of equivalent noise levels due to stationary and mobile sources.
x Identification and recommendation of mitigative measures for noise impacts.
Water Environment
x Study of existing water resources - ground water and surface water bodies with
respect to quantity and quality within 10 km radius of the project site.
x Assessment of impacts on water quality due to the effluents likely to be
discharged from proposed lignite mining project
Land Environment
x Collection of data for studying landuse, cropping pattern, vegetation, forestry,
waste lands etc.
x Studies on soil characteristics around the proposed lignite mine sites
x Estimation of anticipated impacts, if any, on landuse pattern with respect to
agriculture and forestry
x Characterization of solid wastes likely to be generated during site preparation and
opencast mining activities and quantification of impacts and suggestions on
management options for environmentally compatible disposal
Biological Environment
x Collection of baseline information on flora and fauna of the study area.
x Assessment of impacts on flora and fauna due to water pollution and land use
changes, if any.
Chapter 1: Introduction
1.9
x Assessment of likely damage to aquatic flora and fauna due to the mining
activities.
Socio-economic and Health Components
x Study the details of project affected people (PAP) and families (PAF) in the form
of land loosers.
x Collection of baseline data on demography, basic amenities, employment pattern,
population, male to female ratio, distribution pattern under the study area.
x Studies on prominent endemic diseases and mortality rates
x Projection of anticipated changes with respect to above parameters and
delineation of measures to minimise the adverse impacts including corporate
social responsibility (CSR).
x Assessment of places of historical / archaeological importance and aesthetic
impairment due to proposed mining project, if any
x Assessment of economic benefits due to proposed mining project.
Environmental Management Plan (EMP)
x Delineation of environmental control technologies, safeguards, etc. for mitigation
of adverse impacts with due consideration to their cost effectivity.
x Delineation of Environmental Management Plan (EMP) for air, water, noise, land,
biological and socio-economic components based on identification of the
significant impacts and their evaluation.
x Delineation of post-EC / post-project environmental monitoring programme to be
pursued by the project proponent.
1.7.2 MoEF Approved ToR for EIA Study
The duly filled Form-1 in respect of proposed lignite mines were duly scrutinized by
the expert appraisal committee (EAC) for mining sector constituted by MoEF on February
21, 2011. The EAC recommended / directed to prepare an integrated EIA report for
proposed three lignite mines (Ghogha-Surka, Khadsaliya-I and Khadsaliya-II) together
through collection of fresh set of baseline data for one season (non-monsoon). The
committee also recommended special studies related to CRZ, Hydrogeological aspects
with special reference to sea water intrusion potential and envisaged impact in case of
climate change (sea level rise). The approved ToR as given in Table 1.1 has been strictly
followed for undertaking detailed EIA study for proposed mines project to obtain prior
environmental clearance.
Chapter 1: Introduction
1.10

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Chapter 1: Introduction
1.12

























Fig.1.3 : Prior Environmental Clearance Process for Category A Projects

Chapter 1: Introduction
1.13



























Nathugadh
Badi
Budhel
Bhumbli
Bhuteshwar
Ghogha
Hatab
Khadsaliya I
Khadsaliya II
Koliyak
Lakhanka
Mamsa
Padava
Rajpara
Sanodar
Surkha
Thordi
Wavri
Odarka
Tansa
Khadarpar
Panjai
Kantala
Malesari Nadi
Ramdasia Nadi
Padva Pond
Ghogha Pond
Bhawanipura
Pithalpur
Navagam
Ganapura
Goridii
Kareda
Chnaya
Tarasmiya Akvada
Malanka
Avanla
Adhevada
Valukad
Nesvad
Unapadar
Ukharla
Trambak
Bhandaria
Markadi
Kukad
Sasia
Mandva
Jaspara
Tagdi
Malpar
Kabad
Siphan Badi
Nagdhaniba
Valespur
Marchand
Bhainswari
Lakhanka
Thalsar
Alapur
Gundi
Hoidad
Nava Ratanpur
Juna Ratanpur
Rampur
GHOGHA SURKA
K
H
A
D
S
A
L
I
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A

I
I

KHADSALIYA I
1
2
3
4
Fig.1.4 : Proposed Mines Study Area Map showing core zone and buffer zone
Chapter 1: Introduction
1.14
Table 1.1
MoEF Approved Terms of Reference (ToR) for EIA Study and Compliance
(MoEF letter No.J-11015/202/2010-IA.II(M) Dated 23
rd
March, 2011

S.No Approved ToR
Compliances
(All Figures, Tables, Sections & Chapters referred
here are from Draft Report of EIA)
(i) The Committee desired that a map
from a recognised institution should
be furnished whether the project falls
in CRZ (highest tide level) area and in
case it does, clearance from the CRZ
from the Gujarat CZMA would be an
essential pre-requisite for
consideration of the proposal for EC.
CRZ study in project area consisting demarcation of
HHTL and LTL has been done by Space Application
Centre, Govt. of India, Ahmedabad. The proposed
lignite mines nearest distance from HHTL is more than
1000 m (please refer Chapter 3, section 3.1, page #
3.2). The project site is out of CRZ and there will not be
any project activities in CRZ area as per approved
mine plans.
(ii) An integrated EIA-EMP Report should
be prepared for a combined peak
capacity of the three lignite projects
addressing the combined
environmental impacts of the projects
including the aspects of mineral
transportation and issues of impacts
on hydrogeology, plan for
conservation of flora/fauna and
afforestation/ plantation programme.
Baseline data collection can be for
any season except monsoon. The
Committee desired that in view of the
fact that the Notification for NAAQM
standards have been revised, a fresh
baseline one-season data for the
environmental quality may be
generated as per the latest
Notifications.
An integrated EIA-EMP report has been prepared for
Ghogha-Surka, Khadsaliya-II and Khadsaliya-I mine
including all the mentioned aspects. Fresh Base line
data for all environmental components were collected
through field surveys during November, December
2011 and January 2012 (winter season) covering 10
km radial distance around the proposed lignite mines.
The results/observations are presented in Chapter 3.

(iii) The EIA-EMP report should also cover
the environmental impacts and
management plan for the individual
project specific activities and those
activities which have an inter-
connection (transportation of mineral,
power, water, colony, lignite
stockyard, lignite handling plant,
transportation and usage of approach
roads from mine ) and also the
combined impacts of the two projects
on the environment of the region, and
the environmental quality air, water,
land, biotic community, etc. through
collection of baseline data and
information generation on impacts
through prediction modelling.
As per the approved mine plans, the proposed
Ghogha-Surka (2.25 MMTPA), Khadsaliya-II (0.75
MMTPA) and Khadsaliya-I (1.00 MMTPA) lignite mines
will have independent opencast mine pits (one each)
with relevant mining activities and a common stock
yard for the lignite near Khadsaliya-II mine. The lignite
will be transported to nearby pithead power plant by
enclosed conveyor belt. The colony aspects are not
specifically defined. All project activities related to
proposed lignite mines including R&R plan for PAFs,
site specific requirements like diversion of existing
seasonal rivers, canal, road; and OB dumping, top soil
preservation, reclamation of mined areas, tree
plantations and mine closure plans are covered in this
report along with combined impacts and EMP in
Chapters 4 and 5
Chapter 1: Introduction
1.15
(iv) A map specifying locations of the
State, District and Project location.
Project location key map and project site accessibility
maps are included in Chapter 1 as Figs. 1.1 & 1.2 on
page # 1.11 & 1.12
(v) A Study area map of the core zone
and 10km area of the buffer clearly
delineating the major topographical
features such as the land use,
ecologically sensitive areas such as
Biosphere Reserves/National
Parks/WL Sanctuaries/ Elephant
Reserves, forests
(Reserved/Protected), migratory
corridors of fauna, and areas where
endangered fauna and plants of
medicinal and economic importance
are found in the area, surface
drainage of
rivers/streams/nalas/canals, locations
of human habitations, major
constructions including railways,
roads, pipelines, major
industries/mines and other polluting
sources.
Study area map consisting core zone and buffer zone
are depicted in Fig.1.4, Page#1.14 of Chapter 1. As
per survey of India topo sheets (1:50,000 scale) there
is no reserved/protected forest or any ecological
sensitive within areas 15 km radial distance around
proposed lignite mine sites.
(vi) Land use map (1: 50,000 or 100,000)
based on a recent satellite imagery of
the study area may also be provided
with explanatory note of the land use.
The pre-project (baseline) landuse/landcover within the
proposed mine lease areas (core zone) and study area
are delineated through available data from revenue
records as well as by satellite imagery (dt. Of pass)
analysis. Please refer Chapter 3, section 3.2.6,
(page#3.9 to 3.12), Tables 3.2.8 3.2.9 3.2.10
(Page#.3.25 to 3.30), Figs.3.2.2, 3.2.3, 3.2.4, 3.2.5
(Page # 3.1.14, 3.1.15, 3.1.16, 3.1.17)
(vii) Map showing the core zone
delineating the agricultural land
(irrigated and irrigated, uncultivable
land (as defined in the revenue
records), forest areas (as per
records).
There is no forest area in core zone (mine lease
areas). It consists Govt. land, private rainfed agriculture
lands with irrigation borwells, common property of
grazing/pasture land and residential dwellings. Please
refer Chapter 3, section 3.2.6.4 (page#3.11 to 3.12),
Tables 3.2.9, 3.2.10 (Page#.3.29 to 3.30),
Figs. 3.2.4, 3.2.5 ( Page #, 3.1.16, 3.1.17)
(viii) Details of Original land use
(agricultural land/forestland/grazing
land/wasteland/water bodies) of the
area Impacts of project, if any on the
landuse, in particular, area (in ha)
agricultural land/forestland/grazing
land/water bodies falling within the
lease/project and acquired for mining
operations.
As explained in above ToR items vi & viii. Please refer
Chapter 3, section 3.1 and Tables 3.2.1
(Page#.3.18), 3.2.8 (Page#.3.25)
(ix) Contour map at 3 m intervals and Site
plan of the mine showing the various
proposed break-up of the land for
mining operations such as the quarry
area, OB dumps, green belt, safety
zone, buildings, infrastructure, CHP,
ETP, Stockyard, township/colony
The pre-project elevation contour maps of proposed
mine sites in Chapter 2 Figs. 2.3, 2.4, 2.5 (Page #
2.25, 2.26, 2.27). The conceptual mining plan showing
proposed land area for Chapter 2 reclaimed are
depicted in Chapter 2 Fig.2.14, 2.15, 2.16 (Page #
2.36, 2.37, 2.38)
Chapter 1: Introduction
1.16
(within and adjacent to the ML),
undisturbed area and if any, in
topography such as existing roads,
drains/natural water bodies are to be
left undisturbed along with any natural
drainage adjoining the lease/project
and modification of thereof in terms of
construction of embankments/bunds,
proposed diversion/rechannelling of
the water courses, etc., approach
roads, major haul roads, etc.
(x) Break up of lease/project area as per
different land uses and their stage of
acquisition.
Please refer Chapter 2, Section 2.3 (Page # 2.2)
Chapter 3 , Table 3.2.1 (Page#.3.18)
(xi) Break-up of lease/project area as per
mining operations.
Please refer Chapter 2 Section 2.11 (Page 2.21-2.23)
Chapter 4 Section 4.1
(xii) Impact of changes in the land use due
to the start of the combined projects
since much of the land being acquired
is agricultural land.
Please refer Chapter 4
(xiii) Collection of one-season (non-
monsoon) primary base-line data on
environmental quality - air (PM10,
PM2.5, SOx and NOx), noise, water
(surface and groundwater), soil.
Please refer Chapter 3, section 3.2 (Page # 3.6 - 3.8)
Fig. 3.2.1 (Page # 3.13), Table 3.2.2-3.2.6 (page 3.18-
3.22), Section 3.3 (Page # 3.31 to 3.52) , Section 3.4
(Page # 3.53 - 3.59), Section 3.5 (Page # 3.60 - 3.64)
(xiv) Map of the study area (core and buffer
zone clearly delineating the location of
various stations superimposed with
location of habitats, other
industries/mines, pouting sources.
The number and location of the
stations should be selected on the
basis of the proposed impacts in the
downwind (air)/downstream (surface
water)/groundwater regime (based on
flow). One station should be in the
upwind/upstream/non-impact/non-
polluting area as a control station. The
monitoring should be as per CPCB
guidelines and parameters for water
testing for groundwater as per ISI
standards and surface water as per
CPCB guidelines.
The study area map (base map), consisting core zone
and surrounding 5 km, 10 km distance buffer zone, has
been prepared from Survey of India toposheets
(1:50,000 scale), which invariably contain habitats,
roads, sensitive areas etc. The sampling/monitoring
locations for different components of environment are
superimposed over the above mentioned study area
base map. The sampling locations for Land, Water, Air,
Noise, Biology and Socioeconomic are shown in
Figs.3.2.1 (page # 3.13), 3.3.1 (page # 3.36), 3.4.1
(page # 3.56), 3.51 (page # 3.62),, 3.61 (page # 3.70),
and 3.7.1 (page # 3.90). The air quality monitoring was
carried out as per prevailing wind pattern with
representation of background levels. Prescribed
parameters and the respective standard methods were
followed in baseline data monitoring.
(xv) Study on the existing flora and fauna
in the study area carried out by an
institution of relevant discipline and
the list of flora and fauna duly
authenticated separately for the core
and buffer zone and a statement
clearly specifying whether the study
area forms a part of the migratory
corridor of any endangered fauna.
The existing status biological environment (flora and
fauna) has been studied by M/s Kadam Environmental
Consultant, Vadodara, which is duly accredited by
QCI/NABET. Please refer Chapter 3 Section 3.6.3 -
3.6.7 (Page 3.66 - 3.81). The list of Flora and Fauna for
core and buffer zone are presented in Table 3.6.2 &
3.6.6 respectively (Page # 3.72 - 3.81).There is not any
schedule I or endangered species recorded in the
study area. Please refer Section 3.6.6 (Page # 3.68)
Chapter 1: Introduction
1.17
(xvi) Details of mineral reserves, geological
status of the study are and the seams
to be worked, ultimate working depth
and progressive stage-wise working
scheme until end of mine life should
be reflected on the basis of the
approved rated capacity and calendar
plans of production from the approved
Mining Plan. Geological maps should
be included.
The comprehensive details related to lignite reserves,
underground geological strata, ultimate depths of mine
pits etc. are included in respective mining plans
approved by Govt. of India for Ghogha-Surka,
Khadsaliya-II and Khadsaliya-I. the summary of the
individual mine lease area details extracted from
respective mining plans are provided in Chapter 2 of
this EIA report. Please refer Chapter 2 Section 2.4-
2.7(Pages # 2.4-2.16) and Table 2.2 ( Page #2.45)
Table 2.5 - 2.7 (Pages # 2.47-2.49) Fig 2.6-2.7 (Pages
# 2.28-2.29)
(xvii) Details of mining methods,
technology, equipment to be used,
etc. rationale for selection of that
technology and equipment proposed
to be used vis--vis the potential
impacts. The Committee observed
that Khadsaliya block areas could
have a high sulphur and pyrite content
which may require to be addressed at
the EIA stage and if present, a
treatment plant would require to be
established.
The details regarding mining alternatives, proposed
mining technology etc. are given in individual mining
plans approved for Ghogha-Surka, Khadsliya-II and
Khadsaliya-I lignite mines. The extracted gross design
data are included in Chapter 2 of this EIA report.
Please refer Chapter 2 Section 2.6 (Page 2.7-2.10),
Section 2.8 (page 2.16-2.19). The quality of lignite is
presented in Section 2.5.1 (page # 2.6) Table 2.3-2.4
(Page # 2.46).
The impact envisage due to high sulphur content has
been identified in the form of acidic mine drainage,
which shall be treated appropriately (neutralization)
before reuse or final discharge.
(xviii) The Committee noted that a river is
running along the Khadsaliya Blocks.
Impact of mining on hydrology,
modification of natural drainage,
diversion and channelling of the
existing rivers/water courses flowing
though the ML and adjoining the
lease/project and the impact on the
existing users and impacts of mining
operations thereon.
The total mine lease area (3 mines) consist Malesari
nadi, Ramadasia nadi and multiple drains, and an
irrigation canal (all are seasonal) apart from multiple
roads, which require diversions. The details related to
proposed diversions with minimal impacts on neighbour
villages, are given in Chapter 4 section 4.2 (pages #
4.3-4.5).
(xix) Detailed water balance should be
provided. The breakup of water
requirement for each the mine
operations should be given
separately.
The estimated water demand, wastewater generation
including mine pit drainage, necessary treatment and
proposed reuse (water balance) are given in Chapter 4
section 4.4.2 (pages # 4.11-4.16).
(xx) Source of water for use in mine,
sanction of the competent authority in
the State Govt. and impacts vis--vis
the competing users.
Initially water requirement (very low) in the beginning of
proposed mines, is planned to be met from ground
water through road tankers. After commissioning of the
pithead power plant, GPCL propose to share from the
power plant allocation (Net requirement < 300m
3
/day).
However, with the proposed rainwater harvesting at
mining project, it will become positive water balance
apart from contribution to local groundwater recharge.
(xxi) Impact of mining and water
abstraction use in mine on the
hydrogeology and groundwater
regime of within the core zone and
10km buffer zone including longterm
modelling studies on. The Committee
noted that since the ultimate working
depth is 110m bgl, impacts of sea
A detailed hydrogeological study covering impact of
mining on groundwater regime at proposed project, has
been carried out by National Institute of Hydrology,
Roorkee. The summary of study report is included in
Chapter 4, as section 4.4.2.7 (pages # 4.17 to 4.26).
The groundwater modelling results indicate that three
will decline in groundwater level in nearby areas, but
still there will be no possibility of sea water ingress into
aquifers between the mines and seacoast
Chapter 1: Introduction
1.18
water ingress and cutting into
groundwater aquifer shall be studied.
Details of rainwater harvesting and
measures for recharge of groundwater
should be reflected.
(xxii) Impact of blasting, noise and
vibrations.
The entire strata consisting overburden, lignite ans
interburden in proposed mining area (core zone) is soft
in nature and clayey in texture as per the findings in
geotechnical studies. This area does not require any
drilling and blasting for lignite extraction as it can be
directly excavated by only hydraulic excavators. Hence
the blasting impact is not envisaged. Prediction of
noise impacts due to heavy earth movers is provided in
Chapter 4, section 4.4.4 (page # 4.41 4.47)
(xxiii) Impacts of mining on the AAQ,
predictive modelling including ISCT-3
(Revised) or latest model available..
The air quality impacts due to fugitive emissions at
mine pits as well as on haul roads have been predicted
by application Fugitive Dust Model (FDM) and CALINE
4 models. The results are given in Chapter 4, section
4.4.3 (page # 4.32-4.40). As per the prediction results
the AAQ impacts will be insignificant on neighbour
villages from proposed mining activities, which would
be further mitigated through implementation of EMP i.e.
dust suppression, tree plantation/greenbelt
development), slope stabilisation through grass growth
etc.
(xxiv) The Committee desired that the option
of coal evacuation by rail/conveyor
mode instead of by road should be
examined. Impacts of mineral
transportation within and outside the
lease/project along with flow-chart.
Impacts of transportation, handling,
transfer of mineral and waste on air
quality, generation of effluents from
workshop, management plan for
maintenance of HEMM, machinery,
equipment. Details of various facilities
to be provided in terms of parking, rest
areas, canteen, and effluents/pollution
load from these activities.
As per the approved mining plans the total lignite
planned to produce (4.0 MMTPA) at proposed mines
will be transported by closed conveyor belt to adjacent
pithead power plant.
The effluents, mined pits drainage is planned to treat
and reuse at the proposed mines. The infrastructure
facilities as provided in approved mining plans will be
provide by GPCL
(xxv) Details of waste generation OB,
topsoil as per the approved calendar
programme, and their management
shown in figures as well explanatory
chapter with tables giving progressive
development and mine closure plan,
green belt development, backfilling
programme and conceptual post
mining land use. OB dump heights
and terracing should based on slope
stability studies with a max of 28
o

angle as the ultimate slope. Sections
of dumps (ultimate) (both longitudinal
and cross section) with relation to the
adjacent area should be shown.
Please refer Chapter 2, section 2.8.1 (Page # 2.16-
2.17) Table 2.6 (page # 2.48), 2.7 (page #2.49) five
year production on schedule Table 2.9 (page #2.51)
ultimate production capacity and over burden, Fig.2.11-
2.14 (page # 2.33-2.36) and Chapter 4, section 4.4.1
(page # 4.09-4.10)
Chapter 1: Introduction
1.19
(xxvi) Flow chart of water balance.
Treatment of effluents from workshop,
township, domestic wastewater, mine
water discharge, treatment details,
etc. Details of STP in colony and ETP
in mine. Recycling of water to the
max. possible extent.
Estimated wastewater generation, treatment and reuse
for dust suppression and tree plantations along with
water balance details are given Chapter4, section
4.4.2 (pages # 4.11 4.16 ) and Figs. 4.4.1 and 4.4.2
(pages # 4.17 4.19)
(xxvii) Occupational health issues. Baseline
data on the health of the population
and measures for occupational health
and safety of the personnel and
manpower for the mine.
Proposed project is for development of new lignite
mines. The occupational risks and health concerns are
related to mainly land sliding in opencast mining pits,
dumpers, tippers, trucks slippery accidents on haul
roads, OB dump sites etc.. Necessary safety measures
as per DGMS stipulations are to be strictly followed at
proposed mines. A full fledged occupational health
centre/hospital shall be implemented and maintained
as common facility for all three mines, where
pulmonary, bronchial etc. checkups to be regularly
undertaken for the mining workers. Necessary PPEs
will be provided to all workers along with periodical
safety awareness training programmes.
(xxviii) Impact and management of wastes
and issues of rehandling and
backfilling and progressive mine
closure and reclamation.
Preservation of fertile top soil separately and dumping
of OB and inter burden (IB) at pre-identified lease land
initially and after 3
rd
year of mining operations, the land
reclamation using OB/IB and preserved top soil as top
layer tree plantation will be stated progressively
(xxix) Disaster Management Plan. As per approved mine plans, there will be no
storage/handling of explosives/fire hazard prone fuels
at proposed mines. Hence, public/environmental risk
assessment/disaster management plan is not
applicable at proposed mines
(xxx) Integrating in the Env. Management
Plan with measures for minimising use
of natural resources - water, land,
energy, etc.
Please refer Chapter 5, section 5.
(xxxi) Progressive Green belt and
afforestation plan (both in text, figures
as well as in tables) and reasons for
selection of species for the
afforestation/plantation programme.
The progressive land reclamation, tree plantation
details are provided in approved mining plans for
individual mines. Summary is provided in Chapter 2
as well as Chapter 4.
Necessary recommendations regarding CPCB
guidelines, species selection, pre-project plantations in
neighbour villages etc. are included in EMP, i.e.
Chapter 5
(xxxii) Conservation Plan for the
endangered/endemic flora and fauna
found in the study area and for safety
of animals visiting/residing in the study
area and also those using the study
area as a migratory corridor.
The proposed mines lease are (core zone) as well as
surrounding buffer zone does not contain any forest
land/area. Endemic flora are mostly shrub species
except (manmade/anthropogenic) tree plantations in
agriculture fields. The endemic fauna are mainly
related to dairy, agriculture cattle. Necessary measures
like pre-record of species and selection plantation of
local species in land reclamation etc. are included in
EMP, i.e. Chapter 5
(xxxiii) Mine closure issues, post mining land
use and restoration of land to pre-
mining (agricultural use).
The details of progressive land reclamation, tree
plantation and ultimate mine closure plans for individual
mines are included in respective Chapter 2 section
2.11 (Page # 2.21-2.22)
(xxxiv) Including cost of EMP (capital and Please refer Chapter 5, section 5.5 (page # 5.15-
5.16). Budgetary estimates of Capital cost of EMP as
Chapter 1: Introduction
1.20
recurring) in the project cost and for
progressive and final mine closure
plan.
well as recurring costs are given on Page # 5.16
(xxxv) Details of R&R. Detailed R&R Plan
with data on the existing socio-
economic status of the population in
the study area and broad plan for
resettlement of the displaced
population, site for the resettlement
colony, alternate livelihood
concerns/employment for the
displaced people, civic and housing
amenities being offered, etc and the
schedule of the implementation of the
R&R Plan.
A detailed R&R plan has been prepared by Dr.P.K.Das,
Retd. IAS officer based on the socioeconomic status of
project affected families (47). It includes action plan for
implementation through internalization of consultative
process and also monitoring mechanism. The
summary of R&R plan is included in Chapter 4,
section 4.4.6.1 (page # 4.49-4.64)
(xxxvi) Public Hearing should cover the
details of notices issued in the
newspaper, proceedings/minutes of
public hearing, the points raised by
the general public and commitments
made in a tabular form. If the Public
Hearing is in the regional language,
an authenticated English Translation
of the same should be provided.
To be included after completion of public consultation
process by Gujarat state pollution control board
(xxxvii) In built mechanism of self monitoring
of compliance of environmental
regulations.
A full fledged Environmental Management cell along
with necessary infrastructure and out sourcing facilities,
which will be responsible for compliance of conditions,
post project monitoring and environmental regulations
as applicable.
(xxxviii) Status of any litigations/ court cases
filed/pending on the project.
There is no litigations/ court cases filed / pending on the
project
(xxxix) Authenticated English translation of all
material provided in Regional
languages.
To be incorporated after completion of public hearing
and the proceedings to be translated into English
xxxx Copy of clearances/approvals - such
as Forestry clearances, Mining Plan
Approval, NOC form Flood and
Irrigation Dept. (if req.), etc.
There is no forest land involved in the proposed mine
sites, hence forestry clearance is not applicable for
proposed project.




Chapter 2
Project Description

2.1 Need of Proposed Lignite Mines Development
Availability of lignite in Gujarat state has led to the establishment of lignite based
thermal power plants, to ensure uninterrupted power supply to the growing industrial and
agriculture sectors in the state. The discovery of lignite deposits in village Khadsaliya,
Surka, Rampur, Hoidad and its nearby areas in Ghogha and Bhavnagar Talukas of
Bhavnagar District has confirmed the possibility of opening lignite mines to cater to the
need of fuel for lignite based power project and the local industries which are currently
transporting lignite from far away places like Panandhro in Kutch district.
Demand of lignite is increasing at 10-12% in Saurashtra and Kutch regions
because of industrialisation. Lignite demand is increasing also because of new power
projects and cement plants in the coastal belt. To meet this rising demand, GMDC decided
to increase lignite mining capacity in Bhavnagar and Kutch districts. Mining capacity in
Bhavnagar district will be increased from three to five million tones per year.
2.2 Proposed Mining Project
Gujarat Power Corporation Ltd. (GPCL), a Gujarat Government undertaking
company, is developing a lignite based power plant of 2X250 MW capacity at Padva village
Chapter 2: Project Description
2.2

in Bhavnagar district through its joint venture company, i.e. BECL. M/s GPCL plans to
supply lignite to this thermal power plant from proposed Ghogha-Surka, Khadsaliya-I & &
Khadsaliya-II mines.
The proposed Ghogha-Surka mine is designed at 2.25 million TPY, Khadsaliya-I
at 1.00 million TPY and Khadsaliya-II mine at 0.75 million TPY lignite extraction /
production capacity. The respective mine plans incorporate the data corresponding to
recent bore holes drilled by MECL. One single mine pit is designed for each mine to obtain
maximum recovery of lignite. The lignite mining is proposed through mechanised opencast
mining method using conventional mining equipment hydraulic shovel and dumper
combination and transportation of lignite by dumpers to stock yard located at KhadsaliyaII
lease area. The total design capacity of proposed three mines will be 4.0 million TPY lignite
production. There will be no processing of lignite involved, however blending of lignite from
three mines will be carried out before feeding to power plant. The details of the proposed
Ghogha-Surka, Khadsaliya-II and Khadsaliya-I mines are summarized in Table 2.1.
2.3 Proposed Mine Site Leasehold Area
The Mine lease areas of Ghogha-Surka (1355 ha) and Khadsaliya-I (711 ha)
Block falls within the jurisdiction of Ghogha and Bhavnagar talukas of Bhavnagar district
and Khadsaliya-II (914 ha) falls within Bhavnagar taluka. The mining lease area Ghogha-
Surka is located between latitude 21
0
36'00 to 21
0
38'45N and longitude 72
0
11'55 to
72
0
1500E, Khadsaliya-I located between latitude 21
0
31'25 to 21
0
33'15N and longitude
72
0
13'30 to 72
0
1455E and Khadsaliya II in between latitude 21
0
33'15 to 21
0
36'30N and
longitude 72
0
13'40 to 72
0
1525E. These three mine sites (core zone) covers Survey of
India Toposheet Nos.46-C/2, and C/6. The said toposheets falls in restricted area coastal
plain. There is no classified or unclasiified forest land within the mines lease area. The
entire mining area consists of 2154.2693 ha. of private land, 463.9110 ha. of Govt /
Gauchar land and 207.7049 ha. comes under river, road, ponds and nallas.
The proposed Ghogha-Surka lignite mining area has 1140.5296 ha of private
land, 174.2954 ha. of Govt / Gauchar land and 158.6294 ha. of land under river, road and
nallas. The villages coming under this area are Malekvadar, Padva, Badi, Hoidad of
Ghogha Taluka and Rampar, Surka, Alapar and Thordi of Bhavnagar Taluka in Bhavnagar
District. GPCL has acquired entire private land through consent award.
The proposed Khadsaliya-II lignite mining area has 804.4126 ha of private land
and 109.7360 ha. of Govt / Gauchar land. The villages coming under this area are Alapar,
Bhadbhadiya, Hatab and Khadsaliya of Bhavnagar Taluka in Bhavnagar District. GPCL has
Chapter 2: Project Description
2.3

acquired about 36 ha. of private land through consent award. Application for acquisition of
the balance land has been made to the Collector, Bhavnagar, the work is under progress.
The proposed Khadsaliya-I lignite mining area has 209.3271 ha of private land,
179.8796 ha. of Govt / Gauchar land and 49.0755 ha land under road, river and canal. The
villages coming under this area are Khadsaliya, Thalsar and Lakhanka of Bhavnagar
Taluka and Morchand of Ghogha Taluka in Bhavnagar District. GPCL has acquired about
309 ha. of private land through consent award. Application for acquisition of the balance
land has been made to the Collector, Bhavnagar, the work is under progress.
The proposed mine sites are well connected by all weather roads like Lakhanka
to Bhavnagar via Thalsar, Koliyak and Ratanpur villages and Padva to Ghogha (Fig. 2.1).
Bhavnagar, the District Headquarters is about 27 km in the north west of Ghogha-Surka
block, 35 km due south of the Khadsaliya-I block and 29 km in the north west of
Khadsaliya-II block. Bhavnagar city is well connected by state highways and district roads
with the major cities and towns of Gujarat. Bhavnagar is the nearest railway station which
is a terminal for the broad gauge railway line connecting Bhavnagar with Ahmedabad and
Bombay via Dholka and Surendranagar Junction. There is an airport at Bhavnagar and
sea ports at Bhavnagar and Ghogha.
2.3.1 Topography and Drainage Pattern
The proposed mines area in general is an elliptical basin like structure and is
bounded by Gulf of Khambhat in the east side. The other three sides (West, North &
South) are bound by Miocene & Trap formations. The drainage map of the study area is
presented in Fig.2.2 and the contour maps of the three mining area are given in
Figs.2.3,2.4 & 2.5.
Ghogha-Surka
The Ghogha-Surka mine area is in general, plain topography in northern part
while the southern part exhibits undulated topography with low mounds.The maximum
elevation in the lease area varies from minimum 16 m above MSL to maximum 45 m above
MSL (Fig.2.1). The general slope from central part of mine area (core zone) is towards
Malesari river, which flows from west to east direction, bisecting the lease area, and finally
debouching into Gulf of Khambhat. This is a seasonal river and water flow is found only in
rainy season. The sea coast is about 4.5 km in eastern side of the mine site. The canal,
Shatrunji Left Bank canal is running north to south also traverses on the eastern boundary
of mine site. The water flows in this canal only during the summer season.

Chapter 2: Project Description
2.4

Khadsaliya-II
The mine area presents generally plain topography in the eastern part while the
western part exhibits undulating topography with low mounds. The general elevation is in
the range of about 15-60 m above MSL. The general slope of the area is towards east.
Seasonal nallahs and the Shatrunji Left Bank (SLB) canal pass through the lease area in
the eastern part. The Ramdasiya nadi traverse through south east corner of mine lease
area. The Ramdasiya is a seasonal river, which becomes active during monsoon period
only. The SLB canal is bisecting the lease in north-south direction.
Khadsaliya-I
The Khadsaliya-I mine site, in general, is undulated terrain except the northern
part where there are cultivated fields due to plain topography. A number of rock outcrops
stand out as small mounds in the area. The maximum elevation in the lease area is 48.11
m and the minimum elevation is 19.20 m above MSL. The general slope of the ground is
towards east direction, i.e. Gulf of Khambhat. The Ramdasia river in northern part and
some nallahs traverse through the block and discharge in to Gulf of Khambhat. The river
as well as nallahs are seasonal and flows only during the rainy season. The Shatrunji Left
Bank canal is in eastern part of lease area and flowing on north to south through the block.
The canal only runs during the summer season. The Arabian sea coast (Gulf of Khambat)
is about 3 km in eastern side of the lease area.
2.4 Geology
2.4.1 Regional Geology
The geology of the region exhibits part of saurashtra peninsula which is bounded
by sea on all sides except north-east where it is flanked by alluvium plains of Gujarat main
land. In brief, about 65% of the peninsula is covered by basaltic lava flows (Deccan trap).
The upper Mesozoic sediments overlains the trap in the Northern part of peninsula. At the
coastal fringe, the traps underlie the tertiary/quarternary sediments.
The earlier exploration was carried out by the State Department of Geology and
Mining (DGM). The geological formation exposed in and around the area, reveals that the
lignite is confined to Khadsaliya clays of the lower tertiary group (Eocene Age) underline by
supratrappeans (lithomergic clay) of the lower Eocene and Deccan trap of the upper
cretaceous age. The lignite bearing Khadsaliya clays underlies the variegated/greasy
clays, sandstone, marls and conglomerates of Gaj formation belonging to the Lower
Mioceneperiod. The following generalized geological sequence has been projected by
earlier workers based on different studies :
Chapter 2: Project Description
2.5

Formation Lithology Age

Recent deposits Soil & Alluvium coastal Recent & subrecent
dunes & beach sands
------------------------------------------------ Unconformity -------------------------------------------
Agate conglomerate Agate bearing Pleistocene to sub-recent
(Lakhanka formation) conglomerate
ferrugeneous sandstones
and loose sand
------------------------------------------------ Unconformity -------------------------------------------
Piram beds Fossiliferous Uppermost Miocene to
conglomerates grits and Pliocene
sandy clays.
----------------------------------------- Unconformity-------------------------------------------------
Gaj formation Variegated shales with Lower Miocene
gypsum veinlets,
sandstones marls and
conglomerates
------------------------------------------------ Unconformity -------------------------------------------
Khadsaliya clays Grey to greenish grey Eocene (?)
clays sandstone, lignite
with or without siderite
nodules.
------------------------------------------------ Unconformity -------------------------------------------
Supratrappean Bentonite, laterite and Lower Eocene
reworked bentonitic clays
Deccan Trap Plutonic masses and Cretaceous to Eocene
dykes intrusive in the trap flows
2.4.2 Local Geology
Locally, the geology of the Ghogha-Surka area is obscured by thick cover of black
cotton soil except few exposures of clays which are observed in nallah cuttings. However,
the KhadsaliyaI area is obscured by thick cover of Red Soil/ lateritic soil except isolated
exposures of weathered sandstone in the southern part of the block and the KhadsaliyaII
is covered with a thin cover of black cotton soil, exposures of sandstone are observed in
the western part of the lease area. The information about the litho units, gathered during
the course of drilling and from the surface geological mapping in the area is given in Table
2.2. The lignite bed in the Khadsaliya-I and Khadsaliya-II area extends in strike length in
NW-SE direction having width of about 1.5 km. The gradient of lignite seams vary from 8
to 4 towards sea. The geological cross sections constructed based on the available
borehole logs for the three mines are given in Fig.2.6 and Fig.2.7. The figure indicates
that the thickness of Khadsaliya clay is more in the northern side where as it is less in the
southern and eastern sides.
Chapter 2: Project Description
2.6

2.5 Lignite Reserves at Proposed Mine Sites
Lignite of Ghogha-Surka is blackish in colour, texturally uniform and exhibits
presence of resin. It crumbles due to loss of moisture in a very short period. The
exploration carried out in Ghogha-Surka lignite block has indicated the presence of only
one lignite horizon which occurs enveloped with in greenish grey clay of the Eocene age.
The shallowest occurrence of lignite seam is observed in the central part, whereas the
deepest intersections were observed in the south eastern part of the block. The minimum
and maximum thickness of lignite intersected in boreholes is 0.08 m) and 11.95 m
respectively. However, the average thickness of lignite horizon is 6.02 m.
Khadsaliya-II lignite deposit has a three seams namely seam -I, seam - II &
bottom seam. Seam-I is not fully developed over the entire area, it has been observed in
five boreholes. The thickness of seam varies from 0.4 m to 2.10 m. a frequent thickness
range is between 1m to 2 m. Seam-II is a middle seam and found to be developed to major
part of the block. It is the thickest and consistent seam. The extreme thickness is varies
from 0.6 m to 7.7 m. The frequent thickness variation is in the range of 2 m to 6 m. The
bottom seam is a designated as a local seam because of its development mostly in
western part of the block. Local seam occurs below seam-II with a parting of grey /greenish
grey clay varying in thickness between 1.6 m to 8 m.
KhadsaliyaI block has a four lignite seams namely seam-I, seamII, seamIII &
seam-IV. Seam-I is generally consisting of a single lignite seam. The extreme variation in
the thickness of seam in from 1.00 m to 8.60 m, the average thickness is 3.35 m. seam-I is
developed in 109 boreholes. Seam-II is a middle seam and found to be developed in major
part of the block. This horizon occurs with a parting about 20-22 m below seam-I. The
extreme thickness of this seam varies between 0.10 m minimum to 8.77 m maximum. The
average thickness is 2.92 m, seamII is developed in 66 boreholes. SeamIII will be
developed only in the southern part of the block as a small patch. The seam occurs below
seam-II. The thickness of the seam varies from 0.28 m to 4.74 with an average of 1.31 m.
The seamIV is found in scattered patches.The extreme thickness of this seam estimated
between 1.00 m to 3.65 m. The average thickness is 2.01 m.
2.5.1 Quality of Lignite
Lignite occurring in the area is dark brown in colour, uniform in texture,
amorphous and consolidated in nature with specks of resin, pyrite, marcasite and rarely
amber. Lignite lump on exposure to atmosphere develops cracks and crumble into small
pieces due to loss of moisture.
Geophysical methods have been adopted for borehole logging. The geophysical
Chapter 2: Project Description
2.7

logging was taken up for the precise delineation of various litho units along with geological
interpretations. All the borehole cores were geologically logged and systematic sampling of
lignite, carbonaceous shale and other litho units in overburden was carried out.
The results of proximate analysis, calorific value, ultimate analysis and the
general range of various constituents in lignite ash of the three mines are presented in
Table 2.3 and Table 2.4 respectively.
2.6 Type of Mining
The boundary of a particular mining field is generally delineated by existing
geological and geographical factors. It is necessary to work out the best shape for the mine
in such a field where a maximum mineral quantity can be mined with minimum area
occupied for the end slopes of the mine. This reduces the working ratio of overburden to
mineral.
Lignite beds show very gentle deep along with swelling and pinching
characteristic in the formation of the lignite seam. However, further a trend is observed that
lignite thickness decreased suddenly at some point. One fault has been tentatively
interpreted. This fault is having varying tendency throw and directions. This fault has been
interpreted based on following assumption.
a. Omission or reduction in thickness of correlating lignite seam in a borehole.
b. Sudden change of datum of lignite horizon. This falls are normally gravity fault.
Geological and mineable reserve has been estimated using datamine software
based on borehole information provided by GPCL (CGM and MECL exploration report). The
gross geological reserve established for Ghogha-surka, Khdasaliya-II and Khadsaliya-I is
60.68, 22.5 & 27.0 million tonnes and mineable reserves is 54.68,14.29, and 21.60 million
tonnes respectively. Criteria for mineable reserves are given in Table 2.5.
For Khadsaliya-I the strategy is planned by M/S GPCL to extract lignite beneath
the common lease boundary between KhadsaliyaI and KhadsaliyaII mines as both mines
belonging to M/S GPCL, at later on stage as mining progress towards the common
boundary. This increases the mineable lignite by 0.9 million tonnes and the overburden
required to be removed will be 12 million M
3
. In case of Khadsaliya-II it is planned to extract
lignite from the common lease boundary with M/S GHCL, later on mining is proposed from
North West side of lease boundary. Extraction of lignite beneath common lease boundary
may increase the mineable reserves and also increase the life of mine.
Studying the boreholes litho units, it is observed that the roof of lignite seam is
having strata of soft nature and having tendency to collapse. Hence the underground mining
Chapter 2: Project Description
2.8

method is not applicable therefore it is proposed to extract the lignite by mechanized
opencast method using conventional mining equipment such as hydraulic excavator/shovel
in combination with matching capacity dumpers along with auxiliary equipment such as
dozer, water sprinkler, road grader etc. Based on nature of strata observed in borehole litho
units and its physical characters; Since the overburden strata are soft in nature, proposed
mining does not require any blasting.
2.6.1 Opencast Mining Technology Alternatives
Variant 1 : Conventional Shovel-Dumper Technology
In this variant all waste and lignite is excavated by shovels and transported to the
dump and stock pile respectively by dumpers. The shovel-dumper technology is a proven
equipment concept for the opencast mining used in mines word wide. The size and
capacity of the excavator and dumper kept well matching for the targeted production.
Advantages :
x The shovel-dumper technology offers the most flexible solution for excavation
and transport of waste and lignite under the specific conditions of the project.
x Shovel & dumper can be procured much faster than any other main mining
equipment.
x The shovel-dumper technology is a proven equipment concept for Indian
conditions of operation and maintenance.
Disadvantages
x Dumpers operation costs are higher compared to continuous mining with
conveyor transport.
x Replacement of dumper is required after every 7-10 year of operation (25000-
30000 effective operation hours).
x Extensive haul road preparation is required especially during the rainy season.
Variant 2 : Dragline
The dragline is an proven discontinuously working opencast mining equipment
with economical advantages if the geometry of the mine permits a technical application.
The machines combines the mining processes excavation, transport and dumping and
therefore represents the most economical mining equipment. It has been developed for the
so-called stripping mining operation.

Chapter 2: Project Description
2.9

Advantages
x The drag line is an easy to handle and robust machine with high availability.
x Dragline operation is the cheapest way of mining in opencast mines.
x The need of workshop and maintenance facilities operation to relatively small.
Disadvantages
x The dragline has limitation for less overburden than 10 mts.
x The dragline cannot be operated where lignite seams are more than one.
x Dragline cannot be operated for interburden between two lignite seams having
thickness less than 5 mts.
x Selective dumping of waste with dragline is not possible.
Variant 3 : Surface Miner
The surface miner is machine which has been developed mainly for road repair
and continuous selective mining of hard and semi hard material.
Advantages
x Excellent performance in small segment of continuous surface mining of hard
and semi hard material with a digging range of few centimeters to 5 m.
x High flexibility and maneuverability in combination with trucks as well as
conveyors.
x High cutting rates can be achieved even in hard material without drilling and
blasting.
x Short loading time of trucks compared to loaders.
Disadvantages
x The machines are developed for hard material. But where the material is soft
and sticky in nature the efficiency of machine reduce considerably.
x The large number of machines are required were selective mining is to be
carried out for extraction of ore and waste.
x The machine is more costly as compared to hydraulic shovel and front-end-
loader respectively.

Chapter 2: Project Description
2.10

Variant 4: Shovel/trucks combination with semi mobile feeders and conveyors
In this variant all waste and coal is excavated by shovels and transported to feed
point of semi mobile feeder or conveyor nearer to the working face. From there the waste is
conveyed by the conveyor to a spreader on the dump and the coal is transported to the
stockpile.
This method is more effective were opencast mines are dip seated and were
large volume of ore or overburden is to be handled.
Advantages
x The use of semi -mobile in pit feeders conveyors significantly reduces the
required number of dumper at mine.
x Transport costs of conveyor operation are less than trucks (dumper) transport
costs.
x Reduced number of trucks results in smaller workshop and maintenance
facilities.
Disadvantages
x Higher initial investment is required for the feeders and conveyors.
x Sticky material causes jamming of material flow at the feeders and conveyor
transfer points.
x Extensive haul road preparation is required especially during the rainy season.
x It increases to maintain the additional work of for conveyors and feeders.
x It requires additional preparation for the lay out of conveyors and feeders near
to loading points.
The best economical mining method is using hydraulic excavator and dumper
combination on contractual bases, which reduced the initial investment and also
economical to extract thin seam of lignite with out contamination of shale or other waste
material.
In absent of geo-mechanical study of the area, the bench geometry practiced in
GHCL mine is considered in planning. The average gradient of haul road shall not be
exceeding 1 in 16 at any place. The haul road shall be maintained always in good condition
with the help grader and dozer. The opencast working shall be carried out by forming
suitable size benches of 5 m in height and progressive width around 5 to 20 m during the
working of the pit. The details of working benches for all the three mines are summarized in
Chapter 2: Project Description
2.11

Table 2.6. However slope stability studies may be carried out by GPCL. Based on study
report the bench height can be increased.
2.7 Planned Mining Progress (first five years)
While designing initial mine cut (IMC) the following factors were considered
To open up lignite seam in most shorter period in most safe manner.
Minimum lead for OB handling at the surface for overburden dumps.
Favourable logistic support for lignite off take from the mines at the surface.
Optimum blocking of lignite reserves for initial five years to meet the optimum
capacity from mines.
Considering the above factors the most suitable location for the initial mine cut for
Ghogha-Surka is at coordinate Easting 8476.7 and Northing 9893.8 and near borehole no
499 at surface RL 34.9 m., for Khadsaliya II is at coordinate Easting 11638 and Northing
4987 and near borehole MKS 42 at surface RL 42.28 m and for Khadaliya-I at coordinate
Easting 11685 and Northing -5.020 and near borehole B-1 at surface RL 33.53 m. The
surface plan of Ghogha-Surka, KhadsaliyaII and Khadsaliya-I are presented in Fig.2.8,
2.9 & 2.10 respectively. The design parameters for the three mines are summarized below:
Parameteres Ghogha-Surka Khadsaliya-II Khadsaliya-I
Surface RL from where the ramp will
start
34.00mRL 42.28 mRL 36.10 mRL
RL at which the ramp will touch the
lignite top
-4.90 mRL -6 mRL -7.79 mRL
Ramp gradient
1:16 1:16 1:16
Ramp site slope
78.69
0
63
0
63.4
Total inclined length of the ramp
496.5 m 478 m 463.88 m
Planned length of the ramp
495.5 m 430 m 453.86 m
Ghogha-Surka
The first year production to be achieved is 2.00 million tonnes and overburden
removed is 17.01 million m
3
. The depth of the pit shall be 80 m from the surface and it will
reach upto -45 mRL. The maximum length, width of the pit shall be 1109 metres and 897
metres respectively. The area excavated in the first year shall be 58.69 ha. The total area
degraded due to mining pit operations up to end of first year will be 58.69 ha.
In the second year the depth of pit shall be 90 m from the surface and it will reach
upto - 56.0 mRL. The maximum length and width of the pit will be 1286 m and 1113 m
respectively. The total area degraded due to expansion of mine pit up to end of second
year will be 98.7 ha. The production achieved in second year is 2.25 million tonnes. The
Chapter 2: Project Description
2.12

area excavated in the second year shall be 40.1 ha. The estimated Overburden removal
will be 25.18 million m
3
.
During third year the pit shall be widened and the maximum length & width of pit
shall be 1648 m and 1545 m respectively. The excavation area of the pit during third year
shall be 32.5 ha. The total area degraded due to mine working up to end of third year will
be 131.2 ha. The depth of the pit shall be 115 m from the surface and the bottom of the pit
shall be -81 mRL. The production of lignite shall be 2.25 million tonnes and overburden
removed is 18.22 million m
3
during this year. Partly in pit dumping will be started and
quantity of accommodate in pit dumping will be 3.1 million tonnes. The area of backfilled
overburden will be 14.6 ha.
The size of pit shall be extended up to 1821 metres (length) and 1640 metres
(width) in 4
th
year. The excavated area during 4
th
year shall be 30.0 ha. Total area
degraded due to mine working pit at the end of 4
th
year will be 161.2 ha. The maximum
depth of the pit shall be 115 m from the surface and the bottom RL of the pit floor shall be -
81 mRL. Area to be backfilled at the end of 4
th
year shall be 68.5 ha.
In Fifth year the size of pit shall be extended up to 2003 m (maximum length) and
1430 m (maximum width). Area excavated in the 5
th
year shall be 6.5 ha. The depth of the
pit from the surface shall be 121 m and bottom RL of the pit at the end of 5
th
year shall be -
87 mRL. Total in pit dumping of overburden will occupy an area of 107.36 at end of 5
th

year.
Khadsaliya-II
The first year production achieved is 0.41 million tonnes and overburden removed
is 13.47 million m
3
. The depth of the pit shall be 80 m from the surface and it will reach
upto -22 mRL.The maximum length, width of the pit shall be 670 m and 470 m respectively.
The area excavated in the first year shall be 33.10 ha. The area degraded due to outside
dump will be 47.56 ha in first year. The total area degraded due to mining operations will
be 80.66 ha.
The depth of pit shall be 94 m from the surface and it will reach upto - 37 mRL in
the second year of mining . The maximum length and width of the pit will be 920 m and 670
m respectively. The area degraded due to mine working will be 62.22 ha. The production
achieved in second year is 0.75 million tonnes. The area excavated in the second year
shall be 29.12 ha and overburden removed is 14.34 million m
3
. The area degraded due to
outside dump during the 2
nd
year shall be 49.22 ha. The total area degraded due to
overburden dumps will be 96.78 ha.
Chapter 2: Project Description
2.13

During third year of mining the pit shall be widened and maximum length, width of
pit shall be 1130 m and 670 m respectively. The excavation area of the pit during year shall
be 13.65 ha. The area degraded due to mine working will be 75.87 ha. The depth of the pit
shall be 98 m from the surface and the bottom of the pit shall be -41 mRL. The production
of lignite shall be 0.75 million tonnes and overburden removed is 8.88 million m
3
during this
year. The in-pit dumping of overburden will be carried out in 3
rd
year onwards. The area
reclaimed due to in-pit dumping in 3
rd
year will be 28.77 ha.
The size of pit shall be extended upto 1380 m (length) and 670 m (width) in the 4
th

year. The area excavated during 4
th
year shall be 15.43 ha. The total area degraded due to
mining operation up to end of fourth year will be 91.30 ha. The bottom depth of the pit shall
be 107 m from the surface and the bottom RL of the pit will be -50 mRL. Area backfilled
during the fourth year shall be 21.01 ha. However total area reclaimed due to in pit
dumping of overburden on de-coal area at end of fourth year will be 49.78 ha. The
production of lignite shall be 0.75 million tonnes and overburden removed is 10.35 million
m
3
during this year .
In the fifth year the size of pit shall be extended upto 2390 m (maximum length)
and 1360 m (maximum width). Area excavated in the 5
th
year shall be 17.05 ha. The total
area degraded due to mining operation up to end of fifth year will be 108.35 ha. The depth
of the pit from the surface shall be 109 m and bottom RL of the pit at the end of 5
th
year
shall be -52 mRL. The production of lignite shall be 0.75 million tonnes and overburden
removed is 6.92 million m
3
during this year. The area reclaimed due to backfilling of
overburden during 5
th
year will be 12.29 ha. However total area reclaimed due to in pit
dumping of overburden on de-coal area at end of fifth year will be 62.07 ha.
Khadsaliya-I
The first year production to be achieved is 1 million tonnes and overburden
removed is 9.14 million m
3
. The depth of the pit shall be 59.0 m from the surface and it will
reach up to -17.0 mRL. The maximum length, width of the pit shall be 652 m and 580 m
respectively. The area excavated in the first year shall be 35.76 ha. The area degraded
due to mining operations will be 35.76 ha.
The depth of pit shall be 67.0 m from the surface and it will reach up to 25 mRL
in the second year of mining. The maximum length and width of the pit will be 931 m and
586 m respectively. The area degraded due to mine working will be 15.34 ha. The
production in second year will be 1.0 million tonnes. The area excavated in the second
year shall be 15.34 ha and overburden removed is 6.69 million m
3
.
However during third year, Mining pit shall be widened and the maximum length,
Chapter 2: Project Description
2.14

width of pit shall be 1086 m and 700 m respectively. The excavation area of the pit during
the year shall be 17.26 ha. The area degraded due to mine working will be 17.26 ha. The
depth of the pit shall be 69.0 m from the surface and the bottom of the pit shall be -27 mRL.
The production of lignite shall be 1.0 million tonnes and overburden removed is 6.84 million
m
3
during this year.
The size of pit shall be extended up to 1132 (maximum length and 840 m
(maximum width) in the 4
th
year. The total excavated area during 4
th
year shall be 15.68 ha.
The bottom depth of the pit shall be 85 m from the surface and the bottom RL of the pit
shall be -29 mRL. Area to be backfilled in the year shall be 27.41 ha.
In fifth year of mining the size of pit shall be extended up to 1132 m (maximum
length) and 995 m (maximum width). Area excavated in the 5
th
year shall be 11.99 ha. The
depth of the pit from the surface shall be 72.0 m and bottom RL of the pit at the end of 5
th

year shall be -30 mRL. Area to be rack filled in the year shall be 7.16 ha.
The details of first five year production schedule for all the three mines and pit
dimensions are given in Table 2.7.
2.7.1 Estimated Life of Proposed Mines
Every care has been taken while designing the mining block to optimize the
mineable lignite reserves with a view of conservation considering the higher stripping ratio
of lignite to overburden up to 1 : 9.32, for Ghogha-Surka, 1: 23.26 for Khadsaliya-II and 1 :
8.81 for Khasdsaliya-I. Wherever required a sufficient working space is provided at the
bottom for move ability of manpower & machineries by removal of extra overburden in non
lignite bearing area. This will help in designing and planning regular systematic pit
reclamation of mine in actual course of mining.
Description Ghogha-Surka Khadsaliya-II Khadsaliya-I
Total geological reserves
within the lease area
(in million tones)
60.68 22.5 25.0
Mineable lignite reserve
(in million tones)
54.86 14.29 21.60
Overall stripping ratio
(Lignite :OB)
1:9.32 1: 23.26 1:8.81
Average thickness of
lignite ( m)
6.02 3.64 6.5
Average thickness of OB
including Interburden (m)
61.58 62.07 49.70

Chapter 2: Project Description
2.15

The lignite will be used at the power plant after blending the lignite produced from
Ghogha-Surka and KhadsaliyaI & Khadsaliya-II to maintain the calorific value of lignite
feed and also with a view of conservation. Accordingly the life of mines has been worked
out as 25, 22 and 20 years for Ghogha-Surka and KhadsaliyaI & Khadsaliya-II
respectively. The life of Khadsaliya-II mine is 20 years but the life of power plant is
considered as 25 years. If common boundary between GHCL and GPCL is extracted later
on, the life of mine may increase. The life of mine also depends on the power plant
consumption and performance.
2.7.2 Backfilling & Reclamation
As the excavation advances, the space will be created in the mines, which will be
economical for placing the overburden and subsequently reclamation of land will be carried
out.
The quantity proposed for Ghogha-Surka during the first five year of the mining
for the inside dumping are 18.22, 13.85, 13.09 million m
3
for third, fourth and fifth years
respectively, for Khadsaliya-II 8.88,10.35, 6.92 million m
3
for third, fourth and fifth years
respectively and for Khadsaliya-I the proposed quantity are 6.41 and 4.90 million m
3
for
fourth and fifth year respectively.
Reclamation of mined out area is proposed to be commenced partly in third year
and continue till end of mine life. The mined out area is proposed to be backfilled by
overburden removal in a systematic manner. The bench height in backfilled area shall be
kept 10- 20 m and berm between the two benches will be more than bench height for the
said movement of dumpers.
Proposed Reclamation
Ghogha-Surka Khadsaliya-II Khadsaliya-I
Up to end of 5
th
year 107.4 ha 62.07 ha 34.57 ha
Up to life of mine 912.30 ha (25
th
year) 517.91 ha (20
th
year) 517.91 (20
th
year)
The backfilling will partially start from 3rd year and continue up to end of the mine
life. The proposed mine pit position at the end of 5
th
year of Ghogha-Surka and
Khadsaliya-I and 4
th
year of Khadsaliya-II mines are presented in Fig.2.11, 2.12 & 2.13).
The backfilled area shall be blanketed with the top soil which is encountered during mining
operations, initially topsoil is to be stacked separately for two years then top soil will be
spread and outside dumps. The mined out area is proposed to be backfilled reclaimed and
converted back to grass land or agriculture land (Fig.2.14, 2.15, 2.16). The overall
Chapter 2: Project Description
2.16

reclamation details up to the end of life proposed for all the three mines are presented in
Table 2.8.
2.8 Machineries
The mining is proposed by open cast method using hydraulic excavator and
dumper combination with the auxiliary equipment. The total overburden to be removed up
to the end of mine life is 511.36, 332.3 and 190.47 million m
3
and lignite extraction ell be
54.86, 14.29, 21.60 million tonnes. The average annual production of lignite from all the
three mines will be blend together and feed to the power plant after blending.
Loading Equipments -
(a) 6.0 m
3
Hydraulic backhoe Excavator
6.0 m
3
bucket capacity will excavate 500 m
3
/hr.
Capacity per annum considering
3 shifts working = 500x300x6x3.0
= 27,00,000 m
3
/year
(b) Hydraulic backhoe excavator of 2.5 m
3
annual capacity
2.5 m
3
bucket capacity : 200 m
3
/hr.
will excavate

Annual capacity = 200x 300x6x2
= 7,20,000 m
3
/annum
(c) Hydraulic excavator 1.0 m
3
bucket capacity
1.0 m
3
bucket capacity excavator will excavate
Annual capacity = 60 x 300 x 6 x 2 = 2,16,000 m
3

2.8.1 Over Burden
Mechanized open cast mining method by using conventional mining machinery
(HEMM) using a combination of hydraulic shovels (excavator) and dumpers in association
with ancillary equipments like dozer, motor grader, water sprinkler, fuel browser etc is
selected as mining method .The strata being soft and clayey in nature, can easily be
excavated directly and loaded into the dumpers and does not require any blasting.
To handle a large volume of OB, higher capacity hydraulic excavators with a
bucket capacity ranging from 2.8 m
3
to 6.0 m
3
, 2.5 m
3
to 6.0 m
3
and 1.0 m
3
to 6.0 m
3
will be
required by Ghogha-Surka, Khadsaliya-II and Khadsaliya-I respectively. The OB excavated
will be stacked separately on surface as OB waste dump.
Similarly the top soil having a varying thickness up to 0.3 m to 0.5 m, 1.2 m and
Chapter 2: Project Description
2.17

0.5 m will be stacked separately on the surface in Ghogha-Surka, Khadsaliya-II and
Khadsaliya-I respectively.
The OB as well as top soil dump sites were selected on non lignite bearing area.
The height of the top soil dump benches shall be 5.0m above ground level. However the
height of overburden dump will be 60 m above the surrounding ground level. But the
permission shall be obtained from DGMS. Partly backfilling will be commenced from 3
rd

planned year. However from 4
th
year onward, the OB so generated will be back filled in the
void created in the mining pit. Ultimate Production Capacity and Overburden of the
Ghogha-Surka , Khadsaliya-II and Khadsaliya-I lignite Mine are presented in Table 2.9.
For Ghogha-Surka lignite mine the OB overburden will be excavated by 6.00 m
3
,
excavator and directly loaded in to 50 tonners dumper. The average lead from dumping
site to working faces is 2.5 to 3.0 km. It is estimated to have 6 no.s of 50 tonners dumpers,
with capacity of 6 m
3
excavator each. However one no. 2.8 m
3
excavator will be used to
clean the lignite benches either by removal overburden or intercalation, which in turn will
reduce the lignite losses and improves quality of lignite. The conceptual mining plan of
Ghogha-Surka , Khadsaliya-I and Khadsaliya-II is presented in Figs. 2.14, 2.15 & 2.16.
However in Khadsaliya-II Initially the large volume of OB will be handled and
removed at surface OB dump as shown in Fig.2.15 and backfilling into the pit, involving
2.5 km to 3.00 km lead. For large size hydraulic excavator (6 m
3
), 50 tonne dumpers are
proposed for this purpose. Considering matching combination of 7 nos. of 50 tonners
dumpers with one no. of hydraulic excavator (6.0 m
3
), then 58 nos. of 50 tonners dumpers
are required.
The large volume of overburden from Khadsaliya-I will be removed initially and
dumped on the surface for the first 3 years. For hydraulic excavator of 6.00 m
3
and 4.5 m
3
the matching size dumper of 50 tonners and 35 tonners respectively will be used for
transportation of overburden. The average 5 dumpers are proposed for every excavator for
lead of 2.5 km to 3.00 km.
2.8.2 Lignite
Lignite being soft in nature can be easily excavated with the help of hydraulic
excavator without using blasting technique. It is proposed to load the lignite with the help of
small capacity of 1.0 m
3
bucket capacity excavator directly into the dumpers of 18 tonnes,
were the lignite seam thickness is less then 0.5 m otherwise 2.5 m
3
bucket capacity will
load the lignite directly in to the dumpers.
Chapter 2: Project Description
2.18

Haul Road: Haul road is so designed so as to have minimum turnings and shall have a
minimum width of 15 m and gradient of 1:16 is provided. Proper drain shall be provided
and maintained along the haul road so as to keep haul road always in good condition and
dry at all the time. Motor grader shall be used for the grading of the road. It is
recommended to spray water on the haul road to suppress the dust generated due to
movement of haulers with the help of water sprinkler.
Benches: In the absence of geo-technical study for the strata consisting of OB, lignite and
inter burden, the information derived from borehole litho units are soft and clayey in nature
and have low comprehensive strength, the presence of clay may affect the stability of
bench with change in moisture content. The depth of pit is also more as such gentle pit
slope in the working areas will be necessary. The bench parameters are also governed by
the sizes of excavator and hauling equipment used. The bench parameters have been
assumed from safe slope stability point of view at greater depth. However, in case of
necessity GPCL may carryout the geo-technical studies of the site and recommendation of
such studies shall be implemented and accordingly bench parameters will be adopted by
GPCL.
In Ghogha-Surka mining the lignite shall be excavated by 2.8 m
3
and 1.00 m
3

excavator capacity and directly loaded in to 18 tonners dumper. Dumper will transport the
lignite to stacked yard located in Khadsaliya-II mine before feeding to the power plant. The
lignite stacking site is located 7 to 8 km in south of direction of lease area near village
Padva. It is proposed to have 12 and 5 no of dumpers with each excavator, loading
capacity of 2.8 m
3
and 1 m
3
.
Normal material required such as fuel shall be transported to the machines
through fuel bowser. Maintenance van shall be utilized for the repairs of breakdown
machineries in the opencast workings.
Khadsaliya II and Khadsaliya I Lignite will be loaded directly into the dumper of 18
tonnes capacity and transported to the surface at the stock yard located near power plant
site (Padva village) as shown in Fig.2.17 . The lignite from the three mines namely Surka-
I, Khadsaliya I & II will be brought and blending of lignite will be carried out to maintain
the calorific value of 2600 to 2700 kcal/kg and feed to the lignite feeder from where it will
be transported by conveyor to power plant stock yard. It is also planned to maintain the
sufficient stock during the monsoon period. Average distance of stock yard will be 3 to 4
km from the working faces of the Khadsaliya II pit. It has been assumed that 10 dumpers of
18 tonner will be required with 1 excavator of 2.5 m
3
then the total 18 tonner dumpers
required are 30 in numbers. The excavator of 1 m
3
capacity will be use to excavate thin
Chapter 2: Project Description
2.19

lignite seams of 0.3 to 0.5 m. with the combination of 18 tonner dumpers. Hence total
requirement of 18 tonner rear dumper will be 35 for each of the mines.
Based on calculation the details of machinery (loading, hauling and Ancillary)
required for first five years are given in Tables 2.10, 2.11 and 2.12.
2.8.3 Mineral Beneficiation
The lignite is generally used directly as a solid fuel for the boilers in power plants
to generate the steam. However, lignite can be upgraded if it is not usable directly. For the
lignite produced at proposed mines no upgradation will be necessary as it can be used
without any processing. However, the crushing of lignite shall be carried out after blending
lignite from all three mines to maintain the quality of lignite feed to the power plant.
2.9 Infrastructure
Gujarat Power Corporation Ltd, a Govt. of Gujarat Enterprise will operate this
mine and create infrastructure facilities. These will include provisions for roads and
culverts; buildings required for non-residential and residential purposes; supply of water for
domestic and industrial use including water required for dust suppression, power supply
and telecommunication system; first aid and emergency services etc.
2.9.1 Roads and Culverts
The village road passing through the lease and outside dump area should be
diverted in phase wise manner before the mining activity approaches. However, it is
required to divert the road from Badi to Bhavnagar via Surka and Badi to Rampar before
commencement of mining operation. The road connecting Padva to Malekbadal may be
diverted before 21
st
planned working year. But other village Kachha roads passing through
the lease may be diverted when any such road interfere the mining working operation.
Provision has been made for the diversion of district road connecting to the
Bhavnagar district headquarter. Internal road of reasonable width shall be developed for
the movement of HEMM from mines to workshop and parking plot. Apart from these roads,
additional network of interior roads have to be provided in the areas having non-residential
building and power plant. Sufficient number of the culverts shall be provided on roads so
that there is no interruption to natural drainage of the area.
2.9.2 Buildings
GPCL has made provision for making civil structures of mines office, workshop,
store, time office, and other necessary administrative buildings in the mining area for
conducting administrative functions of the mines. Further, First Aid room, VTC, canteen,
Chapter 2: Project Description
2.20

drinking water arrangements, rest shelter, urinals etc. will be constructed as per the mines
rules. In addition to above, there shall be non-residential buildings, such as school,
dispensary, common room, guest house etc. in the residential colony premises located at
power plant site.
Non Residential Buildings to be constructed at Mines

S.
No.

Type of Buildings Ghogha-
Surka
Khadsaliya-II Khadsaliya-I
Plinth Area ( m
2
)
1 Administrative office
building
4000 4000 4000
2 Workshop 1000 1000 10000*
3 Store 200 200 150
4 Canteen 1000 1000 1000
5 First Aid Centre 20 20 20
6 Vocational Training centre 800 800 600
7 Pit rest shelter 100 100 100
8 Pit head bath 10 10 -
9 Mine pit office 300 300 -
10 Creche 100 100 -
11 Diesel pump and room 100 100 -
12 Weighbridge - - 1000
13 Sheds for filed service
&yards
- - 400
Total 7630

7630 17270
*Central workshop

2.9.3 Water Supply
Initially water will be transported from the dug wells located in nearby villages
Badi, Hoidad, Padva, Khadsaliya and Bhadbhadya through tankers and stored in the tank
located at mines. There after the demand will increase and water shall be brought from the
Power plant located at Padva near mining lease area.
2.9.4 Power Supply
The electricity shall be used for mine lighting pumping mine water, office etc. It is
proposed to take 11 KV overhead transmission line from nearby grid substation of Paschim
Gujarat Vij Company Limited (PGVCL), to the mines substation to be located near
administrative building. The expected demand of power for pumps, lighting and residential
use is about 1000KVA for Ghogha-Surka; 2000 KVA for Khadsaliya-II; and about 300 KVA
for Khadsaliya-I .In addition to this a portable 500 KVA DG set shall be provided for each
mine to meet emergency power requirement for pumping and essential lighting in the
mines.
Chapter 2: Project Description
2.21

2.9.5 Telecommunication system
Adequate telephone system to connect mines and residential area and to other
important towns / cities is proposed. A wireless communication system is proposed
between the site office and head office. Intercom telephone system between shift office,
control room and administrative block is proposed to be provided. Mobile Phone to all
executives, staffs and operators is proposed to be provided in addition to the above
system.
2.10 Manpower
The manpower requirement during mine development and opearation phases for
all the three mines are same and given in the Table 2.13.
2.11 Mines Closure Plan
2.11.1 Reasons for Closure
After exhaustion of economically recoverable lignite reserve in lease holds area,
the mine has to be closed. The mine may be closed on account of others unforeseen
reasons i.e. Force majeure or government directives etc. Since Ghogha-Surka, Khadsaliya
II and Khadsliya-I are virgin deposit, GPCL is not proposing to abandon mine at
permanently; hence it is a progressive closure scheme.
2.11.2 Statutory Obligations
Since mining plan is being submitted for approval to Ministry of Coal, the statutory
directives as specified by MoC or MoEF shall be binding on GPCL. However mining lease
was executed by GPCL with Govt. of Gujarat.
2.11.3 Ghogha-Surka
The area proposed to be degraded in first, second, third, fourth & fifth year is
58.69 ha, 40.1 ha, 32.5 ha, 30.00 ha, 6.5 ha respectively in mining and 106.30 ha, 53.55
ha in OB dumps. In block year 6th to 10th, 11th to 15th, 15th to 20th, 21st to 25th area
degraded are 195.83, 164.72, 114.43, 322.62 ha respectively. The proposed closure plan
is a progressive type for first five years and conceptual up to life of mine. (Fig.2.18). The
area to be put in used for first five years
Mining : 167.7 ha.
OB dump : 159.85 ha.
Others : 2.7 ha.
Total : 330.25 ha.
Chapter 2: Project Description
2.22

2.11.4 Khadsaliya-II
The area proposed to be degraded in first, second, third, fourth & fifth year is
33.10, 29.12, 13.65, 15.43, 17.05 respectively in mining and 47.56, 49.22 in OB dumps. In
block year 6th to 10th, 11th to 15th, 15th to 20th area degraded are 164.59, 150.36, 129.40
ha respectively. The proposed closure plan is a progressive type for 1st five years and
conceptual life of mine (Fig.2.19).
The area to be put in used for first five years
Mining : 108.35 ha.
OB dump : 96.78 ha.
Others : 47.76 ha.
Total : 252.89 ha.
2.11.5 Khadsaiya-I
The area proposed to be degraded in first, second, third, fourth & fifth year is
35.76, 15.34, 17.26, 15.68, 11.99 respectively in mining and 41.16, 22.65, 19.91 in OB
dumps. In block year 6th to 10th, 11th to 15th, 16th to 21st area degraded are 94.72,
96.66,160.36 ha respectively. The proposed closure plan is a progressive type for 1st five
years and conceptual life of mine (Fig.2.20). The area to be put in used for first five years
Mining : 96.04 ha.
OB dump : 83.72 ha.
Others : 2.76 ha.
Total : 182.52 ha.

F i g . 2 . 1 : T o p o g r a p h y a n d D r a i n a g e P a t t e r n a t P r o p o s e d M i n e S i t e s

7 2
0
1 5 7 2
0
1 0
2 1
0
4 0
2 1
0
3 5
7 2
0
1 5
2 1
0
3 0
2 1
0
3 5
2 1
0
4 0
2 1
0
3 0
7 2
0
1 0

2
.
2
3






























































G
H
O
G
H
A

S
U
R
K
H
A

K H A D S A L I Y A - I I
K
H
A
D
S
A
L
I
Y
A
-
I

F
i
g
.

2
.
2

:

D
r
a
i
n
a
g
e

M
a
p

o
f

t
h
e

S
t
u
d
y

a
r
e
a

Chapter 2: Project Description

2.25


Fig. 2.3 : Ghogha-Surka Mine and Vicinity Contour Map

Chapter 2: Project Description

2.26


Fig. 2.4 : Khadsali ya-II Mine and Vicinity Contour Map

Chapter 2: Project Description

2.27



Fig. 2.5 : Khadsali ya-I Mine and Vicinity Contour Map

Chapter 2 : Project Description
2.28



Ghogha-Surka

Khadsaliya-I

Khadsaliya-II
(A) Section from West to East

Fig 2.6 : Geological Sections across the Lignite blocks- West to East


Chapter 2 : Project Description
2.29



Ghogha-Surka


Khadsaliya-I


Khadsaliya-II

(B)Section from North to South
Fig .2.7 : Geological Sections across the Lignite blocks- North to South

Chapter 2 : Project Description
2.43

Table 2.1: Project Summary
S.No. Item Ghogha-Surka Khadsaliya-II Khadsaliya-I
1 District & State Bhavnagar;Gujarat State Bhavnagar; Gujarat
State
Bhavnagar; Gujarat
State
Taluka Ghogha &
Bhavnagar
Bhavnagar Ghogha & Bhavnagar
2. Leasing period 30 years 30 years 30 years
Letter of approval
of Mining Plan from
MOC

- letter dated 22
nd

September, 1995 for
rated capacity of
1.25MT/year and on
22.12.2009for revised
capacity of
2.25MT/year.

- vide letter dated
14.01.2010 for rated
capacity of
0.75MT/year.

- letter dated 2
nd
June,
1997 for rated
capacity of
0.6MT/year and vide
letter dated
18.12.2009for
revised capacity of
1.00 MT/year.

Environment
Clearance from
MoEF, New Delhi

- J-1105/40/96-1A.11(M)
dated 9
th
September,
1997 for 1.25 million
tonnes/ year capacity.
ToR received for
revised capacity of
2.25MT/year on
23.03.2011.


Order of Industiries
& Mines
- Vide letter no. MCR-
1093-(G-11)1318-CHH-
I dated 0406.1998, for
lease area of 1355 ha.

Vide Order no.
MCR-1092-(s-
12)3814-CHH-I
dated 26th July,
2004.

Recommendation
by State Industries
& Mines
Department,
Gandhinagar

---do----
- vide letter no.MCR-
102002-1429-CHH-1
dtd. 23rd
September'2004

----do ---

Letter of MOC Ref.

Vide letter no.
48024/1/94-CML dated
15.10.1997.
- F.No. 48024/8/2003-
Lig/CA-I dated 6
th

September, 2005

vide letter
No.F.No.48024/2/9
4 - Lig dated
18.08.2003.

Order of lease by
Ministry of coal
govt.of India.

----do-----
------- ------do----

Contd
Chapter 2 : Project Description
2.44

S.No. Item Ghogha-Surka Khadsaliya-II Khadsaliya-I
3. Total area of lease 1355 ha /13.55 km
2
914-14-92 ha /
9.14km
2

711-42-47 ha /
7.11 km
2

4. Total lignite
bearing area
8.99 sq.km 6.21 sq.km 4.92 sq.km
5. Density of BH per
sq.km.
30.69 Nos. 7.89 Nos. 17 Nos.
6. Gross geological
reserves
60.68 million tonne 22.5 million tonn
(31.9)
27.0 million tonne
7. Mineable Reserve 54.68 million tonne 14.29 million tone
(22.5)
21.60 million tonne
8. Lignite area of
mineable block
7.91 sq. km 5.52 sq. km 3.25 sq. km
9. Remaining lignite
bearing area
1.08 sq. km 0.69 sq. km 0.028 sq. km within
lease
10. Total OB of
Mineable block
511.36 million M
3

( Ultimate pit)
332.32 million M
3
(
Ultimate pit)
190.47 million M
3

( Ultimate pit)
11. Lignite : OB Ratio
(Mineable block)
1: 9.32 (Tonne: M
3
) 1: 23.26 (Tonne: M
3
) 1: 8.81 (Tonne: M
3
)
12. Overburden
thickness
Maximum 153 m
Minimum 14.33 m
Average 61.58 m
Maximum 122.60m
Minimum 22.60 m
Average 62.07m
Maximum 83.758 m
Minimum 15.65m
Average 49.70m
13. End Use Lignite based power plant
at pit head
Lignite based Power
plant
Lignite based Power
plant at pit head
14. Targeted
production (Lignite)
2.25 million tonnes /
Annum
0.75 million tonnes/
Annum
1.0 million tonnes /
Annum
15. Estimated OB
handling
5 to 33.4 million M
3
/
Annum
6.29 to 21.76 million
M
3
/ Annum
5 to11.2 million M
3
/
Annum
16. Proposed method
of mining
Mechanised Open Cast
Mining
Mechanised Open
Cast Mining
Mechanised Open
Cast Mining
17. Life of proposed
mine
25 years 20 years 22 years


Chapter 2 : Project Description
2.45



Table 2.2: Local Geology

Formation Age Litho Units
General Thickness (m)
Ghogha- Surka Khadsaliya I Khadsaliya II
Recent
Recent &
sub recent
Black cotton soil,
kankar, coarse
sandy zones etc.
0.50-3.00

0.00 2.00

0.00 2.00

Gaj formation
Lower
Miocene
Pale Yellow non
plastic clay,
variegated clays
and argillaceous
gritty sandstones.
6.00-24.00

10.00-61.00

10.00-26.50

Khadsaliya
clays
Middle to
Upper
Eocene
Greenish grey to
grey clays with
lignite and
argillaceous
sandstone.
32.00-78.00 14.00-46.00 21.00-48.80
Supratrappean
Upper
Cretaceous
to Lower
Eocene
Lithomargic clays 1.00-7.00 1.00 - 7.00 0.50 5.00
Deccan trap Cretaceous
Greenish black
basalt with the
veins of siliceous
material.
Basement Basement Basement








Chapter 2 : Project Description

2.46

Table 2.3 : Quality of Lignite
Parameters (%) Ghogha-
Surka
Khadsaliya-II Khadsaliya-I
Proximate Anal ysis
Moisture 45 - 50 40 - 47 44 - 48
Ash 5 - 15 10 - 20 10 - 20
Volatile
Matter
20 - 30 22.5 - 27.50 20 - 27.5
Fixed Carbon 15 - 20 15 - 20 15 - 20
Calorific Value
(Kcal/kg)
2600 - 3200 2250 - 3000 2000 - 2750
Total Sulphur 1.5 - 3.0 2 - 6.4 2 - 4
Ultimate Anal ysis
Carbon 26 - 30 20 - 32.5 20 - 30
Hydrogen 1 - 2 1.25 - 2.50 1.75 - 2.25
Nitrogen 0.25 - 0.30 0.24 - 0.30 0.24 - 0.29
Table 2.4 : Constituents in lignite ash of the three mines
Constituents
Ghogha-Surka Khadsaliya-II Khadsaliya-I
Most common range (%)
SiO
2
20 - 28 10 - 25 25 - 40
AI
2
O
3
12 - 20 5 - 20 14 - 30
Fe
2
O
3
20 - 28 15 - 40 15 - 25
TiO
2
2 - 6 0.3 - 5 3 - 5
CaO 10 - 18 5 - 15 6 - 12
MgO 1 - 2 0.2 - 1 0.20 - 0.60
Na
2
O 1 - 3 1.0 - 2.5 1.5 - 2.25
K
2
O 0.10 - 0.20 0.1 - 0.2 0.10 - 0.20
SO
3
16 - 22 5 - 20 6.00 - 11.00

Chapter 2: Project Description

2.47

Table 2.5 : Criteria for Mineable lignite block
Ghogha-Surka Khadsaliya-II Khadsaliya-I
1. Lignite seam horizon,
where thickness is less
than 0.20 meter is not
considered as Mine able
reserves.
2. Specific gravity of lignite
is considered as 1.2
gm/cc.

3. 7.5 m barrier is kept all
around the lease
boundary Maximum
mining depth considered
is -126 m RL.
4. However no village falls
within the lease area. It
may be noted that there
is no lignite occurrence
beneath the village
Hoidad. Please refer
negative bore hole no
46, 423, 432, 456, 457,
458, 459, 460, 461and
480. In process of
extraction of lignite a
sufficient safety barrier is
left between the mine pit
and the village boundary
which is more than 100
m due to non lignite
bearing area.
5. The dip side property
also belongs to GPCL;
occurrence of lignite
beneath the common
boundary will be
extracted at latter on
stage from this mine.

1. Lignite seam thickness of
more then 0.3 m. is
considered as mineable.
2. A safety barrier of 50 m is
suggested to keep all
around the village
boundary. But it may be
reduced further after
obtaining approval of
concerned Government
authorities. This may
further increase minable
reserves.
3. Lignite below the villages
is not considered as
mineable.
4. 7.5 m barrier is kept all
around the lease
boundary in accordance
with the Coal mine
regulation 1957.
5. Borehole with a higher
linear ratio of 1:35 is not
considered as mineable.
6. Where sufficient mining
space is not available for
the lignite extraction are
considered as non
mineable.
7. The dip side of the
property also belongs to
GPCL; occurrence of
lignite beneath the
common boundary will be
extracted at later on
stage from this mine.
8. The strategy is planned
by M/s. GPCL to extract
lignite from common
lease boundary with M/s.
GHCL on later stage,
hence mining is proposed
from NW side of lease
boundary.
1. Lignite seam thickness of
more then 0.30 m. is
considered as mineable.
2. A safety barrier of 50 m
is kept all around the
village boundary.
3. Lignite below the villages
is not considered as
mineable
4. 7.5 m barrier is kept all
around the lease
boundary
5. Borehole with a higher
linear ratio of 1:35 is not
considered as mineable
6. Where the sufficient
mining space is not
available for the lignite
extraction such areas are
also not considered for
mining.
7. The dip side of the
property also belongs to
GPCL; occurrence of
lignite beneath the
common boundary will be
extracted at later on
stage from this mine.


Chapter 2 : Project Description
2.48




Table 2.6 : Details of Working Benches

Details Ghogha-Surka Khadsaliya-II Khadsaliya-I
Working benches
Height of bench 5 m 5 m 5 m
Width of bench 15-20 m 15-20 m 18-20 m
Bench face slope 78.69
0
63
0
63.66
0

Ultimate Pit Parameters
Height of bench 5 m 5 m 5 m
Width of bench 10 m 10 m 7.5 m
Bench face slope 78.69
0
63
0
63.66
0

Overall slope 33.69
0
23
0
26
0
.34 (1:2)


Chapter 2: Project Description

2.49

Table 2.7 : Projected Progress of Mining
Year Pit Dimension Pit Area Max.
Top
RL m
Floor
RL
m
O.B.
Removal
million
M
3

Lignite
Production
MT
Length
(m)
Width
(m)
Individual
(Ha)
Cumulative
(Ha)
Ghogha Surka
IMC &
1
st
Year
1109 897 58.69 58.69 34 -45 17.01 2.0
2
nd
Year 1286 1113 40.01 98.7 34 -56 25.18 2.25
3
rd
Year 1648 1545 32.5 131.2 34 -81 18.22 2.25
4
th
Year 1821 1640 30.0 161.2 34 -81 13.85 2.25
5
th
Year 2003 1430 6.5 167.7 34 -87 13.09 2.25
Total 167.7 87.35 11.00
Khadsaliya-II
IMC &
1
st
Year
670 470 33.10 33.10 57.14 -22 13.47 0.41
2
nd
Year 920 670 29.12 62.22 57.26 -37 14.34 0.75
3
rd
Year 1130 670 13.65 63.26 57.26 -41 8.88 0.75
4
th
Year 1380 670 15.43 91.30 57.26 -50 10.35 0.75
5
th
Year 2390 1360 17.05 108.35 57.26 -52 6.92 0.75
Total 108.35 53.96 3.75
Khadsaliya-I
IMC&
1
st
Year
652 580 35.76 35.76 40 -17 9.14 1.0
2
nd
Year 931 586 15.34 51.10 38 -25 6.69 1.0
3
rd
Year 1086 700 17.26 68.36 38 -27 6.84 1.0
4
th
Year 1132 840 15.69 84.05 38 -29 6.41 1.0
5
th
Year 1132 995 11.99 96.04 38 -30 4.90 1.0
Total 96.04 33.98 5.00
*Note: IMC & 1
st
Year includes Ramp, Nallah diversion and IMC overburden.
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2.51
Chapter 2: Project Description

2.52

Table 2.10 : Details of Loading equipments

Table 2.11 : Details of Hauling Equipment
S.No
Type of Dumper Nos. Size Make
Motive
power
HP Total
Ghogha-Surka
1 Rear dumper 36 50T BEML GMMCO etc.
Diesel

28750
2
Rear Tipper/Truck
40 18T
Tata, Ashok etc.
4400
Khadsaliya-II
1 Rear Dumper 58 50 T HM,BEML
Diesel
33350
2 Rear Dumper 35 18 T HIVA or Equivalent 3850
Khadsaliya-I
1 Rear Dumper 10 50 T HM,BEML
Diesel

5750
2 Rear dumper 15 35 T HM,BEML 5750

Sr.
No.
Type of m/c Nos Size /cap. Make
Motive
power
HP
Total
Ghogha-Surka
1 Excavator 7 6.0 m
3

O&K BEML L&T
etc.
Diesel 5420
2 Backhoe 3 2.8 m
3
- Diesel 840
3
Hydraulic Excavator
back hole
1 1.0 m
3
120
Khadsaliya-II
1 Excavator 8 6.0 m
3

O&K BEML L&T
etc.
Diesel

4336
2 Backhoe 3 2.5 m
3
690
3
Hydraulic Excavator
back hole
1 1.0 m
3
120
Khadsaliya-I
1 Excavator loader type 2 6.0 m
3

O&K BEML L&T
etc.

Diesel
1084
2 Excavator loader type 2 4.5 m
3
760
3 Backhoe 1 2.5 m
3
280
4 Hydraulic Backhoe 6 1.0 m
3


720
Chapter 2: Project Description

2.53

Table 2.12 : Details of Ancillary Equipment

S.No. Type Machine Nos. Size Make
Motive
Power
HP Total
Ghogha-Surka
1 Motor grader 4 (145 HP)
HM/BEML
Diesel

230
2 Dozer D 155 6 10m
3
1140
3 Water Sprinkler 3 28KL 760
4 Loader 2 3m
3
130
Khadsaliya-II
1 Motor grader 3 (145 HP)
HM/BEML
Diesel

345
2 Dozer D155 5 10 m
3
1900
3 Water sprinkler 2 28 KL 760
4 Loader 2 3 m
2
260
Khadsaliya-I
1 Motor 2 (145HP)
HM/BEML Diesel
230
2 Dozer D155 3 10 m
3
1140
3 Water sprinkler 2 28 KL 760
4 Loader 1 3 m
2
130

Chapter 2 : Project Description
2.54

Table 2.13: Estimated Manpower Requirements
S.No. Ghogha Surka Khadsaliya-II Khadsaliya-I
Executives
1. Agent (G.M.) 1* 1 1*
2.
Mines Manager 1 First Class Coal
Certificate holder
1 First Class Coal
Certificate holder
1 First CC holders
3.
Safety Officer 1 First Class Coal
Certificate holder
1 First Class Coal
Certificate holder
1 First class coal
certificate holders
4.
V.T. Officer 1 First Class Coal
Certificate holder
1 First Class Coal
Certificate holder
1
5.
Asst. Manager
(Mines)
5 Second Class Coal
Certificate holders
5 Second Class
Coal Certificate
holders
5 Second class coal
certificate holders
6. Manager (Geology) 1* 1 1
7.
Dy. Manager
(Geology)
1 1 1
8. Manager (P&A) 1 1 1
9. L.W.O 1 1 1
10.
Dy.Manager
(Electrical)
1 1 1
11.
Dy.Manager
(Mechanical)
1 1 1
12. Medical officer 1* 1 1*
13. Security Officer 1* 1 1*
14. Store Officer 1 1 1
15.
Dy. Manager
(Survey)
1 1 1
16.
Asstt. Manager
(Survey)
1 1 1
17. Asstt. Civil Engineer 1 1 1
Supervisory Staff
1. Mine Overman 9 11 6
2. Mining Sirdar 6 6 6
3. Mechanical Foreman 3 4 2
4. Electrical Supervisor 3 4 2
5. Compounder 1* 1 1
6. Horticulturist 1* 1 1
Operators
1. Excavator Operators 40 42 30
2. Dozer Operators 20 4
3. Grader Operators 12 2
4.
Heavy Vehicle
Operator
275 368 150
5. Light Vehicle Driver 6 6 6
6. Mechanics 9 9 7
7. Electrician 4 5 4
8. Auto Electrician 4 5 2
9. Welder 2 2 2
Note: * The man power will be common for all the mines namely Ghogha-Surka, Khadsaliya-I &II.






Chapter 3

Description of Environment
The prevailing (pre-project) environmental quality at and around the sites
identified for proposed lignite mining serves as the baseline status and also useful for
identification of significant environmental concerns/impacts corresponding to the project
area as well as proposed developments. The project proponent, i.e. M/s Gujarat Power
Corporation Limited (GPCL) retained M/s Kadam Environmental Consultants (KEC),
Vadodara to carry out the pre-project (baseline) environmental studies within the impact
zone for Land, Water, Air, Noise, BioIogicaI components. These studies were carried
out by M/s KEC, Vadodara through field surveys for individual components during
November, December 2011 and January 2012 (winter season) covering 10 km radial
distance around the proposed lignite mine sites.
M/s GPCL got the socioeconomic study done through Sociology Department,
Bhavnagar University, Bhavnagar. The socioeconomic survey in proposed mine sites
(core zone) as well as surrounding study area (buffer zone) was carried out by
Sociology Department during January 2012. The observations and results obtained by
the above agencies (M/s KEC and Sociology Department, Bhavnagar University) are
summarised in this chapter, while the individual study reports prepared by these
agencies are provided as attachments to this EA report.

Chapter 3: Description of Environment

3.2

3.1 Description of Project Site and Study Area


The project land area identified for Ghogha-Surka mining presents an elliptical
basin like structure bounded by Gulf of Khambhat with opening on eastern direction.
The area has, in general, plain topography in northern part while the southern part
exhibits undulated topography with low mounds. n Khadsaliya- it is undulating in most
of the parts except the northern part where there are cultivated fields due to plain
topography. A number of rock outcrops stand out as small mounds in the area.
However Khadsaliya- lease area presents generally plain topography in the eastern
part while the western part exhibits undulating topography with low mounds. The
maximum ground elevations in individual mine sites are: 45 m, 48.1 m, 60 m, while the
ground elevation variations are at Ghogha-Surka: 16-45m; Khadsaliya: 19.2-48.1m;
and Khadsaliya-: 10-60m above MSL as per Survey of ndia toposheets.
The Digital Elevation Model (DEM) corresponding to proposed mine sites and
surrounding vicinity are presented in Fig.3.1.1. The general slope of the Ghogha-Surka
ground is towards Malesari River, which flows from west to east direction, bisecting the
lease area, and finally debouching into Gulf of Khambhat. The river is seasonal and
flows only during the rainy season. The sea coast is about 4.5 km in eastern direction of
the area. One canal, Shatrunji Left Bank Canal running north to south also traverses
through the Ghogha-Surka and Khadsaliya- mining lease area. The canal only runs
during the summer season. The river Ramdasia flows through the Khadsaliya- and
Khadsaliya- lease area and also some small seasonal nallahs traverse the block and
discharge in to Bay of Khambhat. The general slope of the ground is towards east
direction, i.e. Gulf of Khambhat.
There is no reserve forest in the core zone as well as in buffer zone
surrounding the proposed mine sites. The highest high tide line of Arabian sea coast
line (Gulf of Khambhat) is at more than 1000 m away from the lignite mine site. Hence
the criteria of Coastal Regulatory Zone (CRZ) will be fulfilled at this site.
The climate of the area is mostly tropical monsoon type. The summer
maximum temperature up to of 46.7C while the winter temperature as low as 7.4C
have been recorded in the project region. The summer season spans from April to June
and the monsoon season from June to September. The maximum and minimum
relative humidity ranges from 45 to 77% during July to September period and from 44 to
50% during November to February. February to April period is comfortable with low
ranges of humidity values. The wind blows mainly from south-west direction in the
Chapter 3: Description of Environment

3.3

morning and south-east direction in the evening. Annual rainfall data shows wide
variation and ranged between 851 mm to 141 mm and do not fit in any cyclic pattern
during this period. As per the available data records, the average annual rainfall during
1981-1992 was 660.8 mm, while during 2006-'10 there was an increasing trend and has
an average of 722.6 mm TabIe 3.1.1. The highest precipitation occurs normally during
middle of June to September, i.e. in southwest monsoon.
Chapter 3: Description of Environment

3.4





Ghogha- Surka



















.KDGVDOL\D,.KDGVDOL\D,,

Figure 3.1.1 : DigitaI EIevation ModeIs (DEM) of Proposed Mine Sites and Vicinity

Chapter 3: Description of Environment



3.5


TabIe 3.1.1 : MonthIy RainfaII for the period 2006 to 2010 at Bhavnagar

MonthIy RainfaII (mm)


Year 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
Jan 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2
Feb 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0
Mar 0.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Apr 0.0 4.0 1.9 0.0 0.0
May 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
June 126.0 109.1 39.8 26.2 72.5
JuIy 456.1 254.3 221.1 256.2 244.4
Aug 92.4 285.7 186.6 46.3 214.2
Sep 55.6 313.5 279.6 35.4 200
Oct 1.0 0.0 11.7 16.8 6.3
Nov 0.2 0.5 0.0 2.2 52.4
Dec 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
TotaI 732.1 967.2 740.7 383.1 790.0


Chapter 3: Description of Environment

3.6

3.2 Land Environment


The pre-project status of land environment has been assessed through
characterization of soil through field studies by M/s KEC while the, land use pattern
through census records and remote sensing satellite image analysis by NEER.
The lease area for Ghogha-Surka (1355.0 ha), Khadsaliya- (711.4 ha) and
Khadsaliya- (914.2 ha) mines fall within the jurisdiction of Bhavnagar and Ghogha
Talukas in Bhavnagar district. The major part of land for proposed lignite mines was
acquired long back (1997-2000) by the project proponent, i.e. M/s GPCL. The land use
details for all the three mines (core zone) are presented in TabIe 3.2.1.
n general, the mining lease area of Ghogha-surka consists mostly of
agricultural lands. The crops grown in the area are rice, Jawar, cotton, dal, sugarcane,
ground nut etc. The natural vegetation in the project region falls in two categories.
Vegetation along the shore line and Vegetation on the coastal plains and hilly terrain,
stunted Mangrooves: (Avicennia-Marina) and (salicornin- Brachiata) are generally
found in mud flats near Bhavnagar area while (Sueda-Nudiflora) Cressa-Oretica are
grown in mud flats haunacaaromenfosa salt pans respectively. However, these are in
out of study area Acluropus lacopoidis, and Borrena articularia occurs sporadically in
sandy beaches. On the coastal plain, shrubs, herbs and the climber growing on the
shrubs are common. The most common shrub is Euphorbias species. The Accacia
senegal, Fiousbengalensis, Fiensreligious, Azadirch-raindian, and prosopis spioigera
are observed as bigger trees mostly along the banks of stream, river and around
villages. The soil and alluvium cover is characteristically suitable for growing fruit trees
like mango (Mangifora indica), Guava (Psidicum-gujara) and chickoo (Archoussapota)
and it also supports cash crops like cotton (Gosaypium herbacium), groundnut (Arachis
hyposea) and Millet, chilli (Cepsicum Frutescens) and onion (Allium Sopa).
3.2.1 SoiI Characteristics - BaseIine status
To evaluate any consequent impacts of the project on the surrounding soils
and ultimately on the land environment it is desirable to analyse the soil samples for
their physical and chemical properties. Sixteen representative surface soil samples
were collected from the study area (core zone and buffer zone). The details about soil
sampling locations are reported in TabIe 3.2.2 and soil sampling locations are depicted
in Fig.3.2.1. Representative soil samples from sub-surface (0-15 cm) were collected
from these villages and plant premises for estimation of important physico-chemical
Chapter 3: Description of Environment

3.7

characteristics of soil. Standard methods were followed for the analysis of soil samples.
The methodology of soil sample monitoring is presented in TabIe 3.2.3.
3.2.2 PhysicaI Properties of SoiI
Air-dried and sieved samples have been used for determination of physical
properties of soil. Physical characteristics of soil samples are delineated through
specific parameters, viz. Particle size distribution, texture, bulk density and porosity.
The physical properties of soil are presented in TabIe 3.2.4. The texture of the soil in
the study area is predominately Sandy loam, Sandy Clay loam and medium loam with
medium water holding capacity. The water holding capacity in the soil samples ranged:
32.88 - 80.23% (TabIe 3.2.4). Low moisture content was observed due to dry and
sandy nature of the soilSand content in the soil of the study area varies from 10.28%
(in Koliyak) to 71.28% (in Khadsaliya-) (TabIe 3.2.4). The bulk density of the soil in the
study area is in the range of 0.73 to 1.49 g/cc (TabIe 3.2.4) which indicates soils in the
study area are light soils not very compact. Soil porosity is a measure of air filled pores
paces and provide information about movement of gases, inherent moisture,
development of root system and strength of the soil. The porosity of soils is in the range
of 48 to 63% (TabIe 3.2.4), which are moderately porous. Soil permeability is the
property of the soil to transmit water and air. The soil samples of the study area are
mostly moderately permeable, with a exception in Khadarpar, Bhwanipura, Budhel,
Bhuteshwar, and Surka. These soil samples showed moderately slow permeability,
which may be due to their fine texture..
3.2.3 ChemicaI Properties of SoiI
The collected soil samples were analyzed for various chemical properties such
as pH, electrical conductivity, cations viz. calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium,
cation exchange capacity (CEC) and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and the results are
presented in TabIe 3.2.5.
pH is an important parameter which indicates the alkaline and acidic nature
of soil. t greatly affects the microbial population as well as the solubility of metal ions
and regulates nutrient availability. The pH of the soil in the study area is moderately
alkaline in reaction having pH in the range of 7.26 to 8.61 (TabIe 3.2.5), except the soils
of Khadsaliya- with a near neutral pH value of 6.88.
The soluble salts were determined from soil extract (1:2). The soluble salts are
expressed in terms of electrical conductivity (EC). The EC for the soil samples are in
Chapter 3: Description of Environment

3.8

the range of 82.70 to 1379 moh/cm (TabIe 3.2.5). The highest value is observed in the
soil sample of Thordi.
The most important cations present in soluble state in the soil are calcium and
magnesium. t is observed that calcium and magnesium are in the range of 0.08 - 1.64
gm/kg and 0.05 to 1.39 gm/kg respectively (TabIe 3.2.5). Soil samples of Thordi are
rich in Ca & Mg as compared to other samples. Similarly Sodium and potassium in the
soils are varies from 0.11 to 3.84 gm/kg and 0.04 to 0.42 gm/kg respectively. However
the Sanodar samples showed low value of 0.004 gm/kg. The cation exchange capacity
of the soil samples of the study area ranged from 13.20 to 18.40 meq/100gm, which is
within the range.
Sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), along with pH, characterizes salt-affected
soils. t is an easily measured property that gives information on the comparative
concentrations of Na
+
, Ca
2+
, and Mg
2+
in soil solutions.SAR of soil samples of the study
area ranged from 0.24 to 3.76 (TabIe 3.2.5). The SAR of a soil extract takes into
consideration that the adverse effect of sodium is moderated by the presence of
calcium and magnesium ions. When the SAR rises above 12 to 15, serious physical soil
problems arise and plants have difficulty absorbing water.
3.2.4 AgricuIture
Agriculture is the main source of livelihood other than the livestock rearing in
the project region. Wheat is staple food of the people in this region. Secondary
information has been collected from the Agriculture Department of Bhavnagar. List of
crops grown in the project region are presented in the TabIe 3.2.6. The main
agriculture crops of this area in rainy season are Groundnut, Sesmum, Cotton, Bajra
etc. whereas wheat, gram, cumai are the winter crops. The agriculture (crop) produce in
this region is low to medium because of scarcity of water, illiteracy and also due to
weather conditions.
3.2.5 Land use pattern
The present land-use of the core zone is mostly fallow with only part
cultivation. The land around the project site is mostly in the form of un-irrigated
agriculture land. Land use pattern of the study area has been studied on the basis of
2001 census data/ revenue record as given TabIe 3.2.7.


Chapter 3: Description of Environment

3.9

3.2.6 Land Use / Land cover by SateIIite Image AnaIysis


Remote sensing technology is a powerful tool providing reliable information on
various natural resources at different levels of details in spatial scale. t has played an
important role in effective mapping and periodic monitoring of natural resources
including environment. With the availability of high resolution remote sensing data, new
areas of remote sensing applications have emerged, techniques of data processing
systems have became more effective.
The ndian Remote Sensing (RS)-P6 satellite has a swath (width) of
127x141Km. The latest satellite image corresponding to proposed Ghogha-surka,
Khadsaliya- and Khadsaliya- lignite mines core zone and buffer zone has been
procured from National Remote Sensing Data Centre (NRDC) of SRO at Hyderabad. n
order to strengthen the baseline information on existing land use pattern and for the
preparation of Land use/ Land cover classification map following data was used.
1. Topographic data - Survey of ndia Toposheets in 1:50000 scale.
2. Remote sensing Data - RS P6-LSS image with 23.5 m resolution.
The study area is a part of Bhavnagar district of Gujarat state. The
geographical co-ordinates and distribution of the study area are presented below.
Proposed Mines Iocation extent
Name Latitude Longitude Area (km
2
)
Ghogha-Surka 21

36'00 - 21

38'45 N 72

11'55 - 72

15'00 E 14.94
Khadsaliya- 21

31'25 - 21

33'15 N 72

13'30 - 72

14'55 E 7.79
Khadsaliya- 21

33'15 - 21

36'30 N 72

13'40 - 72

15'25 E 11.61
3.2.6.1 MethodoIogy
The Survey of ndia Toposheet maps 46 C/2, 46 C/3, 46 C/6, 46 C/7 were
used to prepare base map. These toposheets were Georeferenced & mosaicked in
ERDAS MAGNE 9.3 software. The mosaic is a digital technique used to assemble
two or more overlapping/ adjacent images (tiles) to create a continuous representation
of a predefined area. After georeferencing, the study area was digitized & made into
shape files in Arc GS 9.3 software. The study area was extracted from the toposheets.
Using the buffer analysis tool from Arc GS, buffer zones of 5 and 10 km were prepared
around proposed Lignite mines of GhoghaSurka, Khadsaliya- and Khadsaliya-.
Chapter 3: Description of Environment

3.10

The study area is covered in RS-P6 satellite path- 93 / row-57. The LSS-
(sensor) data of 20
th
Nov 2009 was registered similar to the projected base map by
identifying common ground control points both on the base map and on the image. The
registered satellite image was subset into 5 km & 10 km area around proposed project
site of Lignite Mining at and around GhoghaSurka, Khadsaliya- and Khadsaliya-
using Area of interest (AO tool) in ERDAS MAGNE. False color composite (FCC)
map of 5 and 10 km subset area are presented in Figs.3.2.2 and 3.2.3, respectively
which were used in land use/land cover classification.
For classification of remote sensing data, signatures were given in signature
editor file depending upon the reflectance observed in the image. Signature file was
saved. Different classes of land cover namely Agriculture, Fallow land, Wasteland,
mining area, mud land, settlement, Salt farms, mangroves, Shallow water and Deep
water were considered in signature file. Supervised classification was performed in
ERDAS software by taking signature file as input. After the classification, recoding
process was performed. n this method the pixel value of any class can be changed into
pixel value of desired class to remove the error in misclassification of image due to
mixed pixel effect.
3.2.6.2 Accuracy Assessment
After the classification of remote sensing data, accuracy assessment was
performed to check the accuracy of classification. Accuracy assessment is defined as
the comparison of a map produced from remotely sensed data with another map from
some other source. The methodology of accuracy assessment is as follows:
Select classified image and select accuracy assessment option in ERDAS
magine. Select a single class from the create/add random points window and change
the reference table. Generate Accuracy report containing the statistics of Error matrix,
Kappa statistics and accuracy information. Accuracy report has Producer's accuracy,
User's accuracy and Overall accuracy.
3.2.6.3 Ground Truth
Ground truth is the term used in cartography, analysis of aerial photographs,
satellite imagery and a range of other remote sensing techniques in which data are
gathered from distant places. Ground truth mainly refers to the information that is
collected from the real location or the places. The collection of ground-truth data
enables calibration of remote-sensing data, and aids in the interpretation and analysis
of what is being sensed. Usually, the ground truth is done in combination with fieldwork,
Chapter 3: Description of Environment

3.11

maps and personal experience. n case of a classified image, it allows supervised


classification to help determine the accuracy of the classification performed by the
remote sensing software like ERDAS MAGNE9.3. t involves the use of GPS
technology for taking the geographical co-ordinates of the observation points (ground
control points, GCPs) in the field. The observed field /ground reality is compared with
remote sensing data at the same geographical co-ordinates.
Ground truth for lignite mining area in Bhavnagar district was undertaken
during October 11-13, 2011. The GARMN GPS 60 was used for taking the precise
positions of identified GCPs. 65 geographical locations (GCPs) were selected from the
remote sensing image data for survey and ground truth collection. During field visit, the
location points were identified on the ground using GPS and ground locations were
surveyed for various landuse/ landcover classes. The field observations taken during
ground truth survey are presented in TabIe 3.2.8.
3.2.6.4 Land Use / Land Cover CIassification ResuIts
mage classification results shows that Wasteland is the most dominating
feature in both 5 km & 10 km boundary around study area. t covers about 44.35 and
36.04 % of the area, in 5 & 10 km boundary, respectively. This followed by agriculture
land occupying 17.98 and 15.86% of the land, in 5 and 10km boundary area,
respectively. Features like Settlement & Water bodies cover very small area. During
Ground truth, some of the classes like Mud land, Salt farms, Mangroves were observed
hence these classes are included in the classification processes. The maps of classified
images after ground truth for 5 km & 10 km are presented in Figs.3.2.4 and 3.2.5,
respectively. Mining activities were observed near Khadsaliya area. The relative
coverage of different land use/ land cover classes in the study area are presented in
TabIe 3.2.9.
From the table, it is obvious that the wasteland is well classified both in before
ground truth & after ground truth classification. t is the dominant class in both the
cases. The area occupied by seawater was decreased after ground truth classification
may be due to the addition of new class mud land. Mangroves and water bodies are
present in very less percentage. ncrease in percentage of area is observed in some
classes like fallow land, mining area.
n Accuracy assessment, the overall classification accuracy is found to be
88.44% while kappa statistics is 0.8370. Maps were prepared using classified image for
both 5 & 10 km boundary around study area. Based on the Land use & Land cover
Chapter 3: Description of Environment

3.12

classification analysis, area statistics was calculated using the software ERDAS
imagine.
The subset for Ghogha-surka, Khadsaliya- & Khadsaliya- were prepared in
ERDAS MAGNE 9.3 for checking the class area statistics. The area wise classification
for ghogha- surka, Khadsaliya-, Khadsaliya - are presented in TabIe 3.2.10.
Chapter 3: Description of Environment

3.13

Fig.3.2.1 : SoiI SampIing Locations

GHOGHA
SURKHA
K
H
A
D
S
A
L
I
Y
A
-
I
I

KHADSALIYA-I
Chapter 3: Description of Environment

3.14

Fig 3.2.2: FaIse CoIour Composite 5 km Distance Around Core Zone


Chapter 3: Description of Environment

3.15


Fig 3.2.3 : FaIse CoIour Composite 10 km Distance Around Core Zone
Chapter 3: Description of Environment

3.16


Fig 3.2.4 : Landuse/Landcover CIassification Image - 5 km Buffer Zone

Chapter 3: Description of Environment



3.17

Fig.3.2.5: Landuse/Landcover CIassification Image - 10 Buffer Zone

Chapter 3: Description of Environment


3.18


TabIe 3.2.1 : Existing Land cover detaiIs

TabIe 3.2.2 : SoiI SampIing Locations
S. No. SampIing Location Direction Distance
1. Badi Village WSW 0.95
2. Bhawanipura Village SSW 8.5
3. Bhuteshwar Village N 5.3
4. Budhel Village NW 8.15
5. Khadsaliya Village S 6.0
6. Khadsaliya Village SE 6.0
7. Khadarpur Village S 8.0
8. Kantala Village NW 2.0
9. Odarka Village SW 9.0
10. Koliyak Village E 3.0
11. Mamsa Village WNW 8.0
12. Padva Village SW 3.0
13. Sanodar Village WSW 7.5
14. Surka Village NNE 3.0
15. Thordi Village NW 6.0
16. Wavri Village SSW 7.5

Type of Land
Ghogha Surka KhadsaIiya-II KhadsaIiya-I
Area in Ha.
Land acquired by GPCL 928.5 36.0 273.1
Land belonging to Pvt. Land
owner yet not acquired by
GPCL
157.1 768.4 209.3
Government / Goucher Land 116.8 109.8 179.9
Forest Land Nil Nil Nil
Land under river, nallah, canal
etc.
158.6 - 49.1
TotaI 1355.0 914.2 711.4
Chapter 3: Description of Environment
3.19


TabIe 3.2.3 : Methods FoIIowed for AnaIysis of SoiI SampIes

SampIing
Parameters
SampIe AnaIysis
Remarks
Method / AnaIyticaI
Equipment
Sensitivity/
Detection Limit
pH
4500 H+ B
pH Meter

Trial pit method for
topsoil sample
collection; disturbed
samples
Moisture
content
S: 2720 Part 2
Electronic Balance
0.001 mg
Texture As per S: 2720 Part 4 As per S: 2720
Water holding
capacity
As per HMSO, UK
As per HMSO,
UK
Porosity
As per S: 2720
Part 7
As per S: 2720
Permeability
As per S: 2720
Part 17
As per S: 2720
Particle size
Distribution
As per S: 2720
Part 4
As per S: 2720
5% Leachate to be
made and analyzed as
per APHA, "Standard
Methods
All method numbers
are as per APHA
"Standard Methods
(20th edition, 1998)
Electrical
Conductivity
As per S 14767 - 2000
As per S 14767
-2000
Cation
Exchange
Capacity
S: 2720 Part 24 (1976)
Extraction and Titration
-
SAR
F. Photometer (Na, K)
Titration ( Ca and Mg)
(Calculation)
-
Calcium
EDTA Titration /
3500 Ca B
-
Magnesium
EDTA Titration /
3500 Mg B
-
Sodium (Na)
F. Photometer /
3500 Na B
100 g/l
Potassium
F. Photometer /
3500 K B
100 g/l

T
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6
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1
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x
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B
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4
.
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7

6
3
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6
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3
2
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5
1
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1
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5
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3.20

T
a
b
I
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3
.
2
.
5

:

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p
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C
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1
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3.21
Chapter 3 : Description of Environment
3.22

TabIe 3.2.6 : AgricuIture Crops in Study Area

Sr.No Scientific Name LocaI Name


1. Triticum aestivum Wheat
2. Millet Bajra
3. Phaseolus sp. Gram
4. Lens culinaris Lentil
5. Brassica juncea Mustard
6. Zea mays Maize
7. Sorghum vulgare Jowar
8. Cajanus cajan Arhar
9. Phaseolus mungo Moong
10. Seasamum Til
11. Arachys hypogea Groundnut
12. Riccinus communis Castor
13. Saccharum officinarum Sugarcane
14. Gossipium sp. Cotton
VEGETABLES
1. Corriandrum anum Coriander
2. Allium sativum Garlic
3. Capsicum anum Chilly
4. Solanum tuberosum Potato
5. Daucus carata Carrot
6. Zingiber officinale Ginger

Chapter 3 : Description of Environment


3.23

TabIe 3.2.7
Land Use Pattern in ViIIages under Study Area (within buffer zone, 10km)

S.
No
ViIIage/Town
Forest
Irrigated agricuIture
Iand
Unirrigated
agricuIture
Iand
CuItivabIe
wasteIand
Area not
for
cuItivation
TotaI
Hectares
1 Thordi -
W(68.0),WE(161.9),
T(229.9)
1,019.8 93.6 140.9 1,254.3
2 Bhuteshwar -
GC(137.2),W(40.5),
WE(40.5),T(218.2)
323.9 51.9 137.0 512.8
3 Bhumbali -
GC(172.0),W(80.9)
WE(161.9),T(414.8)
809.4 133.7 282.6 1225.7
4 Nagdhaniba -
W(97.5),WE(161.9),
T(259.4)
364.3 48.6 106.7 519.6
5 Kodadi
W(68.4),WE(80.9),T(149.3)
161.9 63.7 37.6 263.2
6 Bhandaria 200.9
W(149.7),WE(242.8),
T(392.5)
850.0 40.0 408.9 1298.9
7 Wavri -
W(74.8),WE(185.4),
T(260.2)
324.9 8.1 98.6 431.6
8 JunaRatanpur -
GC(69.6),W(20.2),
WE(60.6),T(150.4)
121.5 14.7 38.7 174.9
9 Koliyak -
GC(313.2),W(40.5)
,WE(80.9),T(434.6)
242.8 42.5 154.9 440.2
10 Gundi -
GC(121.4),W(64.3)
WE(80.9),T(266.6)
121.6 - 93.5 215.1
11 Navaratanpur -
GC(438.27),W(20.2)
WE(20.2),T(478.67)
40.5 56.3 240.5 337.3
12 Bhadbhadia -
GC(46.5),W(20.2)
WE(20.2),T(86.9)
41.1 16.7 13.5 71.3
13 Hathab -
GC(183.3),W(80.9),
WE(121.4),T(385.6)
183.8 32.4 110.4 326.6
14 Alapar -
GC(22.2),W(30.5)
WE(80.9),T(133.6)
202.4 36.9 24.1 263.4
15 Thalsar 17.9
GC(202.4),W(101.2),
WE(80.4),T(384.0)
217.4 78.5 42.5 338.4

FRQWG
Chapter 3 : Description of Environment
3.24


TabIe 3.2.7 FRQWG
S.
No.
ViIIage/Town Forest
Irrigated agricuIture
Iand
Unirrigated
agricuIture
Iand
CuItivabIe
wasteIand
Area not
for
cuItivation
TotaI
16 Surkha -
W(30.4),WE(40.5),
T(70.9)
121.5 10.6 15.7 147.8
17 Hoidad -
GC(211.6),W(136.4),
WE(43.7)T(391.7)
325.0 88.5 23.4 436.9
18 Bhavanipura 7.9
W(150.5),WE(20.5),
T(171.0)
177.8 50.1 189.5 417.4
19 Padava -
GC(141.6),W(49.8)
WE(89.0),T(209.9)
522.4 225.4 43.9 791.7
20 Sanodor 21.4
W (65.7),
WE(144.2),TR9210.0)
1,230.0 120.9 504.5 1,855.4
21 Malpar -
W(46.2),WE(38.8),
T(85.0)
613.2 95.8 135.8 844.8
22 Mamsa -
W(40.8),WE(35.3),
T(76.1)
145.4 19.6 31.7 196.7
23 Badi -
W(62.7),WE(80.9),
T(143.6)
398.9 122.7 77.7 599.3
24 Odorka -
W(40.8),WE(121.0),
T(161.8)
343.7 35.9 162.9 542.5
25 Chhaya 39.5
W(42.50,WE(49.8),
T(92.3)
909.9 110.4 39.5 1059.8
26 Morchand -
W(649.2),WE(382.8),
T(1032.0)
405.5 239.6 326.6 971.7
27 Nathugrah -
W(45.3),WE(194.7),
T(240.0)
249.9 22.6 54.7 327.2
28 Kuda 57.5
GC(263.0),W(43.5),
T(306.5)
315.0 522.6 85.0 922.6

W - Well water
WE - Well with Electricity
GC - Government Canal
T - Total
Source: District census handbook, 2001, Bhavnagar. Series 25, Part X-A & B. Govt. of Gujarat.
Page Nos.187-221, 548-567
Chapter 3: Description of Environment

3.25

TabIe 3.2.8 : Ground Truth observations

District: Bhavnagar Date of survey: October 11-13, 2011

Sr.
No.
Location Latitude Longitude
Land
use/Iand
cover in the
surrounding
area
Remarks
1 Surka village 21
0
38' 10.6 72
0
14' 01.2 Settlement
2
Square between Badi &
Surka village
21
0
37' 47.9 72
0
13' 40.2 Wasteland
3 Road towards hoidad village 21
0
37' 42.6 72
0
13' 48.3
Agriculture
land

4 Road towards hoidad village 21
0
37' 27.2 72
0
14' 10.0
Agriculture
land

5
Road towards hoidad
village
21
0
37' 14.8 72
0
14' 27.0
Agriculture
land

6
Proposed mining area
(Taken on lease).
21
0
37' 11.4 72
0
14' 38.1
Agriculture
land

7 Lease boundary tomb stone 21
0
37' 11.9 72
0
14' 35.0
Agriculture
land

8 Weathered road tri-junction 21
0
37' 26.6 72
0
14' 30.0
Agriculture
land

9
Corner of Proposed mining
area (Taken on lease)
21
0
37' 33.3 72
0
14' 27.8
Agriculture
land

10
Corner point of Hoidad
village
21
0
36' 58.6 72
0
14' 33.7 Settlement
11 Hoidad village 21
0
37' 00.5 72
0
14' 39.0 Settlement
12
Sataranji canal (Left bank)
near Hoidad village
21
0
37' 08.2 72
0
14' 54.9
Agriculture
land

13
Bank of Maleshwari river &
Sataranji canal
21
0
36' 54.4 72
0
14' 46.6 Wasteland
14 Near survey no 252 21
0
36' 43.8 72
0
14' 41.9
Agriculture
land

15 Road towards Gundi Village 21
0
36' 26.4 72
0
15' 03.7
Agriculture
land
Presence of
small bridge
16 Road towards Gundi Village 21
0
36' 22.6 72
0
14' 51.7
Agriculture
land

17 Left bank of Sataranji canal 21
0
36' 08.2 72
0
14' 35.6 Wasteland
18
Road towards Padwa
Village
21
0
36' 11.2 72
0
14' 09.8 Wasteland
19 Kamdev mandir 21
0
36' 30.0 72
0
14' 01.9 Wasteland

CoQWG
Chapter 3: Description of Environment

3.26

Sr.
No.
Location Latitude Longitude
Land
use/Iand
cover in the
surrounding
area
Remarks
20
Alapar malaik last corner pt 21
0
35' 46.3 72
0
15' 02.6
Agriculture
land

21 Khadsaliya- village 21
0
35' 48.7 72
0
15' 28.2
Agriculture
land

22
Corner of Khadsaliya-
village
21
0
35' 47.8 72
0
15' 32.7
Agriculture
land

23 Near Bambaniya wadi 21
0
35' 45.8 72
0
15' 30.0 Wasteland
24 Bambaniya wadi 21
0
35' 37.9 72
0
15' 29.4
Agriculture +
Settlement

25 Bambaniya wadi 21
0
35' 35.1 72
0
15' 28.4 Settlement
Primary
school
26 Towards Haathab village 21
0
35' 20.1 72
0
15' 26.6 Fallow land
27 Towards Haathab village 21
0
34' 56.2 72
0
15' 17.0 Wasteland
28
Proposed GDC Dumping
site near korodi road
21
0
34' 51.3 72
0
15' 16.8
Agriculture
land

29
Near Road towards
Haathab Village
21
0
34' 57.2 72
0
15' 55.4 Water bodies
30 Near Badi village 21
0
38' 05.7 72
0
12' 57 Waste land
Survey no
40
31 Near Badi village 21
0
38' 05.2 72
0
12' 56.5 Water bodies
32 Tharodi,Badi,Rampur 21
0
38' 14.1 72
0
12' 44.8 Wasteland
River near
Tri-junction
33 Badi rampur 21
0
38' 12.1 72
0
12' 44.4 Wasteland
Presence of
check dam
34 Tharodi river 21
0
38' 22.6 72
0
12' 36.4
Agriculture
land
Presence of
Sign board
35 Khoradi rampar road near 21
0
38' 16.9 72
0
12' 59.8 Wasteland
survey no
118
36
Bentonite waste dump
survey no 43
21
0
37' 54.4 72
0
12' 04.3 Wasteland
37 Kaneda dam 21
0
36' 15.7 72
0
11' 48.4 Water bodies
38
on the road Near Badi
village
21
0
37' 00.3 72
0
12' 46.1 Wasteland
39
Near Badi village on the
road of Kamnath Mahadev
mandir survey no 186
21
0
36' 28.5 72
0
13' 17
Agriculture
land

40 Near survey no 187 21
0
36' 56.6 72
0
13' 13.5 Wasteland


&RQWG

TabIe 3.2.8 &RQWG
Chapter 3: Description of Environment

3.27

Sr.
No.
Location Latitude Longitude
Land
use/Iand
cover in the
surrounding
area
Remarks
41
On the road near Padwa
village
21
0
35' 51.9 72
0
13' 7.6
Agriculture
land
Proposed
dump site
for
Bhavnagar
Energy
Company
Ltd.(BECL)
42 Lignite exposed river 21
0
36' 9.4 72
0
13' 52.8 Wasteland
43 Towards Aalapar village 21
0
35' 18.6 72
0
13' 36.4 Water bodies
44
Khadsaliya- intermediate
pt
21
0
35' 17.6 72
0
13' 53.8 Wasteland
On the road
near Survey
no. 1
45 Aalapar village 21
0
35' 14.8 72
0
14' 11.8 Settlement
46 BECL office 21
0
34' 55.6 72
0
13' 13.7 Wasteland
47 Near Temple 21
0
32' 29.5 72
0
12' 56.6 Wasteland
48 Near Morchand village 21
0
32' 33.6 72
0
13' 13.7 Wasteland
49 Morchand village 21
0
32' 45.4 72
0
13' 12.4 Wasteland
50 Check dam near Morchand 21
0
33' 11.3 72
0
13' 19.7 Wasteland
Survey no.
87
51 Near survey no 325 21
0
33' 15.3 72
0
13' 36 Agriculture
Cotton as a
main crop
52
Near Road towards
Khadsaliya village
21
0
33' 25.4 72
0
14' 7.5 Wasteland
53
Khadsaliya Lignite mine
GHCL Ltd.
21
0
33' 37.1 72
0
14' 17.9 Mining area
Open pit
area
54 GPCL Mine 21
0
33' 41.5 72
0
14' 25.7 Mining area
Near pit
area

55 Pit boundary 21
0
33' 51.4 72
0
14' 29.8
Agriculture
land

56 Near Pit boundary 21
0
33' 53.7 72
0
14' 36.7 Settlement
57 Khadsaliya- 21
0
33' 35 72
0
15' 16.5
Agriculture
land
Temple
58 Khadsaliya- 21
0
33' 21.8 72
0
15' 5.4 Fallow land
59 Khadsaliya- 21
0
32' 47.5 72
0
14' 44.6
Agriculture
land

&RQWG

TabIe 3.2.8 &RQWG
Chapter 3: Description of Environment

3.28

Sr.
No.
Location Latitude Longitude
Land
use/Iand
cover in the
surrounding
area
Remarks
60
Thalsar village 21
0
32' 18.1 72
0
14' 38.9 Settlement
61 Khadsaliya- 21
0
31' 51.9 72
0
14' 36.2 Wasteland
62 Khadsaliya- 21
0
31' 39.5 72
0
14' 20.3 Wasteland
63 Khadsaliya- 21
0
31' 41.0 72
0
14' 31.1 Agriculture
64 Khadsaliya- 21
0
34' 03.4 72
0
15' 22.8
Wasteland

Bridge

65
Road towards Arabian sea
from Koliyaak village
21
0
36' 4.6 72
0
17' 14.1 Mudland
Sand near
Arabian sea
66 Ghogha 21
0
41' 14.8 72
0
16' 30.9 Settlement
67
Near Road towards
BHAVNAGAR
21
0
41' 55.3 72
0
13' 53.3
Salt & salt
farm
Salt area


TabIe 3.2.8 &RQWG
Chapter 3 : Description of Environment
3.29



TabIe 3.2.9 : ReIative Occurrence of different
Land use/ Land cover CIasses in Study Area


CIasses
5 Km 10 km
Area
(Km
2
)

Area (%)
Area
(Km
2
)

Area (%)
WasteIand 174.69 44.35 303.32 36.04
Sea-Water 59.91 15.21 236.80 28.13
SettIement 7.28 1.84 12.05 1.43
SaIt Land 2.02 0.51 7.75 0.92
SaIt Farms 4.02 1.02 17.61 2.09
Mangroves 1.37 0.34 6.09 0.72
Water bodies 2.21 0.56 3.39 0.4
AgricuIture 70.83 17.98 133.50 15.86
FaIIow Land 51.72 13.13 84.79 10.07
Mud Land 13.38 3.39 29.33 3.48
Mining Area 6.45 1.63 6.98 0.82
TotaI 393.88 841.61
Chapter 3 : Description of Environment
3.30



TabIe 3.2.10 : Area occupied by Iand use/ Iand cover CIasses in
Ghogha-surka, KhadsaIiya-I and KhadsaIiya -II.

CIasses
Ghogha-Surka KhadsaIiya-I KhadsaIiya -II
Area (Km
2
)
WasteIand 8.78 4.44 6.26
Sea-Water - - -
SettIement 0.54 0.26 0.14
SaIt Land - - -
SaIt Farms - - -
Mangroves - - -
Waterbodies 0.039 0.0275 0.0718
AgricuIture 1.98 1.60 2.78
FaIIow Land 3.72 1.59 1.90
Mud Land - - -
Mining Area 0.17 0.008125 0.67
TotaI 15.24 7.95 11.84

Chapter 3: Description of Environment

3.31

3.3 Water Environment


The open cast mining activities are expected to affect the hydrological regime
and also use considerable quantity of water for various purposes. The water quality of
the region is also likely to be effected through run-off from proposed over burden dump
site. Extraction of minerals also lead to water pollution due to heavy metals, acidic water,
increased suspended solids etc..
There are no perennial inland water bodies like river, dam etc. in the vicinity of
proposed lignite mines (study area). The Malesari nadi is a seasonal river, becomes
active only during monsoon season. The Malesari nadi passes through the southern,
southwest part of Ghogha-Surka mine lease area. This river flows from west to east and
finally drains into Gulf of Khambhat. Few natural drains (seasonal) generate locally in
the lease area, which connect to Malesari nadi. An irrigation canal flows from North to
South on the southeastern boundary of the lease area.
The open ponds in different villages, Ramdasia and Malesari rivers are the
major surface water bodies (seasonal) in the study area. Scarcity of water prevails in the
project region. Very limited water sources are available for drinking purposes. The
project region consists bore wells, open wells and hand pumps as important sources of
drinking water.
3.3.1 Water Requirement and Resource
The water requirement in the open cast mining is mostly for domestic purpose,
machinery cooling, dust suppression (water sprinkling) on haul roads, fire water, vehicle
washing, greenbelt development etc.. The water consumption at a mine depends on
size, method of mining and the equipments used. Underground mines have lower water
consumption as compared to open cast mines, which consumes large quantity of water
for dust suppression and the beneficiation plant depending on necessity.
At the proposed mines, initially water requirement will be met from ground
water i.e. from dug wells located at nearby villages Badi, Hoidad, Padva, Khadsaliya and
Bhadbhadya through tankers and stored in the tank located at mines. After the
commissioning of proposed lignite based pithead power plant, water demand at
proposed mining shall be met through sharing from the power plant.


Chapter 3: Description of Environment

3.32

3.3.2 BaseIine Status


The status of water quality has been assessed by M/s Kadam Environmental
Consultant, Vadodara through identification of water resources and appropriate sampling
locations for both surface and ground water in the study area. Total 21sampling locations
have been identified for surface water and ground water quality assessment (3 surface +
18 ground water) as depicted in Fig.3.3.1 and listed in TabIe 3.3.1. Water sample from
Ramdasia River could not be collected due to prevailing dry conditions in the river. The
water samples collected during winter season (November, December, 2011 and January
2012) have been analysed for Physico-chemical, Nutrient and Demand parameters;
Heavy metals, Bacteriological and biological characteristics.
3.3.2.1 Surface Water QuaIity
During study period, the physico-chemical characteristics of surface water
samples from different locations are observed. The physico-chemical characteristics of
surface water samples are presented in TabIe 3.3.2
The physico-chemical characteristics of surface water samples from different
locations observed are as follows. The pH of the three surface water samples has been
found between 8.01 and 8.39. The sampling location (SW3 Ghogha pond) has shown
saline characteristics i.e., conductivity, TDS, chloride and sodium are in high
concentrations. The other two surface water locations, i.e., SW1 and SW2 conductivity is
616 to 1540 mhos/cm and TDS is 380 to 924 mg/L respectively.
norganic parameters such as Total Alkalinity of three surface water locations is
from 250 to 320 mg/L. Total Hardness of Ghogha pond is showing towards higher
concentration i.e., 1940 mg/L whereas the other two locations are in 190 to 370 mg/L.
Calcium hardness of three locations varied from 82 to 600 mg/L. Chlorides of Ghogha
pond is 11089 mg/L which is high and other two locations are from 145 to 359 mg/L.
Sulphates of three surface water locations is 30 to 296 mg/L. The sodium concentration
is high in Ghogha pond i.e., 7346 mg/L due to high salinity value and sodium
concentration in the other two surface water samples is 46.7 to 119 mg/L. Potassium
values of the three locations are 4.6 to 131.2 mg/L respectively.
Nutrients in terms of Nitrates and Total phosphates were observed from 0.08 to
11.98 mg/L and 0.24 to 1.48 mg/L respectively. The levels of DO, B.O.D and COD were
observed in the range 4.6 to 5.1 mg/L, 13 to 55 mg/L and 16 to 77 mg/L respectively. As
per physico-chemical characteristics except demand parameter B.O.D the two surface
water sources i.e., Padva pond and Malesari river in the study area can be classified as
Chapter 3: Description of Environment

3.33

'C' class per CPCB classification of inland surface water of S 229-1982. The B.O.D
concentrations i.e. 13 to 55mg/L in the surface water indicate the presence of organic
pollution; Whereas the results observed from the analysis of physico-chemical
characteristics of location Ghogha pond (SW3) shows the saline nature. This may be due
to sea back water into the pond.
The Chromium, Nickel concentrations were found as 0.008 mg/L and 0.004
mg/L in all the three locations. Cadmium, Manganese and Zinc values were 0.003 mg/L,
0.01mg/L and 0.004 to 0.018 mg/L in all the three locations respectively. Copper values
were found to be <0.01 mg/L. The ron concentration in SW1 location i.e., in Malesari
river is 1.137 mg/L exceeding permissible standard level i.e., 1mg/L whereas in the other
two locations the concentrations were 0.850 to 0.140 mg/L and Lead values were <0.04
mg/L in all three locations respectively.
3.3.2.2 Groundwater quaIity
Total 18 samples were collected from tube wells and dug wells and analysed to
assess the baseline status of groundwater quality in the study area. The sampling
locations are presented in TabIe 3.3.1. The data on physico-chemical characteristics of
groundwater samples are presented in TabIe 3.3.3.
Physical parameters pH is in the range of 7.39 to 8.5, turbidity is <0.1 NTU and
conductivity is in the range of 472 to 3690 Pmhos/cm. Highest conductivity is observed in
sampling locations Bhuteshwar, Budhel, Surka, Khadarpur, i.e. 1997, 3460, 3690 2260
Pmhos/cm respectively. Total Dissolved Solids varied from 332 to 2384 mg/L. Highest
TDS values were observed in Surka and Budhel i.e., 2288 and 2384 mg/L respectively.
norganic parameters i.e., Total Alkalinity has been found to be 120 to 340
mg/L. Total Hardness is in the range of 130 to 900 mg/L. Some locations having high
hardness values i.e., in Budhel, Thordi, Khudarpur, Kantala and Wavri which is more
than permissible level i.e., 600mg/L. Calcium Hardness is varied from 18 to 4412 mg/L,
highest value being observed in location Khadsaliya- i.e., 4412mg/L. The Chloride,
Sulphate was in the range of 55 to 862 mg/L, 7 to 273 mg/L respectively. Sodium,
Potassium and Fluoride was in the range of 13 to 410.9 mg/L, 0.7 to 21.7 mg/L and 0.01
to 0.56 mg/L respectively.
Phosphates are in the range of 0.11 to 1.19 mg/L while Nitrate was found in the
range of BDL to 67.49 mg/L. The levels of DO were observed in the range: 2 - 3 mg/L.
The BOD is <2 mg/L respectively.
Chapter 3: Description of Environment

3.34

The Chromium values were <0.001 mg/L in all the locations. Nickel is in the
range of 0.02 to 0.07 mg/L, Cadmium is <0.001 mg/L in all the locations. Manganese and
Zinc values were in the range of 0.0007 to 0.007 mg/L, 0.002 to 0.07 mg/L. Copper
values were found to be 0.003 to 0.08 mg/L. The ron is in the range 0.01 to 5.6 mg/L
highest ron values were observed in location Bhuteshwar i.e., 5.6 mg/L and Lead values
were 0.02 mg/L in all the sampling locations respectively.
3.3.2.3 BacterioIogicaI Characteristics
Coliform group of organisms are indicators of faecal contamination. Surface
and groundwater samples were analysed for total and faecal coliforms. The total coliform
and faecal coliform were observed in the ranges: 23 - 27 MPN/100ml and 8 - 17
MPN/100ml in surface water samples. All the three surface water samples were
identified as polluted. The highest coliform organisms were found in the sampling
location SW3, i.e. Ghogha pond. The Total coliform and faecal coliforms count in ground
water sources were below 2 MPN/100ml.
3.3.2.4 BioIogicaI Characteristics
Biological species, viz. phytoplankton and zooplankton for a particular
environmental situation are the best indicators of environmental stress on water bodies.
Studies on biological aspects of ecosystem are important in view of the conservation of
environmental quality and safety of aquatic flora and fauna. nformation about the impact
(environmental stress) on the biological (planktons) structure serves as inexpensive and
efficient "early warning and control system to check the effectiveness of control measure
to prevent damage to a particular ecosystem (e.g. adjustments of emission norms,
management of installations and sanitation etc.).
n order to evaluate baseline status of biological parameters in water bodies
within the study area, water samples were analysed for phytoplankton and zooplankton,
which are the indicators of primary and secondary biological productivity in water bodies
as well as water pollution stress. The sampling locations are presented in TabIe 3.3.4.
Phytoplankton counts recorded at different sampling stations, are presented in
TabIe 3.3.5. Total 14 genera of phytoplankton were observed at all sampling locations in
which Diatom and Pediastrum were major dominant genera at all sampling locations.
The cell count of phytoplankton varied from 80 Nos/lit to 360 Nos/lit (TabIe 3.3.5). The
highest cell count recorded at the Surka where as lowest at sanodara village pond.
Chapter 3: Description of Environment

3.35

Zooplankton counts recorded at different sampling stations, are presented in


TabIe 3.3.6. Total 12 groups of zooplankton were observed at all sampling locations in
which Daphnia and Diaphanosoma were major dominant group at all sampling locations.
The population of zooplankton varied from 4 Nos/lit to 21 Nos/lit. The highest population
of zooplankton recorded at the Surka village pond where as lowest at Ghogha village
pond and Jaspara village pond.
Shannon Weiner ndex for Phytoplankton and Zooplankton is given in TabIe
3.3.7. The diversity index of phytoplankton and zooplankton varies from 0.550 to 1.521
and 0.539 to 1.534. The highest diversity index of phytoplankton was recorded at Hatab
village pond where as lowest at Nathugardh village pond. The highest diversity index of
zooplankton was recorded at Surka village pond where as lowest at Kuda village Pond.
Chapter 3: Description of Environment

3.36


Fig. 3.3.1: Water QuaIity SampIing Locations

GHOGHA
SURKA
K
H
A
D
S
A
L
I
Y
A
-
I
I

KHADSALIYA-I
SW1
SW3
SW2

Surface Water
Ground Water
t

Aquatic Study
Valaspara
Chapter 3: Description of Environment

3.37

TabIe 3.3.1 : Description of Water SampIing Locations


Sr. No.
SampIe
Code
SampIing
Location
Source Direction Distance
Surface Wtaer
1. SW1 Malesari River River At Site 0.5
3. SW2 Padva Pond Pond SW 3.0
4. SW3 Ghogha Pond Pond NNE 7.5
Ground Water
1. GW1
Khadsaliya 1
(Project Site)
- S 4.5
2. GW2 Koliyak - E 3.0
3. GW3 Bhuteshwar - N 7.0
4. GW4 Sanodar - WSW 7.5
5. GW5 Budhel - NW 9.7
6. GW6 Surka - NNE 3.0
7. GW7 Bhawanipura - SSW 9.0
8. GW8 Khadsaliya 2 - SE 6.0
9. GW9 Tansa - SW 9.0
10. GW10 Khadarpar - S 8.0
11. GW11 Odarka - SW 9.0
12. GW12 Badi - NNE 3.0
13. GW13 Panjai - SSW 9.0
14. GW14
Thordi
(Project Site)
- NW 6.0
15. GW15 Pithalpur - SW 6.3
16. GW16 Mamsa - WNW 8.2
17. GW17 Kantala - NW 2.0
18. GW18 Wavri - SSW 7.5

Chapter 3: Description of Environment

3.38

TabIe 3.3.2 : ResuIts of Surface Water AnaIysis


S.
No.
Parameters Unit
Standard Limits for
Drinking Water IS 10500
SampIing Location
SW 1 SW 2 SW 3
River Pond Pond
DesirabIe
Limit
PermissibIe
Limit
MaIesari Padva Ghogha
8/11/11 8/11/11 8/11/11
1 pH pH scale 6.5-8.5 6.5-8.5 8.27 8.39 8.01
2 Temperature
o
C NS NS 27 27 27
3 Turbidity NTU 5 10 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1
4 TDS mg/l 500 2000 924 380 21084
5
Electrical
conductivity
mhos/
cm
NS NS 1540 616 30123
6 COD mg/l NS NS 40 16 77
7 BOD mg/l NS NS 13 55 22
8 Phenol mg/l 0.001 0.002 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001
9 Chlorides mg/l 250 1000 359 145 11089
10 Sulphates mg/l 200 400 166 30 296
11
Total
Hardness
mg/l 300 600 370 190 1940
12
Ca
++

Hardness
mg/l NS NS 110 82 600
13
Mg
++

Hardness
mg/l NS NS 260 108 1340
14
Total
Alkalinity
mg/l 200 600 300 320 250
15 Nitrate mg/l 45 100 8.26 11.98 <0.08
16 Fluoride mg/l 1 1.5 0.03 0.12 0.24
17 Sodium mg/l NS NS 119 46.7 7346
18 Potassium mg/l NS NS 14.3 4.6 131.2
19 Calcium mg/l 75 200 44.09 32.87 240.48
20 Magnesium mg/l 30 100 63.18 26.24 325.62
21 Salinity mg/l NS NS 646.92 261.29 19982.88
22
Total
Nitrogen
mg/l NS NS 8.96 0.47 <0.6
23
Total
Phosphorous
mg/l NS NS 1.48 0.24 0.37
24
Dissolved
Oxygen
mg/l 500 2000 5.1 5.0 4.6
25
Ammonical
Nitrogen
mg/l NS NS <0.01
<0.01
<0.01
&RQWG
Chapter 3: Description of Environment

3.39

S.
No.
Parameters Unit
Standard Limits for
Drinking Water IS 10500
SampIing Location
SW 1 SW 2 SW 3
River Pond Pond
DesirabIe
Limit
PermissibIe
Limit
MaIesari Padva Ghogha
8/11/11 8/11/11 8/11/11
26 SAR - NS NS 1.6 1.5 72.2
27
Heavy
Metals

a
Arsenic (as
As)
mg/l 0.05 NR <0.001 <0.001 <0.001
b
Cadmium (as
Cd)
mg/l 0.01 NR <0.003 <0.003 <0.003
c
Cromium (as
Cr)
mg/l 0.05 NR <0.008 <0.008 <0.008
d
Copper (as
Cu)
mg/l 0.05 1.5 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01
e
Cyanide (as
CN)
mg/l 0.05 NR <0.003 <0.003 <0.003
f ron (as Fe) mg/l 0.3 1 1.137 0.850 0.140
g Lead (as Pb) mg/l 0.05 NR <0.04 <0.04 <0.04
h
Mercury (as
Hg)
mg/l 0.001 NR <0.001 <0.002 <0.002
i
Manganese
(as Mn)
mg/l 0.1 0.3 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01
j Nickel (as Ni) mg/l - - <0.004 <0.004 <0.004
k Zinc (as Zn) mg/l 5 15 0.018 <0.004 <0.004
28
Total
Coliform
MPN
/100 ml
10 10 26 23 27
29
Faecal
Coliforms
MPN /
100 ml
10 10 14 8 17
NR: No Relaxation NS: Not Specified

TabIe 3.3.2 &RQWG
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r
d
i

P
i
t
h
a
I
p
u
r

M
a
m
s
a

K
a
n
t
a
I
a

W
a
v
r
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D
a
t
e

o
f

S
a
m
p
I
i
n
g

2
/
1
/
2
0
1
2

2
/
1
/
2
0
1
2

9
/
1
/
2
0
1
2

8
/
1
1
/
2
0
1
1

2
/
1
/
2
0
1
2

2
/
1
/
2
0
1
2

S
o
u
r
c
e


D
u
g
w
e
I
I

T
u
b
e
w
e
I
I

T
u
b
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w
e
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I

T
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b
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u
b
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u
b
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h











1

p
H

p
H

s
c
a
l
e

6
.
5
-
8
.
5

6
.
5
-
8
.
5

7
.
8
2

7
.
8
7

8
.
5

7
.
7
6

7
.
4
3

7
.
3
9

2

T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

o

C

N
S

N
S

2
7

2
7

2
7

2
6

2
7

2
7

3

T
u
r
b
i
d
i
t
y

N
T
U

5

1
0

<
0
.
1

<
0
.
1

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0
.
1

<
0
.
1

<
0
.
1

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0
.
1

4

T
D
S

m
g
/
l
i
t

5
0
0

2
0
0
0

3
9
2

9
9
6

5
1
6

3
3
2

6
6
8

8
5
6

5

E
l
e
c
t
r
i
c
a
l

c
o
n
d
u
c
t
i
v
i
t
y

m
h
o
/

c
m

N
S

N
S

5
3
0

1
2
0
2

6
2
0

4
7
2

9
5
7

1
2
7
1

6

C
O
D

m
g
/
l
i
t

N
S

N
S

<
4

<
4

<
4

<
4

<
4

<
4

7

B
O
D

m
g
/
l
i
t

N
S

N
S

,
2

<
2

<
2

<
2

<
2

<
2

8

P
h
e
n
o
l

m
g
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l
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t

0
.
0
0
1

0
.
0
0
2

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.
0
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1

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0
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1

9

C
h
l
o
r
i
d
e
s

m
g
/
l
i
t

2
5
0

1
0
0
0

7
7

2
1
2

7
8

1
2
0

2
3
0

2
1
5

1
0

S
u
l
p
h
a
t
e
s

m
g
/
l
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t

2
0
0

4
0
0

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1

9
3

7

1
9

5
7

9
9

1
1

T
o
t
a
l

H
a
r
d
n
e
s
s

m
g
/
l
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t

3
0
0

6
0
0

2
8
0

7
2
0

1
3
0

2
0
0

6
5
0

6
2
0

1
2

C
a
+
+

H
a
r
d
n
e
s
s

m
g
/
l
i
t

N
S

N
S

1
4
4

5
1
2

1
8

8
8

4
0
8

2
8
4

1
3

M
g
+
+

H
a
r
d
n
e
s
s

m
g
/
l
i
t

N
S

N
S

1
3
6

2
0
8

1
1
2

1
1
2

2
4
2

3
3
6

1
4

T
o
t
a
l

A
l
k
a
l
i
n
i
t
y

m
g
/
l
i
t

2
0
0

6
0
0

2
1
0

2
2
0

3
4
0

2
0
0

1
3
0

1
2
0

&
R
Q
W
G


3.46
S
.

N
o
.

P
a
r
a
m
e
t
e
r
s

U
n
i
t

I
S

1
0
5
0
0

S
t
a
n
d
a
r
d

L
i
m
i
t
s

f
o
r

d
r
i
n
k
i
n
g

w
a
t
e
r

G
r
o
u
n
d

W
a
t
e
r

Q
u
a
I
i
t
y





G
W

1
3

G
W

1
4

G
W

1
5

G
W

1
6

G
W

1
7

G
W

1
8

D
e
s
i
r
a
b
I
e

I
i
m
i
t

P
e
r
m
i
s
s
i
b
I
e

I
i
m
i
t

P
a
n
j
a
i

T
h
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r
d
i

P
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t
h
a
I
p
u
r

M
a
m
s
a

K
a
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t
a
I
a

W
a
v
r
i

D
a
t
e

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f

S
a
m
p
I
i
n
g

2
/
1
/
2
0
1
2

2
/
1
/
2
0
1
2

9
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1
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2
0
1
2

8
/
1
1
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0
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1

2
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2
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S
o
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e


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h











1
5

N
i
t
r
a
t
e

m
g
/
l
i
t

4
5

1
0
0

N
i
l

6
0
.
3
2

1
.
7
3

<
0
.
0
1

3
9
.
9
7

2
9
.
8
9

1
6

F
l
u
o
r
i
d
e

m
g
/
l
i
t

1

1
.
5

0
.
0
1

0
.
3
1

0
.
4

0
.
1

0
.
1
9

0
.
2
4

1
7

S
o
d
i
u
m

m
g
/
l
i
t

N
S

N
S

1
3

8
8

2
9

3
5

4
3

5
3

1
8

P
o
t
a
s
s
i
u
m

m
g
/
l
i
t

N
S

N
S

2
.
6

4
.
8

0
.
7

8
.
4

3
.
8

1
.
8

1
9

C
a
l
c
i
u
m

m
g
/
l
i
t

7
5

2
0
0

5
7
.
7
2

2
0
5
.
2
1

7
.
2
1

3
5
.
2
7

1
6
3
.
5
3

1
1
3
.
8
3

2
0

M
a
g
n
e
s
i
u
m

m
g
/
l
i
t

3
0

1
0
0

3
3
.
0
5

5
0
.
5
4

2
7
.
2
2

2
7
.
2
2

5
8
.
8
1

8
1
.
6
5

2
1

S
a
l
i
n
i
t
y

m
g
/
l
i
t

N
S

N
S

1
3
8
.
7
5

3
8
2
.
0
4

1
4
0
.
5
6

2
1
6
.
2
4

4
1
6
.
4
6

3
8
7
.
4
3

2
2

T
o
t
a
l

N
i
t
r
o
g
e
n

m
g
/
l
i
t

N
S

N
S

0
.
9
3

1
4

0
.
7
7

0
.
6

1
2
.
1
3

9
.
9
9

2
3

T
o
t
a
l

P
h
o
s
p
h
o
r
o
u
s

m
g
/
l
i
t

N
S

N
S

0
.
8
5

0
.
1
1

4
.
9

0
.
1
9

0
.
9
5

0
.
9
8

2
4

D
i
s
s
o
l
v
e
d

O
x
y
g
e
n

m
g
/
l
i
t

N
S

N
S

2
.
5

2

2
.
9

2
.
6

2
.
3

2
.
9

2
5

A
m
m
o
n
i
c
a
l

N
i
t
r
o
g
e
n

m
g
/
l
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t





1
.
3
1

0
.
5
4

0
.
2

<
0
.
0
5
6

0
.
0
1

0
.
5
4

2
6

S
A
R







0
.
4

1
.
4
2

1
.
1

1
.
0
7

0
.
7
3

0
.
9
2

2
7

H
e
a
v
y

M
e
t
a
I
s


a

A
r
s
e
n
i
c

(
a
s

A
s
)

m
g
/
l

0
.
0
5

N
R

<
0
.
0
1

<
0
.
0
1

N
.
A
.

<
0
.
0
1

<
0
.
0
3

<
0
.
0
3

b

C
a
d
m
i
u
m

(
a
s

C
d
)

m
g
/
l

0
.
0
1

N
R

<
0
.
0
0
1

<
0
.
0
0
1

N
.
A
.

<
0
.
0
0
1

<
0
.
0
0
1

<
0
.
0
0
1

&
R
Q
W
G


T
a
b
I
e

3
.
3
.
3


&
R
Q
W
G


3.47
S
.

N
o
.

P
a
r
a
m
e
t
e
r
s

U
n
i
t

I
S

1
0
5
0
0

S
t
a
n
d
a
r
d

L
i
m
i
t
s

f
o
r

d
r
i
n
k
i
n
g

w
a
t
e
r

G
r
o
u
n
d

W
a
t
e
r

Q
u
a
I
i
t
y





G
W

1
3

G
W

1
4

G
W

1
5

G
W

1
6

G
W

1
7

G
W

1
8

D
e
s
i
r
a
b
I
e

I
i
m
i
t

P
e
r
m
i
s
s
i
b
I
e

I
i
m
i
t

P
a
n
j
a
i

T
h
o
r
d
i

P
i
t
h
a
I
p
u
r

M
a
m
s
a

K
a
n
t
a
I
a

W
a
v
r
i

D
a
t
e

o
f

S
a
m
p
I
i
n
g

2
/
1
/
2
0
1
2

2
/
1
/
2
0
1
2

9
/
1
/
2
0
1
2

8
/
1
1
/
2
0
1
1

2
/
1
/
2
0
1
2

2
/
1
/
2
0
1
2

S
o
u
r
c
e


D
u
g
w
e
I
I

T
u
b
e
w
e
I
I

T
u
b
e
w
e
I
I

T
u
b
e
w
e
I
I

T
u
b
e
w
e
I
I

T
u
b
e
w
e
I
I

D
e
p
t
h











c

C
h
r
o
m
i
u
m

(
a
s

C
r
)

m
g
/
l

0
.
0
5

N
R

<
0
.
0
0
1

<
0
.
0
0
1

<
0
.
0
1

<
0
.
0
0
1

<
0
.
0
1

<
0
.
0
1

d

C
o
p
p
e
r

(
a
s

C
u
)

m
g
/
l

0
.
0
5

1
.
5

<
0
.
0
2

<
0
.
0
2

<
0
.
0
0
3

<
0
.
0
2

0
.
0
4

0
.
1
1

e

C
y
a
n
i
d
e

(
a
s

C
N
)

m
g
/
l

0
.
0
5

N
R

<
0
.
0
0
3

<
0
.
0
0
3

N
.
A
.

<
0
.
0
0
3

<
0
.
0
0
3

<
0
.
0
0
3

f

r
o
n

(
a
s

F
e
)

m
g
/
l

0
.
3

1

0
.
1
9

<
0
.
0
1

0
.
4
7

1
.
4
1

0
.
2
5

0
.
9
8

g

L
e
a
d

(
a
s

P
b
)

m
g
/
l

0
.
0
5

N
R

<
0
.
0
2

<
0
.
0
2

<
0
.
0
2

<
0
.
0
2

<
0
.
0
2

<
0
.
0
2

h

M
e
r
c
u
r
y

(
a
s

H
g
)

m
g
/
l

0
.
0
0
1

N
R

<
0
.
0
0
1

<
0
.
0
0
1

<
0
.
0
0
1

<
0
.
0
0
1

<
0
.
0
0
0
8

<
0
.
0
0
0
8

i

M
a
n
g
a
n
e
s
e

(
a
s

M
n
)

m
g
/
l

0
.
1

0
.
3

<
0
.
0
0
7

<
0
.
0
0
7

<
0
.
0
0
7

<
0
.
0
0
7

<
0
.
0
0
0
7

<
0
.
0
0
7

j

N
i
c
k
e
l

(
a
s

N
i
)

m
g
/
l

-

-

<
0
.
0
2

<
0
.
0
2

<
0
.
0
2

<
0
.
0
2

<
0
.
0
7

<
0
.
0
7

k

Z
i
n
c

(
a
s

Z
n
)

m
g
/
l

5

1
5

<
0
.
0
0
2

0
.
0
2
9

<
0
.
0
0
2

0
.
0
2

<
0
.
0
0
2

<
0
.
0
0
2

2
8

T
o
t
a
l

C
o
l
i
f
o
r
m

M
P
N

1
0
/
1
0
0

m
I

1
0
/
1
0
0

m
I

<
2

<
2

<
2

<
2

<
2

<
2

2
9

F
a
e
c
a
l

C
o
l
i
f
o
r
m
s

M
P
N

1
0
/
1
0
0

m
I

1
0
/
1
0
0

m
I

<
2

<
2

<
2

<
2

<
2

<
2






N
R
:

N
o

R
e
l
a
x
a
t
i
o
n



N
S
:

N
o
t

S
p
e
c
i
f
i
e
d



T
a
b
I
e

3
.
3
.
3


&
R
Q
W
G


3.48
Chapter 3: Description of Environment

3.49

TabIe 3.3.4 : SampIing Locations for Aquatic Study



Station
No.
PIace Source Parameter of SampIe
1. Ghogha Village Pond Pond
Zooplankton
Phytoplankton
2. Mithivirdi Village Pond Pond
Zooplankton
Phytoplankton
3. Koliyak Village Pond
Almost Dry
Pond
Zooplankton
Phytoplankton
4. Kuda Village Pond Pond
Zooplankton
Phytoplankton
5. Padva Village Pond
Almost Dry
Pond
Zooplankton
Phytoplankton
6. Surkha Village Pond Pond
Zooplankton
Phytoplankton
7. Thordi Village Pond Pond
Zooplankton
Phytoplankton
8.
Sanodara Village
Pond

Pond
Zooplankton
Phytoplankton
9. Budhel Village Pond Pond
Zooplankton
Phytoplankton
10.
Lakhanka Village
Pond
Pond
Zooplankton
Phytoplankton
11. Tagadi Village Pond Pond
Zooplankton
Phytoplankton
12.
Khadsaliya Village
Pond
Pond
Zooplankton
Phytoplankton
13. Hatab Village Pond Pond
Zooplankton
Phytoplankton
14.
Valaspara Village
Pond
Pond
Zooplankton
Phytoplankton
15.
Nathugardh Village
Pond
Pond
Zooplankton
Phytoplankton
16. Jaspara Village Pond Pond
Zooplankton
Phytoplankton
17. Wavri Village Pond Pond
Zooplankton
Phytoplankton

Chapter 3: Description of Environment

3.50


TabIe 3.3.5: PhytopIankton CeII Count (No./Lit.) Across SampIing Locations
Sr. No Station CeII
Count
TotaI
Genera
Common Genera
1.
Ghogha Village
Pond
84 4
Pediastrum, Diatom,
Microspora, Cladophora
2.
Mithivirdi Village
Pond
120 3 Diatom, Cladophora, Ulothrix
3. Kuda Village Pond 92 2 Pediastrum, Gonatozygon
4. Surka Village Pond 360 5
Pediastrum, Diatom,
Zygnema, Spirogyra,
Microspora
5.
Thordi Village
Pond
192 3
Microspora, Nitschia,
Cladophora
6.
Sanodara Village
Pond
80 3 Nitschia, Zygnema, Melosira
7.
Budhel Village
Pond
148 4
Pediastrum, Zygnema,
Nitschia, Spirogyra
8.
Lakhanka Village
Pond
144 4
Anabaena, Pediastrum,
Zygnema, Diatom
9.
Tagadi Village
Pond
164 4
Diatom, Cladophora,
Phormidium, Nitschia
10.
Khadsaliya Village
Pond
156 3
Pediastrum, Spirogyra,
Gonatozygon
11. Hatab Village Pond 144 3
Daphnia, Eubranchipus,
Leptodora
12.
Valaspara Village
Pond
128 4
Microspora, Phormidium,
Pediastrum, Diatom
13.
Nathugardh Village
Pond
100 2 Zygnema, Melosira
14.
Jaspara Village
Pond
92 3
Zygnema, Phormidium,
Pediastrum
15. Wavri Village Pond 188 3
Pediastrum, Zygnema,
Scenedesmus

Chapter 3: Description of Environment

3.51

TabIe 3.3.6: ZoopIankton Standing Stock (No./Lit.)

Sr. No Station PopuIation TotaI


Groups
Common Group
1.
Ghogha Village
Pond
4 3 Daphnia, Cyclops, Bosmina
2.
Mithivirdi Village
Pond
7 3
Eubranchipus, Branchionus,
Mytilina
3. Kuda Village Pond 5 2 Daphnia, Diaphanosoma
4. Surka Village Pond 21 5
Daphnia, Diaphanosoma,
Eubranchipus, Branchionus,
Leptodora
5. Thordi Village Pond 11 3 Trichocerca, Daphnia, Leptodora
6.
Sanodara Village
Pond
9 3 Diaphanosoma, Sida, Daphnia
7. Budhel Village Pond 8 3
Trichocerca, Branchionus,
Daphnia
8.
Lakhanka Village
Pond
8 2 Daphnia, Moina
9. Tagadi Village Pond 7 3 Bosmina, Cyclops, Sida
10.
Khadsaliya Village
Pond
11 3
Daphnia, Diaphanosoma,
Branchionus
11. Hatab Village Pond 8 3
Daphnia, Eubranchipus,
Leptodora
12.
Valaspara Village
Pond
7 3
Diaphanosoma, Mytilina,
Branchionus
13.
Nathugardh Village
Pond
5 2 Sida, Leptodora
14.
Jaspara Village
Pond
4 2 Branchionus, Daphnia
15. Wavri Village Pond 10 2 Daphnia, Branchionus

Chapter 3: Description of Environment

3.52

TabIe 3.3.7: Shannon Weiner Diversity Index Across SampIing Locations



S.No Station Location PhytopIankton ZoopIankton
1. Ghogha Village Pond 1.231 0.969
2. Mithivirdi Village Pond 0.859 0.983
3. Kuda Village Pond 0.573 0.539
4. Surka Village Pond 1.514 1.534
5. Thordi Village Pond 1.021 0.917
6. Sanodara Village Pond 0.997 0.952
7. Budhel Village Pond 1.061 0.872
8. Lakhanka Village Pond 1.303 0.552
9. Tagadi Village Pond 1.337 0.998
10. Khadsaliya Village Pond 0.895 1.000
11. Hatab Village Pond 1.521 0.980
12. Valaspara Village Pond 1.259 0.950
13 Nathugardh Village Pond 0.550 0.681
14. Jaspara Village Pond 0.975 0.620
15. Wavri Village Pond 1.054 0.680


Chapter 3 : Description of Environment

3.53

3.4 Air Environment


Baseline ambient air quality status in the vicinity of the project site forms an
indispensable part of the EA studies. The quality of ambient air depends upon the
background concentrations of specific contaminants, the emission sources and
meteorological conditions. The study is essential to identify environmentally significant
issues prior to the proposed lignite mining as well as to enumerate the potential critical
environmental changes likely to occur due to mining (in core zone). Ambient air quality
monitoring was carried out by M/s Kadam Environmental Consultants, Vadodara in and
around the proposed project site during November 2011 - January 2012 and the data
collected has been analysed and presented here.
The baseline studies on air environment include identification of
conventional as well as project specific air pollution parameters expected to be
present in the study area and assessing their existing levels in ambient air. The
baseline status of air environment with respect to the identified air pollutants is
assessed through air quality surveillance programme. To establish the existing
baseline air quality status of the air basin around the proposed lignite mine, 12
Ambient Air Quality Monitoring (AAQM) stations (Fig. 3.4.1) were selected in different
directions of project site as per guidelines of network siting criteria.
Based on the nature of mining, handling, storage activities and other similar
activities within the study area, the conventional air pollutants such as Respirable
Particulate Matter (PM
10
), Fine particles (PM
2.5
) and gaseous pollutants such as
Sulphur dioxide (SO
2
), and Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) were identified as significant
pollutants for ambient air quality monitoring.
3.4.1 MicrometeoroIogy
The general description of climate and micrometeorological data which
includes diurnal and seasonal wind pattern (wind direction and wind speed),
atmospheric stability, mixing height and frequency of inversion occurrence is
necessary to identify those features of the local, sub-regional and regional
meteorology that influence the air quality in the area.
The micro-meteorological conditions at the proposed lignite mines will
regulate the transport and diffusion of air pollutants released into the atmosphere.
The principal variables include horizontal convective transport (average wind speed
and directions), vertical convective transport (atmospheric stability) and topography
of the area. The site specific meteorological data at site was collected by installing
Chapter 3 : Description of Environment

3.54

the microprocessor based weather monitoring station during the study period.
Meteorological data such as wind speed, wind direction and temperature were
recorded continuously on hourly basis.
The hourly micrometeorological data from continuous records have been
used to derive windrose and analysis of prevailing wind pattern during study period.
The windrose diagram for the entire winter season is shown in Fig. 3.4.2. The overall
windrose diagram shows that the predominant wind direction is from WNW. The calm
condition is observed to be around 16.42%. The ambient temperature at the project
site varied between 7.5C and 31.7C with an average of 21.1C, while the relative
humidity was recorded up to 96% during study period.
3.4.2 Ambient Air QuaIity Monitoring
Spatial and temporal variations in air quality occur as a result of topography of
the air basin and micro-meteorological conditions of the study area. The sampling
network was designed keeping in view the prevailing wind directions and potential impact
zones around the project. Based on this, twelve ambient air quality monitoring stations
(Fig. 3.4.1) were selected and monitoring was carried out twice in a week at each
sampling station for three months during the winter season (November 2011-January
2012). The details of sampling locations and their relative directions and aerial distances
from the proposed mining core zone are given in TabIe 3.4.1.
At all these stations, PM
10
, PM
2.5
as well as gaseous pollutants like SO
2
and
NOx were monitored within the 10 km (from core zone) radial study area. The ambient
air samples for measuring SO
2
and NOx levels were collected on 24 hourly basis by
drawing air at a rate of 0.5 to 1.0 L/min through the respective absorbing media and
analysed by standard wet chemical methods (TabIe 3.4.2). The PM
10
samples were
monitored on 24 hourly by drawing air flow rate of 0.9 to 1.4 m
3
/min through glass fibre
filters located after cyclone separator. PM
2.5
samples were monitored on 24 hourly by
drawing air at a flow rate of 1 m
3
/hr flow rate through PTFE filters and the separation is
based on cascade impactor principle. The filtered samples of PM
10
and PM
2.5
were
analysed by gravimetric methods and the results are reported in g/m
3
of air.
3.4.3 BaseIine Status
The observed ambient air quality data within the study area from the project
site is reported in TabIe 3.4.3. During study period the maximum 24 hourly
concentrations of PM
10
at different locations were found in the range: 113-185 g/m
3
whereas 98 percentile concentrations vary from 111 g/m
3
to 160 g/m
3
. The 24 hourly
Chapter 3 : Description of Environment

3.55

98
th
percentile concentrations of PM
10
at all sampling locations exceeded prescribed
NAAQ standard 100 g/m
3
for residential and other area.
PM
2.5
concentrations were monitored in the study area and average
concentrations range between 36 and 47 g/m
3
. The lowest average of 36 g/m
3
was
observed at Koliyak and Sanodar villages and highest average 47 g/m
3
was found at
Ghogha village. The 24 hourly PM
2.5
98
th
percentile concentrations at most of locations
except Mamsa village are exceeded the prescribed National Ambient Air Quality (NAAQ)
Standard of 60 g/m
3
(TabIe 3.4.3).
The 24 hourly average levels of SO
2
at individual locations are in the range:
5.1-7.7 g/m
3
, while the maximum concentrations varied from 8.5 g/m
3
to 16.6 g/m
3
.
Whereas the 24 hourly average levels of NO
X
at individual locations are in the range:
10.1-13.2 g/m
3
, while the 98 percentile concentrations varied from 10.7 g/m
3
to
42.5 g/m
3
(TabIe 3.4.3). The 24 hourly average concentrations of SO
2
and NO
X
in the
study area at all the locations during study period are well below the prescribed standard
(80 g/m
3
).
Chapter 3 : Description of Environment

3.56

Fig. 3.4.1: Air QuaIity SampIing Locations in Study Area


GHOGHA
SURKHA
K
H
A
D
S
A
L
I
Y
A
-
I
I

KHADSALIYA-I
Chapter 3 : Description of Environment

3.57

Fig.3.4.2: Windrose at Project Site during Study Period

Chapter 3 : Description of Environment



3.58


TabIe 3.4.1: Air QuaIity SampIing Locations
Sr. No.
SampIe
Code
SampIing Location Direction Distance
1. A1 Nathugadh Village SW 7.9
2. A2 Ghogha Village NNW 10.0
3. A3 Khadsaliya Village SE 3.0
4. A4 Khadsaliya Village ENE 2.0
5. A5 Koliyak Village ENE 4.5
6. A6 Lakkhanka Village SSE 8.5
7. A7 Padva Village SSW 3.0
8. A8 Mamsa Village NW 8.2
9. A9 Sanodar Village WSW 7.5
10. A10 Surka Village NNE 3.0
11. A11 Thordi Village NNW 6.0
12. A12 Wavri Village SSW 7.5



TabIe 3.4.2: Methods Used for Ambient Air QuaIity Monitoring
S.
No.
Parameter Monitoring Technique
Min.
DetectabIe
Conc.
1. Particulate Matter- PM
10

High Volume Sampler with
Cyclone separator;
Gravimetric
<10 g/m
3

2. Particulate Matter- PM
2.5

Fine Particulate Sampler,
Gravimetric
<2.5 g/m
3

3. Sulphur Dioxide (SO
2
)
EPA Modified West and
Gaeke Method
2.0 g/m
3

4. Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) Jacobs - Hochheiser Method 5.0 g/m
3



T
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3.59
Chapter 3 : Description of Environment

3.60

3.5 Noise Environment


The noise problem is said to exist when ambient noise level interferes with
human activities. People's perception of noise varies depending on number of factors
such as individual's natural sensitivity/hearing ability, past experience, time of the
day, socio-cultural activities etc. and also at the time of exposure to sound. The
impact of noise at community level can have different effects varying from aesthetic
impairment such as annoyance to as high as loss of hearing. The health impact of
noise on individual depends on several other factors, viz. physical dose (intensity of
sound pressure level), frequency spectrum, intermittency, as well as human factors
like sex, age, health condition, occupational exposure.
The prevailing ambient noise level at a particular location is nothing but the
resultant (total)/ contribution of all kinds of noise sources existing at various distances
around the particular location. The ambient noise levels at a location vary
continuously depending on the type of activities at and around the location. The
ambient noise level generally does not reflect seasonal variation, however, the wind
direction, rain, snow, fog, any barrier (obstruction) in the path of noise propogation as
well as direction of source play significant role in regulating the noise propagation
and ultimately the intensity of impact.
The pre-project status of noise environment in the proposed lignite mines
study area is assessed through measurement of prevailing noise levels in different
villages and measurement of noise levels due to vehicular movements. The
prevailing noise levels in the neighbouring community areas represent the baseline
status for assessment of noise impacts from proposed developments.
The proposed three Lignite mine sites (Ghogha-Surka, Khadsaliya- and
Khadsaliya-) adjacent to each other form the core zone. The nearest major town is
Ghogha in the northeast direction. The State Highway from Ghogha to Tansa is
passing through Khadsaliya village whereas the major road from Bhavnagar to Talaja
is passing on the Westside at about 5-10 km distance direction from the core zone.
3.5.1 Community Noise LeveIs
The community noise is determined by recording the day-night noise level
(L
dn
). L
dn
is defined as the 24 hours equivalent sound level derived with a penalty of
10 dB(A) added to the measured instantaneous noise level during night time. i.e.
from 2200 to 0600 hrs. This is because the same level of noise during night time is
more annoying than day time.
Chapter 3 : Description of Environment

3.61

L
dn
for a given location is calculated from hourly equivalent sound levels (Leq)
using the following equation:
L
dn
= 10 log [1/24{16(10
(Ld/10)
)+ 8(10
(Ln +10)/10)
)}]
Where,
Ld - equivalent noise level during day time (0600 to 2200 hrs)
Ln - equivalent noise level during night time (2200 to 0600 hrs)
3.5.2 BaseIine status
The prime objectives of noise monitoring in the study area is to establish the
existing ambient noise levels during the day as well as night time in surrounding
villages of proposed project site. The prevailing ambient noise levels were monitored
at 21 locations as depicted in Fig. 3.5.1.
The ambient noise levels (Leq) were monitored at the selected
locations/villages within the study area during day and night times. The details of the
monitoring stations are presented in TabIe 3.5.1 along with the observed hearing and
distance. The equivalent noise level is a scale for the measurement of community
noise exposure and has been accepted by nternational Standard Organisation for
the measurement of both community noise exposure (SO 1971) and hearing
damage risk (SO 1975) criteria for occupational exposure. Accordingly, 1 hourly
equivalent levels were measured during the study period and the observed data are
given in TabIe 3.5.2.
The villages in study area are mostly having only residential areas. The
average noise levels at different villages in study area vary from 51.6 - 64.4 dB(A) in
day time and 45.1 - 50.6 dB(A) during the night time. The average day time noise
levels at most of the locations except Padva, Surka and Badi villages are above the
prescribed ambient noise standards for residential area. During night time, the
average noise levels at all locations are exceeding prescribed ambient noise
standards for residential area.

Chapter 3 : Description of Environment

3.62



Fig. 3.5.1: Noise SampIing Locations in Study Area

GHOGHA
SURKHA
K
H
A
D
S
A
L
I
Y
A
-
I
I

KHADSALIYA-I
Chapter 3 : Description of Environment

3.63


TabIe 3.5.1: Noise Monitoring Locations
S.
No.
SampIe
Code
SampIing
Location
Source Direction Distance
1.
NL1
Nathugadh
Residential/Rural SW 7.9
2.
NL2
Badi
Residential/Rural W 6.0
3.
NL3
Budhel
Residential/Rural NW 9.0
4. NL4
Bhawanipura
Residential/Rural S 8.0
5. NL5
Hatab
Residential/Rural S 8.0
6. NL6
Bhumbli
Residential/Rural ESE 4.0
7. NL7
Khadarpar
Residential/Rural WNW 8.0
8. NL8
Khadsaliya
Residential/Rural SW 9.0
9. NL9
Khadsaliya
Residential/Rural SSW 7.5
10. NL10
Koliyak
Residential/Rural S 6.0
11. NL11
Lakhanka
Residential/Rural SE 4.5
12. NL12
Odarka
Residential/Rural WSW 7.5
13. NL13
Padva
Residential/Rural SSE 7.5
14. NL14
Rajpara
Residential/Rural SW 9.0
15. NL15
Mamsa
Residential/Rural E 3.0
16. NL16
Sanodar
Residential/Rural SW 3.0
17. NL17
Transa
Residential/Rural NNW 6.0
18. NL18
Wavri
Residential/Rural NNW 6.0
19. NL19
Ghogha
Residential/Rural N 5.0
20. NL20
Thordi
Residential/Rural NNE 8.0
21. NL21
Surkha
Residential/Rural WNW 2.0
Chapter 3 : Description of Environment

3.64


TabIe 3.5.2: Ambient Noise BaseIine Status
S. No.
SampIing
Location
EnvironmentaI
setting
Average
Day noise
IeveI dB(A)
Average Night
noise IeveI
dB(A)
1.
Nathugadh Residential 56.84 47.70
2.
Badi Residential 53.54 46.66
3.
Budhel Residential 58.57 45.68
4.
Bhawanipura Residential 59.94 48.30
5.
Hatab Residential 57.75 48.40
6.
Bhumbli Residential 64.27 49.59
7.
Khadarpar Residential 62.40 48.20
8.
Khadsaliya Residential 57.90 48.90
9.
Khadsaliya Residential 58.10 48.70
10.
Koliyak Residential 64.40 50.60
11.
Lakhanka Residential 59.40 48.80
12.
Odarka Residential 59.40 50.40
13.
Padva Residential 52.30 45.90
14.
Rajpara Residential 62.30 50.20
15.
Mamsa Residential 57.50 47.70
16.
Sanodar Residential 59.30 48.20
17.
Transa Residential 55.50 45.10
18.
Wavri Residential 59.70 45.90
19.
Ghogha Residential 58.20 47.22
20.
Thordi Residential 56.30 46.40
21.
Surkha Residential 62.30 50.20
Standard, Leq dB(A) ResidentiaI 55 45



Chapter 3 : Description of Environment
3.65

3.6 BioIogicaI Environment
Ecological system shows complex interrelationships between biotic and
abiotic components leading to dependence, mutualism and competition. Biotic system
comprises of both plant and animal communities, which interact not only among
themselves but also with abiotic components; viz. physical and chemical
characteristics of the environment. So, natural flora and fauna are important features of
the environment. They are organized into communities with mutual dependencies
among their member families and show various responses and sensitivities to outside
influences.
Generally, biological communities are good indicators of climatic and edaphic
factors because of their strong interrelationship. Studies on biological aspects are
important in Environmental mpact Assessment for sustainability of natural flora and
fauna as well as need for conservation of biodiversity. nformation on the impact of
environmental stress on the community structure serves as an inexpensive and
efficient early warning system to check the damage to a particular ecosystem. The
biological study includes mainly terrestrial and aquatic / coastal marine ecosystems.
ntegrating ecological thinking into the planning process is an urgent need in
the context of deterioration of natural environment, which is unwanted but direct
consequence of development. Plants and animals are more susceptible to
environmental stress. nformation on flora and fauna was collected within the study
area. Relevant details on aquatic life within the study area were collected from related
government offices.
3.6.1 Reconnaissance
The study was carried out by Kadam Environmental Consultants, Vadodara in
10 km radial distance from the proposed mining site taking Ghogha-Surka, Khadsaliya-
and Khadsaliya- as reference points. Most of the vegetation is aggregated on
boundaries of agriculture fields, road side plantation, private lands and social forest
area. The study area mainly comprises of terrestrial ecosystem (agriculture land,
fallowland and barren waste land) and aquatic ecosystem (Coastal area, Rivers,
Canals etc.). n the study area there is small lignite mine of GHCL already present in
village Khadsaliya. Vegetation around the study area comprises of mainly thorny dry
deciduous open forest type. Some protected forest (mainly afforestation along the state
highways, village forest) and some of the forest area come under study area in few
villages. The list of sampling location for biological environment is given in TabIe 3.6.1.
Chapter 3 : Description of Environment
3.66

3.6.2 Survey MethodoIogy
The study area (Fig. 3.6.1) is dominated by the vegetation of thorny open
dry deciduous small trees, shrub and very few large trees along with agricultural fields.
Therefore the observation of vegetation was made by visiting different sampling
stations and accordingly among available plants, the dominant plant species were
recorded.
Actual counts of birds were made following the standard survey technique.
Observations were made during a walk through in the chosen transect for sighting
birds and animals. The number of animals and birds observed in one-kilometer stretch
of the site were directly counted and listing was made. The milometer of the car/jeep
was used to measure the stretch of the study transect. Birds were noted, counted and
identified with the help of binocular and standard field identification guides. Other
animals were directly counted from amongst the vegetation, bushes and the roadside
fields. Primary information was collected from the local people also.
nformation regarding fisheries, indigenous fauna of the locality, agriculture
cropping pattern of the study area was collected from the district forest and Agriculture
departments offices at Bhavnagar.
3.6.3 FIora of the Study Area
Ayurveda says "there is no plant on the Earth, which does not possess
medicinal property this means that each and every plant is equally important for its
biological activities, ecology and environment. Therefore the conservation of medicinal
plants means every species of the plant in its actual habitat should be protected and
preserved.
Plant diversity around the proposed lignite mine shows two different types of
vegetation and these are:
x Thorny open forest vegetation
x Coastal vegetation
The vegetation throughout study area can be classified as thorny dry
deciduous open forest type. The most dominant trees in this region are Prosopis
jjuliflora, Acacia sp., Mangifera indica, Ficus religiosa, Azadiracta indica, Butea
monosperma are found in co-association and phytosociological order with Terminalia
bellerica, Terminalia tomentosa, Syzygium cumini, Bauhinia racemosa, Emblica
officinalis which are sparse in distribution.
Chapter 3 : Description of Environment
3.67

The subdominant species recorded are Capparis sp., Euphorbia sp. and
Opuntia sp. Ficus bengalensis are observed near villages and by the roadside. Other
rare species in this area recorded are Casuarina, Parkinsonia and Cocos nucifera.
Among the shrubs Euphorbia sp. and Opuntia sp. are abundant followed by Cassia
sp., Zizyphus sp. and Phoenix sp. are dominantly observed along with Cassia siamea
and Delonix regia at some places in villages and on private land. List of Flora present
in the study area is given in TabIe 3.6.2.
3.6.4 PIant Structure and Composition in CoastaI Areas
The composition of vegetation in some coastal region Ghogha, Mithivirdi,
Koliyak, Kuda, etc. is swamp, uneven-aged, mixed, dry deciduous natural forests.
Vegetation is extremely irregular and varying considerably in condition, composition
and density. Generally trees observed here have low stunted branches, diffuse crown.
Dependency of villagers on natural vegetation in this region is more for timber and
firewood. Most of the vegetation aggregates near villages mainly composed of Albizzia
chinensis, Alianthus excels, Bauhinia racemosa, Mangifera indica, Prosopis juliflora,
Ficus recimosa, Syzygium cumini, Tamarindus indica, Terminalia tomentosa etc.
The phyto-ecological structure of vegetation shows three different strata i.e.
Top, Middle and Ground. Top storey covered by Albizzia chinensis, Bauhinia
racemosa, Bombax malabbaricum, Butea monosperma, Ficus racemosa, Mangifera
indica, Syzygium cumini, Cocos nucifera, Sapindus emarginatus, Azadiracta indica,
Terminalia cattapa etc. Middle storey in this region comprises Adhatoda vasica,
Capparis spinosa, Euphorbia nevulia, Crotolaria retusa, Emblica officinalis, Lantana
camara etc. The dominant herbs in ground vegetation are Aegeratum conyzoides,
Argemone Mexicana, Barteria prionitis, Celosia argentea, Aloe vera, Indigofera
tinctoria, Sida rhombilfolia, Tridax procumbens etc.
Near the shore areas mangrove species are found. Mainly one species of
mangrove are commonly found in this area is Avicennia marina. The area near coastal
villages has poor vegetation as compared to other places. Trees species like Coccos
nucifera, Ficus sp, Bauhinia sp, Salvadora sp, Terminalia sp, Acacia catechu and
Azadiracta indica along with Prosopis juliflora are observed in some places.
The vegetation is degraded due to the human and live stock interference in
this region. Herbs are abundant only during monsoon. The area is dominated with tree
members as compared to shrubs and herbs. Prosopis juliflora is the dominant tree
species. Density and diversity of plants is different with change in places.
Chapter 3 : Description of Environment
3.68

Productivity of the agricultural crops in this region is very low because of poor
soil quality, infrequent and inadequate rainfall, water scarcity.
3.6.4.1 Mangroves
The Surka lignite mine location is more than 5 km away from the Gulf of
Khambhat coast line in the eastern direction. Most of the coastal estuarine area falls
near Ghogha village. Mangroves are the dominant coastal vegetation growing in the
clayey, silty, intertidal zones, deltaic and estuarine coast, backwater and sheltered
regions. The coast around the gulf is indented by estuaries and consists of extensive
mudflat and sporadic presence of sandy beaches favorable for mangrove vegetation.
However mangroves in the coastline of the gulf are stunted and sparse in distribution.
Mangroves vegetation is more near Bhavnagar, Piram sland and Ghogha showed
high density of Avicennia marina. Mangroves in the intertidal mudflats are stunted and
sparse.
Mangroves at Ghogha jetty and Bhavnagar creek are scrubby expanding
gradually to the surrounding areas due to plantation carried out by the forest
Department. Avicennia marina showed single species dominance in most of the
mangroves patches. Sonneratia apetala is found either in scattered or in dense
patches at few places.
3.6.5 AgricuIture of the Study Area
Agriculture is the main source of livelihood other than the livestock rearing.
Rainwater is the main source for irrigation and drinking water in the region, Bore wells
also supplement as a source of water for irrigation purposes. The staple food of the
people in this region is wheat. The main rainy agriculture crops of this area are
Groundnut, Sesame, Cotton, Bajra etc. whereas wheat, gram, Cumai are the winter
crops. The productivity of the agriculture crop in this region is medium to low because
of scarcity of water, illiteracy and also due to weather condition. Secondary information
has been collected from the Agriculture Department of Bhavnagar. List of Agricultural
crops grown in Bhavnagar District is given in TabIe 3.6.3.
3.6.6 Fauna of the Study Area
The information regarding the wild animal and domestic animal has been
collected from the local people and by field study of KEC team members. Since
animals are capable of movement from one place to another, this makes their study
entirely different. Therefore, specific methods were adopted for counting these animals
Chapter 3 : Description of Environment
3.69

in the field. The onsite information (Observation and interview with local people)
collected during survey was further enriched by the information collected from different
secondary resources. A secondary detail has been collected from the District Forest
office of Bhavnagar. t has been observed during survey that there is no endangered or
rare faunal species observed in the study area.
WiId AnimaIs: there is not any schedule or endangered species recorded in the
study area. The faunal elements commonly reported in the study area are
presented in TabIe 3.6.4.
Domestic AnimaIs: the animals in study area mostly consist of domestic species
such as camels, cow, Buffaloes, Sheep, Goats, Donkeys, Dogs and Pigs. Animal
census data revealed that among domestic animals cattle constituted the most
abundant species, followed by Sheep and other animals.
ReptiIes: Garden lizards and ndian chameleon were observed in every sampling
station. n snakes Dhaman and Cobra is noted during personal interviewing with
local peoples.
Avifauna: Many bird species i.e. Partridge, Quails, Sand grouse, Sparrow, Crows,
Mynas, Parakeets, Kites, Doves, bis, Bulbul, Babblers, Ducks, Lapwings, Pegions,
Crane etc are observed in study area. Varieties of birds are found on the coastal
area. There are many species available in the Gulf of Khambhat area proving very
good ground for roosting and mangroves vegetation provides nesting ground to the
avifauna.
3.6.7 Fisheries
As the study area is located nearby the coastal belt in Bhavnagar district,
major fishing activities takes place in Gulf of Khambhat and sea by the village of
Ghogha, Koliyak, Mithivirdi, Kuda etc. However, some fresh water fishing activities are
also done by the local people in dams situated in Bhavnagar taluka, but in a small
scale. These dams are usually given on lease basis for fresh water fishing activities.
Fresh water fishes are mainly comprises of Rohu, Catla and Mrigal. A list of marine
fishes and recorded production during 2006-2010 (5 years) at Bhavnagar Centre and
Ghogha centre are given in TabIe 3.6.5 and TabIe 3.6.6 respectively.
Chapter 3 : Description of Environment
3.70

GHOGHA
SURKA
K
H
A
D
S
A
L
I
Y
A
-
I
I

KHADSALIYA-I
Fig. 3.6.1: BioIogicaI Survey SampIing Locations in Study Area
Chapter 3 : Description of Environment
3.71


TabIe 3.6.1 : BioIogicaI Environment SampIing Locations

S. No. Location Code Name of the ViIIages
1. B1 Gogha
2. B2 Mithivirdi
3. B3 Koliyak
4. B4 Kuda
5. B5 Padva
6. B6 Surka
7. B7 Thordi
8. B8 Sanodar
9. B9 Bhudel
10. B10 Lakhanka
11. B11 Taghdi
12. B12 Khadsaliya
13. B13 Hatab
14. B14 Valaspara
15. B15 Nathugardh
16. B16 Jaspara
17. B17 Wavri

Chapter 3 : Description of Environment
3.72


TabIe 3.6.2 : List of FIora found in Study Area

S.
No
Scientific Name LocaI Name Status
Observed
in Core
Area
Observed
in Buffer
Area
Trees
1. Millingtonia hortensis Akash nim C

2. Morinda tictoria Aal C

3. Mangifera indica Ambo C

4. Phyllanthus emblica Amla C

5. Tamarindus indica Amli C

6. Alangium salvifolium Ankol C

7. Ailanthus excels Arduso C

8. Sapindus emarginatus Aritha C

9. Bauhinia racemosa Asitro C

10. Polyalthia longifolia Asopalav C

11. Terminalia catappa Badam C

12. Terminalia bellirica Bahodo C

13. Aegle marmelos Bili C

14. Zizyphus mauritiana Bordi C

15. Holoptelea intergrifolia Charal C

16. Acacia nilotica Desi-Baval C

17. Anogeissus latifolia Dhaodo C

18. Wrightia tinctoria Dudhlo C

19. Grewia tiliaefolia Dhaman C

20. Prosopis juliflora Gando Baval C

21. Cassia firtula Garmalo C

22. Zizyphus glaberrima Ghatbor C

23. Acacia Senegal Gorad Vc

24. Pithecellobium ducle Goras Amli C

25. Delonix regia Gulmohar C

26. Cordial dichotoma Gundi C

27. Acacia leucophoea Harmo C

28. Balanites aegyptica ngoriya Vc

29. Acacia tortolis sraeli Baval P

30. Syzygium cumini Jjambudo C

Contd ...
Chapter 3 : Description of Environment
3.73

S.
No
Scientific Name LocaI Name Status
Observed
in Core
Area
Observed
in Buffer
Area
31.
Erythrina suberosa
Jungle
Khakhro
G

32.
Sterculia urens Kadayo P

33. Albizia lebbeck
Kalo
sarasado
C

34. Holoptelea integrifolia Kanji P

35. Pongamia pinnata Karanj C

36. Cordial monoica Kath gundi C

37. Acacia catechu Khair G

38. Butea monosperma Khakhro Vc

39. Phoenix sylvestris Kharek G

40. Salvodora persica Kharijar G

41. Prosopis spicigera Khijdo C

42. Azardirachta indica Limdo Vc

43. Lannea coromandelica Moyno Lg

44. Cocos nucifera Narial G

45. Eucalyptus hybrid Nilgiri P

46. Erythrina variegate Penervo Lg

47.
Peltophorum
feruginium
Peltophorum P

48. Ficus religiosa Pipalo Vc

49. Ficus tsiela Pipar Vc

50. Parkinsonia aculeate Ram baval C

51. Malinkara hexandra Rayan P

52. Boswellia serrata Saledi Lg

53. Delonix elata Sandesaro C

54. Moringa oleifera Saragwo C

55. Albizia odoratissima Sarasdo C

56.
Casuarinas
equisetifolia
Saru P

57. Gmelina arborea Seven P

58. Dalbergia sissoo Sissoo P

59.
Leucaena
leucocephalo
Subabool P

60. Borassus flabellifer Tad G

61. Diospyros melanoxylon Timbarvo G

62. Ficus racemosa Umro Vc

63. Ficus benghalensis Vadlo Vc

Contd ...
TabIe 3.6.2 Contd ...
Chapter 3 : Description of Environment
3.74

S.
No
Scientific Name LocaI Name Status
Observed
in Core
Area
Observed
in Buffer
Area
SHRUB AND HERBS
1. Balanites aegyptica Angariya C

2. Calotropis gigantean Akdo Vc

3. Adhatoda vasica Ardusi P

4.
Clerodendruna
multiflorum
Arni P

5. Cassia auriculata Awal Vc

6. Solanum surattense Bhoin ringani Lg

7. Zizyphus nummularia Chanibor Vc

8. Avicennia sp. Cher R

9. Argemone maxicana Dharudi C

10. Lantana camara Dhanidaria G

11. Datura metel Dhaturo C

12. Pupalia orbiculata Dholo zipto G

13. Alhagi pseudalhagi Dhomso C

14. Gardenia resinifera Dikamali Lg

15.
Holarrhena
antidysenterica
Dudhi C

16. Xanthium strumarium Gadariyu C

17. Indigofera tinctoria Gadi Vc

18. Grewia tenax Gangeti G

19. Alysicarpus longifolius
Ghoda
samervo
Lg

20. Pendalium murex Gokharu C

21. Commiphora wightii Gugal C

22. Opuntia elatior Hathlo thor C

23. Hibiscus vitifolius
Jungle
Bhindo
G

24. Capparis aphylla Kerdo C

25. Agave americana Ketki G

26. Haloxylon recurvum Khari luni C

27. Abutilon indicum Khapat C

28. Euphorbia spartium Kharsani thor Lg

29. Leptadenia spartium Khip C

30. Aloe barbedensis Kuvarpathu G

31. Celosia argentea Lampdi Lg
TabIe 3.6.2 Contd ...
Contd ...
Chapter 3 : Description of Environment
3.75

S.
No
Scientific Name LocaI Name Status
Observed
in Core
Area
Observed
in Buffer
Area
32.
Cressa cretica Lano Lg

33. Flacourtia indica Lodri Lg

34. Suaeda fruticosa Luno C

35. Lawsonia inermis Mendi Lg

36. Solanum nigrum Piludi C

37. Acacia jacquenmontii Tal baval C

38. Martynia annua Vichhudo C

39. Maytenus emarginata Viklo Vc

40. Dodonaea viscosa
Vilayati
menndi
c

41. Triumfetta rhomboidea Zipto Vc

CLIMMBERS
1.
Bougainvillea
spectabilis
Bouganvel C

2. Arbus precatorius Chanothi C

3.
Rivaea
hypocrateriformis
Fang C

4. Tinospora vcordifolia Galo G

5. Cissus quadrangularis Hadsankal Vc

6. Capparis sepiaria Kanthar Lg

7. Leptadenia reticulata Kharkhoti C

8.
Combretum
decondrum
Madvel Lg

9. Celastrus paniculata Malkakni G

10. Ipomoea biloba Ravar patri Lg

11. Asparagus gonoclados Satavari Lg

12.
Convovulus
microphyllum
Sankhawali C

13. Coeculus hirsutus Vevdi Lg

14. Pueraria tuberose Vidari Lg

15. Cissampelos pareira Karandhiyu G

BAMBOO AND GRASSES
1. Apluda mutica Bhangoru Vc

2. Heteropogon contortus Badsaliu P

3. Eragrostis poacoides Chaku maku Lg

4.
Desmostachya
bipinnata
Darabh Lg

Contd ...
TabIe 3.6.2 Contd ...
Chapter 3 : Description of Environment
3.76

S.
No
Scientific Name LocaI Name Status
Observed
in Core
Area
Observed
in Buffer
Area
5.
Bothriochloa
intermedia
Darafdo C

6. Ischaemum rugosum Dhodiu Lg

7. Cynodon dactylon Dhro Lg

8.
Cymbopogon
jwarancusa
Gandharu C

9. Iseilema laxum Ghaulu Lg

10.
Dichanthium
annulatum
Jhinjvo Vc

11. Dinebra retroflexa Khariu Lg

12. Aristida adscensionis Lapdu Vc

13. Dendrocalamus strictus Manvel Lg

14. Iseilema prostratum Moshi C

15. Themeda quaidrivalvis Ratad Vc

16. Cymbopogon martini Rosha Vc

17. Sehima sulcatum Saniar Vc

18.
Bothriochloa
ischaemum
Zinzvo Vc

19. Seteria glauca Ziptighas Lg

TabIe 3.6.2 Contd ...
Chapter 3 : Description of Environment
3.77


TabIe 3.6.3 : List of AgricuIturaI Crops in Study Area
S.No Scientific Name LocaI Name Status
1.
Triticum aestivum Wheat -
2.
Millet Bajra
3.
Phaseolus sp. Gram -
4.
Lens culinaris Lentil -
5.
Brassica juncea Mustard -
6.
Zea mays Maize -
7.
Sorghum vulgare Jowar -
8.
Cajanus cajan Arhar -
9.
Phaseolus mungo Moong -
10.
Seasamum Til -
11.
Arachys hypogea Groundnut -
12.
Riccinus communis Castor -
13.
Saccharum Sugarcane -
14.
Gossipium sp. Cotton -
VEGETABLES
1.
Corriandrum anum Coriander -
2.
Allium sativum Garlic -
3.
Capsicum anum Chilly -
4.
Solanum tuberosum Potato -
5.
Daucus carata Carrot -
6.
Zingiber officinale Ginger -
Chapter 3 : Description of Environment
3.78

TabIe 3.6.4 : List of Fauna found in Study Area

S.No Scientific Name LocaI Name
ScheduIe/
IUCN
Category
Observed
in Core
Area
Observed
in Buffer
Area
MAMMALS
1.
Canis aurenus Jackal -
2.
Sus scrofa Wild boar LC \
3.
Cervus unicolor niger Sambars - \
4.
Presbytes entellus Monkey \
5.
Herpestes edwardsi Mongoose \
6.
Sciurus palmarun Squirrel LC \ \
7.
Vulpes bengalensis Common fox \
8.
Boselaphus tragocemalus Nilgai \ \
REPTILES
1.
Typhlopps porrectus Common blind snake LC \
2.
Eryx conicus Common sand boa LC \
3.
Coluber mucosus Rat snake \
4.
Naja naja ndian cobra \
5.
Viper russelli Russel's Viper
6.
Calotes versicolor Garden Lizard LC \
BIRDS
1.
Acridotheres ginginianus Bank myna LC \ \
2.
Accipiter badius The shikara - \
3.
Acridotheres tristis Common myna V \ \
4.
Aloedo atthis Small blue kingfisher V \ \
5.
Anas clypeatea Shoveller duck LC \
6.
Andea alba Large egret V \ \
7.
Anhinga rufa Darter V \
8.
Ardea cinerea Grey Heron V \
9.
Ardeola grayii Pond Heron V \
10.
Bulbulcus ibis Cattle Egret V \ \
11.
Chlamydotis undulate Houbara Bustard VU \
12.
Clamator jacobinus Pied crested cuckoo LC \
13.
Coracias benghalensis ndian Roller V \
14.
Corvus macrorhynchos Jungle Crow LC \
15.
Corvus splendens House Crow V \ \
Contd ...
Chapter 3 : Description of Environment
3.79

S.No Scientific Name LocaI Name
ScheduIe/
IUCN
Category
Observed
in Core
Area
Observed
in Buffer
Area
16.
Cypsiurus parvus Palm swift LC \
17.
Dicrurus adsimillis Black Drongo V
18.
Egreta garzetta Little egret V \ \
19.
Elanus caeruleus Black winged kite LC
20.
frAancolinus Grey partridge V \
21.
Haliastur lndus Brahminy kite LC \
22.
Himantopus himantopus Black winged stilt V
23.
Larus argentatus Herring gull - \
24.
Motacilla alba White wagtail LC
25.
Motacilla cincerea Grey wagtail LC
26.
Mycteria leucorodia Painted stork V
27.
Numenius arquata Curlew -
28.
Orthotomus sutocius Tailor bird LC \
29.
Pavo cristatus Common peafowl \ \
30.
Pelecanus qnocrotalus Rosy pelican -
31.
Phalacrocorax niger Little cormorant V \
32.
Phalacrocorax qarbo Large cormorant V
33.
Platalea leucorodia Spoonbill - \
34.
Pluvialis squatarola Grey plover V
35.
Pondiceps ruficolis Little grebe V \
36.
Pseudibis papillosa Black ibis V \
37.
Sterna aurantia River tern LC \
38.
Strebopelia decaocto Ring Dove V \
39.
Strebopelia senegalensis Little brown dove V
40.
Sturnus pagodarum Brahminy Myna LC
41.
Threskiomis aethiopica White bis V \ \
42.
Tringa tetanus Redshank LC
43.
Turdoides striatus Jungle Babbler LC \ \
44.
Vanellus indicus Red wattled lapwing V \ \
45.
Fulica atra Coot V \
46.
Grus grus Common crane V
47.
Alcedo atthis Common kingfisher V \ \
48.
Vanellus malabaricus Yellow wattled LC \ \
49.
Eudynamys scolopacea Koel - \ \
50.
Gallinule chloropus Moorhen - \
Contd ...
TabIe 3.6.4 Contd ...
Chapter 3 : Description of Environment
3.80

S.No Scientific Name LocaI Name
ScheduIe/
IUCN
Category
Observed
in Core
Area
Observed
in Buffer
Area
51.
Columba livia Blue rock pigeon V \ \
52.
Psittacula krameri ndian rose ringed LC
53.
Francolinus pictus Painted partridge V
54.
Tunix suscitator Common quail V \
55.
Saxicolodies fulicata ndian Robin LC \
56.
Tringa hypoleucos Common sandpiper V
57.
Platalea leucorodia ndian Spoonbill -
58.
Orthotomus sutorius Tailor bird LC \
59.
Anas crecca Common Teal V \
60.
Dendrocygna javanica Common whistling V \
INLAND FISH SPECIES IN PROJECT REGION
1.
Catla catla Catla -
2.
Labeo rohita Rohu -
3.
Cirrhinus mrigala Mrigal -
4.
Cyprinus carpiovar Common Carp -
5.
Hypophthalmichthys Silver Carp -
6.
Clarias batrachus Magur -

TabIe 3.6.4 Contd ...
Chapter 3 : Description of Environment
3.81

TabIe 3.6.5 : List of Estimated Marine Fish Production


District : Bhavnagar Centre: Bhavnagar (in kg)
S.
No.
Name Of Fish
Year
2000-01 2001- 2002- 2003-04 2004-05
1.
Bombay Duck 86221 51896 38571 47466 30131
2.
Other Clupeids 3215 8790 4564 29786 47990
3.
Coilia 6355 - - - -
4.
Shark 43331 18967 19845 28296 29727
5.
Mullet 38929 16625 20136 28446 25480
6.
Cat Fish 4650 16462 18639 31952 24504
7.
Small Scieneidies 8574 20659 24512 5626 17005
8.
Shrimp 305341 178548 154250 189327 161795
9.
Prawns 105140 46460 29746 41354 41749
10.
Crab 124880 118709 73671 37765 42610
11.
Levta 156523 139950 126297 93294 91322
12.
Miscellaneous 76219 24150 28584 15686 21683
TotaI 959378 641236 538995 548998 533996

TabIe 3.6.6: Marine Fish Production


District: Bhavnagar Centre: Ghogha (in kg)
Sr.
No.
Name Of Fish Year
2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05
1.
Bombay Duck 130583 103127 65944 75582 90969
2.
Other Clupeids 13122 - 18691 4495 -
3.
Coilia 9170 6120 - - -
4.
Shark 86249 54612 40751 39259 61495
5.
Mullet 65577 51188 31725 36813 48781
6.
Cat Fish 26987 61016 40139 38044 55666
7.
Small Scieneidies 27390 17592 25989 19344 29330
8.
Shrimp 973885 981957 768111 540480 938347
9.
Prawns 360712 204694 179801 151907 177905
10.
Lobster 4240 9501 5110 1859 2737
11.
Crab 34562 26905 16736 12660 25849
12.
Levta 74180 53107 69965 51985 51989
13.
Miscellaneous 203124 97285 42361 37942 31522
TotaI 2009781 1667104 1305323 1007370 1514590
Source: Assistant Director oI Fisheries, Bhavnagar District
Chapter 3 : Description of Environment
3.82

3.7 Socio - Economic Environment
3.7.1 Reconnaissance
As indicated earlier in this chapter, the socioeconomic survey at proposed
lignite mine sites and surrounding buffer zone was conducted by Sociology
Department of Bhavnagar University, Bhavnagar. The socioeconomic study report
prepared by Department of Sociology, Bhavnagar University is summarized in the
following sections. Environment is a whole complex of physical, social, economic,
cultural and aesthetic dimensions which affects individual, communities and ultimately
determines their forms, characters, relationships and survivals. Human life is not
possible without of environment. As such it becomes imperative to integrate the
components of socio-economic environment in impact assessment study related to
environmental conservation, protection and management.
(1) The social environment includes demographic structure of the area i.e.
population dynamics, infrastructure resource base and health status of the
community etc. The economic environment is related with land utilization pattern,
land values, employment generation, industrial development & sustainability of
the project in financial term. The aesthetic environment refers to scenic value of
the area, potential of tourism, forest & wildlife, historic and cultural monuments.
(2) The proposed lignite mines are located in Bhavnagar and Ghogha Talukas, of
Bhavnagar District. The Ghogha-Surka site is encompassed by village Padva to
the south, south-west, Bhumbhali on the north, Koliyak to the east and so on
Maleswari river is flowing west to east bisecting the south part of the lignite mine
site. The Khadsaliya- site is encompassed by village Thalsar to the south,
south-west, Alapar on the north, Koliyak to the east. The Khadsaliya- site is
encompassed by village Lakhanka to the south, south-west, Khadsaliya on the
north, Hatab Bunglow to the east and so on Ramadasia Nadi is flowing west to
east bisecting the north part of the lignite mine site.
(3) Social-economical status of surveyed area.
(4) Public Health status in study area.
(5) Quality of life status.
(6) Awareness and opinion of people about the project.
(7) Educational level.
(8) Communication facilities.
(9) Public Transport facilities.
Chapter 3 : Description of Environment
3.83

(10) Drinking water supplying facilities.
(11) Banking facilities.
(12) Power supply facilities
The proposed lignite mines (core zone) and surrounding study area (buffer
zone) falls in two Talukas (Bhavnagar and Ghogha) of Bhavnagar district. The land
identified for proposed lignite mines (Ghogha-Surka), Khadsaliya- and Khadsaliya-)
falls in revenue boundaries of fourteen villages accordingly these fourteen villages are
categorized as project affected villages due to land acquirement for the project.
3.7.2 Survey MethodoIogy
The baseline information is collected by way of primary and secondary data.
The primary data refers to field observations and data collected with the help of socio-
economic survey in the villages under the study area collected from Sarpanch, Talati-
cum-Mantri of the villages and through field observations whereas the Secondary data
refers to data generated using secondary sources, viz. census records, District
statistical abstract, primary health centers, official records etc.
The data of population is taken from government offices whereas all the data
regarding social, economical etc. are taken by the field observations.
The Socio-economic survey helps to understand people's awareness and
opinion about the project, as well as their misapprehensions and expectations from the
project.
3.7.3 Base Line Status
Baseline information is collected to define the socio-economic profile of the
study area. The database thus generated in the process include:-
1. Demographic Structure
2. nfrastructure Resources base in the study area
3. Economic Attributes
4. Health Status
5. Socio-economic Status with reference to quality of life
6. Awareness and opinion of the people about the project
The data is generated using secondary sources, viz. census records, District
statistical Abstract, Primary health centers, Official records etc and primary data
collection through field survey as well as field observations.
Chapter 3 : Description of Environment
3.84

The socioeconomic study area covering 10 km radial distance around project
site is depicted in Fig.3.7.1. Socio-economic survey was conducted in 9 villages (TabIe
3.7.1) out of which five villages are affected by proposed mining project due to land
acquirement for the lignite mines.
3.7.3.1 Demographic Structure
The details regarding demographic structures in study area were collected
from census abstracts corresponding to Bhavnagar district. The Demographic structure
is given in TabIe 3.7.2 which depicts total population, population structure, viz. SC
population and number of literates. The demographic details have been abstracted
from Primary Census Abstracts of Bhavnagar obtained from the office of Registrar
General ndia, New Delhi and field survey. The salient features of the study area as
follows:
i Total 41 villages are coming under the study area covering Bhavnagar
district
i Total Population of villages in the study area is 1,15,768
i Scheduled caste population is 3380 (2.91%) while Scheduled Tribe
population in the study area is 7 (0.006%)
i Sex ratio (No. of females per 1000 males) is 956 (95.6 %), Which indicates
that females are less in number than the male in the study area
i The overall literacy rate in the study area is 62.68%
3.7.3.2 Infrastructure Resource Base
Details of infrastructure are taken by direct observation from the study area.
nfrastructure resource base in villages under the study area is satisfactory. n
education facilities primary education is satisfactory. There is no provision of higher
education i.e. there is no college in the study area.
nfrastructure is available as per requirement and need in study area. n these
areas infrastructure facilities such as health, educational, drinking water,
communication, transportation, post-office, and electricity are accounted in TabIe 3.7.3
and is described below:
EducationaI faciIities: There are 41 Primary Schools, 6 Senior Secondary Schools &
5 Higher Secondary Schools. There are no facilities of college education in study area.
n some villages there are some educational institutes / Training centers that are
operated as per government schemes.
Chapter 3 : Description of Environment
3.85

MedicaI faciIities: Medical facility available in the region and is satisfactory. There are
10 Primary Health Centers, 3 Maternity Community Workers, and 21 Private Medical
Practitioners and in the 6 villages there are no medical facilities. The maximum
medical facility is available in Thordi, Koliyak, Surka and Lakhanka.
Drinking water faciIity : n all villages of study areas drinking water facility is
satisfactory but do not have same resources, it means that 23 villages get water supply
from Tank , 10 villages get water supply from well and 8 villages get water supply from
tube-wells. The Villages which are near to coastal area are getting saline drinking
water.
Communication faciIities: t is satisfactory and most of villages are privileged by
post-offices and mobile phones.
Transportation faciIity: Public and Private mode of transport are available in all the
villages of the study area. State Buses, Private Mini trucks, Jeep, Taxis, Autos are
mainly available as mode of transport in the area. The roads approaching the villages
are in good condition and maximum are metal / weathered road.
Power SuppIy faciIity: Power supply is satisfactory in the study area, Electricity
connection is available in all the villages for domestic and commercial purposes.
3.7.3.3 Economic Activity
The main economic base of the villages coming within the study area is
agriculture. Out of the total population 1,15,768 main workers are 69,116. The main
crops grown of the region are Cotton, Bajri, Juwar, Wheat, Groundnut and vegetables.
The employment pattern of the study area is described below:-
Main worker population in the study area is 69,116 i.e., (59.70%)
People in the region are mostly engaged in agricultural activities.
Non- worker population shares percentage of about (21.18%)
Average monthly income of the people in the study area is about 2000-
3000.
The details of the Unemployment level of the educated youth in the region
are given below:
Out of the total non-workers population of 24,529 in the region, the male
educated unemployed youth which shares the highest population is from Bhavnagar
area, which is about 49.32% while that of Ghogha Taluka is 40.01%. t can be inferred
Chapter 3 : Description of Environment
3.86

that though the youth are educated upon college level but are unemployed because
they lack in any technical or vocational training, so the youth are deprived of
employment opportunities.
3.7.3.4 HeaIth Status
Health of the people is not only desirable goal, but it is also an essential
investment in human resources. As per the National Health Policy (1983) , Primary
Health Care has been accepted as main instrument for achieving this goal of
development and strengthen rural health infrastructure through a three-tier system,
viz., Primary Health Center (PHCs), Sub-Centers and Community Health Center,
Maternity Community Workers, Child Health Welfare, Community Welfare Centers,
Hospitals, Family Welfare Centers were available in most of the villages around the
project site and within the study area.
Standards to be met with NationaI HeaIth PoIicy are given beIow:-
PopuIation Infrastructure PersonneI
3,000-5,000 1 Sub-center 1 ANM (Auxiliary nurse midwives)
25,000-30,000 1 PHC,6 beds 2 Medical officers
1,00,000 Rural Medical Superintendent
3.7.4 Socio-economic Survey
A survey pertaining to the subjective analysis of the socio-economic
indicators to assess the perception of the inhabitants in the study area as well as the
project is undertaken. This also in general reflects on the 'Quality of Life' in this region.
The indicators refer to housing, occupation, education, health status, availability of fuel,
water supply, sanitation and transportation. Besides this, expectations and aspirations
from the project are also discussed.
The survey is conducted with the help of a pre-determined set of
questionnaire involving a representative population of adult males and females within
the study area.
The salient observations arising out of survey are
The proportion of male and female respondents in the interview arise from
40-60 %
Most of the respondents have either semi pucca or pucca houses. This is
also evident from the wealth status as most of the respondents have
reported heir monthly income falling in the range of Rs.2000-3000.
Chapter 3 : Description of Environment
3.87

About 50 % of the respondents are engaged in farming.
Education standard amongst the respondents is rather good with only
around 40% illiterate in the villages surveyed.
The fuel used for cooking is reported to be wood, kerosene and gas. As
good as 40-50 % respondents available as fuel wood
The medical facilities appear to be rather good and most of the respondents
avail medical facilities provided by Primary Health Centers and Hospitals.
The water supply in most of the villages is through tanker and hand pumps.
Sanitation facilities are reported available in all villages.
The transport facilities include bus, jeep, tractors and three wheelers are
available in all villages.
3.7.5 QuaIity of Iife
n the present study an exercise has been carried out to assess the Quality of
Life (QOL) in the villages surveyed. The concept and the particulars of the study are:
Quality of Life (QOL) is defined as a function between "objective conditions
and "subjective attitudes involving a defined "area of concern. The "objective
conditions are defined as numerical measurable artifacts of a physical event,
sociological event. Objective conditions may be defined as any number which stands
for a given quantity of a variable of interest so long as it is independent of subjective
opinion.
"Subjective attitude is primarily concerned with affected and cognitive
dimensions. t is specifically concerned with 'how aspects of cognition vary as objective
conditions vary.
Once objective measures are obtained for each factor they are transformed to
a normal scale varying from 0 to 1 (value function curve) in which 0 corresponds to the
lowest or least satisfactory measure and 1 corresponds to the highest. The weights are
assigned to each factor by ranked pair wise comparison technique by the expert group
based on the secondary data and general observation.
For each objectives measure, a corresponding subjective measure must be
developed and is obtained for each individual of the sample population, by asking him
to rate his satisfaction with the objective measure for each factor. Again a 0 to1 scale
(value function curve) is used such that 0 corresponds to the lowest level of attitudinal
satisfaction and 1 corresponds to the highest level of satisfaction. Again weights are
Chapter 3 : Description of Environment
3.88

assigned to each factor from a total of 1000 using ranked pair wise technique.
The Socio-economic indicates for QOL assessment is:
1. Employment and working condition, ncome
2. Housing
3. Food
4. Clothing
5. Water supply and sanitation
6. Health
7. Energy
8. Transportation and Communication
9. Education
10. Environment and Pollution
11. Recreation
12. Social security
13. Human Rights
i. Objective QuaIity of Life (QOL(O))
QOLO = Em Qi x W
i = 1
QOLO = Objective QOL
Qi = Objective Quality ndex (VFC) for ith factor
W = Weight of the ith factor
m = No. of factor
ii. Subjective QuaIity of Iife (QOL(S))
QOLS = 1/P Ep Em Qij x W
QOLS = Subjective QOL
QS = Subjective Quality ndex (VFC) for ith factor
W = Weight of the ith factor
P = Sample population size
iii. QuaIity of Life - CumuIative index
QOL = QOLO+ QOLS
---------------------
2


Chapter 3 : Description of Environment
3.89

The QOL indices for the villages surveyed are as:

QOL Indices
S. No. Village QOL(S)
1. Surka 0.66
2. Padva 0.61
3. Koliyak 0.55
4. Khadsaliya 0.58
5. Lakhankha 0.59
6. Bhawanipura 0.58
7. Sanodar 0.53
8. Thordi 0.51
9. Mamsa 0.56

QOL
(o)
for the study area : 0.556
QOL
(S)
average : 0.574
Hence, the QOL cumulative index is :0.565
Index vaIue
1.0 - Highly Satisfactory
0.8 - Satisfactory
0.5 - Neutral
0.3 - Unsatisfactory
0.0 - Highly Unsatisfactory
Chapter 3 : Description of Environment
3.90


Fig. 3.7.1: Socio-economic Survey Locations in Study Area
GHOGHA
SURKA
K
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KHADSALIYA-I
Chapter 3 : Description of Environment
3.91


TabIe 3.7.1 : Socio-economic Survey ViIIages


S.No.
Survey
Location
Direction
Distance
(km)
1. Surka NNE 3
2. Thordi SSW 6
3. Padva SW 3
4. Khadsaliya AT STE 3
5. Lakhanka SSE 8.5
6. Koliyak ENE 4.5
7. Bhawanipura NE 3
8. Sanodar W 7
9. Mamsa NW 8.2

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W
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s




3.101
4.1


Chapter 4

Impact Assessment
4.1 Identification of Significant Impacts
dentification of significant impacts from the proposed Ghogha-Surka,
Khadsaliya- and Khadsaliya- Lignite mines is an imminent step in the process of
environmental impact assessment. t provides a way forward to other elements of EA
study such as quantification and evaluation of site specific impacts exclusively from
proposed project. Although, variety of concerns/ issues are identified while describing
existing (baseline) environmental status, it is necessary at this stage to identify the
likely critical impacts on various components of environment due to proposed lignite
mines.
For development and operation phases of the proposed mining project the
"Network Method has been adopted for identification of impacts, which involves
understanding of cause-condition-effect relationships between an activity and the
consequences/ impacts on environmental and socio-economic parameters for
identification of significant impacts and has been found to be the most appealing tool.
The detailed list of activities corresponding to proposed mines project at the
sites identified, as described in previous chapters of this report have been taken into
consideration for generation of cause-condition- effect networks (i.e. chains of events
and consequences). This type of method has been basically advantageous in
Chapter 4 : Impact Assessment

4.2

recognizing the series of impacts that would trigger by the individual activities at
proposed lignite opencast mining project. Thus this method has provided a "road map
type of approach for identification of primary, secondary as well as tertiary levels of
impacts.
The idea is to account for the proposed project activities and identify the
corresponding impacts, which would initially occur. The next is to select each primary
impact and identify the relevant secondary and tertiary impacts which are induced as a
result. This process was repeated until all possible impacts were identified. The
greatest advantage of this type of approach is that it allows identifying the impacts by
selecting and tracing out the events and consequences as they are expected to occur.
The impact networks have been delineated for land acquirement and
operation phases of proposed lignite mines. The identified impacts on different
components of environment, viz. air, noise, water, land and socio-economics at the
core zone as well as surrounding buffer zone are presented in Fig. 4.1.1 as a
comprehensive network. t is to be noted in this illustration the lines are to be read as
"has an effect on.
n general, the mechanized open cast mining activities deal with primarily
operation heavy earth movers (HEM), transport of excavated materials, maintenance
of HEM machinery, employees staff quarters etc.. Accordingly the above mentioned
impact network correspond to proposed mining activities. However the proposed mine
sites have additional site specific concerns as described in following section apart from
project affected families (PAF).





































































































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4.3
Chapter 4 : Impact Assessment

4.4

4.2 Site Specific Impacts
4.2.1. Diversion of SeasonaI Rivers/Drain
There is a minor drain (nallah) passing south-west to north-east in northern
part of Ghogha-Surka lease area, which should be diverted appropriately before
starting overburden dumping.
The Malesari nadi flows from west to east direction bisecting the Ghogha-
Surka mine (Fig.4.2.1) lease area (core zone), and finally meet to Gulf of Khambhat.
Malesari is seasonal river and it flows only during monsoon season (rainwater/surface
runoff). At present there are multiple small drains (nallah) generating within lease area,
which flow in to Malesari nadi. t is estimated that Malesari nadi would be required to
be re-routed through reclaimed area of Ghogha-Surka mine in 18
th
- 19
th
years of mine
operation. t shall be done in consultation with the state irrigation department & state
ground water board for necessary permission and design parameters. Permission from
competent authority will be obtained before execution.
The Ramdasia nadi flows seasonally west to east direction bisecting the
Khadsaliya- mine lease area in the southern part and also passing through
Khadsaliya- lease area. The few nallahs generated within the Khadsaliya- lease area
joins to Ramdasia nadi. t is planned not to disturb the said rivulet in Khadsaliya-.
However, a dump is planned at a distance of 45 m. from the bank of the river.
However t is perquisite for safe mining operation to divert Ramadasia river in
Khadsaliya-. The mine working in the 11
th
planned working year will reach close to
the Ramadasia nadi hence it would be essential to divert the said river before 11
th

planned working year through backfilled/ reclaimed area taking all necessary safety
measure and required permission from the competent authorities.
4.2.2 Irrigation CanaI Diversion
A canal 'Shetranji' is passing through the lease area. Canal flows from south
to South East direction in the southern most part of Ghogha-Surka, from north to south
in the central part of the Khadsaliya- and Khadsaliya- lease area. t is proposed to
divert this canal to outside the lease area in consultation with the irrigation department
of state. However, the diversion of canal for Ghogha-Surka should be carried out
before 15
th
planned working year and for Khadsaliya- mining lease area before 6
th

planned working year. However consent will be obtained from all concerned authorities
before execution of 'Shetranji' canal diversion
Chapter 4 : Impact Assessment

4.5

4.2.3 Diversion of Roads
The village road passing through the Ghogha-Surka mine site and outside
dump area should be diverted in phased manner before the mining activity
approaches. However, it is required to divert the road from Badi to Bhavnagar via
Surka and Badi to Rampar before commencement of mining operation. The road
connecting Padva to Malekbadal may be diverted before 21
st
planned working year.
But other village Kachha roads passing through the lease area may be diverted when
any such road interfere the mining operation.
District highway and Katchha road connecting to the villages are passing
through the Khadsaliya- lease hold area. The roads shall be diverted as and when
required during the mines operation and for overburden dumps.
The state highway passing through Lakhanka to Bhavnagar via Thalsar falls
in the Khadsaliya- lease area as shown in surface plan (Fig.4.2.1). The said road will
be diverted before 8
th
planned year as it is obstructing in the mine working. However
consent will be obtained from the all concerned authority before execution of Road
diversion.
4.2.4 SpeciaI Studies as per Prescribed ToR
The expert appraisal committee (EAC) constituted by MoEF identified the
necessity and recommended following additional studies with special reference to
mitigation of potential adverse impacts. These additional studies have been carried out
by different nstitutes/ Organisations having the required expertise. While the individual
reports are annexed to this (EA) report, the summary/ results of the studies have been
included appropriately in the respective sections of this chapter.
- CRZ study including demarcation of HHTL and LTL vis--vis proposed mine sites to
ensure exclusion of CRZ area from proposed project. This study has been carried
out by Space Application Centre (SAC), Ahmedabad and the report was submitted
to MoEF directly by SAC.
- Hydro-geological study to assess the potential impact of sea water intrusion due to
proposed open cast lignite mining with special reference to planned final depth of
mine pits (approx. 100 m). This study has been carried out by National nstitute of
Hydrology (NN) Roorkee. This study also addressed the rain water harvesting
aspect at proposed mines.
- The Rehabilitation and Resettlement (R&R) plan for project affected people /
Families including the comprehensive action plan. This study was carried out by a
retired AS officer (Dr.Prafull Kumar Das).
Chapter 4 : Impact Assessment

4.6

Fig. 4.2.1: Roads, Drains and Irrigation CanaI in Core Zone
Chapter 4 : Impact Assessment

4.7

4.3 Adverse Impacts Mitigation Measures
The land of proposed lignite mines, viz. Ghogha-Surka (1355 ha),
Khadsaliya- (711 ha) and Khadsaliya- (914 ha), the major portion has been acquired
through state government by paying the cost compensation. The remaining part will
also be acquired in the same manner. The R&R plan will be implemented for 14
villages to be affected due to proposed mining project. The recommendations made in
the detailed R&R plan will be strictly implemented as per the action plan delineated in
the report.
GPCL planned to acquire additional land for top soil preservation initial
overburden dumping, tree plantation, staff residential colony etc. GPCL is also
committed to execute corporate social responsibility through tri-party consultative
manner. Required funds will be allocated in the project budget.
The existing tree and shrub species, which are to be cleared for proposed
mines, shall be recorded and the same as well as the other local species will be
maintained in the proposed tree plantation.
The site specific requirements of diversion of existing seasonal rivers/drains,
irrigation canal and roads shall be undertaken by M/s GPCL in a planned manner, after
conducting comprehensive technical feasibility studies to minimize the potential
adverse impacts on the neighbor villages. Sufficient funds shall be allocated in capital
budget of proposed mines. The diversions shall be implemented following consultative
approach with the directly affected villagers.
Mechanized open cast mining will be implemented at proposed mines. The
top soil from each mine site will be preserved at designated additional land for
replacement during reclamation of mined area. Progressive reclamation is planned as
per the progress of individual mine pits. All statutory/ prescribed standards shall be
strictly complied in respect of environmental protection, occupational health and safety
aspects, mine safety aspects etc.
Rain water harvesting will be implemented as delineated by NH, Roorkee in
the hydro-geological study report.
The individual mines shall be closed as per the details given in mine plans,
which have been duly approved by Ministry of Coal, Government of ndia.
A full-fledged environmental management cell/group shall be maintained,
which shall be responsible to implement and maintain all the EMP measures
delineated in the EA report.
Chapter 4 : Impact Assessment

4.8

The dust generated during excavation, loading and unloading operations and
movement of dumpers/tippers normally constitute heavier particles that would quickly
settle on very close areas, mostly within the mining area itself. This will have no impact
on the surrounding areas. Vehicular traffic along with the mining operations will
generate particulate emissions. Generation of particulate emissions is therefore, of
primary concern in this project. Another important aspect is soil erosion from
overburden dump slopes, if not managed properly. Soil erosion may also be
accelerated at opencast mine pits as well as haul roads. The environmental impact of
the mining activities on topsoil are based on the nature of activities, extent of area
covered and associated aspects of environmental concern.
4.3.1 Dust Suppression
Dust is a big nuisance on mine haul road, and it's very dangerous for
environment point of view; same shall be suppressed by spraying water by water
sprinkler on mine haul road and at tipping points etc. t is also a statutory requirement
as per mines regulation to suppress dust at the place of generation itself. The
provision for computer controlled water spraying will be tried along permanent haul
road and at stacking yard. However were ever this system is not effective, the water
spraying with the help of Water sprinklers of 28 KL capacity will be carried out with
pressurised inbuilt water pump are proposed.
The waste water generated during mining operations and through other
general facilities can be used for irrigation of various plantations after necessary
treatment within the reclaimed mine area as a part of aforestation plan.
4.3.2 Mine Pit Water Re-use
The pit water, which has to satisfy the specifications for use in agricultural
fields, should have an additional filtration unit at the downstream of the laterite walls
and near to the discharge point for the agriculture fields. Expect for solids, all the
quality parameters of pit water are within the limits for irrigation purpose and therefore,
the fields. The filter bed would consist of three layers of laterite rocks of different sizes.
The laterite filter bed is under laid by a system of open jointed drains, which will lead
the filtered water to the outlet drain. The effective size of the laterite rocks in the top,
middle and bottom layer should be 5, 15 and 35-50 mm respectively. The impurities
present in water would be removed in the top layer and therefore the top layer
consisting of fine laterite particles should be scraped out and replaced by the fresh
layer at least once in a year to avoid chocking of the filters. The bed should be laid with
even surface to facilitate even distribution of pit water over the filter bed.
Chapter 4 : Impact Assessment

4.9

4.3.3 TopsoiI Management
n Ghogha-Surka lignite bearing area the topsoil stacking is proposed to be
recovered in a course of mining, the location of topsoil for initial two years is on north
side of Badi village. For Khadsaliya- the location of topsoil preservation/stacking for
first year is on south side of Bhadbhadiya village and the topsoil stacking in
Khadsaliya- is proposed on the non lignite bearing area which shall be recovered in a
course of mining, the location of topsoil for initial five years is on central western side of
the lease area. t is to be stacked separately from the OB dump.
n case of Ghogha-Surka it is proposed to have one lift of the topsoil for two
years and the height of lift shall be 5 m with over all slope angle of 36
0
. The area of top
soil dump shall be 16.1 ha. For khadsaliya- mine it is proposed to have one lift of the
topsoil for first year and height of lift shall be 5 m and over all slope angle of 23
0
. The
area of top soil dump shall be 9.4 ha and for Khadsaliya- to have one lift of the topsoil
for initial five years and height of lift shall be 10m and overall slope angle of 23
0
. The
area of top soil dump shall be 6.02 ha.
4.3.4 Infrastructure
The nfrastructure proposed in the Mining Plan, shall be maintained up to the
end of life of the mine. t is proposed to carry out proper maintenance of the
infrastructure facilities provided at the site for their physical stability. The land degraded
in infrastructure facilities is proposed to reclaim. A detail programme for dismantling
and disposal of building structure support facilities and other nfrastructure facilities
provided. At the site shall be submitted in final mine closure plan and submitted to
Ministry of Coal, New Delhi and Concerned authorities.
4.3.5 DisposaI of Mining Machineries
Most of the machineries used for mining activity are to be hired on lease
contract basis hence the machineries shall be taken back by the contractors from the
mine after completion of contract.
4.3.6 Safety and Security
Most of the mined out area is proposed for reclamation in a systematic
manner by filling it back by overburden removed during mining and the area is
proposed to bring to the original landscape. The area that is being not reclaimed shall
be utilized for water storage and shall be properly fenced to prevent any un-authorized
entry in to the area. The water from this area shall be discharged after treatment for
agriculture use.
Chapter 4 : Impact Assessment

4.10

The lignite produced at site will be transported through different heavy loaded
vehicles to stock pit and further transported by loaded trucks. The entire mine routes
used for the lignite transportation is generally unpaved roads and dust suppression has
to be carried out regularly to minimized dust emissions from these unpaved haul roads.
4.4 Mine Operation Phase - Prediction of Impacts
4.4.1 Land Environment
There is no forest area present in the mining lease area. The land
degradation is expected in core zone due to opencast mining activities such as site
clearance / removal of existing vegetation, top soil extraction, overburden dumps,
lignite extraction etc.. The proposed mining operations will impact the land usage as
given below.

Proposed Afforestation
* - For Khadsaliya-
The above data shows that land will be disturbed during first five years of
operation, which will progressively increase by the end mine life. This will lead not only
to land degradation but also cause soil erosion as well as visual impact if appropriate
Ghogha-Surka KhadsaIiya-II KhadsaIiya-I
Area to be put in to use for
mining

Ultimate pit area - 962.3 ha 552.7 ha 447.78 ha
Area of outside dump - 159.85 ha 96.78 ha 83.72 ha
nfrastructure - 47.76 ha
Proposed Backfilling by OB
up to end of mine life
-
912.3 ha 517.9 ha 406.78 ha
Proposed pond - 50.0 ha 23.47 ha 41.0 ha

Mine
Operation
Years
Ghogha-Surka KhadsaIiya-II KhadsaIiya-I
No. of
PIants
Area
(ha)
No. of
PIants
Area
(ha)
No. of
PIants
Area
(hect.)
1
st
-5
th
12,000 10 1,20,000 100 26400 22
6
th
-10
th
12,000 10 1,32,000 110 30000 25
11
th
-15
th
12,000 10 1,80,000 150 36000 30
16
th
-20
th

(16
th
-21
st
)*
12,000 10 2,52,000 210 36000 30
21
st
25
th
12,000 10 - - - -
TotaI 60,000 50 6,84,000 570 128400 107
Chapter 4 : Impact Assessment

4.11

rejuvenation measures are not adopted. However, the proposed progressive tree
plantation as indicated above in and around the mining area will ensure protection of
soil erosion. No significant adverse impact is anticipated in buffer zone as the
proposed mining operations and all the concerned activities will be restricted within the
core zone only. The lignite extracted through proposed mining will be transported to
the proposed pithead power plant through closed conveyor belt and no road or rail
transport of lignite is envisaged at present.
4.4.1.1 Waste DisposaI
The waste generated from the mining operations during the first five year plan
period is proposed to stack partially at outside dump and partially in de-lignite area.
Outside dumps are proposed within lease areas on barren land. The total land required
for outside dump and top soil stacking in Ghogha-Surka, Khadsaliya-i and Khadsaliya-
shall be 159.85 ha, 96.78ha and 96.04 ha respectively. Partial back filling is proposed
from third year onwards in de-lignite area. The maximum height of dump above
surrounding ground level shall be 60 m there shall be maximum number of six lifts
each of 10 m in height. The Berm width of each lift shall be 10 m. The slope envelope
of individual lift is proposed to be 36
0
giving the overall slope of about 24.64
0
in
Ghogha-Surka, 33.85
0
giving the overall slope of about 23
0
for Khadsaliya- and 36
0

giving overall dump slope of about 22.87
0
in Khadsaliya-. n active slops are proposed
to stabilised by plantation. Garland drain is proposed all around the waste dumps of
adequate size to arrest surface run off due to rain water.
Estimated stripping ratio for Ghogha-Surka, Khadsaliya- and Khadsaliya-
are 1:9.32, 1:23.26 and 1:8.81 respectively. Estimated quantities of overburden for
Ghogha-Surka, Khadsaliya- and Khadsaliya- are 511.36 MM
3
, 332.3 MM
3
and 190.47
MM
3
respectively. The proposed overburden dumps are expected to cause land
degradation through soil erosion siltation of natural drains and also cause soil pollution
acidic surface run off as well as leachates due to expected sulfur content in overburden
as well as waste material to be dumped at identified dump sites.
Estimated quantities of lignite for Ghogha-Surka, Khadsaliya- and
Khadsaliya- are 54.86, 14.29 and 21.60 million tones respectively.
Chapter 4 : Impact Assessment

4.12

4.4.2 Water Environment
There are no perennial rivers or any major surface water bodies within the
proposed mining study area, Malesari nadi and Ramadasia nadi are purely seasonal
and become active during monsoon season.
The quantity of water required for Ghogha-Surka, Khadsaliya- and
Khadsaliya- mine sites shall be 20, 12 and 10 m
3
/day and for domestic needs 150, 98
and 80 m
3
/day respectively. Hence, the total water required at proposed three mine
sites is around 170, 110 and 100 m
3
/day and the water required shall meet from local
borewells / hand pumps during initial 2-3 years (temporary) and then from proposed
pithead Power Plant (permanent). The water depth of dugwells ranger from 2.0 m to
8.00 m and fluctuate during monsoon yield of Ground water in the area ranges from
100 LPM to 600 LPM.
The major source of surface water pollution due to mining is siltation load
through surface runoff from active mining area, pumping of mine pit water, and effluent
generated from workshop. The mine water generation is one of the wastewater source
of lignite mining and around 400, 300 and 200 m
3
/day of mine water is expected to
generate from Ghogha-Surka, Khadsaliya- and Khadsaliya- respectively during
operation phase.
The mine water generated during the lignite mine will be neutralised with lime
depending on the requirement and will be settled to remove suspended matter.
Measures will be undertaken to control the suspended solids in the discharges from
the mine and storm water runoff. Domestic waste water will be treated in sewage
treatment plant and the sludge will be utilized in the horticultural activities.
The treated water will be continuously transported by 10-15m
3
capacity trucks
for sprinkling the water on unpaved roads and will be operated for continuous
sprinkling each shift. The amount of water consumed for dust suppression will be
around 350, 250 and 224 m
3
/day respectively at the three mines and the rest of treated
mine water will be used for green belt development within the first phase of production
area. The frequency of water spraying and distance of unpaved roads to be covered in
the three mines will be around 10-12 trips in each shift covering a distance of around
20-25 km, 6-8 trips in each shift covering a distance of around 30-35 km and 6-8 trips
in each shift covering a distance of around 20-30 km respectively. The width of the
unpaved roads used for the transport of lignite is around 10-15 meters and the most of
the treated mine water will be used for dust suppression regularly.
Chapter 4 : Impact Assessment

4.13

The entire mine water generated will be collected at a central pond within the
mine site and properly treated to increase the pH levels by adding the lime water. The
entire mine site has to be properly protected from dust generation and further
dispersion of dust to surrounding areas. The treated water is properly utilized within
the mine site by a network of dust suppression activity to consume the water optimally.
n case excess water is generated then it shall be discharged in natural streams after
meeting the stipulated standards for discharge into natural waters.
4.4.2.1 Mine Wastewater
The wastewater generated from lignite mine may be of two types. They are :
i. Mine Pit Water
ii. Acidic Mine Drainage.
The mine drainage water is mainly from mine pit pumped out during drainage
operations, spent water from handling plants and spent water from sanitation. 170 HP
capacity of two centrifugal electrical pump with discharge capacity of 5 m
3
/min. will be
engaged for pumping of water with discharge head of 150 m. Apart from this 100 HP
of centrifugal electrical pump also engaged capacity of 1.5 m
3
/min with discharge head
of 100 m.
4.4.2.2 Mine Pit Water
The pit water is expected to be good quality except the pollutant like high-
suspended solids and acidic. The treatment scheme thus needs to focus on the
removal of suspended solids and acidity from the water. Pit water must be treated to
meet the prescribed standards before being discharged into water bodies. When the
water is used for agriculture or domestic use, it should undergo further treatments.
The treatment plant has to be suitably designed to meet the desired use for water. The
important factor to be considered in selecting the appropriate method for treatments
are as follows:
x Laterite and limestone is locally available at low cost. Various pilot studies and
field installations on the use of laterite as filters have shown very good results.
Therefore, their use will be encouraged to the extent possible in the proposed
project.
x The flow and the quality of pit water vary seasonally. Therefore, the treatment
scheme should be flexible to absorb these fluctuations.
Chapter 4 : Impact Assessment

4.14

x The pit water is also slightly acidic having a pH of 4.0-6.0 and therefore, needs
neutralization.
4.4.2.3 Acidic Mine Drainage
The acidic mine drainage may be produced in lignite mining operations due to
the oxidation of sulphur bearing materials. These wastewaters have the following
characteristics.
i Low pH
i high content of heavy metals like Fe, Mn, Al etc
i high dissolved solids content
i high sulphate content amongst anions
i absence of organic matter
The discharge of acidic mine drainage into streams without proper treatment
will affect changes in all aqueous biological communities. Effects may range from
reduction in diversity of particular organisms. During the low flow periods, the alkaline
ground water in the study region inflows to the surrounding water streams and causes
neutralization of acidity of the acid mine drainage water and causes precipitation of
metals in the receiving water body.
The acidic mine drainage if generated in the proposed Ghogha-Surka,
Khadsaliya- and Khadsaliya- mines has to be continuously neutralised and treated to
suitable use as dust suppressions and greenbelt development. There shall be no
contaminated water entering in to the nearby natural stream. Hence there will not be
any adverse impact on the natural water bodies.
4.4.2.4 Mine Water Treatment
The solid particles in the mine pit water will be very fine and require at least
one hour detention time to settle, hence, for the quantity of 300m
3
/day of pit water a
sedimentation tank of 15 m
3
capacity will be required.
An alternative treatment technique of mine pit water shall be through use of
coagulants for settling suspended solids. The coagulants may be lime or synthetic
polyelectrolytes. t is recommended that lime should be used as coagulant for the
treatment of pit water. The use of lime will have the following added advantages.
The scheme to be adopted for the treatment of mine pit water is shown in
Fig. 4.4.1. Lime is to be added to pit water in slurry form so that it gets well mixed with
Chapter 4 : Impact Assessment

4.15

water. The dosage point of the lime would be in a mixing tank to be constructed at the
upstream of the natural drain as shown in the figure. The receiving drain should be
pitched with sandstone at the bottom and on the sides till 200m downstream of the
discharge point. This would be followed by two laterite walls of minimum 1m thickness
separated by a distance of 100m. The height and the width of the laterite walls should
be sufficient enough to allow water to percolate only through laterites.
The lime dosage rate should be about 50ppm. However, the optimum
requirement of lime dosage should be worked out frequently by conducting the Jar test.
The frequency of conducting jar tests could be about a month and in rainy season the
frequency should be increased, as there will be large fluctuations in both quality and
quantity of pit water.
Such a practice will not only produce better results but will also reduce the
consumption of chemicals. The lime solution should be prepared at 5% solids
concentration in a mild steel (MS) tank of suitable capacity. For the pit water discharge
rate of 300 m
3
/day, the capacity of the tank should be around 5 m
3
so that the fresh
solution is required to be prepared twice a day only. The time tank shall be provided
with an agitator for mixing. The agitator should be of turbine type with a necessary
reduction gearbox with suitable torque rating, motor, coupling, shaft and impeller. The
shaft shall be of stainless steel and impeller should be of MS material with epoxy
coating and shall rotate at 100 rpm.
The mixing tank should have around 3 to 5 minutes of residence time to hold
the effluents within the tank. The pumped out water should be allowed to fall freely in
the tank so as to create turbulence necessary for mixing. The maximum depth of the
tank should be 0.5 m.
M
0
.
5

m
1

m
L
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4.16
Chapter 4 : Impact Assessment

4.17

4.4.2.5 Workshop EffIuents
Effluents generated by servicing of the vehicles mainly contains pollutants
such as suspended solids (SS), oil and grease, BOD and COD. Therefore, the
provision of oil and grease trap alone cannot bring the effluent within the acceptable
standards. The proposed scheme for treatment of this effluent is shown in Fig. 4.4.2.
t basically consists of baffled separator followed by coagulation by using alum and
lime.
4.4.2.6 Estimated Water BaIance
Ghogha-
Surka
KhadsaIiya-II KhadsaIiya-I
TotaI
Mine Sites Requirement
(m
3
/day)
20 10 12
Domestic water
(m
3
/day)
150 98 80
Dust Suppression
(m
3
/day)
350 224 250
TotaI Requirement
(m
3
/day)
520 332 342 (1194)
Wastewater
Generations & Reuse
after treatment (m
3
/day)
400 300 200 (900)
Net Requirement
(m
3
/day)
120 32 142 (294)
The total requirement of water for the proposed three lignite mines is 1194
m
3
/day. Waste water generated from the three mines is 900 m
3
/day.
4.4.2.7 Domestic Wastewater treatment
The domestic need of water for all the three mines is 150, 98, 80 m
3
/day
respectively. The colony for the essential employees for mining project will be
constructed at Bhavnagar and hence there is no need for sewage treatment plant.
However, for workers on duty, separate treatment will be carried out.
Domestic wastewater will be treated in sewage treatment plant and the
sludge will be utilized in the horticultural activities.

Chapter 4 : Impact Assessment

4.18

The treated water will be continuously transported by 10-15 m
3
capacity
trucks for sprinkling the water on unpaved roads and will be operated for continuous
sprinkling each shift. The frequency of water spraying and distance of unpaved roads
to be covered in the three mines will be around 10-12 trips in each shift covering a
distance of around 20-25 km, 6-8 strips in each shift covering a distance of around 30-
35 km and 6-8 strips in each shift covering a distance of around 20-30 km respectively.
Workshop Effluent
Alum
Solution
Lime
Solution
Oil
Chemical Clarifier
Baffle Separator
Sludge
Treated Effluent
Oil & Grease
Grease
Fig. 4.4.2 Schematic Diagram for Treatment of Workshop EffIuent
4.19
Chapter 4 : Impact Assessment

4.20

4.4.2.8 Hydro-geoIogicaI Study
The task of hydro-geological study including groundwater modeling to
ascertain the impact of mining on the groundwater regime was assigned to National
nstitute of Hydrology, Roorkee. The objectives of the task entrusted to National
nstitute of Hydrology, Roorkee, are:
- The impact of mining and water abstraction on the hydrogeological and
groundwater regime of within core zone and 10 km buffer zone including long-
term modeling studies,
- The impact of sea water ingress and cutting into groundwater aquifer, and
- The rain water harvesting scheme and measures for recharge of groundwater.
(i) HydrogeoIogy of the Area
n general, the area is covered with a thin layer of alluvial soil/black cotton
soil, which has been derived as a result of weathering of trap rock. This soil mantle is
underlain by a column of medium to coarse grained sandstone which also outcrops in
the area. This litho-unit is one of the important aquifer existing in the area and contains
water throughout the year. Apart from this weathered and fractured basalts also
constitute an aquifer in the surrounding areas. This fact has been duly supported by
geophysical logs of boreholes besides existence of number of shallow dug wells in the
area. The water table during summer months remains at 3.1 m to 14 m depth whereas
during monsoon it is as shallow as about 5m from surface. The lithounit occurring
below this aquifer are mostly argillaceous in nature and do not contain much water.
Deccan Trap Formations
Nature of formations Deccan formations in the west of the mining blocks are the
oldest found in the study area. The traps mostly consist of basaltic lava flows of
volcanic igneous origin and belong to Cretaceous to Eocene age (Chaulya, 2003). As
these are basically hard formations, they have low porosity and permeability and hence
no well-defined aquifer system exists in the area. The storage space is provided by the
development of secondary porosity due to weathering, development of fractures, joints
and inner flow space. All these features vary in their intensity in lateral and vertical
direction, resulting in the development of storage space in the form of small irregular
pockets. These pockets may be weakly interconnected or may be separated from each
other by the impermeable barriers. By gravity and following weak planes, rain enters
and slowly moves down. This feature was often observed in exposed weathered rocks
Chapter 4 : Impact Assessment

4.21

in excavation sites and road cuttings. Groundwater flow continues down below to
fractured rocks, controlled by strike and dip of joints and other weak planes.
Groundwater conditions Groundwater in the Deccan Traps occurs in the upper
weathered portion as well as in cracks, fissures, joints and fractures. Top 5 to 20 m of
ballistic rocks are weathered and fractured at varying degrees and the intensity of
groundwater infiltration is dependent on these fractures. Many wells are dug in this
weathered zone with depths varying from 5 to 15 m from ground level. Diameter of the
wells vary from 2 to 6 m. Depth of water from the ground surface depends on seasonal
rainfall, the elevation of ground and also on local startigraphy. t normally varies from 2
to 5 m west of the mining blocks and 2 to 10 m in the buffer zone. The gradient of
water table follows the surface elevation, which is west to east with moderate slopes
ranging from 1 in 300 to 1 in 150. But locally, this gradient varies erratically and at
some places is very high. This is due to the irregularities in the occurrences of water in
the trap areas. As rainfall is the major source of recharge, the dug wells show
maximum fluctuation between pre-monsoon and post-monsoon periods. Fluctuation of
3 to 4 m can be taken as typical for the area. Yield of the individual wells also vary from
place to place depending on the localized geo-hydrological conditions. A properly
constructed dug well of about 5 m diameter and 10 to 15 m depth in a fairly well
weathered and fractured strata could yield about 300 lpm. Specific yield is also an
important parameter for determining as to how much water will be released from the
storage of aquifer. Field studies/pumping tests have indicated a value of 3% as specific
yield for the formation up to a depth of 20m from ground level in the Deccan Trap area.
Hydraulic conductivity and transmissivity of the aquifer in the trap area showed area-
wise variation, depending upon the local stratigraphical conditions. Similarly, depth-
wise variation also occurs due to nature of the aquifer material, thickness, magnitude
of weathering, etc. Based on the pumping test results in the Deccan Trap area,
hydraulic conductivity and Transmissivity values varied from 3 to 8 m/d and 30 to 100
m
2
day
1
, respectively.
AIIuviaI and Tertiary Formations
Nature of formations Alluvial and tertiary formations are exposed within the mining
block. Alluvial formation comprises of silt, sand dune and beach sand. Geologically,
these are of recent origin. Tertiary formations of Lower Miocene consist of
conglomerates, sandstones and clays. Stretches of Supratrappean formations of
Lower Eocene age, consisting of laterite and bentonite, are exposed at the western
Chapter 4 : Impact Assessment

4.22

and southern fringe. The storage is directly proportional to the porosity of the formation
in this type of soil.
(ii) Groundwater conditions
The thickness of alluvial formation together with upper sandstone, clays and
conglomerates varies from 10 to 30 m. Dug well constructed in these formations vary
in depth from 3.10 to 22.5 m and diameter of the wells varies from 2 to 5 m. The depth
of water in the dug wells depends on the elevation of ground surface, rainfall, season
of the year and stratigraphical conditions. Normal range is between 2 to 8 m from
ground level. The average water level fluctuations between pre-monsoon and
monsoon seasons can be taken as 1.50 m for calculation purposes. Gradient of the
water table normally follows the surface slope and is from west to east with slope of 1
in 1000 to 1 in 500. Yield of the dug wells and dug-cum-tube wells vary from place to
place within the mining block and other areas of occurrence of sedimentary formations.
Normal range can be taken as 100 to 600 lpm. Specific capacity of the wells in these
formations is high, but shows wide variations from 50 to 300 lpm/m of draw down.
Based on the pumping test results, the hydraulic conductivity of the top 30 m of the
formation in Khadsaliya mining block showed appreciable vertical variation depending
on the type of strata i.e. alluvium or sandstone or conglomerate or clay. The normal
range is 5 to 15 md
~1
. The transmissivity values also correspondingly show variations
depending on the hydraulic conductivity of the formations and the thickness. The
normal range is 100 m
2
d
~1
for the formations encountered within the depth of about 30
m in the mining block and other sedimentary zones.
(iii) Ground Water Recharge
The main source of groundwater recharge in the area is by precipitation. The
infiltration in the rate varies with type of soil. Rainfall recharge in the area is reported to
be 18 % of the normal rainfall (Chaulya, 2003).
The mining lease area of Ghogha Surka, Khadsaliya- and Khadsaliya-
mining lease area are mostly barren with patches of agriculture. The source of water to
the area is precipitation. Though a canal (Shatrunji Left Bank Canal) passes through
the block on the eastern side, it carries little water and that too far a shot period (3-4
months). Average annual rainfall of the area is 722 mm, out of which 40% is lost as
surface runoff. This quantity is quite high because around 38% of surface runoff water
is used as consumptive use. As the area is very near to sea, surface storage structures
in the region are very less. The drainage in the area is a small river and does not have
much storage capacity. Further, out of total rainfall, 24% is partly lost through
Chapter 4 : Impact Assessment

4.23

evaporation and transpiration. This quantity is very low since the area has only few
bushy plants and large portion of the area is barren or animal grazing land with only
one river having water during rainy season only. The remaining 36% of rainfall water
enter into the subsoil as infiltration due to existence of porous soil cover in the area.
About 50% of gravitational water, entering into the soil, is lost through slow downward
movement of groundwater towards the sea. Therefore, only remaining 50% of
gravitational water becomes utilisable as groundwater resources based on the
prevailing conditions of groundwater abstraction in the area (CMR, 2001).
The surface water and groundwater budget of has been computed using
rainfall infiltration method and specific yield method.
Based on the above data, water resource availability for the Ghogha-Surka,
Khadsaliya- and Khadsaliya- blocks have been calculated by RainfaII InfiItration
Factor and Specific YieId methods. The details of the breakup of the two methods are
given below in TabIe 4.4.1
TabIe 4.4.1: RainfaII recharge in study area
Unit
Ghohga
Surka
KhadsaIiya-I KhadsaIiya-II
Block area m
2
13550000 7114247 9141898
Average annual rainfall m 0.722 0.722 0.722
Total precipitation within the block MCM 9.78 5.14 6.60
RainfaII InfiItration Factor Method (1)
Surface runoff MCM 3.91 2.05 2.64
Evapotranspiration loss MCM 2.35 1.23 1.58
Sub-surface loss MCM 1.76 0.92 1.19
Utilisable groundwater MCM 1.76 0.92 1.19
Specific Yield Method (2)
Specific yield % 7 7 7
Water level fluctuation m 1.5 1.5 1.5
Annual recharge MCM 1.42 0.75 0.96
Average Recharge =[(1)+(2)] / 2 MCM 1.59 0.84 1.08
Water Demand MCM
0.157
(0.43 mld)
0.102 MCM
(0.27 mld)
0.092 MCM
(0.25 mld)
10% 12% 9%
The TabIe 4.4.1 indicates that the groundwater requirement for the mining
activity is only 9-12% of the average recharge within the mining lease areas.
Therefore, it may be stated that the water requirement of the proposed lignite mines
will not affect the groundwater resource of the region.
(iv) Groundwater ModeIIing
Groundwater flow modelling is an important tool frequently used to study the
dynamic behaviour of groundwater system. Groundwater flow models attempt to
Chapter 4 : Impact Assessment

4.24

reproduce or simulate the operation of a real groundwater system using mathematical
equations solved by a computer programme. Recent trend in groundwater modelling is
to use the user-friendly and robust software packages to develop groundwater
management plans. A number of commercial groundwater software with GS
capabilities like Visual MODFLOW, GMS, GW Vista, etc are being widely used for this
purpose.
"A Modular Three Dimensional Finite-Difference Groundwater Flow Model"
i.e. MODFLOW computer code, developed by McDonald and Harbaugh 1988, is the
most common groundwater model being used world over. t simulates steady and non-
steady flow in three dimensions for an irregularly shaped flow system in which aquifer
layer can be confined, unconfined, or a combination of confined and unconfined. Flow
from external sources, such as flow to wells, areal recharge, evapotranspiration, flow to
drains, and flow through river, can be simulated
(v) SoIute Transport ModeIing (MT3D)
MT3D code retains the same modular structure as of the U.S. Geological
Survey modular three-dimensional finite-difference groundwater flow model,
MODFLOW, (McDonald and Harbaugh, 1988; Harbaugh and McDonald, 1996). The
modular structure of the transport model makes it possible to simulate advection,
dispersion/diffusion, source/sink mixing, and chemical reactions separately.
(vi) Groundwater ModeIIing of CoastaI Aquifers using SEAWAT
Ground water in the coastal areas contains dissolved constituents, such as
the salts commonly found in seawater. At relatively low concentrations, dissolved
constituents do not substantially affect fluid density. As solute concentrations increase,
however, the mass of the dissolved constituents can substantially affect the fluid
density. f the spatial variations in fluid density are minimal, regardless of the actual
density value, field and mathematical methods for quantifying rates and patterns of
ground-water flow are relatively straightforward. n many of these hydrogeologic
settings, an accurate representation of variable density ground-water flow is necessary
to characterize and predict ground-water flow rates, travel paths, and residence times.
n coastal aquifers, an interface exists between fresh ground water flowing
toward the ocean and saline ground water. Across the interface, the fluid density may
increase from that of freshwater (about 1,000 kg/m
3
) to that of seawater (about 1,025
kg/m
3
), an increase of about 2.5 percent. Field observations and mathematical
analyses have shown that this relatively minor variation in ground-water density has a
Chapter 4 : Impact Assessment

4.25

substantial effect on ground-water flow rates and patterns. An understanding of
variable-density ground-water flow, therefore, can be important in many types of
studies of coastal aquifers, such as studies of saltwater intrusion, contaminated site
remediation, and fresh ground-water discharge into oceanic water bodies.
The source code for SEAWAT combines MODFLOW and MT3DMS (a solute
transport model) into a single program that solves the coupled flow and solute-
transport equations. The SEAWAT code also follows a modular structure, so new
capabilities can be added with only minor modifications to the source code.
MODFLOW was modified to conserve fluid mass rather than fluid volume and uses
equivalent freshwater head as the principal dependent variable. n the revised form of
MODFLOW, the cell-by-cell flow is calculated from freshwater head gradients and
relative density-difference terms. The resulting flow field is passed to MT3DMS for
transport of solute; an updated density field is then calculated from the new solute
concentrations and incorporated back into MODFLOW as relative density-difference
terms
(vii) ModeI Framework
A conceptual model has been developed for the Ghogha-Surka and
Khadsalia area, based on the available data. The study area is bound by Arabian Sea
in the east and two small seasonal rivers, Malesari Nadi in the north and Ramdasia
Nadi in the south (Fig. 4.4.3). The model domain has been considered large enough to
nullify the effect of any boundary on the aquifer system, except for the Arabia Sea in
the east. Arabian Sea has been considered as constant head boundary. No flow
boundary has been considered on northern, western and southern boundaries.







Fig. 4.4.3: ModeI Domain
n the finite difference method, the continuous system described by the
governing equation is replaced by a finite set of discrete points in space and time and

Chapter 4 : Impact Assessment

4.26

the partial derivatives are replaced by differences between functional values at these
points. This requires discretisation of the aquifer system into grids forming rows,
columns and layers.
Grid: The study area is first discritised into 1,05,000 square cells (350 rows x 300
columns), with each cell having the dimensions of 50 x 50 m. All the cells on the land
area (79253 cells) have been considered as active and the cells in the Arabian Sea
(25747 cells) have been considered as inactive. The active and inactive cells are
separated by constant head boundary. All the hydraulic and hydrogeologic properties
are considered uniform over the extent of each cell. The discretised model domain is
shown in Fig. 4.4.4 (A). The West to East sections across the three proposed mines,
i,e., Ghogha-Surka, Khadsaliya- and Khadsaliya- bare shown in Fig. 4.4.4 (B), (C)
and (D).
Layers: The study area is composed of Deccan Trap, Gaj formations and Lakhankha
formations. Deccan Trap is overlain by bentonite and other clays (Lithomargic clays).
For the modeling purposes, Lakhanka formations and Gaj formations have been
considered as same unit as both of these formations have similar lithological
characteristics, i.e., sandstones and conglomerates. Therefore three layer model has
been considered to assess the impact of mining on seawater intrusion (TabIe 4.4.2).



(A)







(A)


(B)


(C)


(D)
Figure 4.4.4 : Discretisation of modeI domain (A) PIan, and sections across (B)
Ghogha-Surkha BIock, (B) KhadsaIiya-I BIock (B) KhadsaIiya-II BIock.
Active ceIIs are represented by White coIour and inactive ceIIs by Cyan coIour.

4.27
Chapter 4 : Impact Assessment

4.28

TabIe 4.4.2: Layers of the ModeI
Layer No.
Thickness
(m)
Litho units
Layer 1 28-110
Greasy/ Variegated Clay, weathered Basalt
Ferruginous sandstone, weathered Basalt
Layer 2 6 Lithomargic clay
Layer 3 >8 Massive Basalt

Input Data
nput data requirement for the model includes hydraulic properties, initial
conditions, boundary conditions, stresses, groundwater draft and groundwater
recharge has been taken from the various reports of the Gujarat Power Corporation
Limited, Gandhinagar. Wherever data was not available, the values of parameters
were assumed as per published literature. These data have been prepared based on
the available information from the study area.
The model parameters considered in the present study are summarized in TabIe 4.4.3.
TabIe 4.4.3: ModeI input parameters
S. No. Parameters Inputs Remarks
1 CeIIs 105,000 (50x50 m) (350 rows x 300 columns)
Active 79,253
Inactive 25,747
2 Layers Three
Layer-1
28 110m -
Unconfined
Top aquifer
Layer-2 6 m confined Aquitard
Layer-3 8-100 m confined Aquitard
3 ModeI Boundaries
Constant Head Eastern Side
Arabian Sea


No Flow
Boundary
Northern, Southern
and western Side
Flow lines almost parallel to flow
direction
Recharge (RCH)
Top layer

18% of rainfall in Gaj and
Khadsaliya formations (100 mm)
8% in weathered and fractured
Basalts (65 mm)
Evapotranspiration Top layer
300 mm from top of the aquifer
with extinction depth of 2 m
4
Aquifer
Parameters


HydrauIic
Conductivity (K)
0.001m/d to 5m/d
Varying with nature
of formations
3.5m/d in the Gaj and Khadsaliya
formations
1.8m/d in the weathered and
fractured Basalt
0.001 m/d in massive basalt and
Chapter 4 : Impact Assessment

4.29

S. No. Parameters Inputs Remarks
lithomargic clays
Specific YieId (Sy)
1 to 6%
Varying with nature
of formations
6% for Gaj and Khadsaliya
formations
2% for weathered Basalts
1% for massive basalt
5 Draft 70% of recharge
Uniformly distributed during non
monsoon season
6 SimuIation Period 5 years
The period in which mine will be
fully developed
(viii) HydrauIic Properties
For groundwater modeling, hydraulic conductivity and specific storage are the
most important hydraulic properties. These parameters are usually estimated from the
pump test data. n the study area, hydraulic conductivity of the aquifers are reported to
be 3-8 m/d in basalts and 3-15 m/d in alluvium and other formations (Chaulya, 2003).
The data indicates low transmissive characteristics of the formations present in the
area. Vertical hydraulic conductivity is taken as 10% of horizontal hydraulic
conductivity. The specific yield of the formations is as indicated by the pump test
results. A specific yield of 3% has been estimated in the Basalts by pump tests in the
area. The specific yield of Gaj and Khadsaliya formations has been estimated by
steady state and transient groundwater modeling (Chaulya, 2003).
InitiaI Conditions
nitial conditions are defined by the spatially distributed groundwater levels/
peizometeric heads of the aquifer at the start of the model period. n the present case,
initial heads are taken to vary as per the topography and the depth to water table has
been considered to vary from 1m (near the coast) m to 20 m in the western side of the
area.
Boundary Conditions
No fIow Boundary: All the boundaries of the model area are considered as a flow
boundary except the eastern boundary (Arabian Sea), which has been considered as
constant head boundary. The domain of the study area is taken large enough to nullify
the impact of no flow boundary in the area of interest.
Recharge boundary: Recharge is assigned on the top surface of the model as the
recharge to the groundwater system, through infiltration of rainfall and irrigation return
flows, takes place from top of the layer. Recharge equivalent to 18% of the normal
rainfall has been considered.
Chapter 4 : Impact Assessment

4.30

Evapotranspiration Boundary: The study area is mainly agricultural area and the
main crops grown are wheat, pulses, and oilseeds. All these crops have shallow roots
(<0.5m). For the purpose of modeling, the maximum depth of evapotranspiration has
been considered as 2 m below ground surface. Below this no evapotranspiration has
been consider.
(ix) Groundwater Draft
The top aquifer in the study area is stressed by pumping of groundwater
through a number of shallow wells. The draft from the dugwell and shallow tubewells is
distributed almost uniformly over the study area. Limited agricultural development was
observed during the field visit to the area. As per available information groundwater
draft in the Bhavnagar district is about 70% of the annual recharge. Therefore, draft
has been considered 70%, evenly distributed in the model domain. The draft is
assumed during the nonmonsoon period. No deep tube wells exist in the area,
therefore, draft point draft has not been considered.
4.4.2.9 Impact of Mining on Groundwater Regime
The model was calibrated for steady state as well as transient state and then
the mining schedule was used to simulate the impact of mining on groundwater regime
of the area. As the mine is expected to develop fully in five years from the date of
opening, simulations were carried out for five year period. The mining schedule of the
three mines is given in TabIe 4.4.4 below:
TabIe 4.4.4: Mining ScheduIe for 5 years period
BLOCK Ghogha-Surka KhadsaIiya-I KhadsaIiya-II
Year
TotaI
Pit
Area
Max
Top
RL
FIoor
RL
TotaI
Pit
Area
Max
Top
RL
FIoor
RL
TotaI
Pit
Area
Max
Top RL
FIoor
RL
ha m m ha m m ha m m
MC and
1
st
year
58.69 34 -45 35.76 40 -17 29.88 34 -22
2
nd
year
98.70 34 -56 51.10 38 -25 42.18 34 -37
3
rd
year
131.20 34 -81 68.36 38 -27 63.26 34 -41
4
th
year
161.20 34 -81 84.05 38 -29 83.68 34 -50
5
th
year
167.70 34 -87 96.04 38 -30 94.98 34 -52
t has been assumed that for mining operations to continue unobstructed, the
groundwater table is to be lowered below the bottom of the mining pit. For normal
mining operations to continue, it is proposed to lower the water table below 3 meters of
the operation level. Therefore the water table is to be depressed to -48 m, -59 m, -84
m, -84 m, and -90 m in Ghogha-Surka mine; -20 m, -28 m, -30 m, -32 m, and -33 m in
Chapter 4 : Impact Assessment

4.31

Khadsaliya - mine, and -25 m, -40 m, -44 m, -53 m, and -55 m in Khadsaliya- mine
in phased manner in the 1
st
, 2
nd
, 3
rd
, 4
th
, and 5
th
year respectively.
t has been assumed that all the water seeping into the mine will have to be
removed, so the water table is to be depressed in this area at a time. For simulation
purposes, the net recharge (recharge draft) has been considered uniform throughout
the year. The water table generated at the end of 1
st
, 3
rd
and 5
th
year is shown in
Figure 4.4.5.























The Fig.4.4.5 indicates that by dewatering the mine, the water levels in the
nearby areas will decline. The effect will be much more towards the Gulf of Khambat
and less on the western side. The cross-section of the area along EW and NS direction
are shown in Fig. 4.4.6.
(B) At the Start of Mine (A) At the end of 1
st
Year
(D) At the end of 3
rd
Year (C) At the end of 5
th
Year
Fig. 4.4.5 : Water tabIe contours after (A) 0 yr, (B) 1yr, (C) 3 yrs, and (D) 5yrs.
Chapter 4 : Impact Assessment

4.32












(A) Cross section of the mine aIong EW direction (Ghogha-Surka Mine).


(B) Cross section of aII the mines aIong NS direction.
Fig. 4.4.6: Water IeveI aIong EW and NS cross sections.
The model indicates that though there will be decline in the groundwater
levels in the nearby areas, but still there are no chances of ingress of sea water into
the aquifers between the mine and the sea coast due to mining. f the pumped water is
discharged into the canal which runs to the east of the area, the chances of sea water
ingress are further reduced due to seepage of water from the canal, which may form a
constant head boundary on the eastern side (between sea and mining area).
4.4.2.10 Rainwater Harvesting Systems
Typically, a rainwater harvesting system consists of three basic elements:
the collection system, the conveyance system and the storage system. Collection
systems can vary from simple types within a household to bigger systems where a
large catchment area contributes to an impounding reservoir. The categorization of
rainwater harvesting systems depends on factors like the size and nature of the
catchment areas and whether the systems are in urban or rural settings. Some of the
systems are described below.
SimpIe roof water coIIection systems: While the collection of rainwater by a single
household may not be significant, the impact of thousands or even millions of
household rainwater storage tanks can potentially be enormous. The main components
Chapter 4 : Impact Assessment

4.33

in a simple roof water collection system are the cistern itself, the piping that leads to
the cistern and the appurtenances within the cistern.
Larger systems for IndustriaI areas: When the systems are larger, the overall
system can become a bit more complicated, for example rainwater collection from the
roofs and grounds of industrial area, storage in underground reservoirs, treatment and
then use for non-potable applications.
Land surface catchments: Rainwater harvesting using ground or land surface
catchment areas can be a simple way of collecting rainwater. Compared to rooftop
catchment techniques, ground catchment techniques provide more opportunity for
collecting water from a larger surface area. By retaining the flows (including flood
flows) of small creeks and streams in small storage reservoirs (on surface or
underground) created by low cost (e.g., earthen) dams, this technology can meet water
demands during dry periods. There is a possibility of high rates of water loss due to
infiltration into the ground, and because of the often marginal quality of the water
collected, this technique is mainly suitable for storing water for agricultural purposes.
4.4.2.11 Rainwater Harvesting Scheme
The water harvesting potential of storm water is the amount of water that can
be efficiently harvested from the total amount of water that is received in the form of
precipitation over an area. This is influenced by climatic conditions such as rainfall, and
its pattern. The land use wise water harvesting potential for the proposed mining area
is worked out as per estimates shown in given in TabIe 4.4.5.
TabIe 4.4.5 : IIIustrative Water Harvesting PotentiaI for different Iand uses
(Source: hpscste.nic.in/rwh/BIue_Drop_Series_01_-_PoIicy_Makers.pdf)
SI.
No.
Description Water Harvesting potentiaI
1 Average Annual rainfall 1131mm (1.31m)
2 Rainwater endowment of one
acre area (4047 m
2
) per year
4047 X 1.31= 5301.57 m
3

per year
3 Water harvesting potential of
Roofed area
80% of sl. no. 2 i.e., 4241.26 m
3

per year
Paved areas and road side
drains
70% of sl. no. 2 i.e., 3711.10 m
3

per year
Open Land (Barren Land) 20% of sl. no. 2 i.e., 1060.31 m
3

per year
Green belt 10% of sl. no. 2 i.e., 530.16 m
3

per year

As given in TabIe 4.4.5 the rainwater harvesting potential (RWH) from the
mining lease area, which is in general open land (Barren land), will 20% of the rainfall.
Chapter 4 : Impact Assessment

4.34

Thus the total water harvesting potential from the three mines will be as given in TabIe
4.4.6. The water collected from the rainwater harvesting may be stored temporarily in a
sump, and can be used subsequently. The Water requirement in the mining blocks is
also given in TabIe 4.4.6:
TabIe 4.4.6: RWH PotentiaI v/s Water Requirement in Mining BIocks (MCM/yr)
BLOCK
RWH
PotentiaI
Water Requirement
Requirement
v/s PotentiaI

PotabIe
water
Other
mining
activities
TotaI %
Ghogha Surka 1.96 0.0146 0.1424 0.1570 8.01
Khadsaliya- 1.03 0.0073 0.0839 0.0912 8.85
Khadsaliya - 1.32 0.018 0.084 0.102 7.73

The TabIe 4.4.6 shows that the quantity of water harvested is much more
than the actual requirement of the mining operations. The surplus water may be used
in the Thermal power plant (in case required) or can be recharged on the eastern
boundary of the mining lease area to avoid depletion of water table outside the mining
pit.
The proposed lignite open cast mines will be excavated 30, 52, 87 m below
sea level. For smooth functioning of the mines, the groundwater from the mine is to be
pumped out, so that at any time, water table should be atleast 3 m below the working
level. This activity will cause a cutting of aquifer upto a depth of 110 m from the
existing surface.
To study the impact of dewatering of the mine on the sea water ingress into
the aquifers, the SEAWAT model (A 3-dimensional groundwater model) has been used
after calibration for the project area. The model was calibrated as per the available
information from the area.
ConcIusions
- Geologically, the lignite deposit present in the Khadsaliya formations, have low
permeability.
- The groundwater modeling study indicates that due to dewatering, the water
table will decline in whole of the mining lease area. The area outside the mining
lease will also be affected, but to a lesser extent. The impact will be more
towards the Gulf of Khambat and less in other directions.
Chapter 4 : Impact Assessment

4.35

- There are little chances of sea water ingress due to mining in the area. As a
groundwater mound is expected to develop between the mine and the sea
shore.
- Water balance study indicates that the groundwater recharge in the three
blocks is substantially higher than the water requirement for the mining
operations. Thus the requirement of the mining activities can be met from the
available groundwater resources.
Recommendations
1. To reduce the impact of declined water table it is recommended to supply water
in the Shatrunji Canal throughout the year, which runs in almost NS direction.
The recharge from the canal will further reduce the decline in the area east of
the mining lease area.
2. The surplus water from the water harvesting scheme may also by recharged
through infiltration galleries constructed outside the mining pits on the eastern
side.
Chapter 4 : Impact Assessment

4.36

4.4.3 Air Environment
The air quality impact of a source or group of sources is evaluated by the use
of mathematical models. The models simulate the relationships between air pollutant
emissions and the resulting impact on air quality. The inputs to the model include
data relating to emissions, meteorology and atmospheric details like ambient
temperature, wind speed and wind direction all of which are determined by formulating
impact scenarios. The methodology adopted for air pollution modelling for different line
sources are shown in Fig. 4.4.7 and the various activities that would contribute dust
pollution during opencast mining is shown in Fig. 4.4.8.
The estimation and evaluation of dust generation from mining activities is an
immensely complicated procedure. Dust to be generated during proposed mining
activities will be from various sources like excavation operations which generate
fugitive dust harmful to the human health and environment. Apart from this, vehicular
movement within and around the mining activity will also generate huge quantity of
dust. The proposed lignite opencast mining is expected to use heavy equipments like
hydraulic excavators, loaders, dumpers and dozers which act as sources generating
dust pollution along with movement of vehicles within the mining area acting as line
sources.
4.4.3.1 Mine Area Emissions
The air pollution in the lignite mine area is arising mainly from opencast
mining, product transportation and overburden (OB) and other handling operations.
The main air pollutants like suspended particulate matter and respirable dust arise
from excavation and transportation operation. Large quantities of dust becomes air
borne and are carried away from lignite storage yards and overburden dumps.
Ghogha-Surka
60 dumpers with a loading capacity of 50 tonnes will be used for
transportations of OB initially at surface of OB dump and there on back filling into the
pit. 40 dumpers with a loading capacity of about 18 tonnes will be mainly used for
transporting the excavated lignite from the mine pits to the stock storage yards. These
dumpers generally will have six wheels (rear & front) and will move with a speed of 20
to 30 kmph on the unpaved roads constructed for lignite transportation. The width of
all unpaved mine roads within the mine site would be about 10.0 m. The excavated
lignite will be further transported through 10 tonnes capacity trucks from different
loading yards.
Chapter 4 : Impact Assessment

4.37

Two line sources covering the mine activity site one is on lignite and another
one on overburden and heavy vehicular movement areas were considered for
estimating the fugitive dust dispersion in the mine region 2.5 km stretch of mine road in
the North-west side of the mining activity is considered as line sources from where all
the heavy dumper / loaders will be transporting the overburden, where as 7.0 km
stretch of line source transporting lignite to the storage yards. These line sources
considered for the dispersion modeling from the northern mine boundary transported.
The final emission rates calculated for dumpers / loaders / trucks' carrying overburden
and lignite is estimated as 6.54 x 10
-4
and 3.2 x 10
-4
g/m/sec, from stretches of 2.5 km
and 7.0 km respectively.
KhadsaIiya-II
35 dumpers with a loading capacity of 50 ton will be used for transportations
of OB initially at surface of OB dump and there on back filling in to the pit. 15 dumpers
with a loading capacity of about 18 tonnes will be mainly used for transporting the
excavated lignite from the mine pits to the stock storage yards. These dumpers
generally will have six wheels (rear & front) and will move with a speed of 20 to 30
kmph on the unpaved roads constructed for lignite transportation. The width of all
unpaved mine (haul) roads within the mine site is around 10.0 m. The excavated
lignite will be further transported through 10 tonne capacity trucks from different
loading yards.
Two line sources covering the mine activity site one is for lignite and another
one for overburden and heavy vehicular movement areas were considered for
estimating the fugitive dust dispersion in the mine region 1.8 km stretch of mine road in
the North-east side of the mining activity is considered as line sources from where all
the heavy dumper / loaders will be transporting the overburden, where as 1.5 km
stretch of line source transporting lignite to the storage yards. These line sources
considered for the dispersion modeling from the northern mine boundary transported.
The final emission rates calculated for dumpers / loaders / trucks carrying overburden
and lignite are estimated as 2.93 x 10
-4
and 1.24 x 10
-4
g/m/sec, from stretches of 1.8
km and 1.5 km respectively.
KhadsaIiya-I
10 dumpers with a loading capacity of 50 tonnes and 10 dumpers with a
loading capacity of 35 tonnes will be used for transportations of OB initially at surface
of OB dump and there on back filling in to the pit. 35 dumpers with a loading capacity
of about 18 tonnes will be mainly used for transporting the excavated lignite from the
Chapter 4 : Impact Assessment

4.38

mine pits to the stock storage yards. These dumpers generally will have six wheels
(rear & front) and will move with a speed of 20 to 30 kmph on the unpaved roads
constructed for lignite transportation. The width of all unpaved mine roads within the
mine site is around 10.0 m. The excavated lignite will be further transported through
10 tonne capacity trucks from different loading yards.
Two line sources covering the mine activity site one is on lignite and another
one on over burden and heavy vehicular movement areas were considered for
estimating the fugitive dust dispersion in the mine region 2.5-3.0 km stretch of mine
road in the west side of the mining activity is considered as line sources from where all
the heavy dumper/ loaders will be transporting the overburden, whereas 3.0-5.0 km
stretch of line source transporting lignite to the storage yards. These line sources
considered for the dispersion modeling from the western mine boundary transported.
The final emission rates calculated for dumpers / trucks carrying overburden and lignite
is estimated as 2.37 x 10
-4
and 2.8 x 10
-4
g/m/sec, from stretches of 2.5-3.0 km and
3.0-5.0 km respectively.
The details of emissions expected from vehicular movement during mining
activity are given in TabIe 4.4.7. The line source emission rates for the proposed
lignite mines are derived from the following equation:



Where,
E
vt
- Emission factor (lb / vehicle / mile travelled)
S
p
- Silt content of road surface material
V
v
- Mean vehicle velocity (miles / hour)
M
v
- Mean vehicle mass (tonnes)
W
v
- Mean number of wheels
D
p
- Number of days per year with atleast 0.01 inch of precipitation
4.4.3.2 Micro-MeteoroIogy
The wind speed and direction data were recorded on continuous basis
during study period at site for winter season. The percentage frequencies of
occurrence of various wind speed classes in different directions were computed from
recorded data on 24 hourly bases and presented in the form of wind roses for winter
E
vt
= 5.9 S
p
V
v
M
v

0.7
W
v

0.5
365-D
p

12 30 3 4 365
Chapter 4 : Impact Assessment

4.39

seasons as shown in Fig. 4.4.9. The data was further analyzed to obtain predominant
wind direction and average wind speed for 24 hours, and the same data was used in
prediction of impacts on air environment for winter season.
The hourly wind speed, solar insolation and total cloudiness during day time
and wind speed and total cloudiness during night time were used to determine the
hourly atmospheric stability classes (Pasquill and Gifford) viz., A to F. The hourly
stabilities were determined based on the technique suggested by Turner. Sun's altitude
was calculated during day time at hourly intervals after evaluating the Local Apparent
Time (L.A.T).. The average meteorological conditions as observed and derived using
insolation class and net radiation index during winter season are presented in TabIe
4.4.8 and were used for prediction of impacts.
4.4.3.3 Air QuaIity Predictions
The Fugitive Dust Model (FDM) is a computerized air quality model specifically
designed for computing emissions and deposition impacts from fugitive dust sources. The
sources may be point, line or area sources. The model has not been designed to compute
the impacts of buoyant point sources, thus it contains no plume-rise algorithm. The model
is generally based on the well known Gaussian Plume formulation for computing
concentrations, but the model has been specifically adapted to incorporate an improved
gradient-transfer deposition algorithm. Emissions for each source are apportioned by the
user into a series of particle size classes. A gravitational settling velocity and a deposition
velocity are calculated by FDM for each class. Concentration and deposition are
computed at all user-selectable receptor locations. The model is designed to work with
pre-processed meteorological data. FDM is an analytical air quality model specifically
designed for the analysis of the dispersion of fugitive dust. This model was applied for
prediction of impacts due to pit (area) sources. These fugitive dust emissions would cause
marginal impacts (as the emissions are almost at ground level).
n the present study for line sources, CALNE4 model has been applied for
prediction of impacts on air environment. CALNE4 is the last in a series of line source
air quality models developed by the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans).
t is based on the Gaussian diffusion equation and employs a mixing zone concept to
characterize pollutant dispersion over the roadway.
The purpose of the model is to assess air quality impacts near transportation
facilities. Given source strength, meteorology and site geometry, CALNE4 can predict
pollutant concentrations for receptors located within 500 meters of the roadway. n
Chapter 4 : Impact Assessment

4.40

addition to predicting concentrations of relatively inert pollutants such as carbon
monoxide (CO), the model can predict nitrogen dioxide (NO
2
) and suspended particle
concentrations. t also has special options for modeling air quality near intersections,
street canyons and parking facilities. Historically, the CALNE series of models
required relatively minimal input from the user. Spatial and temporal arrays of wind
direction, wind speed and diffusivity were not needed by the models. While CALNE4
uses more input parameters than its predecessors, it must still be considered an
extremely easy model to implement. For most applications, optional inputs can be
bypassed and many other inputs can be assigned assumed worst-case values.
The GLC's were predicted on 24 hourly average basis and the concentrations for
winter season is shown in the form of isopleths in Fig. 4.4.10. mpact of predicted GLC
of particulate matter is negligible on nearby villages.

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4.41

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4.42
Chapter 4 : Impact Assessment

4.43







Fig. 4.4.9 : Wind rose during study period
CaIm Conditions: 8.33%
Chapter 4 : Impact Assessment

4.44






2000.00 4000.00 6000.00 8000.00 10000.00 12000.00 14000.00 16000.00 18000.00
-2000.00
0.00
2000.00
4000.00
6000.00
8000.00
10000.00
12000.00

Fig. 4.4.10 : IsopIeths of SPM Concentrations Over
Study Region due to Line Sources
OB Dumpers
- Ghogha
Surkha

- Khadsaliya
II

Lignite Transport
- Ghogha Surkha

- Khadsaliya II

- Khadsaliya -I
Chapter 4 : Impact Assessment

4.45


TabIe 4.4.7 : Emission DetaiIs for Line Sources at Proposed Lignite Mines


S.
No
Line Source Line Source Line Source
Co-ordinates
Strength Height Width Point A Point B

(g/sec-m) (m) (m) East
(Km)
North
(Km)
East
(Km)
North
(Km)
Ghogha Surka
1. 6.54 x 10
-4
1.0 10 7.70 10.90 8.80 9.80
2. 3.2 x 10
-4
1.0 10 8.80 9.70 11.60 5.10
KhadsaIiya-II
1. 2.93 x 10
-4
1.0 10 13.0 4.80 12.4 3.85
2. 1.24 x 10
-4
1.0 10 12.1 4.50 11.6 3.70
KhadsaIiya-I
1. 2.37 x 10
-4
1.0 10 12.10 3.30 11.90 2.90
2. 2.8 x 10
-4
1.0 10 12.10 3.40 11.90 5.50



Chapter 4 : Impact Assessment

4.46


TabIe 4.4.8 : MicrometeoroIogicaI Data Used for Prediction of Impacts
Winter season

Time
(hrs)
FIow Vector
(degree)
Wind Speed
(m/s)
StabiIity
CIass
Mixing Height
(m)
1. 315 1.00 6 -
2.
315
1.08 6 -
3.
315
0.80 6 -
4.
315
1.40 6 -
5.
315
1.50 6 -
6. 360 1.40 4 400
7.
315
1.90 4 400
8.
315
2.40 3 400
9.
315
2.60 3 450
10. 292.5 3.20 2 600
11. 292.5 3.30 2 800
12. 315 4.00 2 850
13.
315
4.00 2 900
14.
315
4.50 2 900
15.
292.5
4.23 2 850
16. 292.5 4.00 2 800
17. 270 3.83 2 600
18. 270 4.47 2 550
19. 270 3.30 3 550
20. 292.5 3.25 4 450
21. 292.5 2.28 4 400
22. 292.5 2.30 6 -
23.
315
1.70 6 -
24.
315
1.50 6 -



Chapter 4 : Impact Assessment

4.47

4.4.4 Noise Environment
As per the geotechnical studies carried out at proposed ministry, the
overburden layers and lignite seams are soft in nature and there would be no blasting
operation required for entire proposed mining project.
BIasting: The entire strata consisting of overburden, lignite and inter burden of this
deposit area is soft in nature and clayey in texture, which do not require any drilling
and blasting for its excavation. Such strata can directly be excavated by only hydraulic
excavators in combination with matching capacity of dumpers. Hence there is no
provision for drilling & blasting at the proposed lignite mines.
4.4.4.1 Prediction of impacts due to Iignite mining activity
f the sound source is directive and is located very near to hard flat
surface, then the sound pressure level at a distance "r is calculated by,
Lp = Lw + D - 20 Log(r) - Ae - 8
where,
Lp = Sound pressure level at a receiver located in a particular direction
Lw = Sound power level of the source
D = Directivity index of the source in that direction
r = Distance of receiver from the source (meters)
Ae = Excessive attenuation caused by the environmental conditions
For hemispherical wave divergence in a homogeneous loss free atmosphere
(Ae = 0 ), and over loss free ground, free of barrier the sound pressure drops off by 6
dB for each doubling of distance.
The noise generated due to mining operations and movement of heavy
equipments and vehicles affects the acoustical environment surrounding the mining
area. Cumulative effect at observer is calculated by the equation,
Lp = 10 Log [ 10Lp1/10 + 10Lp2/10 + 10Lp3/10 + ------- ]
Equipments needed for the proposed lignite mining operations including
transportation will be of varying type which is shown in TabIe 4.4.9. The impact of these
noise sources on the receiver can be estimated by using sound wave propagation model
describe above. The background noise levels found within the mining area and in the
Chapter 4 : Impact Assessment

4.48

adjoining villages within the 10 km aerial radius were found in the range of 43 dB(A) to
65 dB(A) during winter season.
4.4.4.2 Noise Due to vehicuIar Traffic
The traffic density in the adjoining villages surrounding the proposed lignite
mine site is low. The speed of medium and light weight vehicles will be around 40 to 50
km/hr and for heavy vehicles it will be in the range of 35 to 40 km/hr.
To estimate the impact of vehicular activity in the study area, total number of
vehicles passing per hour on road was measured. Equivalent noise levels due to
traffic, at required locations was estimated using integrating sound level meter based
on the following Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) noise equation :
Log(h)i = Loe + 10Log(Ni/SiT) + 10Log(15/d) 1+B + Ds - 13
where
Loe : Reference mean energy level for i
th
vehicle type (from published data)
Ni : Number of class i vehicle passing during time T
Si : Average speed for i
th
vehicle class in km/hr
T : Duration for which Leq is desired corresponding to Ni
D : Perpendicular distance in meters from the centre line of the traffic lane to
the location of the observer
B : Factor relating to the absorption characteristics of the ground cover
between roadways and observer
Ds : Shielding factor such as provided by a noise barrier
The above equation is the basis on which integrating sound level meter
records and integrates the noise levels generated due to light, medium and heavy
vehicles.
The preceding equation is used for medium & heavy trucks. The final Leq can
be calculated by logarithmically adding the three Leq values as follows,
Leq(Total) = 10 Log [ 10 Leq(A) / 10 + 10 Leq(M) / 10 + 10 Leq(H) / 10 ]
The total impact on observer, standing at a distance 'd' km from the centre
line of the traffic lane is given by the above equation.
Due to wave divergence and attenuation, the noise level decreases as
distance from source increases. Hence the effect of mining activity and traffic
Chapter 4 : Impact Assessment

4.49

movement of dumpers/trucks will be around within the mining activity and its impact on
surrounding area of Ghogha-Surka and Khadsaliya- up to 1.5 km 2.0 km is varied
from 34 36 dB(A). The predicted isopleth values are shown in Fig. 4.4.11 & Fig.
4.4.12. n case of Khadsaliya its impact on surrounding area up to 1.35 km 2.5 km
is varied from 35 39 dB(A). (Fig.4.4.13)
Chapter 4 : Impact Assessment

4.50






Fig: 4.4.11: Predicted Noise Contours within the Mining Site Ghogha-Surka
Chapter 4 : Impact Assessment

4.51






























Fig. 4.4.12: Predicted Noise Contours within the Mining Site KhadsaIiya-I
Chapter 4 : Impact Assessment

4.52


Fig: 4.4.13 : Predicted Noise Contours within the Mining Site KhadsaIiya-II
Chapter 4 : Impact Assessment

4.53



TabIe 4.4.9 : Expected Noise from Mining Machinery


S. No. Type dB(A)
1. Excavators 75-80
2. Dozer 75-80
3. Trippers/ Dumpers 65-80
4. Front End Loader 70-80
5. Crane 80-85
6. Fire Fighter 60-75
7. Trailor 70-75
8. Washing Tankers 70-80
9. Water Sprinklers 60-70
10. Maintenance Van 70-75
11. Truck 55-70
12. Jeeps 55-60
13. Ambulance Van 55-60
14. Tractor 60-65



Chapter 4 : Impact Assessment

4.54

4.4.5 BioIogicaI Environment
The mining activities affect the biological environment in a number of ways.
They result in the loss of top soil, loss of vegetation due to mining, siltation of ponds
and reservoirs during exploration, mining, construction and also high noise levels due
to rock breaking. GPCL has to undertake precautionary measures to prevent
environmental degradation due to mining activities.
No blasting will be carried out as a part of mining. Machinery capable of
excavating rocks without blasting are selected for mining activities, thus any impact
due to blasting and related high noise levels on domestic, wildlife or social
communities surrounding mining site are ruled out.
n order to avoid loss of top fertile soil, it is handled separately so that the
same is placed on the inert overburden thus facilitating afforestation. n order to avoid
impact of dust on the surrounding environment, dust suppression shall be continuously
done by water spray as a part of daily routine. Hence impact of dust on vegetation and
thereby primary productivity of the area will be minimized.
n order to compensate loss of vegetation during mining, afforestation
programme will be undertaken on mining dumps. Native species will be selected for
the afforestation such as Prosopis juliflora, pongamia pinnata, Acacia auriculiformis,
Acacia senegal, Diosphyros melanoxylon, Delonix regia, Pilthecellobium dulce,
Prosopis julifora, Azadirachta indica, Fiacu religiosa, Tamarindus indica, Tamarindus
catappa, Emblica officinalis, Mangifera indica, Fiacu benghhalensis etc.

Chapter 4 : Impact Assessment

4.55

4.4.6 Socio-economic Environment
The land for proposed mine sites has been to be acquired from 14 villages in
Bhavnagar and Ghogha talukas. There will be large number of PAPs/PAFs due to
proposed land acquirement. M/s GPCL hired the services of Dr.Prafulla Kumar Das,
retired AS Officer, to conduct the necessary study and prepare comprehensive R&R
action plan. The report prepared by Dr.P.K.Das is summarized in the following
sections.
4.4.6.1 RehabiIitation & ResettIement PIan (RRAP)
This Rehabilitation and Resettlement Action Plan (RRAP) is for Ghogha-
Surka, Khadsaliya- and Khadsaliya- lignite Mining project of Bhavnagar District.
The details of the land ie; the land acquired by GPCL, the land that is to be
acquired by GPCL for the project, Government land and Gaucher land coming within
the project area are shown at TabIe 1-3 of Annexure-1 for Ghogha-Surka, Khadsaliya-
and Khadsaliya- lignite mining project.
Demographic structure of affected 14 villages, coming Under Ghogha-Surka,
Khadsaliya-, Khadsaliya- Lignite Mining Projects, as identified in the SA study, are
provided at TabIe 4 of Annexure-1.
Details of Area, Compensations and R and R paid towards the lands that has
been acquired are at TabIe 5-7 of Annexure-1.
(i) Objectives
x GPCL will ensure that PAPs (also called PAs, AFs or PAFs) are rehabilitated
and provided better lives and livelihoods, then the ones from which they are
uprooted.
x BPL PAFs may be accorded priority in providing R&R benefits.
x GPCL recognizes that involuntary displacement of individuals from ther lands
and livelihoods, necessitated for the development of Lignite mines for the
power projects, causes immense hardships to those individuals. Well
established social and economic relationships undergo change or damage.
GPCL, through this RRAP, is determined to provide at Pre-Project, Project
and Post-Project stages better infrastructure-physical, environmental,
economic, and social-to the PAPs than their displaced environment.
Chapter 4 : Impact Assessment

4.56

x Compensation for lands to be acquired under Land Acquisition Act, 1894
(LAA) will be on replacement cost principle arrived on the basis of negotiation
with the PAPs and as finally declared by the LAO in the Land Acquisitions
Award.
x GPCL will maximize its R&R efforts to ensure that the PAPs reap benefits
from the new environment through varieties of livelihood and socio-economic
opportunities.
x GPCL will implement its objectives in transparent manner. t will work in
cooperation with the PAFs, local governments, and NGOs working in the
Project Affected Area (PAA) as agreed to by GPCL in consultation with PAPs.
The PAPs will be regularly kept informed as to implementation of RRAP.
x GPCL will voluntarily act as a facilitator for realization of Government's
development goals in the PAA through its Corporate Social Responsibility
(CSR) initiatives.
x dentification of the physical, environmental, economic, and social damages
as a consequence of involuntary displacement of PAPs from their agricultural
lands, homesteads, livelihoods and social and economic resource base is
being done through independent Social mpact Assessment (SA) study with
cooperation and participation of PAPs.
x The RRAP spells out what needs to be done at Pre-Project, Project and Post-
Project stages to provide a positive environment where the affected families
achieve a better standard of living with sustainable income and better
infrastructure-physical, environmental, economic, and social-compared to their
displaced environment in pre-project stage.
x GPCL aims at a harmonious relationship with the PAFs. PAPs have to be
organized to be participants in policy decisions on compensation negotiations,
amenities and facilities to be provided to them and other issues related to their
resettlement. Appropriate forums shall be created where the PAPS can
express their views on issues related to their rehabilitation and resettlement.
x The RRAP will be implemented expeditiously with the active participation of
the affected families.
Chapter 4 : Impact Assessment

4.57

x The special protection provided to scheduled caste, scheduled tribe and other
backward class (OBC) by the Constitution will be ensured by adequate
measures through mechanism consistent with existing laws and rules.
x The Constitutional Provisions relating to active participation of Gram Sabha
and the Panchayat Machinery will be followed.
x Grievance Redressal Mechanism is organized to attend to the complaints of
PAPs and any failure of the land requiring body to implement its
commitments.
x A monitoring mechanism with local and PAP participation is worked out. This
RRAP will be communicated to the PAPs in local language as Gujarati.
(ii) R & R PIan ImpIementation ScheduIe
Subject R & R
Component/Activities
Months
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
A. Project Preparation Phase
Establishment of Division
and Departments in
GPCL
*
Community Consultation * * * * * * * * * * * *
Establishment of GRC *
B. RRAP ImpIementation
Payment of
Compensation to
PAFs/PAPs
* * * * * * *
Payment of all eligible
assistance to PAFs/PAPs
* * * * * * *
nitiation of Rehabilitation
Measures
* * * * * * *
Start of Civil Work *
C. Monitoring and EvaIuation
nternal Monitoring by
GPCL
* * * * * * * * *
ndependent M & E
(ntermittent)
* * *
The implementation of the R & R Plan is to start immediately with declaration
of Award by Collector, Bhavnagar.
The RRAP should be substantially implemented by the time Commercial
operation of the Mining starts.
Chapter 4 : Impact Assessment

4.58

(iii) Coordination and Immediate Steps
GPCL is responsible for ensuring the preparation and implementation of R&R
Policy of GPCL. Chief Project officer (CPO), by whatever name called, will be
responsible for land acquisition and rehabilitation and resettlement of PAPs and will
coordinate efforts with local authorities.
The Project Affected Persons will be encouraged to form and register a
Society for Project Affected Persons (SPAP) to ensure their effective participation in
their rehabilitation.
At the project level there will be a Project Affected Area Committee (PAAC) to
advise and interact with the Company on R&R matters with the following members:
i. Collector, Bhavnagar or his nominee Chairman
ii. DDO, Bhavnagar District or his nominee Member
iii. Special Land Acquisition Officer, Bhavnagar Member
iv.
Prant Officer of the revenue subdivision where affected
villages are situated
Member
v. Chief Project Manager
Member-
Secretary
vi. Mamlatdar of Taluka in which affected village is situated Member
vii. Sarpanch of each affected village Member
viii. Talati-cum-Mantri of each affected village Member
ix.
Two members of Society of Project Affected People
(SPAP)
Member
The Member of Legislative Assembly (MLA) and the Member of Parliament
(MP) in whose constituencies the project is situated are to be requested to attend the
PAAC or the District Coordination Committee (DCC) where the rehabilitation issues will
be discussed at their discretion.
Chairman of the Nyaya Panchayat, the Woman Member of the Panchayat,
SC/ST member of the Panchayat, Member from minority community if any of each of
the affected village may be specially invited whenever necessary. Head Master of the
local School may be invited if necessary.
Representative of NGOs working in the local area and recommended by the
concerned Gram Panchayats may be invited at the discretion of the Committee.
Whenever necessary any local official and or non-official can be specially invited to
meetings of the PAAC.
The PAAC will decide as to its procedure and the periodicity of its meetings.
But it must meet at least once in three months. All the project related issues can be
Chapter 4 : Impact Assessment

4.59

discussed in the PAAC to find out acceptable solutions and recommended to the
Company for implementation. Minutes of the meetings will be kept by Member
Secretary. The Board of GPCL will decide how long to continue with PAAC when it
reviews periodically the progress of RRAP.
The appropriate authorities may be requested to convene Gram Sabha of
each village to discuss the problems of the PAPs and ways to solve them. R&R issues
can be discussed in the District Coordination Committee (DCC) at its meetings as
regular items of the Coordination Meeting.
The SA report can be discussed in the DCC to find out solutions to many
problems of the project. SA Study and Resettlement and Rehabilitation Plan are
mandated under the Environmental mpact assessment study (EA).
The Company is to make available the SA to Society of Project Affected
Persons (SPAP). t may be debated in public hearings in the affected areas at the
Gram Sabha and/or meetings with PAPs/SPAP or in any other forum as decided by the
Company or State Government. The SA report will be used in R&R
Plans/Programmes.
The Company has prepared a tentative list of land losers. Once Section 4
notification is published, GPCL will be ready with a final list of affected families.
GPCL has held various meetings with villagers at its Bhavnagar office to
make its points clear and to clarify their doubts.
The land losers and other PAPs like the agricultural labourers will be
members of the Society of PAPs (SPAP). The self-help groups in the PAA where PAPs
have constituted will be members of SPAP. The project and its effects in the PAA may
be discussed regularly in these bodies, PAAC and DCC meeting to help the Company
build consensus on R&R and its implementation. All the departmental heads of
Government may be requested to provide information on the people and programmes
in the project area. The Company may supplement, wherever feasible, developmental
policies of various departments in the project area through its CSR initiatives. The
Company can exchange information with each departmental heads on the PAA and
PAP/PAF in the DCC to ensure that policies of the department concerned and the R&R
activities of the Company are mutually supportive.
4.4.6.2 Compensation for Acquisition of Land and Other Assets
The Company will provide compensations to PAPs under the LAA by
consent negotiation method and pay on the basis of the repIacement vaIue criteria.
Chapter 4 : Impact Assessment

4.60

Simply stated it means what it would cost today to replace a PAP's existing Asset
which is being acquired.
GPCL may constitute a Committee to facilitate negotiations with land losers
for arriving at market price. Compensation for the loss of land, structures, other assets,
crops and/or trees will be paid at replacement cost on the basis of negotiation as finally
decided by the LAO.
Compensation for structures and other immovable assets will be paid at
replacement cost on the basis of negotiation as finally decided by the LAO.
Compensation at market value is to be given to owner of crops and trees
including sharecroppers and tenant farmers on the basis of negotiation as finally
decided by the LAO. n case of fruit trees, compensation may be given at average fruit
production for specified years to be computed at current market value less the years
they will be allowed to harvest the fruits after the Company takes possession of the
land on the basis of negotiation as finally decided by the LAO.
Land Compensation to be paid after declaration of Award by LAO, Bhavnagar
in presence of Special LAO, Bhavnagar.
Encroachers of Government / Panchayat lands to be acquired will be notified
and given sufficient time to remove their affected assets and salvage material from
demolished structure at no cost.
All other assets on the farmland are to be paid for at replacement cost as
finally decided by the LAO. They will be assisted to retrieve and transport the house
materials. Land losers may be preferred for any agricultural use of open acquired land
consistent with regulatory and environmental requirements with benefit sharing
scheme.
4.4.6.3 Other Benefits to Land Iosers

(i) Providing House sites
a. The PAPs, who lose their house built on the farm land acquired or village
site or both, may be given, in addition to the replacement value of the
structure as finally decided by the LAO, house site at a mutually agreed
place nearest to the displaced area in the following scale at the cost of the
Company in addition to the compensation for the land on which the house
is situated at following scale:
Chapter 4 : Impact Assessment

4.61

i. f present house is 200 square meters or less: 250 square meters plot
(Payment for plot not to exceed actual or Rs.1,87,500 whichever is less)
and Rs.450000 as grant;
ii. f the present house is more than 200 square meters: 300 square meters
plot (Payment for plot not to exceed actual or Rs. Rs.2,50,000 whichever
is less) and Rs.500000 as grant for building the House.
b. The payment of house building grant can be released as per the following
three equal installments:
i. Mobilization Advance: first nstallment;
ii. Lintel Level Progress: Second nstallment;
iii. Completion: Third and final installment.
(ii) Providing Shares of the Company
i. f GPCL issues shares or debentures, the project affected families will be
allowed to purchase shares or debentures up to 20% of the compensation
amount due to the project affected family/person;
ii. This proportion may be raised by the State Government as per section
6.25 of NRRP.
4.4.6.4 Income Restoration with EmpIoyment and LiveIihood Opportunities
x GPCL will ensure that one person of each family is provided employment in
the project, subject to the availability of vacancies and suitability of the
affected persons for the employment. f PAPs are not eligible, they shall be
trained and made eligible for employment if possible and GPCL will
organize training for such PAPs.
x The project contractor will be persuaded to provide temporary employment
in the project construction work to affected persons with particular attention
to PAFs below poverty line (BPL) during construction to the extent possible.
x GPCL will identify the needs of PAPs and prepare a time-bound program for
giving training and creating employment opportunities to the PAPs.
x SPAP/Land losers Cooperative Society/ Self Help Groups can be
considered for contractual business they can perform with 5% price
preference.
Chapter 4 : Impact Assessment

4.62

x Those families of land losers, who have not been provided employment,
may be paid rehabilitation grant equal to 750 days minimum agricultural
labour wages.
x GPCL shall pay rehabilitation grant equal to 500 days minimum agricultural
labour wages to the agricultural labourers or non-agricultural labourers
rendered unemployed because of the project if they have not secured
alternative employment.
x As per provisions of clause 7.17 of National Rehabilitation and
Resettlement Policy 2007 of Government of ndia, GPCL will pay a life-time
minimum pension of Rs.500/- per month to the "vulnerable persons" as
defined in 6.4 item (v) of this policy as follows: "vulnerable persons such as
the disabled, destitute, orphans, widows, unmarried girls, abandoned
women, or persons above fifty years of age who are not provided or cannot
immediately be provided with alternative livelihood, and who are not
otherwise covered as part of a family." A list of such vulnerable individuals,
not availing any other public pension, shall be recommended by respective
Gramsabha with documentation and approved by the PAAC.
x GPCL may give work available, on priority basis, to the landless labourers
and unemployed PAPs at the site of project depending on their suitability.
x GPCL may create necessary training facilities for development of
entrepreneurship, technical & professional skill for self employment to the
PAPs.
x GPCL shall pay additional grant of 500 days minimum agricultural labour
wages to the PAPs belonging to the Scheduled Tribes if they are not
provided employment.
x Financial aid may be arranged for providing milch cattle for two cattle limited
to Rs.50000 to those PAFs who intend to be members of district level
Cooperative dairy recognized as such by Government and the funds can be
placed at the disposal of the dairy for purchasing the cattle and giving them
to the land loser.
x Financial aid of Rs.50000 may be arranged for a PAP family or individual
family member nominated by the family for any other agricultural or allied
pursuit or for non-agricultural activity including small industry, shop or any
self employment activity if he has not taken aid for dairy.
Chapter 4 : Impact Assessment

4.63

x When Land losers purchase land at other places they will be provided
electricity connection for irrigation purpose on priority as soon as they
acquire such land.
x The Company will arrange with the contractors to provide employment to
the PAPs and other local people in the PAA during the construction phase
to help them to earn a good income and develop a greater stake and sense
of ownership in the project.
x The big contractors will be encouraged to outsource contracted activities like
providing labour, transport or security to PAPs to enhance their income and
livelihood opportunities.
x The PAPs are to be assisted in identifying self-employment options through
formation of Self Help Groups and cooperatives.
x The Supply Chain of the Company may be explored for exploring new
employment opportunities.
x The SPAP/PAAC/DCC will be informed as to the kind of professional and
technical persons and other persons are necessary for the project and
project related activities to encourage the PAPs to train themselves for such
jobs. At the same time those who want to do small business or contractual
activities which can benefit them will be encouraged to do so.
x f the Project is developing any township or business centres for the
purpose of the project, some shops may be made available to the PAPs
who want to pursue their business as individuals or Self Help Groups on
payment of user charges. GPCL can work out an agreed selection
procedure.
x GPCL may pay scholarships to develop the skills of the existing wards of
the project affected families up to 12th standard and then till completion of
course at ndustrial Training nstitute. t may also pay scholarships for
professional higher education for the members of the project affected
families included in the family at the time of finalizing the list of members of
each affected family through SA. The expenses will be limited to the fees
and hostel charges of a fully Gujarat Government owned School/T/higher
educational institution.
Chapter 4 : Impact Assessment

4.64

x For existing Gujarati medium school, aid shall be given for computers,
cooler, books, note books, school bags, uniform etc. Also GPCL may
establish English medium school for standard 1 to 12 and maintain where,
the children of project affected families can pursue their studies along with
GPCL employee's children. Other children of villages within the PAA may
be permitted to join these schools.
(i) Other Benefits

x t should be ensured by GPCL that all project affected people have access to
government/public medical facilities provided locally. GPCL will ensure that
eligible project affected persons/Land losers are benefitted from any
insurance facilities arranged by the Government/GPCL.
x The project may dislocate the sociaI and economic Iife of women and
women headed families. The RRAP will take into account the SA report on
effects on women in the PAA and plan rehabilitation measures in
consultation with SPAP.
(ii) Restoration of Common Property Resources
Any Common property acquired will be replaced by similar common property
and approach to it will be built in consultation with Gram Sabha and Gram Panchayat.
For upgrading the present civic amenities, expenditure as determined by the
District Collector, limited to a maximum of Rs. 2.00 crores (Rupees Two Crores only)
per village, shall be borne by GPCL.
4.4.6.5 ImpIementation
x An dentity card will be issued to each PAP and an R&R Pass Book will be
issued to each PAF giving all the details of entitled compensation and
benefits. R&R Pass Book will have the names of each member of the family
along with identity card number. All the benefits to the family or its individual
member will be recorded in the Pass Book.
x The Company may ensure that Health Cards are given to PAPs. The
Company will help in carrying out health survey and preparation of health
cards for all the people and families in the project affected area/villages with
the help of district machineries and voluntary organizations. This health card
will contain details prescribed by health department. Regular monitoring of
health status is to be ensured.
Chapter 4 : Impact Assessment

4.65

x Public Consultations and Disclosure is to be held as necessary. SPAP,
PAAC, DCC are to meet to review and monitor implementation of RRAP.
x GPCL will provide adequate budget for compensation and carry out R&R
activities as per this RRAP.
x GPCL will provide all the benefits of the rehabilitation package to those
families belonging to the Scheduled Tribes, who had the forest land in their
possession till date.
x GPCL will bear all the expenditure for the rehabilitation of the project
affected families as also the administrative expenditure for implementing the
rehabilitation package and legal expenses, if any.
x GPCL may implement the rehabilitation package under the guidance of the
District Collector, Bhavnagar.
x GPCL shall implement the Rehabilitation package with the participation of
SPAP and the Cooperative Society of land losers.
x GPCL will ensure that the PAAC meets every three months to review the
progress of implementation of RRAP.
x GPCL will submit quarterly report regarding action taken to Collector of
Bhavnagar with a copy to the Energy and Petrochemicals Department. This
report may be discussed by Collector in DCC.
x The Company has to obey all the orders passed by the Government from
time to time, in respect of the rehabilitation of the PAPs.
x The NGOs operating in the PAA may be chosen to work for the PAFs if
agreed by SPAP/Gram Sabha of concerned villages.
x The Company agrees to direct its corporate social responsibilities activities
to important public policy concerns in the PAA.
x The health report may be used by the Company for carrying out any health
promotion programme that will be necessary.
x The special protection guaranteed by the Constitution to SC and ST and the
OBC will be respected while preparing RRAP.
x RRAP is to be regularly updated keeping in view the feed back received
through the GRC, monitoring reports and policy initiatives at various levels of
government.
Chapter 4 : Impact Assessment

4.66

4.4.6.6 Grievance RedressaI
x A Grievance Redressal Committee (GRC), consisting of one or more
persons having administrative or judicial experience in R&R shall be
appointed by GPCL, in consultation with the State Government, for time
bound disposal of the grievances arising out of matters covered by this
policy. GPCL may decide the level of qualifications and experience.
x Any affected person, who is dissatisfied, may move an appropriate petition
for redressal of his / her grievances to the GRC. The GRC shall have the
power to consider and dispose of all the complaints relating to R&R and
issue such directions as it may deem proper for the redressal of such
grievances.
x However, grievances related to compensation for land acquisition shall be
disposed of as per the provisions of LAA 1894 or any other Act of the
Union or State, and will be outside the purview of the functions of the
Grievance Redressal Committee.
x The GRC can look into any complaint of delay on the part of the project
authorities in any matter.
4.4.6.7 Monitoring
x The Company will monitor effective implementation of RRAP. The
baseline information is provided by SA. The activity results collected are
to be compared with base line data and if necessary corrective measures
should be taken to ensure that the R&R measures deliver desired results.
x Chief Project Officer (CPO) of the Project has to ensure compilation of
data relating to an activity/effort individual wise, family wise and village
wise. Policy goals/action plans of RRAP are compared with goals
achieved. These data are to be put up before SPAP and PACC.
Suggestions will be considered by CPO. He will report to corporate office
and suggest any measures needed to be taken. GPCL will ensure
effective monitoring of implementation of R&R policies and package.
x The DCC will be apprised of the performance of RRAP and it will act as
External Monitoring Authority and make suggestions for consideration of
the Company.
Chapter 4 : Impact Assessment

4.68

While acquiring Gauchar Land for ndustrial purpose by ndustrial unit, it has to
pay 30% more than the Market value. The additional 30% amount shall be kept
with Taluka Panchayat for development of Gauchar of particular village.
Govt. will allot Waste Land to Gram Panchayat, if available,for development of
Gauchar. n this case, the additional cost of land shall be kept with the
government.
f Government waste land is not available for Gauchar, the additional amount of
30% shall be transferred to Taluka Panchayat for purchase of the private land
for Gauchar. t will be the property of the Gram Panchayat.
f the ndustrial unit provides equivalent land of Gauchar, then it has not to pay
the additional 30% value to the Govt.
The project proponent has to give priority for vocational employment and
indirect benefits to the villagers whose Gauchar Land has been acquired.
4.4.6.8 Prediction of Socio-economic Impacts
The existing baseline status of the socio-economic profile of the study area
was reviewed and the nature, magnitude and actual facts about the project was
gathered from the management and after an effort which has been made to predict the
likely impacts socio economic environment.
The project of such a large magnitude would lead to environmental impacts of
varied nature. They can be broadly enumerated as follows:
i The activities of proposed lignite mines will lead to the alteration of existing
environmental pollution in terms of air, water and soil of the region. The mining
activity increases the dust generation in the mine site and will also disperse in to
the surrounding areas, thus creating dust nuisance if not properly controlled.
i The existing water table will change due to proposed mining activity leading to loss
of ground water table in the region. However, the proposed rainwater harvesting at
mine sites will mitigate this impact.
i Some of the top soil of the mine region will be lost along with the overburden
which will be removed to mine the lignite.
i The manpower requirement for proposed lignite mining project will be very large
and this would generate employment opportunities for the local people especially
Chapter 4 : Impact Assessment

4.69

project affected families. Besides this, other sectors associated with mining such
as transportation, trade & commerce, automobile, afforestation of mining dumps,
and ancillary work also enhance the employment opportunities for the local
people.
i The economic growth / development of the region by increase in revenue through
taxes such as sales, turnover and royalty tax etc.
i Local people are also benefited by increase in local business due to influx of
population for working in the plant as in mine as well as in township & other allied
activities.
i There will be a significant improvement in the infrastructure, communication,
health & medical facilities for the local people due to facilities provided by the
management.
i There will be a change in the occupational pattern amongst the local people by
providing better income and employment opportunities due to proposed mining
activity and the associated sectors.
Chapter 4 : Impact Assessment

4.70

Abbreviations
BPL Below Poverty Line
BOD Board of Directors
CMD Chairman and Managing Director
CPM Chief Project Manager
CSR Corporate Social Responsibilities
DDO District Development Officer
DCC District Coordination Committee
DPR Detailed Project Report
EIA Environmental mpact Assessment
GPCL Gujarat Power Corporation Limited
GRC Grievance Redressal Committee
LAA Land Acquisition Act, 1894
LAO Land Acquisition Officer
LAQ Land Acquisition
MD Managing Director
MLA Member of Legislative Assembly
MP Member of Parliament
NGO Non-Governmental Organization
NRRP National Rehabilitation and Resettlement Policy, 2007
OBC Other Backward Class
PA Project Affected
PAA Project Affected Area
PAAC Project Affected Area Committee
PAF Project Affected Families
PAP Project Affected Persons
R&R Rehabilitation and Resettlement
RRAP Rehabilitation and Resettlement Action Plan
R&RD Rehabilitation and Resettlement Division/Department
R&RP Rehabilitation and Resettlement Policy
SC Scheduled Caste
SIA Social mpact Assessment
SPAP Society of Project Affected People
TDO Taluka Development Officer
ST Scheduled Tribe



5.1


Chapter 5

Environmental Management Plan

Gujarat Power Corporation Limited (GPCL) has proposed lignite mining at
Ghogha-Surka, Khadsaliya- and Khadsaliya- mines in Bhavnagar district. The lignite
production from these mines will be carried out at the rates of 2.25, 1.0 and 0.75 million
tonne per annum respectively through opencast mining. The potential for
environmental pollution during development phase is certainly less than the mine
extraction and transportation (mining) phase. However the control of the pollution
during open cast mining is of considerable importance. Detailed measures should be
adopted for control of pollution during lignite mining phase.
5.1 Land Procurement and Pre-Mining Activities
GPCL should make necessary arrangements including budgetary allocation
for implementation of R&R plan for project affected families / villages as
described in previous chapter.
The R&R plan shall be implemented prior to site clearance/preparation for
lignite mining. All necessary infrastructure facilities should also be provided
in resettlement villages, such as domestic water supply, roads, electricity,
public health, sanitary, education etc.
Necessary alternative arrangements shall be made for community common
properties like grazing/pasture lands.
Chapter 5: Environmental Management Plan


5.2
A record of existing Flora and Fauna shall be established, which shall be
useful as reference document/material during reclamation/rejuvenation of
mined land and at the time of mines closure
The existing surface topography and drainage pattern shall be kept in view
while planning storage of topsoil, overburden dump sites, lignite stock yard.
Trenches of suitable size shall be implemented around the individual dump
sites as well as overall mine sites to prevent the adverse potential impacts
from acidic washouts/ leachates on the agriculture land in surrounding
villages.
Prior social afforestation / tree plantations may be encouraged in immediate
neighbour villages, which will help as a sort of employment opportunity to
PAPs and also in mitigating net impacts from mining activities.
The proposed diversion of roads, drains/seasonal rivers, irrigation canal etc.
shall be done in consultation with neighbour villagers and shall not cause
any significant adverse impact to the villages in buffer zone.
The rain water harvesting should be implemented in mine lease area at
appropriate locations from the beginning of proposed activities to minimize
stress on existing groundwater resources.
Use of renewable energy resources may be explored to minimise additional
stress on existing resources.
5.2 Lignite Mines Operation Phase
5.2.1 Land Environment
The proposed opencast mining activities are expected to cause significant
impacts primarily on land environment in the form of complete changeover of land use /
land cover from existing natural fertile topsoil cover to artificial, unfertile barren land.
However with the implementation of proposed mined area reclamation with preserved
topsoil and tree plantation as well as the proposed mine closure plan (approved by
govt. of ndia) would minimise the potential adverse impacts on land environment. To
ensure the mitigation of adverse impacts on land environment the following measures
are necessary for proposed open cast mines:
Chapter 5: Environmental Management Plan


5.3
x Existing land-use, topography, surface drainage system, water bodies and
residential areas in the surrounding buffer zone should be taken into
consideration while planning and extension of the mining activities in core zone.
x Location and direction of ground water flow which may influence the flow of any
contaminants in the ground water
x Disturbance of native vegetation should be minimized and vegetation retained
should be covered with flagging, fencing and sign postings.
x Top soil and sub soil should be carefully removed and stored separately,
seeded with native vegetation and grasses and finally reused for progressive
rehabilitation/reclamation.
x Treatment of haulage ways and water impoundment areas within the mine site
to reduce the dust generation as well as prevention of water/land pollution in
surrounding area.
x Deposition of waste, residual materials, junk trash should be organized.
x Physical characteristics and nutrient status of excavated overburden has to be
monitored
x Land reclamation plan should include long term stability of slopes and surface
materials of mine pits.
x GPCL may explore the possibility of harvesting renewable energy (solar/wind
power) on reclaimed land after making sufficient provision for cattle grazing and
agriculture land.
5.2.1.1 Land RecIamationGeneraI Procedure
x Preparation : The first step in reclamation is to ensure the site is cleaned
up and made safe for dumping waste generated during mining.
x Landscaping : This will be carried out by reshaping and grading to ensure
that the final landform is stable and that drainage patterns have been re-
introduced.
x Topsoil Management : Concerning the waste dump site with fertile top soil to
obtain successful reclamations.


Chapter 5: Environmental Management Plan


5.4
5.2.2 Water Environment
5.2.2.1 Mine Pit / Acid Mine Water
x A water quality monitoring programme by collecting different mine water and
ground water samples should be prepared. pH, heavy metals, suspended
and dissolved solids should be analysed before using it for dust suppression
and green belt development.
x Mine pit water to be collected in a separate sump for settling suspended
solids. Depending on quality, it shall be used for dust suppression or
discharged in natural stream or supplied for agriculture use.
x The acid mine drainage collected and stored in the mine areas has to be
pumped out to a storage pond for necessary treatment. The treated water
should be used for plantations and dust suppression/ Fire water.
x Garland drains around the mine overburden shall be provided to prevent
seepage / drainage of surface water from overburden areas
x Creation of water storage in the opencast mines for settling of suspended
solids before pumping the water out of the mine.
x Provision of oil and grease traps in the maintenance workshop for
automobile/ machinery wash effluent and its subsequent recycling.
5.2.2.2 Acid Mine Drainage
Oxygen, water and sulphurous materials are necessary for the generation of
acid in the mine. Hence by preventing air/water from coming in contact with these
materials the formation of acidic water can be prevented. To prevent the formation of
acid water mine planning should be developed incorporating reclamation of the mined
area. Drainage control (both surface and subsurface) by controlling water inflow by
diversion of surface waters to prevent entering into the mining area will minimise
formation of acid drainage.
The chemical methods available for acid mine water treatment are alkali
neutralisation, (hydrated or calcined lime, limestone, dolomite), ion exchange etc.
Lime (CaO) or hydrated lime Ca(OH)
2
is to be mixed with acid mine drainage to
neutralise the acidity. The acid mine drainage generated in the proposed Kharsaliya
mines should be continuously neutralised and treated to suitable use as dust
Chapter 5: Environmental Management Plan


5.5
suppression and greenbelt development. There should not be any contaminated water
entering in to the nearby nallahs.
5.2.2.3 Work Shop EffIuents
x A total quantity of around 300 litres / hr of diesel fuel on an average will be
used for all the heavy duty vehicles/ equipments during the mine operation.
The workshop will provide all the necessary maintenance on and when
required during the mine operations.
x t has to be ensured that diesel powered mining vehicles are properly
maintained to minimise smoke in the exhaust emissions. The vehicle
maintenance area shall be located in such a manner so as to prevent
contamination of ground water by accidental spillage of oil
x The wastewater consisting of oil contamination from the workshop at mine site
will be collected in a cemented tank with proper lining and emulsified oil will be
removed and purified for reuse and the treated oil free water will be utilized for
greenbelt development surrounding the workshop area.
x Combustible waste shall be burnt in a controlled manner. Other wastes shall
be disposed off in an approved dump. Also, proper fencing and manned entry
points has to be maintained to prevent unauthorised entry into the
construction site.
5.2.3 Air Environment
The following precautions need to be considered for abatement of air pollution
in the lignite mine area. Mitigation measures suggested for air pollution control based
on baseline ambient air quality monitoring data within 10 km radius of the proposed
mine site and maintenance of an acceptable ambient air quality in region based on the
prescribed limits of CPCB.
x Dust will be generated during mining and also during handling and
transportation of the material. The suggested control measures are as
follows:
Mines : Dust suppression by water sprinkling in working zone. Two tankers of
28 KL capacity have to be used for continuous sprinkling of water in each shift.
Stock PiIes : Water mist sprays will reduce the fugitive dust generation due to
the penetrating wind
Chapter 5: Environmental Management Plan


5.6
HauIage : Movement of vehicles (Dumpers/Tippers) on haul roads will be very
high. Water sprinkling on haul roads/ unmetalled roads in mining areas shall be
done at regular intervals to suppress dust generation. The spraying will be
performed frequently using necessary quantity of water each time, which shall
be just sufficient to wet the road surface.
x The ambient air quality should be monitored on regular basis following
CPCB/GPCB prescribed standard methodology. The main parameters to be
monitored are RPM (PM
10
), PM
2.5
, CO, SO
2
and NOx.
5.2.3.1 ControI of fugitive dust and CO IeveI
x Vehicles are the major sources of CO emissions in mine sites. All vehicles
and their exhausts should be well maintained and regularly tested
x Water sprinkling system has to be provided throughout the mine area
specially on the mine roads carrying the lignite loaders, for this 6 to 7 tankers
of 10-15 m
3
capacities have to be used for continuous sprinkling of water in
each shift.
x Prompt removal of the dust from different sources by frequent watering on the
haul roads has to be carried out to reduce the dust generation.
x Pitch roads should be constructed at least up to the office and other important
units.
x Proper and regular maintenance of mining equipments have to be
considered.
x Comprehensive greenbelt around overburden dumps has to be carried out to
reduce the fugitive dust emissions in order to create clean and healthy
environment.
x Slope stabilization through plantation at dump sites as well as abandoned/
mined areas.
5.2.3.2 Mining Equipment
Mining equipment/machinery and automobiles should be subjected to regular
maintenance schedule in order to reduce the exhaust emission of hydrocarbons,
smoke, SO
2
, NO
2
and CO. The lignite excavation will be carried out by using shovel -
dumper combination and to arrest the occupational exposure to respirable dust
(inhalation), the workers will be provided with nose mask / filters.
Chapter 5: Environmental Management Plan


5.7
5.2.3.3 HauI Roads
Common sources of fugitive dust include unpaved roads, aggregate storage
piles, heavy vehicular movement, lignite excavation and overburden removal for
opening the face of the lignite seam. The dust generation process is caused by two
basic physical phenomena,
i Pulverization and abrasion of surface materials by application of mechanical
force through implements
i Entertainment of dust particles by the action of turbulent air currents, such as
wind erosion of an exposed surface by larger wind speeds.
When a heavy loaded lignite transport vehicle travels on unpaved roads in the
proposed mining site, the force of wheels on the road surface causes abrasion of the
surface material and dust particles are lifted and dropped from the rolling wheels.
Regular treated effluent water and other service water has to be sprinkled on the
unpaved roads on each working shifts to reduce the dust emissions. The greenbelt
development alongside of the unpaved roads also reduces the erosion of soil thus
reducing the dust generation.
5.2.3.4 Dumping Area
The overburden removed during lignite mining operations at the three mine
sites will be dumped at the overburden dumping sites identified within the mine area.
These overburden dumps will be a major source from where fugitive dust will be
released into the atmosphere and in the mining region. Reclamation of these dumping
areas by proper native plant species and vegetation will help in reduction of fugitive
dust from these areas. The clearance of site for mining will involve the movement of a
substantial quantity of soil and debris and produce large quantities of unstable
material. The levelling operations will also involve the stockpiling of back fill materials.
All the disturbed slopes shall be stabilized before the onset of the monsoon. During
dry weather conditions it is necessary to control the dust nuisance created by the
excavation, levelling and transportation activities.
5.2.4 Noise Mitigation
The total noise effect on nearby villages during the planning stage is negligible.
However, onsite workers will be provided noise protection devices like ear muffs etc.,
and also measures shall be applied to control the noise at the source itself.
Chapter 5: Environmental Management Plan


5.8
The most important source of noise at proposed mine areas will be the diesel
operated heavy earth machines, dumpers, excavators and heavy duty vehicles etc.
High noise levels (70 - 95 dB(A)) are expected in opencast mining area and which
would be in excess of the permissible limit. Continuous exposure of workers to high
level of noise may result in annoyance, fatigue, temporary shift of threshold limit of
hearing and permanent loss of hearing.
The following measures are to be taken for abatement of noise.
x Proper maintenance of mining machines and improvement on design of
machines.
x Lining of chutes in lignite handling storage plants for noise absorption.
x Acoustically designed operations cabin for heavy duty machines used at mine
site.
5.2.5 BioIogicaI Environment
The major issue related to biological environment associated with mining
activity is land degradation leading to destruction of flora and thereby loss of habitat of
associated fauna. t therefore, becomes imperative that this damage must be checked
and defined measures are taken to reclaim the abandoned mining areas.
Environmental management plan is aimed at reclamation of land i.e. treatment of land
creating conditions for pulling the land to productive use i.e. agriculture, forestry or
recreation and to maintain the aesthetic beauty as well as to avoid an adverse visual
impact.
The total process of reclamation should be completed in two phases. First
phase is technical reclamation which includes backfilling of the excavation with subsoil,
grading and finally the topsoil layer of sufficient thickness (not less than 1 m thickness).
The second phase is biological reclamation which is most important and takes three to
five years.
5.2.5.1 BioIogicaI RecIamation
Reclamation of the overburden dumps is very intricate, complicated, site
specific as well as mine specific process. Establishment of vegetation on these sites is
generally difficult due to altered pH, variable texture, lack of organic matter fragmented
rocks and many other adverse biological & toxic chemical factors. ntegrated biological
and mechanical practices make successful reclamation possible. The use of algae,
Chapter 5: Environmental Management Plan


5.9
lichens and mosses in stabilisation of tailings and other overburdens accelerates the
establishment of higher species.
Fertile topsoil is essential for improving the mined surfaces which are devoid
of organic matter. Mulching with agricultural refuse, sugarcane refuse, pulpfiber, straw
etc. will alter the characteristics of the surface and will help to conserve moisture
during the establishment of seedings.
5.2.5.2 GreenbeIt DeveIopment
Greenbelt is an important sink of air pollutants including noise. Green cover in
mining area not only help in reducing pollution level, but also improves the ecological
conditions and prevent soil erosion to great extent. t further improves the aesthetics
and beneficially influences the microclimate of the surrounding. t also helps to stabilize
the slope of external overburden dumps. Trees function as sinks of air pollutants,
besides their bio-esthetical values, owing to its large surface area. Annual need of
oxygen for one person is met by 150 m
2
of leaf surfaces i.e. 30-40 m
2
of greenery. So it
is necessary to develop greenbelt in and around the polluted site with suitable species
to combat the air pollution effectively.
The air pollution in the lignite mine area is arising mainly from opencast
mining, product transportation and overburden (OB) and other handling operations.
The main air pollutants like suspended particulate matter and respirable dust arise
from excavation and transportation operation. Large quantities of dust becomes air
borne and are carried away from lignite storage yards and overburden dumps. The
emissions from these sources are not continuous; quantification of the same is not
possible.
With a view to attenuate air pollutants, to act as acoustic barrier for noise
propagation from major sources, it is recommended to develop a 50-100 m wide green
belt all along the periphery of project site. From total area of 1355 ha , 914.1492 ha
and 711.4247 ha of Ghogha-surka, Khadsaliya- and Khadsaliya- mine sites about
423 ha (31.21% of total project site), 339 ha (37.08 % of total project site) and 265
ha(37.24% of total project site) of land respectively will be delineated for greenbelt
development. Environmental Management Plan for Ghogha-Surka, Khadsaliya- and
Khadsaliya- are presented in Fig. 5.1 - 5.3.
Species SeIection Criteria for PIantation
Green belts may be developed with plant species suitable to the area. Plant
species, selected for greenbelt should have rapid growth, ever green, large crown
Chapter 5: Environmental Management Plan


5.10
volume and small/pendulous leave with smooth surface. All these characteristics are
difficult to get in a single species. Selection of species, preparation of dump, proper
plantation, irrigation facility and proper caring and monitoring will be helpful for
complete restoration of ecosystem as well as economic and aesthetic value of the
region.
Species for plantation should be selected on the basis of agro-ecological
conditions, soil type, supportive and nutritive capacity of soil i.e. dumps
material. The guidelines prescribed by CPCB for greenbelt development shall
be followed for selection of species suitable to project area.
Species should be indigenous fast growing, hardy should have deep and large
root system and resistant to grazing.
The species should have economical value i.e. Timber, fodder, fruit, fiber for
ornamental.
The selected species should able to grow quickly and improve the surrounding
soil and environment.
n order to check erosion grass species should be planted as it grows fast,
spread quickly over large area, and root stalks survive under adverse condition.
n order to improve quality of dump leguminous plant should be planted which
are important colonizers and also enrich soil due to nitrogen fixing bacteria, in
their root nodules.
The selected tree species should be, pollarding and encouraging the growth of
grasses and weeds under their canopy, besides being economically useful.
A peripheral barrier around the mine edges / escarpments has to be left un-
mined as safety zone. This barren peripheral strip shall be utilized for plantation of
trees to provide a greenbelt around the mines. The planted trees after full growth will
benefit the environment in arresting the water and pollutants from flowing out, trapping
the air pollutants and attenuating the noise over a distance.
Care and Monitoring
Need based fertilizers and nutrients should be supplemented to the soil before
and after sapling plantation.
Planted species should be protected from grazing, illegal cutting and felling and
by providing tree guard or fencing.
Chapter 5: Environmental Management Plan


5.11
Proper irrigation system should be developed on site so that required water
supply can be maintained for survival of plants.
The growth should be monitored for increase in height, girth and root
penetration.
Use of bio-fertilizers such as hizobium and aztobactor cultures will be useful to
establish soil-plant-microbial ecosystem which is self sustainable.
Following different species are suggested for Bio reclamation of mining dumps.
Economic / timber vaIue
Acacia auriculiformis Mangifera indica
Acacia senegal Prosopis juliflora
Legerstroemia parviflora
OrnamentaI vaIue
Ailanthus excelsa Bombax ceiba
Alstonia schoaris Bauhinia purpurea
Delonix regia Bauhinia racemasa
Casuarina equisetifolia Michelia champaca
Cassia fistula Tamarindus bellinica
Eucalyptus globosus Thespesia populnea
Fodder / Fruit vaIue
Annona Squamosa Mangifera indica
Acacia nilotica Gmelina arborea
Sizygium cuminii Moringa olefera
Sapindus laurifollus
Shade of foiIage
Albizia lebbeck Terminalia cuttappa
Azadirachta indica Casia fistula
Ficus benghalensis Sizygium cuminii
Ficus religiosa Ficus glomerata

5.2.5.3 GuideIines for pIantation

n general, identified plant species are planted at the beginning of the rains
using pitting technique. The location of each pit will be marked according to the design
and distance of plantation. The pit size should be either 45 cm X45 cm X 45 cm or 60
cm X 60 cm X 60 cm .The size of the pits varies with type of trees. While digging the
pit, care will be taken to place the topsoil on one side and bottom soil on the other side.
Dug out soil and pit would be exposed to weather for two to three months. After
exposing to the weather pit would be filled two-third to three-fourth height with a
Chapter 5: Environmental Management Plan


5.12
mixture of topsoil and well rotten farmyard manure. The filling of soils should be
completed at least 5-10 days before plantation. Healthy seedlings of identified species
should be planted in each pit. Proper density of plants (1800- 2500 per ha) should be
maintained within the proposed greenbelt with plantation in staggered manner. Post
plantation management is equally important to maintain high survival rate. The design
of green belt around the mines is shown in Fig.5.4 and suggested tree Species for
Green belt Development are presented in TabIe 5.1.
The planting arrangement should be based on optimal use of available land
and quantum of irrigation water etc. A suitable budget should be allocated for green
belt development.
5.2.6 Socioeconomic Environment
Total 14 villages would be affected due to acquirement of land for proposed
mining project and require R&R plan to be implemented. The socioeconomic study
carried out by Dept. of Sociology, Bhavnagar, University reveals that the following
consideration.
i. The R&R plan as indicated in chapter 4 shall be implemented prior to start of
mining activities
ii. Provision of employment opportunities to the local residents at proposed mines
as well as in other allied mining activities with necessary vocational training
iii. GPCL shall comply with CREP and also duly consider implementation of CSR
in surrounding (buffer zone) villages.
iv. Overall development of the area including taking up of activities related to adult
education, marketing facilities, sports and cultural activities, family welfare
programmes for mining personnel and their families as well as the local rural
inhabitants.
5.3 Post Project EnvironmentaI Monitoring
5.3.1 Land Environment
n order to reclaim the mine soil, it is recommended to go for plantation of
overburden dumps with native plant species so that the mining area in which lignite
mining activity is completed can be restored. The top soil which has good fertility
should be analysed for the relevant parameters presented under baseline information.
This top soil during removal of overburden should be stored separately which will be
Chapter 5: Environmental Management Plan


5.13
useful during the plantation scheme.
5.3.2 Water Environment
Mining activities generate mine pit water / acid mine drainage which should
be collected and stored separately through pumping techniques. This water should be
properly neutralised by addition of limestone and other suitable alkali so that this
treated and neutralised acid mine waters can be utilised for dust suppression through
sprinkling.
Effluents from mine pit / acid mine should be analysed regularly for the
relevant parameters presented under baseline information. Analysis of influent and
effluent of acid mine treatment plant is recommended on daily basis. Ground water
samples of the surrounding mine activity should also be collected periodically for
physico-chemical analysis for identifying any ground water contamination due to mine
water usage for dust suppression and greenbelt development.
5.3.3 Air Environment
For the proposed lignite mining project at Ghogha-surka. Emission
monitoring as called as ambient air quality monitoring is proposed. The ambient air
quality monitoring systems are recommended for monitoring variations in ground level
concentrations of particulates and gaseous pollutants including fugitive emissions
generated during mining activities and vehicular movement.
The post project monitoring work will be carried out by GPCL on its own. The
following equipments are recommended for this purpose:
i) RespirabIe Dust SampIer
1.0-1.5 m
3
/min air flow capacity with adapter for uniform suction
through filter
Cyclone Assembly for separation of PM
10
(RPM)
A properly calibrated manometer assembly for the determination of
flow rate through filter paper.
For gaseous sampling calibrated rotameter (0-5 LPM) for maintaining
flow rate should be provided.
ii) Fine ParticuIates (PM2.5) SampIer
Calibrated Air suction (vaccum) source
Chapter 5: Environmental Management Plan


5.14
Flow measuring device
Particles size separation by cascade impactor
iii) SO
2
AnaIyser (PuIse FIuorescent Instrument)
Minimum range 0 - 100 Pg / m
3

Minimum detectable level 2 Pg/m
3

Accuracy 2%
Response time < 20 sec
iv) NOx AnaIyser (ChemiIuminescent Instrument )
Minimum range 0 - 100 ug/m
3

Minimum detectable level 2 ug/m
3

Accuracy + 2 %
Response time < 20 seconds
v) CO AnaIyser (Non Dispersive Infrared AnaIyser)
Minimum range 0 - 300 ppm
Sensitivity 1 ppm
Minimum detectable level 1 ppm
Stability/Accuracy 2% of full scale
vi) MeteoroIogicaI Instrument
Micro-processor based weather monitoring station for continuous recording
of wind speed, wind direction, ambient temperature, Relative Humidity and rainfall with
digital display facility.
5.3.4 Noise Environment
Monitoring of the noise levels and exposures during mining activity is
essential to assess the environmental management plan implemented to reduce noise
levels. A precise integrated sound level meter shall be used for this purpose.
Audiometric tests should be conducted periodically for the employees working close to
mining equipments generating higher noise levels.
5.4 OccupationaI Safety and HeaIth
Occupational safety and health is very closely related to productivity. The
mining is directly associated with health and safety of the work force. t is established
Chapter 5: Environmental Management Plan
5.15
that the mining activities have several health risk. Some of the occupational hazards
associated with mining are:
x Hearing impairment
x Skin diseases
x Eye diseases
x Job stress because of working in accident prone mining environment.
x Respirable diseases
x Materials like asbestos, silica, chrome dust etc. are hazardous to mine
workers.
As per the mines rules and as per guideline of Director General of Mines
Safety (DGMS) Safety of employees during operation of mines to be as follows :
x Provisions of rest shelter for mine workers with facility of drinking water.
x Awareness on safety and ensure using of personal protective equipments
(PPE) by workers.
x Regular maintenance and testing of equipments.
x Periodical medical examination of all workers.
x First Aid facility and training to workers.
x Safety measures and risk assessment in underground mining.
x Conduct of mock drill
x Safe storage & handling of explosives.
5.5 Environment Management CeII
The total environmental protection and quality assurance has to be carried
out by dedicated team of environmental professions who will be responsible for the
operation and maintenance of the suggested environmental management system to be
designated as Environmental Management Cell (EMC). The EMC will be responsible
for regular environmental quality monitoring and liaison with regulatory bodies such as
the MoEF/Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), New Delhi; Gujarat State Pollution
Control Board (GPCB), Gandhinagar etc.. During construction phase, the field in-
charge will monitor the environmental aspects of the construction work and make sure
that the EMP is implemented properly. During operational phase, he will be
responsible for the following:
x To monitor and analyse air, noise, water, and soil samples on a regular basis.
x To ensure systematic and routine housekeeping at the mine site and workshop.
Chapter 5: Environmental Management Plan
5.16
x The staff responsible for environmental management will make regular field
visits to ensure the pollution control measures and post-project monitoring are
effectively operated.
5.6 Budgetary Provision for EMP
GPCL management should make provisions for the implementation of
measures suggested under EMP for each environmental component. GPCL should
ensure adequate budgetary provisions have to be made and spent by GPCL
management for construction, operation and maintenance of different pollution control
systems. The budget allocated for management of air, water, noise and land
environment etc. should be utilized exclusively for pollution control equipment and
monitoring facilities. Appropriate budgetary allocation shall also be made for R&R plan,
CSR measures, mine land reclamation, plantations (green belt), rain water harvesting
and implementation of mine closure plan. Estimated details of capital as well as
recurring budgetary provisions to be made are given below for environmental
management including pollution control, post-project monitoring equipment,
maintenance of pollution control systems and monitoring equipment etc:
S.
No
Description
Ghogha-Surka KhadsaIiya-II KhadsaIiya-I
Estimated Cost (Rs. Crores)
1 Total Project Cost 263.28 197.46 157.97
2 R & R Plan for PAFs
2.9 2.41 1.31
3 Environmental Management
including CREP, Pollution
Control, Land Reclamation,
Plantations / Greenbelt
Development, Corporate
Social Responsibility,
Harvesting rainwater and
renewable energy

a) Capital 2.9 2.41 1.31
b) Recurring/annum 0.804 0.488 0.272
Chapter 5: Environmental Management Plan
5.17
Chapter 5: Environmental Management Plan
5.20

Width of green BeIt 100 m

4
0

m

4
0

m

10 m
10 m
1
0
0

m

Fig. 5.4 : Schematic Design of GreenbeIt around Proposed Mines


Chapter 5: Environmental Management Plan


TabIe 5.1 : PIant Species suggested for Green beIt DeveIopment

8c|ent|f|c Name 6ommon Name 8c|ent|f|c Name 6ommon Name
Trees

$FDFLDGHDOEDWD 3||ver Wall|e &DVVLDSXPLOD Ye||oW Cass|a
$FDFLDIDUQHVLDQD 0ardr (l|rd|) &DVVLDUHQLJHUD P|r| Cass|a
$FDFLDIHUUXJLQHD 3aled |ra|r &DVVLDVLDPHD lror Wood lree
$FDFLDQLORWLFD 8aou| &DVXDULQDHTXLVHWLIROLD/ Auslra||ar
$FDFLD6HQHJDO 3verla|rad|ra &HLEDSHQWDQGUD Kapa|
$FDFLDVLQXDWH Kocr| (l|rd|) &HOWLVDXVWUDOLV Europear Nell|e lree
$FDFLDWRUWLOLV urore||a lrorr &LWUXVDXUDQWLXP 8erg Neou
$FKUDVVDSRWD 3apola &RFRVQXFLIHUD Cocorul lree
$GHQDQWKHUDSDYRQLQD Cora| &RUGLDGLFKRWRPD 3eo eslar
$HJOHPDUPHORV 8ea| lree 'DOEHUJLDVLVRR 3|ssoo
$LODQWKXVH[FHOV Tree ol leaver 'HORQL[UHJLD F|areooyarl
$OEL]LDDPDUD Tug|| 'HUULVLQGLFD Porgar
$OEL]LDFKLQHQVLV 8erg Cra|ua 'LRVS\URVPHODQR[\ORQ Eoory
$OEL]LDOHEEHFN Tre 3|r|s lree 'U\SWHVUR[EXUJKLL Pulrarj|va
$OEL]LDPROXFFDQD wr|le pop|rae (PEOLFDRIILFLQDOLV 0ooseoerry
$OEL]LDRGRUDWLVVLPD 8|ac| s|r|s (PEU\RSWHULVSHUHJULQJ --
$OEL]LDSURFHUD wr|le s|r|s (U\WKULQJYDULHJDWH lrd|ar cora| lree
$OVWRQLDVFKRODULV 0ev|| lree (XFDO\SWXVFLWULRGDUD Leror scerled gur
$QRQDVTXDPRVD Cuslard app|e (XFDO\SWXVK\EULG Vysore gur
$QRQDUHWLFXODWD 8u||oc| s learl )LFXVEHQJKDOHQVLV 8aryar lree
$QRJHLVVXVODWLIROLD Ax|e Wood )LFXVEHQMDPLQD Cr||uoor
$QWKRFHSKDOXVFKLQHQVLV Kadaroa(l|rd|) )LFXVHODVWLFD lrd|ar Ruooer lree
$SKDQDPL[LVSRO\VWDFK\D Ror|lu|a lree )LFXVJLEERVD 0al|r (Varalr|)
$UWRFDUSXVKHWHURSK\OOXV Jac| lru|l lree )LFXVJORPHUDWD 0urur ( 8erga||)
$UWRFDUSXVODFXFKD Vor|ey Jac| )LFXVKLVSLGD Ka|a uroar
$]DGLUDFKWDLQGLFD lrd|ar L||ac )LFXVUHOLJLRVD Peepa| lree
%DODQLWHVUR[EXUJKLL 0eserl 0ale )LFXVYLUHQV P|||rar (l|rd|)
Chapter 5: Environmental Management Plan

8c|ent|f|c Name 6ommon Name 8c|ent|f|c Name 6ommon Name


%DXKLQLDSXUSXUHD/ 8ullerl|y lree *DUGHQLDMDVPLQRLGHV Ararl
%DXKLQLDUDFHPRVD 8erg 8arraj *DUGHQLDUHVLQLIHUD 0||ara|| (l|rd|)
%DXKLQLDVHPOD l|r|d| 3er|a *OLULFLGLDVHSLXP Volrer ol cocoa
%DXKLQLDYDULJDWD 8udr|sl oaur|r|a *XD]PDXOPLIROLD l|r Rudra||
%LVFKRILDMDYDQLFD 8|sropWood +HWHURSKUDJPDUR[EXUJKLL Var,0uj,V.P --warras
%ULGHOLDVTXDPRVD Kraja( l|rd|) +RORSWHOLDLQWHJULIROLD lrd|ar E|r.Karju
%XWHDPRQRVSHUPD F|are ol lre loresl O[RUDDUERUHD --
&DOOLVWHPRQFLWULQXV 8oll|e orusr O[RUDFRFFLQHD Rargar
&DORSK\OOXPLQRSK\OOXP A|exardr|ar |aure| O[RUDXQGXODWH --
&DVVLDILVWXOD 0o|der sroWers .LJHOLDDIULFDQD 3ausage lree
/DJHUVWURHPLDVSHFLRVD 0ueer crape Vyrl|e /DJHUVWURHPLDSDUYLIORUD Prurusr
0DGKXFDORQJLIROLD Tre 8uller lree 3VLGLXPJXD\DYD 0uava lree
0DOORWXVSKLOLSSHQVLV Kara|a(l|rd|) 3WHU\JRWDDODWD Tu|a
0DQJLIHUDLQGLFD Tre rargo lree 6DOL[WHWUDVSHUPD lrd|ar W|||oW
0HODOHXFDOHXFDGHQGURQ Cajapul lree 6DPDQHDVDPDQ Ra|r lree
0LOOLQJWRQLDKRUWHQVLV lrd|ar cor| lree 6DUDFDDVRND Asro|
0LPXVRSVHOHQJL 8a|u|| 6HVEDQLDJUDQGLIORUD 3Warp pea
0LPXVRSVKH[DQGUD Kr|r|rejur(8erga||) 6R\PLGDIHEULIXJD lrd|ar Red Wood
0RULQJDROHLIHUD 0rursl|c| lree 6SRQGLDVSLQQDWD l|r 8erg&Var
0RUXVDOED Tul| . Vu|oerry 6WHUFXOLDIRHWLGD Jarg|| oadar
2XJLQLDRRMHLQHQVLV T|r|s (8erga||) 6WHUFXOLDJXWWDWD Ku|ur,0o|der
3HOWRSKRUXPSWHURFDUSXP Copper pod lree 6WU\FKQRVQX[YRPLFD Kucr|
3KRHQL[V\OYHVWULV Tre w||d dalepa|r 6\QFDUSLDJORPXOLIHUD Turperl|re lree
3K\OODQWKXVDFLGXV Courlry gooseoerry 6\]\JLXPFXPLQL 8|ac| p|ur
3LQXVUR[EXUJKLL Cr||goza 7DPDULQGXVLQGLFD Tre Tarar|rd lree
3LWKHFHOORELXPGXFOH Var||a larar|rd 7HFWRQDJUDQGLV Tea|
3RO\DOWKLDORQJLIROLD 0evdaru 7HUPLQDOLDDUMXQD Arjur ,Arjrar
3RSXOXVQLJUD Loroardy 7HUPLQDOLDEHOOHULFD 8e||er|c ryrooa|ar
3URVRSLVFKLOHQVLV Vesqu|le 7HUPLQDOLDFDWDSSD lrd|ar A|rord lree
3URVRSLVFLQHUDULD 3rar| 7HUPLQDOLDFKHEXOD Creou||c ryrooa|ar
3URVRSLVSDOOLG -- 7KHVSHVLDSRSXOQHRLGHV urore||a lree
3URVRSLVWDPDUXJR -- 7KXMDRFFLGHQWDOLV Arer|car Aroorv|lae
=L]\SKXVPDXULWLDQD lrd|ar jujuoe 7HUPDRULHQWDOLV Crarcoa| lree

Chapter 5: Environmental Management Plan

8c|ent|f|c Name 6ommon Name 8c|ent|f|c Name 6ommon Name


Shrubs
Abut||on |nd|cum Kargr| (l|rd|) Jun|perus commun|s Corror jur|per
Acac|a catechu Kra|r(l|rd|) Lantana camara Larlara ,W||dsage
Acac|a pennata 8|sWa| (l|rd|) Lawson|a |nerm|s lerra
ambusa arund|nac|a Trorry 8arooo Hurraya pan|cu|ata Kar|r|
ambusa 8chrad. 0o|der oarooo Ner|um |nd|cum P|r| o|earder
auh|n|a acum|nata Karcrar Nyctanthus arbor lars|rgrar
ouga|nv|||ea spectab|||s 8ouga|rv|||ea Po|nc|ana pu|cherr|ma Kr|srracrura
6a|otrop|s g|gantea 0|garl|c sWa||oW Worl
6a|otrop|s procera 3Wa||oW Worl Prosop|s stephan|ana --
6ar|ssa sp|narum Karaurda(l|rd|) R|c|nus commun|s Tre caslor
6|trus ||mon L|re ol lrd|a 8esban|a sesban Corror sesoar
6|erodendrum |nerme 8arja| 8esban|a spec|osa 3eera|agalr|
6|erodendrum |nfortunatum 8rarl (l|rd|) Tabernaemontana
d|var|cata
Tagar
0endroca|amus str|ctus 3o||d 8arooo Tecoma stans Korere||ar
0uranta repens -- Thevet|a peruv|ana Ye||oW o|earer
hame||a patens 3car|el ousr Z|zyphus oenop||a Jac|a| jujuoe
h|b|scus rosa-s|nens|s Jasud.Cr|rese l|o|scus Z|zyphus rugosa 3urar
|xora ch|nens|s -- Z|zyphus xy|opyra 8er



Chapter

Additional Studies
6.1 Rapid Risk Assessment & Disaster Management PIan
As per the details provided in mining plans corresponding to proposed Ghogha-
Surka, Khadsaliya- and Khadsaliya-, the entire strata of Khadsaliya lignite deposit /
mineable area is soft in nature and clayey upto the estimated depth (about 100 m) of
opencast mining. The entire mining will not require any drilling and blasting operations for
the proposed lignite extraction (2.25 + 0.75 + 1.0 = 4.0 MMTPA). Hence, there will be no
requirement of any hazardous explosive materials storage and handling at proposed three
mines due to which the possibility of associated risks/hazards could be ruled out at
proposed mining project.
The respective mining plans for proposed lignite mines does not consist any
details related to considerable storage and handling of major fire hazard prone petroleum
fuels/products. Hence the possibility of any fire hazards at proposed mines could also be
ruled out. However, the standard fire protection/fire fighting infrastructure facilities shall be
provided at proposed Ghogha-Surka, Khadsaliya- and Khadsaliya- lignite mines
following the statutory requirement of Director General of Mines Safety (DGMS).
n view of the above, the environmental risk to general public would be negligible

Chapter 6: Additional Studies

6.2

due to proposed mining project. The risk at proposed opencast mines would be limited
purely to potential occupational hazards/risks to mine workers on duty and the respective
safety protection measures as described in the following sections:
The opencast mining and allied activities are associated with several potential
hazards to mainly the employees and the public in the vicinity due to pollution impacts.
A worker in a mine should be able to work under conditions, which are adequately safe
and healthy. At the same time the environmental conditions should be such as not to be
impair his working efficiency. This is possible only when there is adequate safety and
environmental pollution control in opencast mines. Hence mine safety is one of the most
essential aspects of any working mine. ndeed, safety of the mine and the employees is
taken care of by the mines Act 1952. There is well defined and laid down procedure for
safety and constantly monitored and supervised by Director General of Mines Safety.
6.1.1 Identification of Hazards.
There are various factors, which can create disaster from mining activities. These
hazards are as follow:
a) Slope failure
b) Overburden dump
c) Heavy machinery
A check list depicting likely disaster events due to the mining activity is presented
below.
Check List for Likely Disaster in Open - Cast Mines
S. No. Activities
Human Risk EcoIogicaI Risk
Severe Non- severe Land Air Water
1. Extraction of Ore X X X X
2.
Removal of Overburden and
Storage
X X X X
3. Transportation of Ore on Haul Road X X X
4. Use of Machinery X X X
5. Drilling and Development work X X X X

Chapter 6: Additional Studies

6.3

6.1.1.1 SIope FaiIure
f the slope angles, of the benches are more than the angle of repose or if there
are any geological disturbances, they would lead to failure of benches, which ultimately,
endanger the workers and machinery
6.1.1.2 Overburden
The high overburden dumps may cause landslides. High overburden dumps
created at the quarry edge may cause sliding of the overburden dump or may cause
failure of the pit slope due to excessive loading, thereby causing loss of life and property.
Siltation of surface water may also cause runoff from overburden dumps.
6.1.1.3 Effect of HauIage Truck Operation on Dump Point StabiIity
Operating mine haulage trucks near the crest of stockpiles and waste dumps is a
potentially hazardous practice often-resulting slope failure and dump point accident. The
dump point accident involves the fall of a haulage truck over the edge and down the front
slope of the stockpile or waste dump. The practices of end dumping over the crest of the
pile places the haulage truck near the edge of a marginally stable structure and leave little
room for operator error.
t become evident that the complexity of the truck slope system could not
adequately represented through conventional slope stability analyses. The two-
dimensional methods are useful in determining the overall stability of slope under its own
weight or by an externally applied constant load. They are not, however, useful in
modeling localized three-dimensional failures on what would otherwise be considered a
stable slope. A technique is required that would model these local three-dimensional
failures, and which would consider the dynamic forces generated by operating haulage
trucks. Utilizing the kinetic method of limit analysis, interaction between haulage
truck/dumper operation and slope stability are analyzed. The analysis is based on the
following fundamental assumptions:
x The slope is stable under its own weight.
x The material by which the slope is built is homogeneous, isotropic and dry or only
slightly wet.

Chapter 6: Additional Studies

6.4

x The slope extends beyond the failure region induced by the haulage truck/dumper,
with the upper surface being horizontal.
x The slope failure is induced by weight of the truck/dumper transmitted through the
rear axle.
x The slope should have consistent angle from the base of the dump or form the
crest.
The method determines an admissible dumper weight (upper bound value) for
varying distances from the slope edge. nput parameters are the material strength, slope
geometry, and initial forces induced by vehicle tracking. This method can be utilized to
assist in determination of safe operating distances for a haulage truck from slope edge,
the development of vehicle operating procedures, and the admissible weight for static
concentrated loading near the crest of an otherwise stable slope.
This analysis is helpful for fundamental understanding of the factors affecting the
safe operation of haulage trucks near the crest of slopes. t can also assist in
determination of safe operating distance from a slope edge for a specific slope and truck
combination. However, the results can be accepted with caution. The calculation is based
upon an upper bound approach of limit analysis. Therefore, the actual truck limit weight
will be slightly lower than indicated by the analysis. Conversely, the critical distance of the
truck from the slope crest (point at which a dump point failure can be expected) is lower
bound estimation, and will be slightly larger than indicated by the analysis. The results
generated by the programme are more dependent on the accuracy of the input values
than the approximations assumed in the analysis. With well-estimated parameters, a
factor of safety of approximately 1.2 is suggested.
6.1.1.4 Measures to Prevent the Danger of Overburden
A sturdy stonewall should be built around the toe of each active dump at a
distance of about 50 m from the toe.
To prevent the failure of overburden slopes, especially during rainy season,
following precautions need to be taken against this hazard:
a. Proper terracing of the dump slope, with maximum bench height of 30 meters.
b. n flat areas where the dumping operations have come to an end, the slope

Chapter 6: Additional Studies

6.5

angle should be flattened by about 5 lower than the angle of repose, which
varies from site to site, but it is generally expected to be around 25.
Planting vegetation as early as possible over the overburden dump slopes.
The drainage channels along the overburden dump to provide additional
protection.
While doing this, a distance of over 15 m should-be left between the
overburden dump and the bench.
When two or more trucks are being delivered at the same time, they should
mention at least two trucks.
6.1.1.5 Measures to Prevent Accidents due to Trucks/Dumpers
All transportation within the main working should be carried out directly under
the supervision and control of the management.
The Vehicles must be maintained in good repairs and checked thoroughly at
least once a week by the competent person authorized for the purpose by the
Management.
Road signals/signage should be provided at each and every turning point
especially for the guidance of the drivers at the night.
To avoid danger while reversing the trackless vehicles especially at the
embankment and tipping points, all areas for reversing of lorries should as far
as possible be made man free, and.
A statutory provision of the fences, constant education, training etc. will go a
long way in reducing such incidents/accidents.
Haul trucks should be oriented essentially perpendicular to the bream, while
unloading.
Generally, oversize rocks should dealt within the pit by secondary blasting
depending on requirement. The haul dumpers/trucks at the dump with such
oversize materials/large rocks must not dump over the edge. This is unsafe

Chapter 6: Additional Studies

6.6

and may damage equipment. Such load must in side and perched over the
edge
Dumping of overburden or waste material by dumpers and dozers should
follow necessary precautions
6.1.1.6 Dozer Procedure on Dump
Dozers are used on the dump to maintain the dump surface and the safety
born and to push material towards the edge as required. As and when
required one or more load may be depend short of the crest to provide
materials for building and maintenance of the born or the dump surface and
grade.
Dump material may vary considerably in its durability and strength. Material
with a high constant of waste particle or material, which deteriorates over
time, may contribute to a variety of problems such as permeability due to
breakdown in gain size with resultant buildup at pure water, and lower shear
strength. These could result in reduced stability.
Overburden soil should be excluded from main rock dumps, as it will hinder
drainage and introduce zones of lower shear strength. Overburden should be placed in
specifically designated and designed dumps or stockpile sites. f it is not possible to place
overburden soil in specifically designed dumps, it may be mixed into rock dumps/ The
intent is to mix it, is appropriate properties such that the fine-grained material can be
accommodated in the voids between coarser rock particles without significant effect on the
dump shear strength parameters. The soil material must be mixed with the rock to one
part of soil in a ratio of not less than ten parts of rock to one part of soil.
6.1.1.7 Temporary Discontinuance
n case of any temporary discontinuance at proposed lignite mines, the
maintenance activities shall be carried out by GPCL. n case of any discontinuance due to
any enforcing circumstances or court order etc. The mine shall be remaining under the
charge of mines manager with specific supporting staff and equipment to take care of

Chapter 6: Additional Studies

6.7

provision of rules and regulation applied thereupon. Notices of temporary closure shall be
served to respective department and concerned authorities by GPCL. n case of reopening
the procedure led by Director General of Mines Safety shall be strictly followed and the
notices for reopening shall be sent to all respective departments and concerned authorities
by GPCL.
6.1.1.8 Economic Repercussions of CIosure of Mine and Manpower
Retrenchments

Since the mining activity is proposed to carry out by hired equipment on contract
basis except the statutory supervisory staff most of manpower shall be deployed by
contractor. The statutory manpower is proposed to transfer to other operating mines with
option of Voluntary retirement scheme. The detail of retirement scheme is proposed to
submit in final mine closure plan.
6.1.1.9 Time scheduIe of Abandonment
The life of the proposed Ghogha-Surka, Khadsaliya- and Khadsaliya- mines
are estimated at 25, 20 and 22 years respectively. The life may shortened or lengthened
according to the rate of production which will entirely dependent on the operation of the
pithead lignite based power plant, for which the mines under study are planned.
6.1.1.10 Approach to Disaster Management PIan
Disaster is a sudden occurrence of hazard with a magnitude, which could affect
the normal pattern of life in the facility and /or in vicinity causing extensive damage to life
and /or property. The Disaster Preparedness Plan gives a clear organizational structure
and elaborates the duties to be performed (including outside agencies) by each when
situation demands, so as to reduce the probability/severity of community suffering and
property damage. The activities among other things also include providing/help in
arranging for food, shelter, clothing, medical attention and other life sustaining
requirements.
Disaster management / Emergency preparedness planning for major hazards is
significant and is now a part of planning process as required by MoEF. Although all
process and operating parameters are integrated to safety, it is important to plan for

Chapter 6: Additional Studies

6.8

emergency handling so as to face it in case it strikes. Planning for emergencies has to
take place under following categories:
i By M/s GPCL as a precaution to the training of onsite industrial staff (On-site plan)
i By the local authority with responsibility for the well being of residents in the vicinity of
the project site (Off-site-plan)
Emergency planning exercises for on-site and off-site scenarios required for
preparing a DMP are different; however they should complement each other. This study
has focused on the possible hazards confined within the premises and the corresponding
action plan (On-site plan) and the responsibilities and actions expected from the
Government Departments during an emergency (Off-site Plan).
Disaster Management / Emergency Preparedness PIan: On-Site
During an emergency in order to handle disaster / emergency situations, an
organizational chart entrusting responsibility to various personnel of Mines. The
composition of the management team is given below:
i Mine manager
i Mine n-charge
i Site Controller
i ncident Controller
i Personnel / Administrative Manager
i Communication Officer
i Fire and Security Officer
i Transport Coordinator
i Medical Coordinator
i Occupational Health Centre
i Communication Coordinator
The specific roles during emergency should be available as shown in figure
below :

Chapter 6: Additional Studies

6.9

Site
Controller
Mine
Manager
Mine
In-charge
Medical
Co-ordinator
Incident
Controller
Emergency
Communication
Co-ordinator
Occupational
Health Centre
Transport
Co-ordinator
Personal /
Administrative
Manager
Communication
Officer
Fire & Security
Officer
O On ns si it te e D DM MP P - - D Di is sa as st te er r C Co on nt tr ro ol l / / M Ma an na ag ge em me en nt t S Sy ys st te em m














The responsibilities and duties of following important officials are given below :
A) Fire and Safety Officer
i To instruct all the security personnel to help in maintaining law and order
i To ensure that systematic and proper efforts are launched to avoid chaos or panic at
site
i To ensure smooth evacuation, if necessary
i To close all gates except main gate, control traffic and allow only authorized persons
to enter
i To arrange additional fire fighting aids from nearby factories and district authorities
i To cordon off the accident area
i To direct external help to respective coordinators

Chapter 6: Additional Studies

6.10

i Visit by media men to be arranged only through public Relations Coordinator,
circumstances responsible for emergency and convey these findings confidentially to
the Safety Coordinator
i To find out, after emergency, in co-ordination with Coordinator,
i To ensure from Fire Officer if all the in fire fighting and safety materials are adequate
and arrange for reinforcement from other sources, f required
i To keep Chief Coordinator informed regarding status of fire, casualties, loss of
property, methods adopted to combat fire, etc.
i To arrange for additional fire fighting crew / equipment, if required
i To inform Medical Coordinator regarding casualties, loss of life
i To take care of rescue operation.
B) MedicaI Coordinator
i To inform hospitals regarding emergency at site and make them, ready in advance,
to handle casualties
i To take charge of ambulances
i To requisition additional ambulances through Transport Coordinator, if required
i To arrange for first aid for the injured and send them for hospitalization
i To remain at site till emergency/disaster is contained.
C) Media Representatives
i To assist in evacuation in co-ordination with transport coordinator
i To arrange for evacuation of neighbouring people, if warranted
i To inform latest situation to Chief Coordinator and Communications Coordinator
i To receive media, government officials, and consultants and impart information
keeping the following in mind:
- Communicate directly to avoid distortion by others
- mpart factual information

Chapter 6: Additional Studies

6.11

- Only official spokesman imparts information
- Necessary facilities are made available to the media. Reasons for
restriction on media-men be duly explained to them
- Do not cover up incidences until the correct picture will finally emerge
- Provide full information on safety measures to media for balanced
reporting
i To inform insurance agency to assess damage
i To provide relief and rehabilitation to affected personnel.
D) Communication Coordinator
i To keep all communication equipment viz. telephone, fax, radio-telephone (wireless),
emergency mobile/cell phone with SMS and email facility etc., in working condition
i To report to emergency site and take charge of communication equipment
i To inform local authorities from whom the help be required viz. fire brigade,
hospitals, transporters, police station etc.
i To act as liaison between different coordinators
i To keep all communication lines free for use during emergency.
Disaster Management / Emergency Preparedness Program: Off-site
Emergency is a sudden unexpected event, which can cause serious damage to
personnel life, property and environment as a whole, which necessitate evolving Off-site
Emergency Plan to combat any such eventuality. t is essential to evolve a Disaster
Control and off site Emergency Preparedness Plan to effectively make use of available
resources. There are many agencies involved in the activities associated with effective
handling of Disaster, e.g. Civic and Government authorities, Fire Services, Civil Defence,
Medical, Police, Voluntary organizations, etc. and this requires an organized
multidisciplinary approach to the problem. f it becomes necessary to evacuate people,
then this can be done in orderly way. The different agencies involved in evacuation of
people are Civil Administration (both state and central), non Govt. organizations, factory

Chapter 6: Additional Studies

6.12

nspectorate and Police authorities. The project proponent should become part of the
offsite disaster management team formulated in Ghogha and Bhavnagar Taluka.
A) Evacuation and RehabiIitation
An early decision is to taken in many cases of industrial accidents to evacuate
people in surrounding area. n general, public in nearby area will get very little time to save
themselves. The local population will have to be warned within a very short period. n case
of major disaster, evacuation is to be considered depending upon the nature of disaster
e.g. Fire, Explosion etc.
B) Action by GeneraI PubIic
A toxic gas release will generally threat much larger area and population
exposed to the drifting cloud of toxic gases and vapours. The time available for warning
population will depend on the point of release, wind direction and velocity.
On hearing the warning of a major ndustrial accident, general public should act
immediately as follows:
i To go indoor immediately
i Shut off all doors, windows and ventilators, block all gaps with wet cloth and curtain
i Switch off the fans, exhaust fans and air conditioners
i Extinguish the flames in the nearby vicinity
i Keep the torches handy and store water for emergency use
i Do not engage the emergency phone lines by calling emergency services
i Cover nose and mouth with wet cloth
i Wait for further instructions from emergency services before moving out

Chapter 6: Additional Studies

6.13

6.2 Tsunami PotentiaI Risk Assessment studies
nstitute of Seismological Research (SR), Raisan, Gandhinagar, Gujarat carried
out the Tsunami studies. The report is enclosed herewith.
6.2.1 Background
The 2004 ndian Ocean tsunami caused by a giant Sumatra-Andaman
earthquake of magnitude Mw 9.3 travelled throughout the ndian Ocean with a large run-
up of 31m at Banda Aceh and was the severest in history causing 3, 00,000 deaths (Stein
and Okal, 2006; Synolakis and Kong, 2006). This tsunami has generated tremendous
interest in knowing future possibilities of such tsunami in the ndian Ocean. Less frequent
but devastating tsunamis can be generated from northeastern and northwestern parts of
the ndian Ocean. Thus, east coast of ndia is affected by tsunami generated along
Andaman-Sumatra subduction zone and west coast from Makran subduction zone.
Several studies have been carried out in this region to assess possibilities of future
tsunami (Curray, 2005; Newcomb and McCann, 1987; Sieh et al., 1991; Zachariasen et
al., 1999, 2000; Natawidjaja et al., 2004; Rastogi and Jaiswal, 2006; Jaiswal et al. 2009).
A project was initiated to study possible tsunami risks assessment of an ocean
originating inundation due to a tsunami at three proposed lignite mining deposit sites in
Bhavnagar by applying tsunami models constructed using numerical equations. Numerical
modeling is an excellent tool for understanding past events and simulating future ones.
The use of numerical modeling to determine the potential run-ups and inundation from a
local or distant tsunami is recognized as useful and important tool, since data from past
events is usually insufficient. n this study, we consider tsunami wave generated due to
northwestern parts of the ndian Ocean, which could affect proposed three lignite mining
deposit sites.
6.2.2 Past Tsunamis in the Arabian Sea and future possibiIities
The significant tsunami in the Arabian Sea is listed in TabIe 6.1. The oldest
record of tsunami is available from November 326 BC earthquake near the ndus
delta/Kutch region that set off massive sea waves in the Arabian Sea. Alexander the Great
was returning to Greece after his conquest and wanted to go back by a sea route. But a

Chapter 6: Additional Studies

6.14

tsunami due to an earthquake of large magnitude destroyed the mighty Macedonian fleet
(Lisitzin, 1974). Tsunami has been observed in the North ndian Ocean on the ranian
coast from a local earthquake between April 1, 1008 and May 9, 1008 (Murty et al., 1999).
An earthquake occurred during 1524 A.D. off the coast of Dabhol, Maharashtra and a
resulting large tsunami caused considerable alarm to the Portuguese fleet that was
assembled in the area (Bendick and Bilham, 1999). Probably a tsunami was generated
due to Mw 7.8, June 16, 1819 Kutch, ndia earthquake. The severe earthquake caused
large changes in the elevation of the land. The town of Sindri (26.6N: 71.9E) and
adjoining country were inundated by a tremendous rush from the ocean and all
submerged, the ground sank apparently by about 5 m (Macmurdo, 1821).
The June 19, 1845 Kutch earthquake probably generated a tsunami. The sea
rolled up the Koree (Kori creek, 23.6N: 68.37E) (the east) mouth of the ndus overflowing
the country as far westward as the Goongra river, northward to the vicinity of Veyre, and
eastward to the Sindree Lake (Nelson, 1846). The deadliest tsunami prior to 2004 in south
Asia was on November 27, 1945 of Mw 8.1 (Bilham et al., 2007) which originated off the
Makran coast of Pakistan in the Arabian Sea and caused deaths as far as Mumbai. More
than 4000 people were killed at Pasni and Ormara on the Makran coast by both
earthquake and tsunami (Ambraseys and Melville, 1982). The earthquake was also
characterized by the eruption of a mud volcano, a few kilometers off the Makran coast,
which are common features in western Pakistan. t led to the formation of four small
islands. A large volume of gas that erupted from one of the islands, sent flames leaping
"hundreds of meters into the sky (Mathur, 1998). The tsunami reached a height of 17 min
some Makran ports and caused great damage to the entire coastal region. A good number
of people were washed away.
The tsunami was also recorded at Muscat and Gwadar. The tsunami was 1.5m
high at Karachi (at 360km from epicenter), 2m near Bombay (1100km away), 0.5m in the
Seychelles (3400km away) and caused noticeable effects at Karwar (1500km distant) and
Muscat. The transoceanic cable between ndia and England broke at eight places,
indicating widespread slumping offshore. Part of Pasni moved with one submarine slide
shifting the coast 100m landward. Coastal uplift at Ormara was 2m. The tsunami had a
height of 11.0 - 11.5m in Kutch, Gujarat (Pendse, 1948). At 8:15am, it was observed on
Salsette sland i.e Mumbai (Newspaper archives, Mumbai). t was recorded in Bombay

Chapter 6: Additional Studies

6.15

Harbour, Versova (Andheri), Haji Ali (Mahalaxmi), Juhu (Ville Parle) and Danda (Khar). At
Versova (Andheri, Mumbai), 5 persons who were fishing were washed away. At Haji Ali
(Mahalaxmi, Mumbai), 6 persons were swept into the sea. At Danda and Juhu, several
fishing boats were torn off their moorings. The tsunami did not do any damage to Bombay
Harbour. Most persons who witnessed the tsunami said that it rose like the tide coming in,
but much more rapidly. The height of the tsunami in Mumbai was 2 m. A total of 15
persons were washed away in Mumbai (Rastogi and Jaiswal, 2006).
6.2.2.1 Tsunamigenic Earthquake Source Zones in the Arabian Sea
Thrust-type earthquakes along subduction zones that cause vertical movement
of the ocean floor are usually tsunamigenic (Jaiswal et al., 2009). Such a zone in the
Arabian Sea is the Makran subduction zone (Fig 6.1). Thrust-type earthquakes occurring
along coastal zones of compressive stress along the ndus delta and Kutch-Saurashtra
region have given rise and can again generate tsunami. Minor tsunami can be generated
due to dip-slip earthquakes along oceanic ridges (Fig. 6.2). The tectonics and seismicity in
these zones are briefly discussed and long-term assessment of future tsunamigenic great
earthquakes in these zones is presented. The coastal region of countries bordering the
Arabian Sea could be struck by tsunami waves due to occurrences of tsunamigenic
earthquakes (magnitude > 7.0) from the Makran Coast (Arabian Sea), Persian Gulf
(westernmost side of Makran coast), Gulf of Aden (NW ndian Ocean), Diego Garcia
Region (NW ndian Ocean) and Socotra sland Region (near North African Coast) (Bapat,
2007). Though tsunami generated from Makran subduction zone has the greatest potential
to affect the Arabian Sea countries most severely, local tsunami with maximum amplitude
of 1.5m was generated due to normal faulting earthquake of Mw 7.7 on November 30,
1983 at Diego Garcia Archipelago (Rastogi and Jaiswal, 2006). Bapat (2007) referred that
since November 2005 there were frequent earthquakes of magnitude 6.0 to 6.5 in these
regions, an earthquake of Mw 6.1 (26.84N : 55.83E, 10:22:23 UTC, Depth 35km; USGS)
occurred at the southern part of ran on Fig. 6.2. t has been observed that most of these
regions have become seismically active. Some of the events were monitored from tsunami
point of view. t was observed from the records based on the tide gauges data in some
ports of Gujarat coast that the heights of wave coinciding with these events were in the
range 55 to 65 cms. Even smaller rise or fall in the water level can affect coastal
infrastructures and coastal community around the rim of Arabian Sea.

Chapter 6: Additional Studies

6.16

The Makran Subduction Zone
The 1200-km-long Makran subduction zone of ran and Pakistan (boundary
between ran and Pakistan runs roughly N-S at about 62E in the coastal region) is
seismically not as active as Himalaya or Sunda Arc but the seismic gap areas along the
Makran subduction zone can be assessed as possible future source zones of tsunami-
generating earthquakes in Arabian Sea and the repeat periods of great earthquakes can
also be assessed from past seismicity that could affect the entire rim of Arabian Sea
countries.
Five of the great earthquakes in Makran may have ruptured the plate boundary in
four different rupture segments of lengths of about 200 km each: in 1483 (Long. 58 -
60E), 1851 and also 1864 (Long. 61 - 63E), 1945 (Long. 63 - 65E) and 1765 (Long.
65 - 67E) (Byrne et al., 1992) (Fig.6.2). The 1765 earthquake was felt strongly in
easternmost Makran. Two events occurred in 1851 and 1864 in the same area affecting
the town of Gwadar (Quittmeyer and Jacob, 1979; Oldham, 1883) again in eastern
Makran. Bilham et al. (2007) noticed that an earthquake is supposed to have caused a
landslide on the Makran coast 150 km west of Karachi at some time in the 18
th
century
approximately in 1765, (Ambraseys and Melvill, 1982) (Fig. 6.1& 6.2). Walton's (1864)
letter with the description of a possible earthquake remembered by local people: "As the
entire coast of Mekran [sic] is volcanic, I often enquired of the Baluchees regarding the
occurrence of earthquakes, and the only phenomenon of this sort, of which I could obtain
any information, was said to have happened about 100 years ago, when, as my informant
assured me, an entire hill, with men and camels on it, disappeared into the sea. I imagine
this must have been a landslip caused by some submarine disturbance. The spot was
pointed out to me and is known as Ras Koocheree on the chart". Byrne et al. (1992)
identify this earthquake as a great rupture beneath the leading edge of Asia at the
easternmost end of the Makran subduction zone. However, a landslide could have also
been triggered by a large strike-slip earthquake on the southernmost Ornach-Nal fault
system. Out of all these earthquakes only the 1945 earthquake is known to have caused a
large tsunami. t struck the coast of eastern Makran near Pasni, followed by a large
aftershock in 1947 immediately to the south. From available data source it indicates that
an earthquake in 1483 affected the Strait of Hormuz and northeast Oman and may
therefore have occurred somewhere in western Makran, but exact location is not known.

Chapter 6: Additional Studies

6.17

Modern instruments have also not detected shallow thrust events. Most earthquakes in
this region occur within the down-going plate at intermediate depth. Absence of plate
boundary earthquakes indicates that either entirely aseismic subduction occurs or that the
plate boundary is currently locked and experiences great earthquakes with long repeat
periods. Evidence is presently inconclusive without GPS measurements and knowledge of
velocity structure; further geological investigations are also essential for a better
understanding of active faults. However, presence of well defined late Holocene terraces
along portions of the coasts of eastern and western Makran could be interpreted as
evidence that both sections of the arc are capable of generating large plate boundary
earthquakes (Byrne et al., 1992).
Jaiswal et al. (2008 & 2009) suggested that eastern and western parts of the
Makran subduction zone of ran and southern Pakistan are potential zones for great
earthquakes that can generate tsunamis affecting west coast of ndia. f a convergence
rate of 2 cm/yr is assumed, several segments of the Makran subduction zone are potential
zones for great earthquakes (Rastogi and Jaiswal, 2006). The eastern part of the Makran
zone has produced the 1945 Mw 8.1 earthquake that generated the last major tsunami in
the Arabian Sea. Some sectors of the Makran zone are unruptured for a long time and can
produce large earthquakes in near future that could generate tsunami. Mokhtari et al.
(2008) noticed that the epicenter of 1945 event is close to the Sonne fault which has
created segments on the Makran subduction zone. The crossing points between the
Makran subduction zone and these oblique fault zones suggest that this junction can be a
location for occurrence of major earthquake activities. However, more studies are required
for further clarification. Bilham et al. (2007) estimated that the slip deficit along the 1945
rupture zone could produce an earthquake with Mw 7.8 should the event occur today.
Though the magnitude estimates assume complete seismic coupling, Kukowski et al.
(2001) conclude from the offset of accretionary ridges by the Sonne fault that offshore
locking is strong, but it is doubtful that complete seismic coupling extends throughout the
subduction interface. Sudden slumping or bookshelf type of failure along Makran
accretionary wedges with large amount of sediments may generate large tsunami as
associated with the 1992 Nicaragua earthquake (Pararas-Carayannis, 2006; Piatanesi et
al., 1996).

Chapter 6: Additional Studies

6.18

Source Zones of Indus DeIta, Karachi, Kutch- Saurashtra and the
Owen FauIt regions
Pararas-Carayannis (2006) inferred that lateral transition between subduction
and collision of the ndian and Arabian tectonic plates has made the Kutch, Bombay,
Cambay and Namacia Grabens in northwestern ndia. He suggested that earthquakes
associated with thrust and subsidence faulting in the coastal region of the Kutch Graben
and further south along the major fault, which runs along the west coast of Maharashtra
(Fig. 6.3), have the potential of generating local tsunami. n addition, earthquake events
on the Kutch Graben have the potential of triggering undersea landslides in the offshore
region and local tsunami. Thrust-type earthquakes occurring along coastal zones of
compressive stress along the ndus delta and Kutch-Saurashtra region in the west have
given rise to some tsunami in the past and can again generate tsunami in future (Rastogi
and Jaiswal, 2005; Jaiswal and Rastogi, 2006; Pararas- Carayannis, 2006; Jaiswal, et al.,
2008). Pararas-Carayannis (2006) referred that four major faults exist in and around
Karachi, other parts of deltaic ndus and along the southern coast of Makran viz. Allah
Bund fault. This fault has produced many large earthquakes in the past in the deltaic areas
along the coast, causing considerable destruction; the second major fault near Karachi is
an extension of the one that begins near Rann of the Kutch region of ndia; the third one is
Pubb fault which ends into the Arabian Sea near the Makran coast and the fourth major
fault near Karachi is located in the lower Dadu district, near Surajani. A major thrust fault
which runs along the southern side of the Makran coast and parts of deltaic ndus is
supposed to be of the same character as the west coast fault along the coast of
Maharashtra (6.3), where a tsunami may have been generated in 1524, near Dabhol
(Pararas-Carayannis, 2006). Tectonic map of Kutch, Saurashtra and offshore western part
of ndia (6.3) reveals the many offshore faults and west coast fault along the coast of
Maharashtra, faults along the Kutch and Saurashtra region. These offshore faults could
generate tsunami due to earthquake and undersea landslide associated with these
earthquakes. May 1668 ndus delta town of Samawani (or Samaji) with 30,000 houses
was sunk due to an earthquake (Oldham, 1883) of magnitude 8.1. There might have been
a tsunami to sink the coastal town. The June 16, 1819 Mw 7.8 and June 19, 1845 M 7
earthquakes in Kutch probably caused tsunamis (Macmurdo, 1821; Nelson, 1846; Rastogi
and Jaiswal, 2006). nferred rupture zones of ndus delta earthquake in 1668 and Kutch

Chapter 6: Additional Studies

6.19

earthquakes in 1819 and 1845 are shown in Fig. 6.1. Bilham et al. (2007) inferred that the
greater than 1-hour delay between the main shock and the arrival of the damaging
tsunami associated with the 1945 earthquake was possibly caused by submarine
slumping offshore rather than direct uplift of the coast. f this was really the case, even a
quite modest earthquake in the Kutch region might be sufficient to trigger a submarine
slide that would make vulnerable the Karachi shoreline. Based on seafloor multi beam
mapping of the Arabia-ndia- Somalia triple junction in the northwest ndian Ocean,
Fournier et al. (2008) inferred active dextral strike-slip motion along the newly identified
strike - slip fault at this triple junction of Owen fracture zone, Sheba ridge and the
Carlsberg ridge. They interpret that the Owen fracture zone have some of the
characteristics of intraplate faults, such as small slip rate, small cumulative slip and large
recurrence interval (>103 years). nfrequent but large earthquakes may be expected in this
region as in other parts of the ndian Ocean characterized by, strike slip earthquakes in
the intraplate setting e.g., Mw 7.9 earthquake that occurred in 2000 south of Sumatra
along the deformation in the ndia-Australia plate (Abercrombie et al., 2003) and Mw 7.6
fracture-zone earthquake adjacent to the Central ndian Ridge that occurred in 2003
(Bohnenstiehl et al., 2004). Along Murray ridge, Owen fracture zone, Carlsberg ridge and
Chagos ridge some earthquakes occurred in the past with oblique-slip component. The
Chagos ridge east of Carlsberg ridge had given rise to a local tsunami due to a normal
faulting earthquake of Mw 7.7 of November 30, 1983 near Diego Garcia. A 1.5-mhigh
tsunami wave damaged southeastern tip of Diego Garcia (Rastogi and Jaiswal, 2006).
Such earthquakes in these regions possibly generate local tsunamis.
CarIsberg Spreading Ridge and OIder Oceanic Ridges
Normal-fault-type earthquakes can also generate moderate tsunami. Strike-slip
earthquakes that cause horizontal movement of ocean floor are not tsunamigenic but dip-
slip component in them can generate weak tsunami. There are several tectonic features
displaying focal mechanisms with thrust/normal components (Fig.6.1) and can produce
local tsunamis. The focal mechanisms are taken from Banghar and Sykes (1969) and
NEC. The Murray ridge along with the Owen fracture zone probably indicates the trace of
the present boundary between the ndian and Arabian plates. At least two earthquakes
along the Murray ridge have displayed large thrust components. Further south is the
Carlsberg spreading ridge, a few earthquakes along which have displayed normal

Chapter 6: Additional Studies

6.20

component of motion. The Chagos ridge east of Carlsberg ridge had given rise to a local
tsunami due to a normal-faulting earthquake of Mw 7.7 of November 30, 1983 near Diego
Garcia (Fig. 6.2). A 1.5m-high tsunami wave damaged southeastern tip of Diego Garcia. A
0.4-m-high wave was recorded at Seychelles (Rastogi and Jaiswal, 2006). There was a
large zone of discolored seawater observed 60-70 km NNW of Diego Garcia. Hence, local
tsunamis are possible in these regions.
6.2.3 SeismoIogicaI / GeomorphoIogicaI / GeoIogicaIstudies of the proposed area
The Saurashtra region of Gujarat forms crucial geodynamic parts of the western
continental margin of ndia. t falls under two seismic zones V and of the seismic zoning
map of ndia with likely earthquakes of magnitude 7 and 6 respectively (BS, 2002).
Historical and instrumental seismicity in Saurashtra reveals that the seismic hazard in the
area is appreciable and in particular in its eastern part (Fig.6.3).
6.2.3.1 RegionaI Seismicity
The Saurashtra region has experienced random seismic activity at various places
during the past two centuries such as Bhavnagar, Ghogha, Jamnagar, Paliyad, Rajkot,
Dwarka and Junagadh (Figs. 6.1 and 6.2a), with 10 earthquakes of MP5.0 in total since
1872 (Yadav et al., 2011). During the last 10 years this occurrence rate is in-creased, with
13 events of this magnitude order. The exception in the previous quiet period is the
Paliyad seismic sequence of 1938, with more than 190 recorded shocks during July 1
August 15, 1938 (Bapat et al., 1989) with four of them with MP5.0 (Chandra, 1977). The
main shock of M5.7 occurred on July 12 and was associated with the West Cambay fault.
One more strong earthquake of M5.0 occurred in 1940 in Dwarka (intensity V) was
reported by several researchers (Tandon, 1959; Chandra, 1977; Guha and Basu, 1993).
The Junagadh region has experienced a shock of M4.3 on September 3, 1985. An
offshore earthquake with M5.0 occurred on August 24, 1993 near Rajula. On August 3,
2000 the region of Girnar Hills near Una has experienced an earthquake of M4.3, which
caused wall cracks and collapses in 75 houses in Gir Gadhada and in several houses in
Una, and was strongly felt up to Jamnagar. An M3.6 shock occurred in Bhavnagar region
on August 10, 2000, followed by about 132 aftershocks in the magnitude range of 0.53.8.

Chapter 6: Additional Studies

6.21

This earthquake activity was associated with two perpendicular faults passing through the
epicentral region, namely, West Cambay fault and Shihor fault (Bhattacharya et al., 2004).
The Talala and surrounding region has experienced some significant seismic
activity during the present decade. n Haripur region, at a local seismological station of the
ndia Meteorological Department (MD), about 1689 shocks with M 6 3.2 were recorded in
the period OctoberDecember 2001 (Bhattacharya and Dattatrayam, 2003). The peak
activity took place in November 127 with nine shocks of M3.0M3.2. The regions of
Talala, Maliya and Mendarda experienced a series of microearthquakes during September
5, 2004February 2, 2005. About 334 shocks, 10 of them with M2.0 M2.7, were recorded
by 13 seismic stations of Gujarat Engineering Research nstitute (GER). The location of
this very superficial cluster (focal depths of 2 km) was at a distance of 3 km NW of the city
of Haripur, which experienced a maximum intensity equal to V
n Lalpur/Jamnagar area, a swarm with a Mmax2.5 event occurred near Sasoi
Dam (filled in 1954), from early August up to the end of September 2003. This activity was
associated with a major NS trending dyke with two offsets in EW and NWSE direction
(GER report, 2003). During 2007, this area also experienced small tremors whose
epicenters were aligned in NNWSSE direction. At a distance of 30 km south of
Jamnagar, about 200 shocks with a main shock of M = 4.0, were felt near Khankotda
village during SeptemberOctober 2006 and about the same number was felt again
between Vijrakhi and Khankotda during AugustSeptember, 2007 associated an M = 3.5
event (Fig. 6.2a). These shocks were associated with NNW trending dykes having focal
depth of less than 10 km (Chopra et al., 2008).
6.2.3.2 Tectonic Settings
Various studies were performed concerning tectonics on a regional scale,
whereas the ones on a more detailed local scale are limited. There are available
lineament map of Saurashtra region from satellite images which are in good agreement
with the regional Bouguer anomaly map. They found four major groups of lineaments: (1)
the NESW trending lineaments are present in the whole region with dominance in the SE
part. (2) The second group exhibiting ENEWSW strike in southern Saurashtra, which is
the Precambrian trend of NarmadaSon lineament, whereas EW strike is observed in

Chapter 6: Additional Studies

6.22

northern Saurashtra associated with volcanic plunges. (3) n the coastal part the
lineaments, show a NWSE strike, related with evolution of the coastlines. (4) n the
eastern part, NNESSW to NS strike is observed, which is parallel with the major axis of
Gulf of Cambay and Cambay rift basin. However, there are also found the EW trending
structural trends are more prominent in the region.
Although there is not a major fault system near the epicenter zone, a small NNE
SSW trending fault was identified by Geological Survey of ndia (GS, 2000). The
seismotectonic map of the Saurashtra region shows only a geologically old Precambrian
NWSE striking lineament which cannot be ascertained as a fault (Fig. 6.1). The region is
bounded on all four sides by major faults namely, North Kathiawar Fault (NKF) to the
north, extension of SonNarmada fault to the south, the WNWESE trending West Coast
fault system to the west in the Arabian Sea and the extension of West Cambay fault to the
east (Fig. 6.1). However, only the West Cambay fault in the east near Bhavnagar
accommodates moderate seismicity in the last 200 years, while the other faults exhibit
weak earthquake activity and are currently inactive. The West Cambay fault and the North
Kathiawar Fault are over 200 km away from the epicentral zone, whereas the extensions
of the West Coast fault and of SonNarmada fault are about 35 and 70 km, respectively,
away from the epicenter area.
6.2.4 NumericaI ModeIing on Tsunami
6.2.4.1 Data and MethodoIogy
Tsunamis are classified as long shallow-water gravity wave or long waves. As
such, their propagation is strongly affected by ocean depth changes. For the modeling of
tsunamis, open source bathymetry and topography data viz. General Bathymetric Chart of
the Oceans (GEBCO), SRTM, and NHO chart data for coastal and near shore regions are
used. n this study four nested domains, namely A, B, C, D are used. The increased
resolution is essential in order to simulate as best as possible the travel time and tsunami
amplitude of the waves. The intermediate grid (B) allows for a better resolution all around
the Arabian Sea. For grids A and B the model is run in the linear mode which, although not
good enough for run-up estimates, is good enough for travel time estimates. Another
reason for increasing the resolution as we go into shallower water is the fact that (Shuto et

Chapter 6: Additional Studies

6.23

al. 1985, 1986) each tsunami wavelength should be covered by at least 20 grid points in
order to diminish numerical dispersion (dissipation). Ramming and Kowalik (1980) found
that 10 grid points per wavelength is sufficient if we are willing to accept a 2% error in the
phase velocity.
Still another reason is that numerical stability considerations require that the finite
differences time step be such that Dt B Dx/(2ghmax)1/2, where Dx is the space
discretization size, g the gravitational acceleration, and hmax is the maximum depth in the
given grid. As the wave propagates into shallower waters hmax decreases and by
decreasing Dx we can maintain a constant Dt (Goto and Ogawa 1992).
n this study, the fault parameters of the earthquake used for the generation of
tsunami are fault area length 200 km and width 100 km, angle of strike, dip, and slip 270
0
,
15
0
, and 90
0
, respectively, focal depth 10 km, and magnitude of the earthquake M 8.0
(Byrne et al., 1992). Further for tsunami propagation we considered bathymetry, earth
curvature, Coriolis force, ocean parameters such as tides, currents (speed and direction),
and gravity waves (height, period, and direction). n this study for tsunami propagation we
considered near shore bathymetry, land topography, coastal geomorphology,
estuaries/creeks/nlets, bays, sand dunes, etc.
The generation and propagation of tsunami waves are modeled using Tunami-N2
code in Middle East Technical University (METU) and in the University of Southern
California. t is an outcome of UNESCO TME project. A leap-frog, semi-implicit time
stepping integration scheme is used for the tsunami simulations. This allows the use of
larger time steps while maintaining stability and accuracy (Morey et al. 2003; Rueda and
Schladow 2002). However, if too large a time step is used and the Courant, Friedrichs,
and Lewy (CFL) condition is violated, gravity waves may be slowed down (Bartello and
Thomas 1996; Dupont 2001). The CFL condition states that the time step must be smaller
than the time it takes for a wave to propagate from one grid point to the next. The model
generates the water level displacement in model domain at given time intervals for all
nested grids and maximum water level displacement at each grid cell independently of the
time when it occurred. This array is the one used to examine the extent of inundation in
the grids where the model is used in its non-linear mode.

Chapter 6: Additional Studies

6.24

6.2.4.2 Tsunami generation modeI
Typically, significant vertical deformation of the sea floor (i.e. a dip/slip
earthquake) is required for tsunami generation. This deformation can be due to either
isostatic rebound of an accretionary prism near a subduction zone or a change in crustal
elevation (McCann 2006; Okal et al. 2003). The direction of movement, depth of
deformation, length and width of the deforming fault or plate boundary, deformation dip
and slip angles, and focal depth will determine the size of the tsunami (McCann 2006;
Polet and Kanamori 2000). For example, a shallow subduction zone earthquake or an
earthquake with a more vertical angle of deformation will usually displace a larger volume
of water and consequently generate a larger tsunami (Bilek and Lay 2002; Polet and
Kanamori 2000). The overlying geology also determines whether a tsunami will result from
an earthquake (Bilek and Lay 2002; Kanamori 1972). There may be stronger motion at the
sea Fig. 6.5. The model domain with bathymetry and topography data floor than the
measured seismic moment would indicate. According to available evidence, the 1945
Makran Coast event was due to a submarine earthquake fault located on the Makran
Subduction Zone. t is called a near-field tsunami, because it was generated close to the
affected area. The initial condition consists of a sea surface deformation which itself, in
this case, is due to a vertical displacement of the sea bottom. n this study the vertical
displacement of the sea bottom is calculated with the Mansinha and Smylie method
(1971), and is assumed to be equal to the tsunami initial profile with no modification. The
initial displacement is generated in the exterior domain (A), and it is interpolated into the
higher resolution grids B, C and D. The end result is an initial sea surface profile that
extends smoothly from the exterior, lower resolution, domain into the higher resolution
domains. This is the sea surface condition at time t = 0 s. That is, the hypothesis is that
the sea bottom displacement is immediately reflected in a sea surface displacement.
The first step in the gravity wave formalism is to determine the static vertical
displacement of the seafloor. t is in the first step that earthquake source parameters relate
directly to tsunami generation. Because when an earthquake, or fault motion, occurred the
elastic dislocation theory shows such deformation that seafloor just above the fault is
uplifted while above the deeper end of the fault is subsided. Therefore the initial wave at t
= 0 (Fig. 6.6a) for simulation purpose has been computed by the fault parameters. Hence,

Chapter 6: Additional Studies

6.25

we generated different initial vertical deformation model using different fault parameters,
but tsunami generated due to 1945 case is taken for further modeling and studies.
6.2.4.3 Tsunami propagation
Tsunami-N2 model is used for the propagation of tsunami waves for the event of
November 28, 1945, that happened in the Makran region of the Arabian Sea. The tsunami
propagation states at every 10-min interval are simulated. n this study, model outer
domain has a horizontal resolution of 2502 m over the Arabian Sea including the ndian
sub-continent (726
0
N and 6280
0
E). The simulation is carried out for a duration of 300
min and the Sea states at 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, 240 min in the Arabian Sea are
presented in Figs.6.6a & 6.6b. Because of the variability in the bathymetry of the Arabian
Sea and the earthquake that triggered the tsunami waves, the wave amplitude varies with
the propagation of waves. At t = 0 min, the wave amplitude that is shown in the bar with
different colors, next to the simulation figure, shows red at the point of epicenter. This
indicates the wave height is in the range of 56 m on the land-ocean boundary. At t = 30
min, the wave starts propagating toward the Makran and the western coast of ndia. The
wave amplitude varies with the forward motion of the tsunami waves. Boundary conditions
play a significant factor in the separation of the land and ocean boundary. Further, the red
color indicates in Figs.6.6a & 6.6b that the water surface is higher than normal, while the
blue means lower. Because of the fault geometry, the waves propagating to the Makran
Coast begin with a receding wave, which explain why the Sea started to recede minutes
before flooding the coast. From Figs.6.6a & 6.6b, it could be observed that the tsunami
wave propagated initially very fast in the Arabian Sea, and it became slower as it reached
the shallow region of Bhavangar coast. The tsunami strikes three proposed lignite mining
deposits area with amplitude about 1m only.
At t = 0, the source (Fig. 6.6a), it generates 67 m tsunami at the moment of the
earthquake, and then the water is receded. At three proposed lignite mining areas,
positive tsunami waves arrived within approximately 6-7 hours. Based on these results, it
is suggested that if the tsunami strikes in future during high tide, we should expect little bit
more hazards in the areas. But, the study of tsunami propagation along proposed areas
shows that there is no impact during low.

Chapter 6: Additional Studies

6.26

The model results show that the distribution of maximum amplitude in the Arabian
sea basin is primarily controlled by the classical effects of the directivity (Figs. 6.8 & 6.9).
For the Makran Fault of strike 250, the directivity is found to be directed towards west
coast of ndia (Fig. 6.9). f the source is considered along the western part of Makran the
travel time increases. The directivity map also shows that there is less affect along the
proposed areas.
6.2.4.4 Inundation mapping
The western coastal region of ndia could be struck by tsunami waves due to
occurrences of tsunamigenic earthquakes (magnitude (8.0) from the possible
tsunamigenic sources in the Arabian Sea, though tsunami generated only from Makran
Subduction Zone could severely affect the west coast of ndia. The elevation data sets are
the most important input for inundation mapping in tsunami prone areas. Preparation of a
vulnerability map could inform coastal community and others about susceptibility to
inundation corresponding to various wave-heights. nundation model is prepared for the
three lignite mining deposit sites on the basis of existing topographic and bathymetric
(water depth) data sets. For preparation of the inundation map, high resolution of 3 arcs
second or 90 m SRTM data set has been used.
The Geographical nformation System (GS) software is used to plot elevation
data and different heights of tsunami waves depend upon the same. The different colors in
Fig 6.10 present various elevations as 5.110, 10.115, 15.120 and 20.1-25 m are
shown by blue, green, yellow and dark brown colors, respectively, over the parts of
Gujarat state. From Fig 6.10, it is evident that north of Bhavnagar areas could face
inundation due to high tsunami waves. n south Bhavnagar, costal area would inundate
due to high tsunami wave amplitude, where also major ports and jetties are located.
6.2.5 Discussion and ConcIusions
x All the great Makran earthquakes are inferred to be interpolate thrust events.
Confirmation of this inference comes from the fact that several small
earthquakes in the region show thrust mechanism. Each of the great
earthquakes has ruptured approximately 1/5th of the length of the Makran
subduction zone. The three earthquakes of 1765, 1851 and 1945 indicate that

Chapter 6: Additional Studies

6.27

great earthquakes can repeat every hundred years or so in a stretch of about
500 km of the Makran coast. However sometimes they can recur sooner as
1864 earthquake occurred on the same segment as that of 1851 rupture within
a gap of mere 13 years. n the Himalayan subduction zone every 200-km
stretch can produce a great earthquake every 200 years due to strain
accumulation of 4 m with a rate of convergence of 2 cm/yr. The 200-km stretch
of Kutch also can produce great earthquakes every 200yr as inferred from
paleoseismology. Hence, assuming a convergence rate of 2 cm/yr along the
Makran subduction zone, its 200-km-long segments can produce great
earthquakes every 200yr. The same can be true for ndus delta also.
x The geological setting, tectonic evolution and main structural elements classify
the Makran accretionary complex as a major seismically active zone (Mokhtari
et al., 2008). Moreover, in a plate tectonic setting like Makran accretionary
complex a fairly high rate of earthquake activity would be expected, as in many
of the other major accretionary complexes/ subduction zones around the world
(e.g., Aegean region). However, this region which is located between the
Zenden-Minab fault system and Oranch fault zone shows relatively low
seismicity in comparison with the surrounding region. t is important to note that
inspite of low seismicity some historical data about tsunamis in the Makran
region have been reported by Murty and Rafiq (1991), Murty et al. (1999),
Rastogi and Jaiswal (2006) and Dominey-Howes et al. (2007). This could be
related to very long recurrence interval of large magnitude tsunamigenic
earthquakes, which is not recorded in the available historical data. From the
above report and available data sources it seems to be a number of possible
sites which can generate tsunamigenic earthquakes in near future.
x Eastern and western parts of the Makran subduction zone of ran and southern
Pakistan are potential zones for great earthquakes that can generate tsunamis
and can affect west coast of ndia. The eastern part of the Makran zone has
produced the 1945 Mw 8.1 earthquake that generated the last major tsunami in
the Arabian Sea. Some sectors of the Makran zone are unruptured for a long
time and can produce large earthquakes in near future. ndus Delta and may
be the coasts of Kutch and Saurashtra are also potential zones for great
earthquakes and tsunami. The potential of tsunamigenic earthquake

Chapter 6: Additional Studies

6.28

occurrence necessitates an improved understanding of the seismotectonics
and seismicity of the Makran region, as well as the past earthquake source
through the use of paleo-tsunami, tsunami hazard assessment, preparation of
evacuation maps and hazard reduction strategy. NumericaI modeIing
suggested that there is Iess affect due to Makran tsunamigenic
earthquakes aIong the three proposed Iignite mining areas.
x We have estimated tsunami phases in and around the three Iignite mining
deposits sites. The results suggest that the tsunami waves reached near
proposed sites after about 6-7 hours with Iess than 1m ampIitude. Results
also suggested that the more than 8 m tsunami wave height may be affecting
at proposed areas in Bhavnagar, it means the proposed area has Iess
possibiIity of inundation.


Chapter 6: Risk Assessment & Disaster management
6.29




Fig.6.1: Tsunamigenic sources threatening India. BIack box show the study area

Fig.6.2 : Rupture areas of past great earthquakes aIong Makran seduction zone &
Indus DeIta.


Chapter 6: Risk Assessment & Disaster management
6.30






Fig. 6.3 : Earthquake distribution in and around the Bhavnagar region of Gujarat
occurred within Iast 200 years. The tectonic features which are responsibIe
for the seismic activity in the region are aIso shown. The thick Iines show
fauIts which are identified by geophysicaI surveys. Lines with indentations
show fauIts identified by geoIogicaI evidences. The thin Iines indicate
Precambrian trends. Diamond shows the Iocation of a hot spring at
tuIsishyam near Una (Modified from Yadav et aI., 2011) BIack box shows
the study area.







Chapter 6: Risk Assessment & Disaster management
6.31



Fig.6.4 : Topography and bathymetry in and around Iignite mining deposits.
GS: Gogha-Surka; KH-1:KhadsaIiya-1; KH-11: KhadsaIiya-11





'^
<,
<,
Chapter 6: Risk Assessment & Disaster management
6.32









Fig. 6.5: InitiaI verticaI deformation of sea fIoor
Chapter 6: Risk Assessment & Disaster management
6.33



Fig. 6.6 (a): Tsunami wave traveI times at 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 min. Tsunami
ampIitudes are in meters.
Chapter 6: Risk Assessment & Disaster management
6.34



Fig.6.6(b) : Tsunami wave traveI times at 180, 210, 228 min. Tsunami ampIitudes
are in meters.







Chapter 6: Risk Assessment & Disaster management
6.35

















Fig. 6.7: HourIy traveI -time chart of tsunami wave that resuIted from the Makran
earthquake. BIack box shows the study area.





Chapter 6: Risk Assessment & Disaster management
6.36
<//>
<>
Ghogha-Surka Lignite Deposit
Fig. 6.8: Tsunami Waveforms at three Iignite mining deposit sites

Chapter 6: Risk Assessment & Disaster management
6.37







Fig.6.9: Directivity map for M8 in the centraI part of Makran earthquake, Strike of
250
0
of the fauIt directs the tsunami towards western India. BIock box in the
figure shows the study area.







Chapter 6: Risk Assessment & Disaster management
6.38







Fig. 6.10: PossibIe inundations due to various wave heights (in meters) at
proposed Sites




Chapter 6: Risk Assessment & Disaster management
6.39


TabIe 6.1: List of tsunamis/earthquakes that affected west coast of India
and vicinity

Date Location Long. Lat. Mag. Comment Ref.
326 B.C
ndus
delta/Kutch
region

Alexander's navy
destroyed Massive sea
waves in the Arabian Sea
due to large earthquake.
Lisitzin (1974)
1008 ranian Coast 60 25
Tsunami has been
observed in the North
ndian ocean on the
ranian coast from a local
earthquake
Murty et al.
(1999)
1524
Dabhol,
Maharashtra
73.2 17
Tsunami due to a large
earthquake caused
considerable alarm to the
Portugese fleet
assembles in the area
Bendick and
Bilham (1999)
May
1668
Samaji-Delta of
ndus
68 24
The town of Samawani
(or Samaji) sunk into the
ground with 30,000
houses during an
earthquake
Oldham
(1883)
16.06.1
819
Kutch 71.9 26.6 Mw 7.8
The town of Sindri
(26.6
0
N, 71.9
0
E) and
adjoining country were
inundated by a rush from
the ocean, and all
submerged, the ground
sinking apparently by
about 5m
Macmurdo
(1821)
19.06.1
845
Kutch 68.37 26.6 Mw 7.0
The sea rolled up the
Koree mouth of the ndus
overflowing the country
as far westward as the
Goongra river, northward
to the vicinity of veyre,
and eastward to the
Sindree Lake
Nelson (1846)
27.11.1
945
Makran Coast 63.5 25.2 Mw 8.0
More than 4000 people
were killed on the Makran
Coast by both earthquake
and tsunami. Max. run-up
17m. The height of the
tsunami in Mumbai was 2
m. A total of 15 persons
were washed away in
Mumbai
Murty et al.
(1999);
Rastogi and
Jaiswal
(2006),
Jaiswal et al.
(2009)


Appendix-I
Annexure 1
Table 1 : Details of Area of Ghogha-Surka Lignite Mining Project
Sr.
No
Name of
the
Project
Village Taluka
Area in
ha
acquired
by
GPCL
Area in
ha to be
acquired
by
GPCL
Government
Land
Goucher
Land
1
Ghogha
Surka
Lignite
Mine
Surka Bhavnagar 69.6374 8.0228 1.4549 0.0000
2 Malekvadar Ghogha 179.4539 0 2.0232 12.7376
3 Badi Ghogha 495.0762 65.4423 27.1851 24.5040
4 Hoidad Ghogha 179.3417 3.0048 1.7294 52.2554
5 Alapar Bhavnagar 32.7474 5.8982 0.0000 0.0000
6 Rampar Bhavnagar 34.1574 0 1.6896 3.7321
7 Padva Ghogha 23.9478 60.6128 0.0000 0.0000
8 Thoradi Bhavnagar 54.9583 0 0.0000 57.4961
TOTAL 1069.32 142.9809 34.0822 150.7252

Table 2 : Details of Area of Khadsaliya-II Lignite Mining Project
Sr.
No
Name of the
Project
Village Name
Taluka
Name
Area in
ha
acquired
by GPCL
Area in
ha to be
acquired
by GPCL
Government
Land
Goucher
Land
1
Khadsaliya -II
Khadasaliya Bhavnagar 36.1283 253.372 11.3717 38.7945
2 Alapar Bhavnagar 309.4934 1.1635 36.9986
3 Bhadbhadiya Bhavnagar 130.7538 2.4787 13.5270
4 Hatav Bhavnagar 42.3944 0.0000 0.0000
TOTAL 36.128 736.014 15.0139 89.3201

Table 3 : Details of Area of Khadsali ya-I Lignite Mining Project
Sr.
No
Name of the
Project
Village Taluka
Area in
ha
acquired
by GPCL
Area in
ha to be
acquired
by GPCL
Government
Land
Goucher
Land
1
Khadsaliya -I
Khadasaliya Bhavnagar 131.7422 78.8335 26.1083 0.0000
2 Thalsar Bhavnagar 173.1837 83.5719 59.3734 70.9013
3 Lakhanka Bhavnagar 4.1675 23.0457 0.0000 9.0987
4 Morchand Ghogha 0 90.4285 21.4512 0.0000
TOTAL 309.09 275.88 106.9329 80.0000


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Annexure 1
Table 5 : Ghogha-Surka Lignite Mining Project : Details of Area and Compensations paid
Sr.
No
Name of
the
Project
Village Taluka
Area in
ha
acquired
by GPCL
Area in
ha to be
acquired
by GPCL
Land
Compensa
-tion paid
to
Khatedar
Compens
-ation
paid to
Khatedar
towards
structure
Amount
paid to
Khatedar
towards
R & R
1
Ghogha
Surka
Lignite
Mine
Surka Bhavnagar 69.6374 0 5614023 0 0
2 Malekvadar Ghogha 179.4539 0 21403521 719373 27021364
3 Badi Ghogha 495.0762 0 51049835 1100976 76350208
4 Hoidad Ghogha 179.3417 0 19494661 537103 28526337
5 Alapar Bhavnagar 32.7474 0 3378762 0 5215350
6 Rampar Bhavnagar 34.1574 0 2886639 18483 5770158
7 Padva Ghogha 23.9478 0 3151331 0 3386471
8 Thoradi Bhavnagar 54.9583 5.8982 4239934 0 9386878
TOTAL 1069.3201 5.8982 111218706 2375935 155656766

Table 6 : Khadsaliya-II Lignite Mining Project : Details of Area and Compensations paid
Sr.
No
Name of the
Project
Village Taluka
Area in
ha
acquired
by GPCL
Area in
ha to be
acquired
by GPCL
Land
Compen
s-ation
paid to
Khatedar
Amount
paid to
Khatedar
towards
R & R
1
Khadasaliya -II
Khadasaliya Bhavnagar 36.1283 253.372 4405946 5048179
2 Alapar Bhavnagar 309.4934 0 0
3 Bhadbhadiya Bhavnagar 130.7538 0 0
4 Hatav Bhavnagar 42.3944 0 0
TOTAL 36.1283 736.0136 4405946 5048179

Table 7: Khadsaliya-I Lignite Mining Project:Details of Area and Compensations paid
Sr.
No
Name of the
Project
Village
Name
Taluka
Name
Area in
ha
acquired
by GPCL
Area in
ha to be
acquired
by GPCL
Land
Compensa
tion paid
to
Khatedar
Amount
paid to
Khatedar
towards
R & R
1
Khadasaliya
-I
Khadasaliya Bhavnagar 131.7422 78.8335 15784846 20084314
2 Thalsar Bhavnagar 173.1837 83.5719 19187181 25943022
3 Lakhanka Bhavnagar 4.1675 23.0457 525594 711810
4 Morchand Ghogha 0 90.4285 0 0
TOTAL 309.0934 275.8796 35497621 46739146

National Environmental Engineering Research Institute
(Council of Scientific and Industrial Research)
Nehru Marg, Nagpur 440 020
(QCI / NABET Accreditation : Sr.No. 102 as per the list published on May 05, 2013)
Integrated Environmental Impact Assessment of
Proposed Open Cast Mining at Ghogha-Surka,
Khadsaliya-II and Khadsaliya-I Lignite Mines,
Bhavnagar District, Gujarat
p
Sponsor
Gujarat Power Corporation Limited, Gujarat
GHOGHA SURKA
K
H
A
D
S
A
L
I
Y
A

I
I
KHADSALIYA I
Bhumbli
Ghogha
Hatab
Khadsaliya II
Koliyak
Padava
Rajpara
Surkha
Thordi
Ramdasia Nadi
Padva
Pond
Bhawanipura
Pithalpur
Kareda
Chnaya
Malpar
Badi
Nagdhaniba
Valespur
Bhainswari
Lakhanka
Gundi
Nava Ratanpur
Juna Ratanpur
Rampur
B H A V N A G A R
D I S T R I C T
May, 2013
National Environmental Engineering Research Institute
(Council of Scientific and Industrial Research)
Nehru Marg, Nagpur 440 020
QCI / NABET Accreditation : Sr.No. 102 as per the list published on May 05, 2013)
May, 2013
Integrated Environmental Impact Assessment of
Proposed Open Cast Mining at Ghogha-Surka,
Khadsaliya-II and Khadsaliya-I Lignite Mines,
Bhavnagar District, Gujarat
Sponsor
Gujarat Power Corporation Limited, Gujarat
i
CONTENTS

Item Page No.
Contents i to vii
List of Figures viii to x
List of Tables xi to xii
List of Appendices xiii
List of Annexures xiii
Executive Summary ES1 ES24


Chapter 1: Introduction 1.1 to 1.20
1.1 Preamble 1.1
1.2 Mining of Minerals in India 1.2
1.3 Brief Proposed Project 1.3
1.4 Project Proponent 1.4
1.5 Project Benefits 1.5
1.6 Prior Environmental Clearance Process 1.5
1.7 Approved Terms of Reference (ToR) for EIA Study 1.6

1.7.1
Proposed Draft ToR for Environmental Impact
Assessment (EIA)
1.6
1.7.2 MoEF Approved ToR for EIA Study 1.9
Chapter 2: Project Description 2.1 to 2.54
2.1 Need of Proposed Lignite Mines Development 2.1
2.2 Proposed Mining Project 2.1
2.3 Proposed Mine Site Leasehold Area 2.2
2.3.1 Topography and Drainage Pattern 2.3
2.4 Geology 2.4
2.4.1 Regional Geology 2.4
2.4.2 Local Geology 2.5
2.5 Lignite Reserves at Proposed Mine Sites 2.6
2.5.1 Quality of Lignite 2.6
2.6 Type of Mining 2.7
2.6.1 Opencast Mining Technology Alternatives 2.8
2.7 Planned Mining Progress (first five years) 2.11
ii
Item Page No.
2.7.1 Estimated Life of Proposed Mines 2.14
2.7.2 Backfilling & Reclamation 2.15
2.8 Machineries 2.16
2.8.1 Overburden 2.16
2.8.2 Lignite 2.17
2.8.3 Mineral Benefication 2.19
2.9 Infrastructure 2.19
2.9.1 Roads and Culverts 2.19
2.9.2 Buildings 2.19
2.9.3 Water Supply 2.20
2.9.4 Power Supply 2.20
2.9.5 Telecommunication system 2.21
2.10 Manpower 2.21
2.11 Mine Closure Plan 2.21
2.11.1 Reasons for Closure 2.21
2.11.2 Statutory Obligation 2.21
2.11.3 Ghogha-Surka 2.21
2.11.4 Khadsaliya-II 2.22
2.11.5 Khadsaliya-I 2.22
Chapter 3: Description of Environment 3.1 to 3.101
3.1 Description of Project Site and Study Area 3.2
3.2 Land Environment 3.6
3.2.1 Soil Characteristics - Baseline status 3.6
3.2.2 Physical Properties of Soil 3.7
3.2.3 Chemical Properties of Soil 3.7
3.2.4 Agriculture 3.8
3.2.5 Land Use Pattern 3.8
3.2.6 Land Use / Land cover by Satellite Image Analysis 3.9
3.2.6.1 Methodology 3.9
3.2.6.2 Accuracy Assessment 3.10
3.2.6.3 Ground Truth 3.10
3.2.6.4 Land Use / Land Cover Classification Results 3.11
iii
Item Page No.
3.3 Water Environment 3.31
3.3.1 Water Requirement and Resource 3.31
3.3.2 Baseline Status 3.32
3.3.2.1 Surface Water Quality 3.32
3.3.2.2 Groundwater Quality 3.33
3.3.2.3 Bacteriological Characteristics 3.34
3.3.2.4 Biological Characteristics 3.34
3.4 Air Environment 3.53
3.4.1 Micrometeorology 3.53
3.4.2 Ambient Air Quality Monitoring 3.54
3.4.3 Baseline Status 3.54
3.5 Noise Environment 3.60
3.5.1 Community Noise Levels 3.60
3.5.2 Baseline status 3.61
3.5 Biological Environment 3.65
3.6.1 Reconnaissance 3.65
3.6.2 Survey Methodology 3.66
3.6.3 Flora of the Study Area 3.66
3.6.4 Plant Structure and Composition in Coastal Areas 3.67
3.6.4.1 Mangroves 3.68
3.6.5 Agriculture of the Study Area 3.68
3.6.6 Fauna of the Study Area 3.68
3.6.7 Fisheries 3.69
3.7 Socio-economic Environment 3.82
3.7.1 Reconnaissance Survey 3.82
3.7.2 Survey Methodology 3.83
3.7.3 Baseline Status 3.83
3.7.3.1 Demographic Structure 3.84
3.7.3.2 Infrastructure Resource Base 3.84
3.7.3.3 Economic Activity 3.85
3.7.3.4 Health Status 3.86
3.7.4 Socio-Economic Survey 3.86
iv
Item Page No.
3.7.5 Quality of Life 3.87
Chapter 4: Impact Assessment 4.1 to 4.70
4.1 Identification of Significant Impacts 4.1
4.2 Site Specific Impacts 4.4
4.2.1 Diversion of Seasonal Rivers/Drain 4.4
4.2.2 Irrigation Canal Diversion 4.4
4.2.3 Diversion of Roads 4.5
4.2.4 Special Studies as per Prescribed ToR 4.5
4.3 Adverse Impact Mitigation Measures 4.7
4.3.1 Dust Suppression 4.8
4.3.2 Mine Pit Water for Reuse 4.8
4.3.3 Top Soil Management 4.9
4.3.4 Infrastructure 4.9
4.3.5 Disposal of Mining Machinery 4.9
4.3.6 Safety and Security 4.9
4.4 Mine Operation Phase - Prediction of Impacts 4.10
4.4.1 Land Environment 4.10
4.4.1.1 Waste Disposal 4.11
4.4.2 Water Environment 4.12
4.4.2.1 Mine Wastewater 4.13
4.4.2.2 Mine Pit Water 4.13
4.4.2.3 Acidic Mine Drainage 4.14
4.4.2.4 Mine Water Treatment 4.14
4.4.2.5 Workshop Effluents 4.17
4.4.2.6 Estimated Water Balance 4.17
4.2.2.7 Domestic Wastewater treatment 4.17
4.2.2.8 Hydro-geological Study 4.20
4.2.2.9 Impact of Mining on Groundwater Regime 4.30
4.2.2.10 Rainwater Harvesting Systems 4.32
4.2.2.11 Rainwater Harvesting Scheme 4.33
4.4.3 Air Environment 4.36
4.4.3.1 Mine Area Emissions 4.36
v
Item Page No.
4.4.3.2 Micro-Meteorology 4.38
4.4.3.3 Air Quality Predictions 4.39
4.4.4 Noise Environment 4.47
4.4.4.1 Prediction of impacts due to lignite mining
activity
4.47
4.4.4.2 Noise Due to vehicular Traffic 4.48
4.4.5 Biological Environment 4.54
4.4.6 Socioeconomic Environment 4.55
4.4.6.1 Rehabilitation & Resettlement Plan (RRAP)
4.55
4.4.6.2 Compensation for Acquisition of Land and
Other Assets
4.59
4.4.6.3 Other Benefits to Land losers
4.60
4.4.6.4 Income Restoration with Employment and
Livelihood Opportunities
4.61
4.4.6.5 Implementation
4.64
4.4.6.6 Grievance Redressal
4.66
4.4.6.7 Monitoring
4.66
4.4.6.8 Prediction of Socio-economic Impacts
4.68
Chapter 5: Environmental Management Plan 5.1 to 5.23
5.1 Land Procurement and Pre-Mining Activities 5.1
5.2 Lignite Mines Operation Phase 5.2
5.2.1 Land Environment 5.2
5.2.1.1 Land Reclamation General Procedure 5.3
5.2.2 Water Environment 5.4
5.2.2.1 Mine Pit / Acid Mine Water 5.4
5.2.2.2 Acid Mine Drainage 5.4
5.2.2.3 Work Shop Effluents 5.5
5.2.3 Air Environment 5.5
5.2.3.1 Control of fugitive dust and CO levels 5.6
5.2.3.2 Mining Equipment 5.6
5.2.3.3 Haul Roads 5.7
vi
Item Page No.
5.2.3.4 Dumping Area 5.7
5.2.4 Noise Mitigation 5.7
5.2.5 Biological Environment 5.8
5.2.5.1 Biological Reclamation 5.8
5.2.5.2 Green belt Development 5.9
5.2.5.3 Guidelines for Plantations 5.11
5.2.6 Socioeconomic Environment 5.12
5.3 Post Project Environmental Monitoring 5.12
5.3.1 Land Environment 5.12
5.3.2 Water Environment 5.13
5.3.3 Air Environment 5.13
5.3.4 Noise Environment 5.14
5.4 Occupational Safety and Health 5.14
5.5 Environment Management Cell 5.15
5.6 Budgetary Provision for EMP 5.16
Chapter 6 : Additional Studies 6.1 to 6.34
6.1 Rapid Risk Assessment & Disaster Management Plan 6.1
6.1.1 Identification of Hazards 6.2
6.1.1.1 Slope Failure
6.1.1.2 Overburden
6.1.1.3 Effect of Haulage Truck Operation on Dump
Point Stability
6.3
6.1.1.4 Measures to Prevent the Danger of
Overburden
6.4
6.1.1.5 Measures to Prevent Accidents due to
Trucks/Dumpers
6.5
6.1.1.6 Dozer Procedure on Dump 6.6
6.1.1.7 Temporary Discontinuance 6.6
6.1.1.8 Economic Repercussions of Closure of Mine
and Manpower Retrenchments
6.7
6.1.1.9 Time schedule of Abandonment 6.7
6.1.1.10 Approach to Disaster Management Plan 6.7
6.2 Tsunami Potential Risk Assessment studies 6.13
6.2.1 Background 6.13
vii
Item Page No.
6.2.2
Past Tsunamis in the Arabian Sea and future possibilities
6.13

6.2.2.1 Tsunamigenic Earthquake Source Zones in
the Arabian Sea
6.15
6.2.3 Seismological / Geomorphological / Geologicalstudies of
the proposed area
6.20

6.2.3.1 Regional Seismicity
6.20

6.2.3.2 Tectonic Settings
6.21
6.2.4
Numerical Modeling on Tsunami
6.22

6.2.4.1 Data and Methodology
6.22

6.2.4.2 Tsunami generation model
6.24

6.2.4.3 Tsunami propagation
6.25

6.2.4.4 Inundation mapping
6.26
6.2.5
Discussion and Conclusions
6.26



viii
List of Figures

Fig. No Particulars Page No.
1.1 Identified Lignite Deposits in Gujarat State 1.10
1.2 Project Location Key Map 1.11
1.3 Prior Environmental Clearance Process for Category A Projects 1.12
1.4 Proposed Mines Study Area Map showing core zone and buffer
zone
1.13
2.1 Topography and Drainage Pattern at Proposed Mine Sites 2.23
2.2 Drainage Map of the Study area 2.24
2.3 Ghogha-Surka Mine and Vicinity Contour Map 2.25
2.4 Khadsaliya-II Mine and Vicinity Contour Map 2.26
2.5 Khadsaliya-I Mine and Vicinity Contour Map 2.27
2.6 Geological Sections across the Lignite blocks- West to East 2.28
2.7 Geological Sections across the Lignite blocks- North to South 2.29
2.8 Surface Plan of Ghogha-Surka Mine 2.30
2.9 Surface Plan of Khadsaliya-II Mine 2.31
2.10 Surface Plan of Khadsaliya-I Mine 2.32
2.11 Ghogha-Surka Mine Planned Pit Position at end of 5
th
Year 2.33
2.12 Khadsaliya-II Mine Planned Pit Position at end of 5
th
Year 2.34
2.13 Khadsaliya-I Mine Planned Pit Position at end of 5
th
Year 2.35
2.14 Conceptual Mining Plan Ghogha Surka 2.36
2.15 Conceptual Mining Plan Khadsaliya-II 2.37
2.16 Conceptual Mining Plan Khadsaliya-I 2.38
2.17 Proposed Lignite Stock Yard for Three Mines 2.39
2.18 Progressive Mine Closure Plan Ghogha Surka 2.40
2.19 Progressive Mine Closure Plan Khadsaliya-II 2.41
2.20 Progressive Mine Closure Plan Khadsaliya-I 2.42
3.1.1 Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of the Study Area 3.4
3.2.1 Soil Sampling Locations 3.13
3.2.2 False Colour Composite Covering 5 km Distance Around
Core Zone
3.14
3.2.3 False Colour Composite Covering 10 km Distance Around Core
Zone
3.15
3.2.4 Landuse/Landcover within 5 km radius around Proposed Lignite
Mines after ground truth
3.16
ix
Fig. No Particulars Page No.
3.2.5 Landuse / Landcover within 10 km radius around Proposed Lignite
Mines after ground truth
3.17
3.3.1 Water Quality sampling Locations 3.36
3.4.1 Air Quality Sampling Locations in Study Area 3.56
3.4.2 Windrose at Project Site during Study Period 3.57
3.5.1 Noise Sampling Locations in Study Area 3.62
3.6.1 Biological Survey Sampling Locations in Study Area 3.70
3.7.1 Socio-economic Survey Locations in Study Area 3.90
4.1.1 Comprehensive Impact Network for Proposed Lignite Mines 4.3
4.2.1 Roads, Drains and Irrigation Canal in Core Zone 4.6
4.4.1 Schematic Diagram for Treatment of Mine Water 4.16
4.4.2 Schematic Diagram for Treatment of Workshop Effluent 4.19
4.4.3
Model Domain
4.25
4.4.4 Discretisation of model domain (A) Plan, and sections across (B)
Ghogha-Surkha Block, (B) Khadsaliya-I Block (B) Khadsaliya-II Block
4.27
4.4.5 Water table contours after (A) 0 yr, (B) 1yr, (C) 3 yrs, and (D) 5yrs 4.31
4.4.6 Water level along EW and NS cross sections 4.32
4.4.7 Methodology Adopted for Air Pollution Modelling 4.41
4.4.8 Various Activities of Opencast Mines 4.42
4.4.9 Wind rose during study period 4.43
4.4.10
Isopleths of SPM Concentrations Over Study Region due to Line
Sources
4.44
4.4.11 Predicted Noise Contours within the Mining Site Ghogha-Surka 4.50
4.4.12 Predicted Noise Contours within the Mining Site Khadsaliya-I 4.51
4.4.13 Predicted Noise Contours within the Mining Site Khadsaliya-II 4.52
5.1
Environmental Management Plan of Ghogha-Surka
5.17
5.2
Environmental Management Plan of Khadsaliya-II
5.18
5.3
Environmental Management Plan of Khadsaliya-I
5.19
5.4
Schematic Design of Greenbelt around Proposed Mines
5.20
6.1 Tsunamigenic sources threatening India. Black box show the study
area
6.29
6.2 Rupture areas of past great earthquakes along Makran seduction
zone & Indus Delta
6.29
6.3 Earthquake distribution in and around the Bhavnagar region of
Gujarat occurred within last 200 years
6.30
6.4 Topography and bathymetry in and around lignite mining deposits 6.31
x
Fig. No Particulars Page No.

6.5
Initial vertical deformation of sea floor
6.32
6.6(a) Tsunami wave travel times at 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 min. Tsunami
amplitudes are in meters
6.33
6.6(b) Tsunami wave travel times at 180, 210, 228 min. Tsunami
amplitudes are in meters
6.34
6.7 Hourly travel -time chart of tsunami wave that resulted from the
Makran earthquake
6.35
6.8
Tsunami Waveforms at three lignite mining deposit sites
6.36
6.9 Directivity map for M8 in the central part of Makran earthquake,
Strike of 250
0
of the fault directs the tsunami towards western India
6.37
6.10 Possible inundations due to various wave heights (in meters) at
proposed Sites
6.38

xi
List of Tables

Table
No.
Particulars Page No.
1.1
MoEF Approved Terms of Reference (ToR) for EIA Study
and Compliance
1.14
2.1 Project Summary 2.43
2.2 Local Geology 2.45
2.3 Quality of Lignite 2.46
2.4 Constituents in lignite ash of the three mines 2.46
2.5 Criteria for Mineable lignite block 2.47
2.6 Details of Working Benches 2.48
2.7 Projected Progress of Mining 2.49
2.8 Year wise Details of Land Degradation and proposed reclamation 2.50
2.9 Ultimate Production Capacity and Overburden of Proposed
Lignite Mines
2.51
2.10 Details of loading equipments 2.52
2.11 Details of Hauling Equipment 2.52
2.12 Details of Ancillary Equipment 2.53
2.13 Estimated Manpower Requirements 2.54
3.1.1 Monthly Rainfall for the Period 2006 to 2010 at Bhavnagar 3.5
3.2.1 Existing Land cover Details 3.18
3.2.2 Soil Sampling Locations 3.18
3.2.3 Methods Followed for Analysis of Soil Samples 3.19
3.2.4 Physical Properties of Soil 3.20
3.2.5 Chemical Properties of Soil 3.21
3.2.6 Agriculture Crops in Study Area 3.22
3.2.7 Land Use Pattern in Villages under Study Area (within buffer
zone, 10 km)
3.23
3.2.8 Ground Truth Observation 3.25
3.2.9 Relative Occurrence of different Land use/ Land cover Classes in
Study Area
3.29
3.2.10 Area Occupied by Land use / Land cover Classes in Ghogha-
Surka, Khadsaliya-II an Khadsaliya-I
3.30
3.3.1 Description of Water Sampling Locations 3.37
3.3.2 Results of Surface Water Analysis 3.38
3.3.3 Ground Water Analysis Results 3.40
xii
Table
No.
Particulars Page No.
3.3.4 Sampling Locations for Aquatic Study 3.49
3.3.5 Phytoplankton Cell Count (No./Lit.) Across Sampling Locations 3.50
3.3.6 Zooplankton Standing Stock (No./Lit.) 3.51
3.3.7 Shannon Weiner Diversity Index Across Sampling Locations 3.52
3.4.1 Air Quality Sampling Locations 3.58
3.4.2 Methods Used for Ambient Air Quality Monitoring 3.59
3.4.3 Ambient Air Quality Monitoring 3.59
3.5.1 Noise Monitoring Locations 3.63
3.5.2 Ambient Noise Levels in Study Area 3.64
3.6.1 Biological Environment Sampling Locations 3.71
3.6.2 List of Flora found in Study Area 3.72
3.6.3 List of Agricultural Crops in Study Area 3.77
3.6.4 List of Fauna found in Study Area 3.78
3.6.5 List of Estimated Marine Fish Production (District : Bhavnagar
Centre: Bhavnagar)
3.81
3.6.6 Marine Fish Production (District : Bhavnagar Centre: Ghogha) 3.81
3.7.1 Socio-economic Survey Villages 3.91
3.7.2 Demographic Structure in Study Area 3.92
3.7.3 Infrastructure Resource Base in Study Area 3.94
4.4.1 Rainfall recharge in study area 4.22
4.4.2 Layers of the Model 4.28
4.4.3 Model input parameters 4.28
4.4.4 Mining Schedule for 5 years period 4.30
4.4.5 Illustrative Water Harvesting Potential for different land uses 4.33
4.4.6 RWH Potential v/s Water Requirement in Mining Blocks
(MCM/yr)
4.34
4.4.7 Emission Details for Line Sources at Proposed Lignite Mines 4.45
4.4.8
Micrometeorological Data Used for Prediction of Impacts
Winter season
4.46
4.4.9 Expected Noise from Mining Machinery 4.53
5.1 Plant Species suggested for Green belt Development 5.21
6.1 List of tsunamis / earthquakes that affected west coast of India
and vicinity
6.39


xiii

L Li i s st t o of f A Ap pp pe en nd di i c ce es s

Appendix Particulars
I Copies of mining plan approval letters received from Ministry of Coal,
Govt. of India



L Li i s st t o of f A An nn ne ex xu ur r e es s

Annexure Particulars
1 Rehabilitation & Resettlement Plan



E Ex xe ec cu ut t i i v ve e S Su um mm ma ar r y y
1.0 Introduction
The post independence era has witnessed comprehensive industrialization in the
country including Gujarat state. Gujarat has about 2,676 million tones of lignite, about 184
million tones of bauxite and about 2.5 million tones of manganese ore reserves.
Availability of lignite in Gujarat state, has led to the establishment of lignite based Thermal
Power Plants in the state to meet the growing energy demand in the state.
The Geology & Mining Department, Govt. of Gujarat has delineated about 20 km
long lignite belt, with 270 million tonnes of geological reserves in Bhavnagar district of
saurashtra region. The discovery of lignite deposits in the region of Ghogha and
Bhavnagar talukas of Bhavnagar District, has confirmed the possibility of opening at lignite
mines.
The joint venture company, Bhavnagar Energy Company limited (BECL) a
Government of Gujarat undertaking company is setting up a lignite based power plant of
about 500MW capacity. M/s Gujarat Power Corporation Ltd, proposed lignite mines at
Ghogha-Surka, Khadsaliya-II and Khadsaliya-I mainly to feed the fuel for BECL, a pithead
power plant.
To meet the enhanced requirement of lignite for 500 MW pithead power plant the
Ghogha-Surka mining plan was revised for producing 2.25 million TPY and, the approval
was obtained on 22.12.2009 and KhadsaliyaI mine plan was also revised to produce 1.00
million TPY and the respective approval was obtained on 18.12.2009. The third mine,
Khadsaliya-II mining plan was also approved at a design capacity of 0.75 million TPY on
14.01.2010.
M/s GPCL retained CSIR-National Environmental Engineering Research Institute
to undertake Environmental Impact Assessment study including preparation of
Environmental Management Plan. The first stage in prior environmental clearance
process, i.e. scoping of EIA study through ToR approval. For proposed three lignite mines
project approved ToRs have been obtained through MoEF letter No.J-11015/202/2010-
IA.II(M) Dated 23
rd
March, 2011. The present EIA report consists of the results of the
studies carried out in accordance with the provisions given in the MoEF EIA guidance
manual as well as the approved ToR for proposed project.


ES.2

2.0 Project Description
The proposed Ghogha-Surka mine is designed at 2.25 million TPY, Khadsaliya-I at
1.00 million TPY and Khadsaliya-II mine at 0.75 million TPY lignite extraction / production
capacity. The lignite mining is proposed through mechanised opencast mining method
using conventional mining equipment hydraulic shovel and dumper combination and
transportation of lignite by dumpers to stock yard located at KhadsaliyaII lease area.
The total design capacity of proposed three mines will be 4.0 million TPY lignite
production. There will be no processing of lignite involved, however blending of lignite
from three mines will be carried out before feeding to the pithead power plant.
Proposed Mine Site
x The Mine lease areas of Ghogha-Surka (1355 ha) and Khadsaliya-I (711 ha) Block
falls within the jurisdiction of Ghogha and Bhavnagar talukas of Bhavnagar district
and Khadsaliya-II (914 ha) falls within Bhavnagar taluka.
x The mining lease area Ghogha-Surka is located between latitude 21
0
36'00 to
21
0
38'45N and longitude 72
0
11'55 to 72
0
1500E, Khadsaliya-I located between
latitude 21
0
31'25 to 21
0
33'15N and longitude 72
0
13'30 to 72
0
1455E and
Khadsaliya II in between latitude 21
0
33'15 to 21
0
36'30N and longitude 72
0
13'40
to 72
0
1525E.
x The proposed mine sites are well connected by all weather roads like Lakhanka to
Bhavnagar via Thalsar, Koliyak and Ratanpur villages and Padva to Ghogha.
Bhavnagar, the District Headquarters is about 27 km in the north west of Ghogha-
Surka block, 35 km due south of the Khadsaliya-I block and 29 km in the north
west of Khadsaliya-II block.
x Bhavnagar is the nearest railway station which is a terminal for the broad gauge
railway line connecting Bhavnagar with Ahmedabad and Bombay via Dholka and
Surendranagar Junction. There is an airport at Bhavnagar and sea ports at
Bhavnagar and Ghogha.
The proposed mines area in general is an elliptical basin like structure and is
bounded by Gulf of Khambhat in the east side.
The lignite will be used at the power plant after blending the lignite produced from
Ghogha-Surka and KhadsaliyaI & Khadsaliya-II to maintain the calorific value of lignite
feed and also with a view of conservation. Accordingly the life of mines has been worked
out as 25, 22 and 20 years for Ghogha-Surka and KhadsaliyaI & Khadsaliya-II
ES.3

respectively. The life of Khadsaliya-II mine is 20 years but the life of power plant is
considered as 25 years.
Reclamation of mined out area is proposed to be commenced partly in third year
and continue till end of mine life. The mined out area is proposed to be backfilled by
overburden removal in a systematic manner.
The strata being soft and clayey in nature, can easily be excavated directly and
loaded into the dumpers and does not require any blasting. The OB excavated will be
stacked separately on surface as OB waste dump. The top soil having a varying thickness
up to 0.3 m to 0.5 m, 1.2 m and 0.5 m will be stacked separately on the surface in
Ghogha-Surka, Khadsaliya-II and Khadsaliya-I respectively. The OB as well as top soil
dump sites were selected on non lignite bearing area.
3.0 Description of Environment
The project proponent, i.e. M/s Gujarat Power Corporation Limited (GPCL) retained
M/s Kadam Environmental Consultants (KEC), Vadodara to carry out the pre-project
(baseline) environmental studies within the impact zone for Land, Water, Air, Noise,
Biological components and got the socioeconomic study done through Sociology
Department, Bhavnagar University, Bhavnagar.
Project Site and Study Area (Core & Buffer Zones)
The lease area for Ghogha-Surka (1355.0 ha), Khadsaliya-I (711.4 ha) and
Khadsaliya-II (914.2 ha) mines, which are adjacent to each other, fall within the jurisdiction
of Bhavnagar and Ghogha Talukas in Bhavnagar district. The maximum ground
elevations in individual mine sites are: 45 m, 48.1 m, 60 m, while the ground elevation
variations are at Ghogha-Surka: 16-45m; KhadsaliyaI: 19.2-48.1m; and Khadsaliya-II: 10-
60m above MSL as per Survey of India toposheets. The mining lease area of Ghogha-
surka consists mostly of agricultural lands.
The project land area identified for Ghogha-Surka mining presents an elliptical
basin like structure bounded by Gulf of Khambhat with opening on eastern direction. The
area has, in general, plain topography in northern part while the southern part exhibits
undulated topography with low mounds. The general slope of the Ghogha-Surka ground is
towards Malesari River, which flows from west to east direction, bisecting the lease area,
and finally debouching into Gulf of Khambhat. The river Ramdasia flows through the
Khadsaliya-I and Khadsaliya-II lease area.
ES.4

There is no reserve forest in the core zone as well as in buffer zone surrounding
the proposed mine sites. The sea coast is at >1.5 km in eastern direction of the core zone
(three mines). The climate of the area is mostly tropical monsoon type. Annual rainfall
data shows wide variation and ranged between 851 mm and 141 mm. Reconnaissance of
study area was undertaken as part of the baseline studies for air, water, land, noise,
biological and socio-economic components of environment.
Baseline Status
The pre-project (baseline) status of environmental quality studies were carried out
by M/s KEC, Vadodara through field surveys for individual components during winter
season (November 2011 - January 2012) covering 10 km radial distance around the
proposed lignite mine sites.
Land Environment
x Soil characteristics were studied at Sixteen (16) villages in the study area. Standard
methods are followed for collection and analysis of soil samples.
x The texture of the soil in the study area is predominately Sandy loam, Sandy Clay
loam and medium loam with medium water holding capacity. The water holding
capacity in the soil samples ranged: 32.88 - 80.23%. The bulk density of the soil in the
study area is in the range of 0.73 to 1.49 g/cc. The porosity of soils is in the range of
48 to 63%. Sand content in the soil of the study area varies from 10.28% (in Koliyak)
to 71.28% (in Khadsaliya-I). The pH of the soil in the study area is moderately alkaline
in reaction having pH in the range of 7.26 to 8.61, except the soils of Khadsaliya-II
with a near neutral pH value of 6.88. The EC for the soil samples are in the range of
82.70 to 1379 moh/cm. Soluble state in the soil viz., calcium and magnesium were
in the range of 0.08 - 1.64 gm/kg and 0.05 to 1.39 gm/kg respectively. Sodium and
potassium in the soils are varies from 0.11 to 3.84 gm/kg and 0.04 to 0.42 gm/kg
respectively. The cation exchange capacity of the soil samples of the study area
ranged from 13.20 to 18.40 meq/100gm, which is within the range. SAR of soil
samples of the study area ranged from 0.24 to 3.76.
x The land use/land cover within study area has been derived from remote sensing
satellite image analysis. Wasteland is the most dominating feature in both 5 km & 10
km boundary around study area. It covers about 44.35 and 36.04 % of the area, in 5 &
10 km boundary, respectively. This followed by agriculture land occupying 17.98 and
15.86% of the land, in 5 and 10km boundary area, respectively.

ES.5

Water Quality
x The prevailing (pre-project) status of water quality has been assessed at 3 locations for
surface water resources and 18 sampling locations for ground water in the study area.
x During the study period, the physico-chemical characteristics of surface water
samples at different locations indicate pH: 8.01-8.39; conductivity, TDS, chloride and
sodium are in high concentrations for Ghogha pond whereas other two surface water
locations conductivity is 616 to 1540 mhos/cm and TDS is 380 to 924 mg/L
respectively; total Alkalinity: 250-320 mg/L; total Hardness 190-370 mg/L (except
Ghogha pond: 1940 mg/L); Calcium hardness: 82-600 mg/L; Sulphates: 30-296 mg/L;
Potassium: 4.6-131.2 mg/L; Chlorides: 145 to 359 mg/L (except at Ghogha pond:
11089 mg/L); Sodium: 46.7 to 119 mg/L (except at Ghogha pond: 7346 mg/L).
x Nutrients in terms of Nitrates and Total phosphates were observed from 0.08-11.98
mg/L and 0.24-1.48 mg/L respectively. The levels of DO, B.O.D and COD were
observed in the range 4.6-5.1 mg/L, 13-55 mg/L and 16-77 mg/L respectively. Padva
pond and Malesari river in the study area can be classified as C class per CPCB
classification of inland surface water of IS 229-1982.
x In ground water samples, physical parameters such as pH, TDS and Conductivity are
found in the ranges 7.39-8.5; 332-2384 mg/L and 472-3690 Pmhos/cm respectively.
Inorganic parameters such as Total Alkalinity, Total Hardness, Chloride, Sulphate,
Sodium, Potassium and Fluoride are in the range of 120-340 mg/L; 130-900 mg/L; 55-
862 mg/L; 7-273 mg/L; 13-410.9 mg/L; 0.7 to 21.7 mg/L and 0.01-0.56 mg/L
respectively. The results of nutrient and demand parameters show that Phosphate in
the range of 0.11-1.19 mg/L and Nitrate in the range of BDL-67.49 mg/L was
observed. The levels of DO were observed in the range: 2 - 3 mg/L. The BOD is <2
mg/L respectively.
x The heavy metal concentration observed in surface water samples were Chromium:
0.008 mg/L; Nickel: 0.004 mg/L in all the three locations. Cadmium: 0.003 mg/L;
Manganese: 0.01mg/L; Zinc: 0.004-0.018 mg/L in all the three locations. Copper:
<0.01 mg/L; Iron: 0.850-0.140 mg/L (except at Malesari river is 1.137 mg/L); Lead:
<0.04 mg/L in all three locations.
x The heavy metal concentrations in ground water samples have been observed as:
Chromium: <0.001 mg/L; Nickel: 0.02-0.07 mg/L; Cadmium: <0.001 mg/L;
Manganese: 0.0007-0.007 mg/L; Zinc: 0.002-0.07 mg/L; Copper: 0.003-0.08 mg/L;
ES.6

Iron: 0.01-5.6 mg/L (except Bhuteshwar: 5.6 mg/L) and Lead: 0.02 mg/L in all the
sampling locations.
x The total coliform and faecal coliform were observed in the ranges: 23-27 MPN/100ml
and 8 - 17 MPN/100ml in surface water samples whereas in ground water sources
they were below 2 MPN/100ml.
Air Environment
The baseline ambient air quality status with respect to conventional air pollutants, viz.
PM
10
, PM
2.5
, SO
2
, NOx have been assessed through 12 monitoring locations at and around
the proposed project site upto 10 km radial distance.
The high volume samplers with PM
10
separation facility fabricated according to
NEERIs design and fine dust samplers based on cascade impactor principle were used
for ambient air sampling. The PM
10
and PM
2.5
concentrations were derived

by gravimetric
method. The gaseous pollutants SO
2
and NO
x,
concentrations were analysed following
standard wet chemical methods.
The hourly micrometeorological data from continuous records have been used to
derive windrose and analysis of prevailing wind pattern during study period. . The overall
windrose diagram shows that the predominant wind direction is from WNW. The calm
condition is observed to be around 16.42%.
The results of field surveys within study area during the study period are
summarised as follows:
x The ambient temperature varied between 7.5C-31.7C with an average of 21.1C
and relative humidity was recorded up to 96%
x The maximum 24 hourly concentrations of PM
10
at different locations were found in the
range 113-185 g/m
3
during study period. Average concentrations of PM
2.5
ranged
between 36 and 47 g/m
3
.
x The 24 hourly average levels of SO
2
concentrations at individual locations are in the
range: 5.1-7.7 g/m
3
, while the maximum concentrations are observed 16.6 g/m
3
.
x The 24 hourly average levels of NO
X
at individual locations are in the range from
10.1 g/m
3
to13.2 g/m
3
, while the 98 percentile concentrations are 42.5 g/m
3
.
ES.7

Ambient Noise Levels
The baseline ambient noise levels have been monitored at 21 locations within the
study area using precision noise level meters. The observations during study period are as
follows
x The average noise levels at different villages in study area vary from 51.6 - 64.4
dB(A) in day time and 45.1 - 50.6 dB(A) during the night time
x The ave