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Definition There are several types of area bounded by a curve and the xaxis. As examples; area bounded by the curve and the x-axis, area bounded by the curve and the y-axis, the area between two functions and area bounded by a function whose sign changes. The area of a region bounded by a graph of a function, the xaxis, and two vertical boundaries can be determined directly by evaluating a definite integral. If f(x) ≥ 0 on [ a, b], then the area ( A) of the region lying below the graph of f(x), above the x-axis, and between the lines x = a and x = b is

Figure 1 Finding the area under a non-negative function.

If f(x) ≤ 0 on [ a, b], then the area ( A) of the region lying above the graph of f(x), below the x-axis, and between the lines x = a and x = b is

Figure 2 Finding the area above a negative function.

If f(x) ≥ 0 on [ a, c] and f(x) ≤ 0 on [ c, b], then the area ( A) of the region bounded by the graph of f(x), the x-axis, and the lines x = a and x = b would be determined by the following definite integrals:

Figure 3 The area bounded by a function whose sign changes.

Note that in this situation it would be necessary to determine all points where the graph f(x) crosses the x-axis and the sign of f(x) on each corresponding interval. For some problems that ask for the area of regions bounded by the graphs of two or more functions, it is necessary to determine the position of each graph relative to the graphs of the other functions of the region. The points of intersection of the graphs might need to be found in order to identify the limits of integration. As an example, if f(x) ≥ g( x) on [ a, b], then the area ( A) of the region between the graphs of f(x) and g( x) and the lines x = a and x = b is

Figure 4 The area between two functions

Note that an analogous discussion could be given for areas determined by graphs of functions of y, the y-axis, and the lines y = a and y = b. Example 1: Find the area of the region bounded by y = x2, the x-axis, x = –2, and x = 3. Because f(x) ≥ 0 on [–2,3], the area ( A) is

Example 2: Find the area of the region bounded by y = x3 + x2 – 6 x and the x-axis. Setting y = 0 to determine where the graph intersects the x-axis, you find that

Because f ( x) ≥ 0 on [–3,0] and f ( x) ≤ 0 on [0,2] (see Figure 5 ), the area ( A) of the region is

Figure 5 Diagram for Example 2.

Example 3: Find the area bounded by y = x2 and y = 8 – x2. Because y = x2 and y = 8 – x2, you find that

Hence, the curves intersect at (–2,4) and (2,4). Because 8 – x2 ≥ x2 on [–2,2] (see Figure 6 ), the area ( A) of the region is

Figure 6 Diagram for Example 3.

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Lesson plan for form 6 secondary school in order to find the area bounded by a curve and the x-axis. Find the area bounded by the curve and the x-axis.

Learning outcomes: At the end of this unit students will be able to; Find the area bounded by a curve, the x-axis and the ordinates x = a and x = b when the area is on one side of the x-axis. Prior knowledge: Understand the relationship between the area under a curve and the definite integral. Teaching aids: Graph paper. Procedure: 1. Teacher will explain roughly about area bounded by showing examples with the aid of slide show of Microsoft power point software. a. Sketch the curve. b. Find the two pints where the curve cuts the x-axis. c. Apply the area. 2. Teacher will divide students in the group of 5. 3. Students are asked to find the area bounded by the curve from the given questions by using correct steps. 4. Students will discuss the questions in class. 5. Exercises regarding the topic will be given individually. 6. The teacher will make conclusion of the topic.

SMK BANDAR BARU SUNGAI BULOH 47000 SUNGAI BULOH, SELANGOR.

Appendix 1

Name: ____________________________

Class: ____________

1. Find the area underneath the curve y = x2 + 2 from x = 1 to x = 2.

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1.

SMK BANDAR BARU SUNGAI BULOH 47000 SUNGAI BULOH, SELANGOR.

Appendix 2

Name: ____________________________

Class: ____________

2. Find the area bounded by y = x2 − 4, the x-axis and the lines x = -1 and x =2.

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SMK BANDAR BARU SUNGAI BULOH 47000 SUNGAI BULOH, SELANGOR.

Appendix 3

Name: ____________________________

Class: ____________

3. What is the area bounded by the curve y = x3, x = -2 and x = 1?

3. Question 1 Solution

Question 2 Solution

Question 3 Solution NOTE: In each of Case (1), (2) and (3), the curves are easy to deal with by summing elements L to R:

We are (effectively) finding the area by horizontally adding the areas of the rectangles, width dx and heights y (which we find by substituting values of x into f(x)). So

(with absolute value signs where necessary).

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SMK BANDAR BARU SUNGAI BULOH 47000 SUNGAI BULOH, SELANGOR.

Appendix A

Name: ____________________________ Area function

Class: ____________

1a define A(x) to be the area bounded by the x-axis and the function f(x) = 3 between the y-axis and the vertical line at x. ( see the diagram )

A(1) = _________________________ A(2) = _________________________ A(3) = _________________________ A(4) = _________________________

And, in general, A(x) =_______________________________ ( a formula )

Example 1: Step 1: Define A (x) to be the area bounded by the x-axis and the function f(x) = 1/r between the liner x = 1 and the vertical line at x. Based on your work in problem 1 A’(x) = ____________________ Computer A(1) = _______________________ Computer A (x) = ______________________

Step 2: So the area under f(x) = 1/x between x=1 and x =2 equal to in (2). Outline this area o the graph. Well use estimates of this area to computer approximations of In(2). Step 3:

Slice the area up in to 4 pieces by drawing 3 evenly spaced vertical lines from the x-axis up to the curve.

Step 4 : Using the left side of each slice as the height, sketch in 4 rectangles in your graph. What are the x-coordinates of the sides of the rectangle? Plug these x-coordinates into f(x) =1/x to computer the heights of the rectangles. Find the areas of the 4 rectangles and add them up. This is your first approximation of the area under the curve, and In(2). Is it an over-estimate or an under-estimate?

Step 5: Using the right side of each slice as the height, sketch in 4 rectangles in your graph. Find the area of these rectangles and add them up. This your second approximation of the area under the curve, and In(2). Is it an over-estimate or an under-estimate?

Step 6: Take the average of your two estimate to get a new estimate of In(2). How does it computer with the value given by your calculator?

Step 7: Use the midpoint of each slice to determine the height and sketch in the resulting 4 rectangles. Use them to approximate In(2). Can you tell if you are getting an over-estimate or and under-estimate? Which of your four estimate gives you the closest answers to the value given by your calculator?

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Conduct the tutorial class to week students on the topic learning programming.

A factory manufactured two types of souvenirs: toy and key chain, which are made of plastic and rubber. To make 1 unit of toy, 1 unit plastic and 1 unit of rubber are needed. For 1 unit of key chain, 5 units of plastic and 2 units of rubber are needed. The daily amount of plastic and rubber available for production are 400 and 1100 units respectively. The daily production capacity of factory for toys and key chains are 150 and 360 respectively. The net profit obtained from toys and key chains are RM5 and RM4 per unit respectively. How many of toys and key chains should be produced by the manufacturer in order to obtain maximum profit? Formulate this problem as a linear program to maximized the profits obtained. Solution: Step 1 Understanding the problem

Student must read the questions carefully until they understand what is the requirement of questions given. The problem is to determine the number of toys and key chains to be produced by the manufacturer in order to obtain maximum profit. Step 2 Identifying all the variables

Students need to identify or observe the information given and find the related information in simple sentences to understand. Consider x as the number of units of toy to produce and y as the number of units of key chain to produce.

Step 3

Identifying the objective function and all the constraints

From the information given, x units of plastic will be required to produce x units of toy and y units of plastic will be required to produce y units of key chain. So, the total amount of plastic used to produced to produce x units of toy and y units of key chain is (x + y) units. The maximum amount of plastic used per day cannot exceed 400 units. This condition can expressed algebraically as the inequality x + y ≤ 400. This inequality is known as a constraint for the plastic resource. Similarly, to produce x units of toy and y units of key chains, where profit obtained from the sales of toys and key chains are RM5 and RM4 per unit respectively, the total amount of rubber required is (5x + 2y) units and this quantity cannot exceed 1100 units per day. So, the constraint for the rubber resource is (5x + 2y) ≤ 1100. The production capacity of toys is 150 units per day. This means the factory cannot manufacture more than 150 units of toy daily. This requirement is represented by the inequality x ≤ 150. Similarly, the production capacity for key chain is represented by the inequality y ≤ 360.

The total amount of profit obtained from selling x units of toy and y units of key chain is RM (5x + 4y), and this amount is to be maximized. The variables x and y cannot be negative values since the represented quantities to be produced. This is represented by the inequalities x ≥ 0 and y ≥ 0.

Therefore, the mathematical formulation of the problem is given as follows: Maximize z = 5x + 4y Subject to x + y ≤ 400 5x + 2y ≤ 1100 x ≤ 150 y ≤ 360 x≥0,y≥0 CI constraint objective function

These inequality formulas will ease the students to clarify the questions given.

REFERENCES Aisah Ali, Nor Hayati Md. Yusof, HBMT4403, Teaching of Mathematics for Form Six Secondary School, July 2009, Open University Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. David F Treagust, Reinders Devit, Barry J Fraser, (1996 ). Improving

Teaching and Learning in Sciences and Mathematics, Teachers College Press, New York. Lilian C M c Dermott, In Electronic Journal Of Mathematics Education , Vol 2, No 2,- December 1997. Tey Kim Soon, Goh Choon Booy, Tan Ah Geok, Matematik STPM, Sukatan S & T, 1995, Penerbitan Pelangi Sdn. Bhd, Johor Bahru.

http://www.cliffsnotes.com/WileyCDA/CliffsReviewTopic/topicArticleId39909,articleId-39905.html>. http://www.intmath.com/Applications-integration/2_Area-under-curve.php