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Military history of African Americans

Military history of African Americans


The military history of African Americans spans from the arrival of the first black slaves during the colonial history of the United States to the present day. There has been no war fought by or within the United States in which African Americans did not participate, including the Revolutionary War, the War of 1812, the Mexican-American War, the Civil War, the Spanish American War, the World Wars, the Korean War, the Vietnam War, the Gulf War, and the current wars in Afghanistan and Iraq, as well as other minor conflicts.

The 332nd Fighter Group attends a briefing in Italy in 1945.

Revolutionary War
African-Americans as slaves and free blacks, served on both sides during the war. Black soldiers served in northern militias from the outset, but this was forbidden in the South, where slave-owners feared arming slaves. Lord Dunmore, the Royal Governor of Virginia, issued an emancipation proclamation in November 1775, promising freedom to runaway slaves who fought for the British; Sir Henry Clinton issued a similar edict in New York in 1779. Over 100,000 slaves escaped to the British lines, although possibly as few as 1,000 served under arms. Many of the rest served as orderlies, mechanics, laborers, servants, scouts and guides, although more than half died in smallpox epidemics that swept the British forces, and many were driven out of the British lines when food ran low. Despite Dunmore's promises, the majority were not given their freedom. Many Black Loyalists' descendants now live in Canada.
Crispus Attucks is seen by some as a patriot of the pre-Revolutionary War era. As part of a rioting mob, he was killed in 1770 during an attack on British soldiers guarding the custom house which came to be known as the Boston Massacre.

In response, and because of manpower shortages, Washington lifted the ban on black enlistment in the Continental Army in January 1776. All-black units were formed in Rhode Island and Massachusetts; many were slaves promised freedom for serving in lieu of their masters;

Military history of African Americans another all-African-American unit came from Haiti with French forces. At least 5,000 African-American soldiers fought as Revolutionaries, and at least 20,000 served with the British. Peter Salem and Salem Poor are the most noted of the African American Patriots during this era, while Black Loyalist Colonel Tye became one of the most successful commanders of the war. Black volunteers also served with various of the South Carolina guerrilla units, including that of the "Swamp Fox", Francis Marion, half of whose force sometimes consisted of free Blacks. These Black troops made a critical difference in the fighting in the swamps, since they were immune to malaria through sickle-cell anemia, and kept Marion's guerrillas effective even when many of his White troops were down with malaria or yellow fever. The first black American to fight in the Marines was John Martin, also known as Keto, the slave of a Delaware man, recruited in April 1776 without his owner's permission by Captain of the Marines Miles Pennington of the Continental brig USS Reprisal. Martin served with the Marine platoon on the Reprisal for a year and a half and took part in many ship-to-ship battles including boardings with hand-to-hand combat, but he was lost with the rest of his unit when the brig sank in October 1777.[1] At least 12 other black men served with various American Marine units in 17761777; more may have been in service but not identified as blacks in the records. However, in 1798 when the United States Marine Corps (USMC) was officially re-instituted, Secretary of War James McHenry specified in its rules: "No Negro, Mulatto or Indian to be enlisted".[1] Marine Commandant William Ward Burrows instructed his recruiters regarding USMC racial policy, "You can make use of Blacks and Mulattoes while you recruit, but you cannot enlist them."[1] This policy was in line with long-standing British naval practice which set a higher standard of unit cohesion for Marines so that they would remain loyal, maintain shipboard discipline and help put down mutinies.[1] The USMC maintained this policy until 1942.[2] [3]

War of 1812
During the War of 1812, about one-quarter of the personnel in the American naval squadrons of the Battle of Lake Erie were black, and portrait renderings of the battle on the wall of the Nation's Capitol and the rotunda of Ohio's Capitol show that blacks played a significant role in it. No legal restrictions regarding the enlistment of blacks were placed on the Navy because of its chronic shortage of manpower. The law of Painting of Battle of Lake Erie depicting one of 1792, which generally prohibited enlistment of blacks in the Army Perry's African American oarsmen in the boat and became the United States Army's official policy until 1862. The only [4] another African American sailor in the water. exception to this Army policy was Louisiana, which gained an exemption at the time of its purchase through a treaty provision, which allowed it to opt out of the operation of any law, which ran counter to its traditions and customs. Louisiana permitted the existence of separate black militia units which drew its enlistees from freed blacks. A militia unit, The Louisiana Battalion of Free Men of Color, and a unit of black soldiers from Santo Domingo offered their services and were accepted by General Andrew Jackson in the Battle of New Orleans, a victory that was achieved after the war was officially over.[5]

Military history of African Americans

Mexican War
A number of blacks in the Army during the Mexican War were servants of the officers who received government compensation for the services of their servants or slaves. Also, soldiers from the Louisiana Battalion of Free Men of Color participated in this war. Blacks also served on a number of naval vessels during the Mexican War, including the U.S.S. Treasure, and the U.S.S. Columbus.[5]

U.S. Civil War


The history of African Americans in the U.S. Civil War is marked by 186,097 (7,122 officers, 178,975 enlisted)[6] African American men, comprising 163 units, who served in the Union Army during the Civil War, and many more African Americans served in the Union Navy. Both free African Americans and runaway slaves joined the fight. On the Confederate side, blacks, both free and slave, were used for labor, but the issue of whether to arm them, and under what terms, became a major source of debate amongst those in the South. At the start of the war, a Louisiana Confederate militia unit composed of free blacks was raised, but never accepted into Confederate service. On March 13, 1865 the Confederate Congress enacted a statute to allow the enlistment of African Americans but fewer than fifty were ever recruited. Many blacks fought unofficially as armed servants or bodyguards following their masters into battle or as local militia resisting enemy armies.[7]

A company of 4th USCT

Indian Wars
From the 1870s to the early 20th century, African American units were utilized by the United States Government to combat the Native Americans during the Indian Wars. Perhaps the most noted among this group were the Buffalo Soldiers: 9th Cavalry Regiment 10th Cavalry Regiment 24th Infantry Regiment 25th Infantry Regiment 27th Cavalry Regiment[8]

Buffalo Soldiers of the 25th Infantry Regiment, 1890

28th Cavalry Regiment[8] [9] [10]

Military history of African Americans At the end of the U.S. Civil War the army reorganized and authorized the formation of two regiments of black cavalry with the designations 9th and 10th U. S. Cavalry. Two regiments of infantry were formed at the same time. These units were composed of black enlisted men commanded by white officers such as Benjamin Grierson, and, occasionally, an African-American officer such as Henry O. Flipper. From 1866 to the early-1890s these regiments served at a variety of posts in the southwest United States and Great Plains regions. During this period they participated in most of the military campaigns in these areas and earned a distinguished record. Thirteen enlisted men and six officers from these four regiments earned the Medal of Honor during the Indian Wars. In addition to the military campaigns, the "Buffalo Soldiers" served a variety of roles along the frontier from building roads to escorting the U.S. mail.

Spanish American War


After the Indian Wars ended in the 1890s, the regiments continued to serve and participated in the Spanish-American War (including the Battle of San Juan Hill), where five more Medals of Honor were earned.[11] They took part in the 1916 Punitive Expedition into Mexico and in the Philippine-American War. The Spanish-American War's General Shafter preferred his "Buffalo Soldiers" to their white counterparts.

Units

Segregated company during the Spanish-American War Camp Wikoff 1898

In addition to the African Americans who served in Regular Army units during the Spanish American War, five African American Volunteer Army units and seven African American National Guard units also served. Volunteer Army: 7th United States Volunteer Infantry (Colored Troops) 8th United States Volunteer Infantry (Colored Troops) 9th United States Volunteer Infantry (Colored Troops) 10th United States Volunteer Infantry (Colored Troops) 11th United States Volunteer Infantry (Colored Troops) National Guard: 3rd Alabama Volunteer Infantry (Colored Troops) 8th Illinois Volunteer Infantry (Colored Troops)[12] Companies A and B, 1st Indiana Volunteer Infantry (Colored Troops) 23rd Kansas Volunteer Infantry (Colored Troops) 3rd North Carolina Volunteer Infantry (Colored Troops) 9th Ohio Volunteer Infantry (Colored Troops) 6th Virginia Volunteer Infantry (Colored Troops)

Of these units, only the 9th U.S., 8th Illinois, and 23rd Kansas served outside the United States during the war. All three units served in Cuba and suffered no losses to combat.

Military history of African Americans

World War I
The U.S. armed forces remained segregated through World War I. Still, many African Americans eagerly volunteered to join the Allied cause following America's entry into the war. By the time of the armistice with Germany on November 1918, over 350,000 African Americans had served with the American Expeditionary Force on the Western Front. Most African American units were largely relegated to support roles and did not see combat. Still, African Americans played a notable role in America's war effort. One of the most distinguished units was the 369th Infantry Regiment, known as the "Harlem Hellfighters", which was on the front lines for six months, longer than any other American unit in the war. 171 members of the 369th were awarded the Legion of Merit.

Officers of the 366th Infantry Regiment returning home from World War I service.

Corporal Freddie Stowers of the 371st Infantry Regiment that was seconded to the 157th French Army division called the Red Hand Division in need of reinforcement under the command of the General Mariano Goybet was posthumously awarded a Medal of Honor[13] the only African American to be so honored for actions in World War I. During action in France, Stowers had led an assault on German trenches, continuing to lead and encourage his men even after being twice wounded. Stowers died from his wounds, but his men continued Soldiers of the 369th (15th N.Y.) who won the Croix de Guerre for gallantry in action, 1919 the fight and eventually defeated the German troops. Stowers was recommended for the Medal of Honor shortly after his death, but the nomination was, according to the Army, misplaced. Many believed that the recommendation was intentionally ignored due to institutional racism in the Armed Forces. In 1990, under pressure from Congress, the Department of the Army launched an investigation. Based on findings from this investigation, the Army Decorations Board approved the award of the Medal of Honor to Stowers. On April 24, 199173 years after he was killed in actionStowers' two surviving sisters received the Medal of Honor from President George H.W. Bush at the White House. The success of the investigation leading to Stowers' Medal of Honor later sparked a similar review that resulted in six African Americans being posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor for actions in World War II. Vernon Baker was the only recipient who was still alive to receive his award.[14]

Units
Some of the most notable African American units which served in World War I were: 92nd Infantry Division 366th Infantry Regiment 93rd Infantry Division 369th Infantry Regiment ("Harlem Hellfighters"; formerly the 15th New York National Guard) 370th Infantry Regiment (formerly the 8th Illinois)[15] [16] 371st Infantry Regiment 372nd Infantry Regiment

A complete list of African-American units that served in the war is published in the book Willing Patriots: Men of Color in World War One. The book is cited in the "Further Reading" section of this article.

Military history of African Americans

Period between the world wars


Even though the U.S. government was nominally neutral in the wars waged by Fascists against Ethiopia and Fascists and Nazis against the Spanish Republic in the mid 1930s, African Americans found it hard to be neutral and many became Antifascist.[17]

Second Italo-Abyssinian War


On October 4, 1935, Fascist Italy invaded Ethiopia. Being the only non-colonized African country besides Liberia, the invasion of Ethiopia caused a profound response amongst African Americans.[18] African Americans organized to raise money for medical supplies, and many volunteered to fight for the African kingdom.[19] Within eight months, however, Ethiopia was overpowered by the advanced weaponry and mustard gas of the Italian forces. Many years later Haile Selassie I would comment on the efforts: "We can never forget the help Ethiopia received from Negro Americans during the crisis...It moved me to know that Americans of African descent did not abandon their embattled brothers, but stood by us."[19]

Spanish Civil War


When General Franco rebelled against the newly-established secular Spanish Republic, a number of African Americans volunteered to fight for Republican Spain. Many African Americans who were in the Abraham Lincoln Brigade had Communist ideals. Among these, there was Vaughn Love who went to fight for the Spanish loyalist cause because he considered Fascism to be the "enemy of all black aspirations." African-American activist and World War I veteran Oliver Law, fighting in the Abraham Lincoln Brigade during the Spanish Civil War, is believed to have been the first African-American officer to command an integrated unit of soldiers.[20] James Peck was an African American man from Pennsylvania who was turned down when he applied to become a military pilot in the US. He then went on to serve in the Spanish Republican Air Force until 1938.[21] Peck was credited with shooting down 5 Aviacin Nacional planes, 2 Heinkel He-51s from the Legion Condor and 3 Fiat CR.32 Fascist Italian fighters. But there are sources claiming that he shot down only one.[22] Salaria Kee was a young African American nurse from Harlem Hospital who served as a military nurse with the American Medical Bureau in the Spanish Civil War. She was one of the two only African American female volunteers in the midst of the war-torn Spanish Republican areas.[23] When Salaria came back from Spain she wrote the pamphlet A Negro Nurse in Spain and tried to raise funds for the beleaguered Spanish Republic.[24]

Military history of African Americans

World War II
We call upon the president and congress to declare war on Japan and racial prejudice in our country. Certainly we should be strong enough to whip them both. The Pittsburgh Courier
[25]

Despite a high enlistment rate in the U.S. Army, African Americans were not treated equally. Racial tensions existed. At parades, church services, in transportation and canteens the races were kept separate. Many soldiers of color served their country with distinction during World War II. There were 125,000 African Americans who were overseas in World War II. Famous segregated units, such as the Tuskegee Airmen and 761st Tank Battalion proved their value in combat, leading to desegregation of all U.S. Armed Forces by order of President Harry S. Truman in July 1948 via Executive Order 9981. Benjamin O. Davis, Jr. served as commander of the famed Tuskegee Airmen during the War. He later went on to become the first African American general in the United States Air Force. His father, Benjamin O. Davis, Sr., had been the first African American Brigadier General in the Army (1940).

Doris Miller, a Navy mess attendant, was the first African American recipient of the Navy Cross, awarded for his actions during the attack on Pearl Harbor. Miller had voluntarily manned an anti-aircraft gun and fired at the Japanese aircraft, despite having no prior training in the weapon's use.

Admiral Chester W. Nimitz pins Navy Cross on Doris Miller, at ceremony on board warship in Pearl Harbor, 27 May 1942

In 1944, the Golden Thirteen became the Navy's first African American commissioned officers. Samuel L. Gravely, Jr. became a commissioned officer the same year; he would later be the first African American to command a US warship, and the first to be an admiral. The Port Chicago disaster on July 17, 1944, was an explosion of about 2,000 tons of ammunition as it was being loaded onto ships by black Navy soldiers under pressure from their white officers to hurry. The explosion in Northern California killed 320 military and civilian workers, most of them black. The aftermath led to the Port Chicago Mutiny, the only case of a full military trial for mutiny in the history of the U.S. Navy against 50 Afro-American sailors who refused to continue loading ammunition under the same dangerous conditions. The trial was observed by the then young lawyer Thurgood Marshall and ended in conviction of all of the defendants. The trial was immediately and later criticized for not abiding by the applicable laws on mutiny, and it became influential in the discussion of desegregation. In 1945, Frederick C. Branch became the first African-American United States Marine Corps officer.

Military history of African Americans

Units
Some of the most notable African American Army units which served in World War II were: 92nd Infantry Division 366th Infantry Regiment 93rd Infantry Division 369th Infantry Regiment 370th Infantry Regiment 371st Infantry Regiment 2nd Cavalry Division 4th Cavalry Brigade 9th Cavalry Regiment 10th Cavalry Regiment 5th Cavalry Brigade 27th Cavalry Regiment 28th Cavalry Regiment Air Corps Units 332d Fighter Group (Tuskegee Airmen) Non Divisional Units Infantry Units 555th Parachute Infantry Battalion Cavalry/Armor Units US Military Academy Cavalry Squadron 5th Reconnaissance Squadron 758th Tank Battalion 761st Tank Battalion 784th Tank Battalion Field Artillery Units 46th Field Artillery Brigade.[26] 184th Field Artillery Regiment, Illinois National Guard. 333rd Field Artillery Regiment.[27] 349th Field Artillery Regiment[28] 350th Field Artillery Regiment[29] 351st Field Artillery Regiment[30] 353rd Field Artillery Regiment[31] 578th Field Artillery Regiment[32] 333rd Field Artillery Battalion 349th Field Artillery Battalion 350th Field Artillery Battalion 351st Field Artillery Battalion 353rd Field Artillery Battalion 578th Field Artillery Battalion 593rd Field Artillery Battalion
Several Tuskegee airmen at Ramitelli, Italy, March 1945.

The Tuskegee Airmen were the first African-American pilots in United States military history; they flew with distinction during World War II. Portrait of Tuskegee airman Edward M. Thomas by photographer Toni Frissell, March 1945.

Military history of African Americans 594th Field Artillery Battalion 595th Field Artillery Battalion 596th Field Artillery Battalion 597th Field Artillery Battalion 598th Field Artillery Battalion 599th Field Artillery Battalion 600th Field Artillery Battalion 686th Field Artillery Battalion 777th Field Artillery Battalion 795th Field Artillery Battalion 930th Field Artillery Battalion, Illinois National Guard
12th AD soldier with German prisoners of war, April 1945.

931st Field Artillery Battalion, Illinois National Guard 969th Field Artillery Battalion 971st Field Artillery Battalion 973rd Field Artillery Battalion 993rd Field Artillery Battalion 999th Field Artillery Battlaion Tank Destroyer Units 614th Tank Destroyer Battalion 646th Tank Destroyer Battalion 649th Tank Destroyer Battalion 659th Tank Destroyer Battalion 669th Tank Destroyer Battalion 679th Tank Destroyer Battalion 795th Tank Destroyer Battalion 827th Tank Destroyer Battalion 828th Tank Destroyer Battalion 829th Tank Destroyer Battalion 846th Tank Destroyer Battalion

Two segregated units were organized by the United States Marine Corps: 51st Defense Battalion 52nd Defense Battalion

Medal of Honor recipients


On January 13, 1997, President Bill Clinton, in a White House ceremony, awarded the nation's highest military honorthe Medal of Honorto seven African-American servicemen who had served in World War II.[33] The only living recipient was: First Lieutenant Vernon Baker. The posthumous recipients were: Major Charles L. Thomas First Lieutenant John R. Fox Staff Sergeant Ruben Rivers Staff Sergeant Edward A. Carter, Jr.

Military history of African Americans Private First Class Willy F. James, Jr. Private George Watson

10

Blue discharges
African American troops faced discrimination in the form of the disproportionate issuance of blue discharges. The blue discharge (also called a "blue ticket") was a form of administrative discharge created in 1916 to replace two previous discharge classifications, the administrative discharge without honor and the "unclassified" discharge. It was neither honorable nor dishonorable.[34] Of the 48,603 blue discharges issued by the Army between December 1, 1941 and June 30, 1945, 10,806 were issued to African Americans. This accounts for 22.2% of all blue discharges, when African Americans made up just 6.5% of the Army in that time frame.[35] Blue discharge recipients frequently faced difficulties obtaining employment[36] and were routinely denied the benefits of the G. I. Bill by the Veterans Administration (VA).[37] In October 1945, Black-interest newspaper The Pittsburgh Courier launched a crusade against the discharge and its abuses. Calling the discharge "a vicious instrument that should not be perpetrated against the American Soldier", the Courier rebuked the Army for "allowing prejudiced officers to use it as a means of punishing Negro soldiers who do not like specifically unbearable conditions". The Courier specifically noted the discrimination faced by homosexuals, another group disproportionately discharged with blue tickets, calling them "'unfortunates' of the Nation...being preyed upon by the blue discharge" and demanded to know "why the Army chooses to penalize these 'unfortunates' who seem most in need of Army benefits and the opportunity to become better citizens under the educational benefits of the GI Bill of Rights".[38] The Courier printed instructions on how to appeal a blue discharge and warned its readers not to quickly accept a blue ticket out of the service because of the negative effect it would likely have on their lives.[39] The House Committee on Military Affairs held hearings in response to the press crusade, issuing a report in 1946 that sharply criticized its use and the VA for discriminating against blue discharge holders.[40] Congress discontinued the blue discharge in 1947,[41] but the VA continued its practice of denying G. I. Bill benefits to blue-tickets.[37]

Integration of the armed forces


On July 26, 1948, President Harry S. Truman signed Executive Order 9981 integrating the military and mandating equality of treatment and opportunity. It also made it illegal, per military law, to make a racist remark. Desegregation of the military was not complete for several years, and all-black Army units persisted well into the Korean War. The last all-black unit wasn't disbanded until 1954. In 1950, Lieutenant Leon Gilbert of the still-segregated 24th Infantry Regiment was court martialed and sentenced to death for refusing to obey the orders of a white officer while serving in the Korean War. Gilbert maintained that the orders would have meant certain death for himself and the men in his command. The case led to worldwide protests and increased attention to segregation and racism in the U.S. military. Gilbert's sentence was commuted to twenty and later seventeen years of imprisonment; he served five years and was released. The integration commanded by Truman's 1948 Executive Order extended to schools and neighborhoods as well as military units. Fifteen years after the Executive Order, Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara issued Department of Defense Directive 5120.36. "Every military commander", the Directive mandates, "has the responsibility to oppose discriminatory practices affecting his men and their dependents and to foster equal opportunity for them, not only in areas under his immediate control, but also in nearby communities where they may gather in off-duty hours."[42] While the directive was issued in 1963, it was not until 1967 that the first non-military establishment was declared off-limits. In 1970 the requirement that commanding officers first obtain permission from the Secretary of Defense was lifted, and areas were allowed to be declared housing areas off limits to military personnel by their commanding officer.[43]

Military history of African Americans

11

Korean War
Jesse L. Brown became the U.S. Navy's first black aviator in October 1948. He was killed when his plane was shot down during the Battle of Chosin Reservoir in North Korea. He was unable to eject from his crippled F4U Corsair and crash-landed successfully. His injuries and damage to his aircraft prevented him from leaving the plane. A white squadron mate, Thomas Hudner, crash-landed his F4U Corsair near Brown and attempted to extricate Brown but could not and Brown died of his injuries. Hudner was awarded the Medal of Honor for his efforts. The U.S. Navy honored Jesse Brown by naming an escort ship after himthe U.S.S. Jesse L. Brown.[44] Two enlisted men from the 24th Infantry Regiment (still a segregated unit), Cornelius H. Charlton and William Thompson, posthumously received the Medal of Honor for actions during the war.

Vietnam War
The Vietnam War saw many great accomplishments by many African Americans, including twenty who received the Medal of Honor for their actions. African Americans during the conflict suffered casualty rates slightly higher than their percentage of the total population.[45] In 1967, President Lyndon B. Johnson presented the Medal of Honor to U.S. Army Specialist Five Lawrence Joel, for a "very special kind of couragethe unarmed heroism of compassion and service to others." Joel was the first living African American to receive the Medal of Honor since the MexicanAmerican War. He was a medic who in 1965 saved the lives of U.S. troops under ambush in Vietnam and defied direct orders to stay to the ground, walking through Viet Cong gunfire and tending to the troops despite being shot twice himself. The Lawrence Joel Veterans Memorial Coliseum in Winston-Salem, North Carolina is dedicated to his honor.[46] On August 21, 1968, with the posthumous award of the Medal of Honor, U.S. Marine James Anderson, Jr. became the first African-American U.S. Marine recipient of the Medal of Honor for his heroic actions and sacrifice of life. On December 10, 1968, U.S. Army Captain Riley Leroy Pitts became the first African American commissioned officer to be awarded the Medal of Honor. His medal was presented posthumously to his wife, Mrs. Eula Pitts, by President Lyndon B. Johnson.

Post-Vietnam to present day


Further information: Gulf War and War in Iraq In 1989, President George H. W. Bush appointed Army General Colin Powell to the position of Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, making Powell the highest ranking officer in the United States military. Powell was the first, and is so far the only, African American to hold that position. The Chairman serves as the chief military adviser to the President and the Secretary of Defense. During his tenure Powell oversaw the 1989 United States invasion of Panama to oust General Manuel Noriega and the 1990 to 1991 Gulf War against Iraq. General Powell's four-year term as Chairman ended in 1993. General William E. "Kip" Ward was officially nominated as the first commander of the new United States Africa Command on July 10, 2007 and assumed command on October 1, 2007.

General Colin Powell briefs President George H. W. Bush and his advisors on the progress of the Gulf War

The current Sergeant Major of the Marine Corps, Carlton W. Kent, is African American; as were the previous two before him.

Military history of African Americans

12

The American military and Affirmative Action


Since the end of military segregation and the creation of an all-volunteer army, the American military has seen the representation of African Americans in its ranks rise precipitously.[47]

Military history of African Americans in popular culture


The following is a list of notable African American military members or units in popular culture.
Release Date (or Year) 1945 Name (or event) Notability Reference

Wings for This Man

a "propaganda" short about the Tuskegee Airmen was produced by the First Motion Picture Unit of the Army Air Forces. The film was narrated by Ronald Reagan. film featuring the 54th Union regiment composed of African American soldiers. Starring Denzel Washington and Matthew Broderick A film about the early life of the baseball star in the army, particularly his court-martial for insubordination regarding segregation. In the episode entitled "Brown Bombshell", Estelle (portrayed by actress Rosetta LeNoire) is determined to share the stories of her late fighter-pilot husband and World War II's Tuskegee Airmen to an uninterested Winslow clan. Eventually, she is invited to share her stories to Eddie's American history class. Produced and aired by HBO and starring Laurence Fishburne. The Tuskegee Airmen are represented.

[48]

1989

Glory

1990

The Court-Martial of Jackie Robinson Family Matters ABC TV series

January 31, 1992

[49]

1996 1997

The Tuskegee Airmen G.I. Joe action figure series Mutiny JAG

[50] [51]

1999 2001-2005

TV made film of the 1944 Port Chicago disaster The Commander Peter Ulysses Sturgis Turner (played by Scott Lawrence) is an African-American navy Officer in the JAG TV series. Former submarine officer, he serves now as lawyer in JAG The television drama features the incident a film about a World War II prisoner of war (POW) based on the novel by John Katzenbach [52]

2002 2002 2004

JAG: "Port Chicago" Hart's War

Silver Wings and Civil this documentary film was the first film to feature information regarding the "Freeman Field Rights: The Fight to Mutiny", the struggle of 101 African-American officers arrested for entering a white officer's Fly club. George Lucas announced he was planning a film about the Tuskegee Airmen. In his release Lucas says, "They were the only escort fighters during the war that never lost a bomber so they were, like, the best." Book, by Stephen Ambrose where the Tuskegee Airmen were mentioned and honored. a play by Michael Bradford depicting African American World War II soldiers and the troubles they encounter upon returning home to the Deep South. a PBS documentary television series that portrays African-American servicemen and women and their dedicated allegiance to the United States military.

May 17, 2005 Red Tails

[53]

Wild Blue Willy's Cut & Shine

[54]

2010

For Love of Liberty

[55]

Military history of African Americans

13

Notes
[1] Shaw, Henry I., Jr.; Donnelly, Ralph W. (2002). "Blacks in the Marine Corps" (http:/ / www. marines. mil/ news/ publications/ Documents/ Blacks in the Marine Corps PCN 19000306200_1. pdf). Washington, DC: History and Museums Division, Headquarters USMC. . Retrieved June 1, 2011. [2] Morris, Steven (December 1969). "How Blacks Upset The Marine Corps: 'New Breed' leathernecks are tackling racist vestiges" (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=7qA975ldsm4C& pg=PA58). Ebony (Johnson Publishing Company) 25 (2): 5558. ISSN0012-9011. . [3] MacGregor, Morris J. (1981). Center of Military History, U.S. Army. ed. Integration of the Armed Forces, 19401965 (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=RIsbUaQf-DkC& pg=PA100). Government Printing Office. pp.100102. ISBN0160019257. . [4] U.S. Senate: Art & History Home > Battle of Lake Erie (http:/ / www. senate. gov/ artandhistory/ art/ artifact/ Painting_33_00008. htm) [5] African American History & the Civil War(CWSS) (http:/ / www. itd. nps. gov/ cwss/ history/ aa_history. htm) [6] Herbert Aptheker Negro Casualties in the Civil War The Journal of Negro History, Vol. 32, No. 1. (Jan., 1947), pp. 12. [7] http:/ / southernheritage411. com/ bc. shtml [8] "Historic California Posts: Camp Lockett" (http:/ / www. militarymuseum. org/ CpLockett. html). . Retrieved 2008-01-17 [9] "The 28th Cavalry: The U.S. Army's Last Horse Cavalry Regiment" (http:/ / www. buffalosoldiers-lawtonftsill. org/ 28-cav. htm). . Retrieved 2007-04-24 [10] "Defending the Border: The Cavalry at Camp Lockett" (http:/ / www. sandiegohistory. org/ journal/ 93spring/ border. htm). . Retrieved 2008-01-17 [11] Heitland, Jason. "The Role of the Buffalo Soldiers During the Plains Indian Wars" (http:/ / www. us7thcavcof. com/ BuffaloSoldiers. html). http:/ / www. us7thcavcof. com/ GCompany. html. . Retrieved 12 July 2011. [12] McCard, Harry Stanton; Turnley, Henry (1899). History of the Eighth Illinois United States Volunteers (http:/ / www. archive. org/ details/ historyofeighthi00mcca). Chicago: E. F. Harman & Co.. [13] Freddie Stowers,Corporal, United States Army (http:/ / www. arlingtoncemetery. net/ fstowers. htm) [14] "African American World War II Medal of Honor Recipients" (http:/ / www. history. army. mil/ html/ moh/ mohb. html). U.S. Army Center of Military History. 20110203 [last update]. . Retrieved July 18, 2011-07-18. [15] Unknown (1919). Complete History of the Colored Soldiers in the World War. New York: Bennett & Churchill [16] Sweeney, W. Allison (1919). "History of the American Negro in the Great World War" (http:/ / www. gutenberg. org/ etext/ 16598). [17] African Americans in the Spanish Civil War: "This Ain't Ethiopia, But It'll Do." Edited by Danny Duncan Collum. Victor A. Berch, chief researcher. New York: G.K. Hall and Co., 1992. [18] Aric Putnam Ethiopia is Now:J. A. Rogers and the Rhetoric of Black Anticolonialism During the Great Depression Rhetoric & Public Affairs - Volume 10, Number 3, Fall 2007, p. 419 [19] Gerald A. Danzer, J. Jorge Klor De Alva, Larry S. Krieger (2003). The Americans: Reconstruction to the 21st Century. McDougal Littell. [20] Rowley, Hazel (2008). Richard Wright: The Life and Times (http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=uvbJ-FhhLNgC). University of Chicago Press. p.97. ISBN0226730387. . [21] Abraham Lincoln Brigade - James Peck (http:/ / www. alba-valb. org/ volunteers/ browse/ james-lincoln-holt-peck) [22] Michael Lee Lanning, The African-American Soldier: From Crispus Attucks to Colin Powell, Birch Lane Press, 1997. ISBN 1559724048 (http:/ / www. strategypage. com/ bookreviews/ 140. asp) [23] Gail Lumet Buckley, American Patriots: The Story of Blacks in the Military from the Revolution to Desert Storm, ISBN 9780375502798 [24] Reilly, Salaria Kee (1913-1991) (http:/ / www. blackpast. org/ ?q=aah/ reilly-salaria-kee-1913-1991) [25] The Pittsburgh Courier December 13, 1941 pg. 1 [26] Unit subsequently reorganized and redesignated the 46th Field Artillery Group. [27] Unit subsequently reorganized and redesignated as the 333rd Field Artillery Group. [28] Unit subsequently reorganized and redesignated as the 349th Field Artillery Group. [29] Unit subsequently reorganized and redesignated as the 350th Field Artillery Regiment [30] Unit subsequently reorganized and redesignated the 351st Field Artillery Group. [31] Subsequently, unit reorganized and redesignated the 353rd Field Artillery Group [32] Unit subsequently reorganized and redesignated the 578th Field Artillery Group [33] "World War II African American Medal of Honor Recipients" (http:/ / www. history. army. mil/ html/ moh/ mohb. html). United States Army Center of Military History. . [34] Jones, p. 2 [35] McGuire, p. 146 [36] Shilts, p. 164 [37] Brub, p. 230 [38] Quoted in Brub, p. 233 [39] Brub, p. 241 [40] Brub, p. 234 [41] Associated Press (1947-05-21). "Army to abandon 'blue' discharge". Jefferson City (MO) Daily Capital News: p.1. [42] Department of Defense Directive 5120.36 [43] Heather Antecol and Deborah Cobb-Clark, Racial and Ethnic Harassment in Local Communities. October 4, 2005. p 8

Military history of African Americans


[44] "USS Jesse L. Brown" (http:/ / www. history. navy. mil/ photos/ sh-usn/ usnsh-j/ de1089. htm). Naval Historical Center, Department of the Navy. . [45] Michael Kelley (July 1998). "Myths & Misconceptions: Vietnam War Folklore" (http:/ / www. deanza. edu/ faculty/ swensson/ essays_mikekelley_myths. html). The Vietnam Conflict. De Anza College. . Retrieved 2 March 2011. [46] "Who is Lawrence Joel?" (http:/ / www. ljvm. com/ lawrencejoel. html). Lawrence Joel Veterans Memorial Coliseum - Winston-Salem, North Carolina. . Retrieved 2007-01-13. [47] John Sibley Butler. Affirmative Action in the Military Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 523, Affirmative Action Revisited (Sep., 1992), pg. 196. [48] Wings for This Man (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0816708/ ) at the Internet Movie Database [49] "TV.com Family Matters Episodes: Season 3" (http:/ / www. tv. com/ family-matters/ show/ 474/ episode_guide. html?season=3& tag=season_dropdown;dropdown;2). . Retrieved 2007-01-01. [50] The Tuskegee Airmen (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0114745/ ) at the Internet Movie Database [51] 1997 G.I. Joe Classic Collection (http:/ / www. mastercollector. com/ neat/ gijoe/ hasbro/ 1997joes. html) [52] Siver Wings and Civil Rights: The Flight to Fly (http:/ / www. fight2fly. com/ ) [53] Exclusive: Lucas looks to the future (http:/ / www. filmfocus. co. uk/ newsdetail. asp?NewsID=335) [54] Ambrose, Stephen Edward The Wild Blue: the men and boys who flew the B-24s over Germany, Simon and Schuster, 2001, Chapter 9, p. 27 [55] For Love of Liberty (http:/ / www. forloveofliberty. org/ )

14

References
Brub, Allan (1990). Coming Out Under Fire: The History of Gay Men and Women in World War Two. New York, The Penguin Group. ISBN 0452265983 (Plume edition 1991). Jones, Major Bradley K. (January 1973). "The Gravity of Administrative Discharges: A Legal and Empirical Evaluation" The Military Law Review (http://www.docstoc.com/docs/856136/ The-Military-Law-Review-Vol-59-(Jan-73)) 59:126. McGuire, Phillip (ed.) (1993). Taps for a Jim Crow Army: Letters from Black Soldiers in World War II. University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 0813108225. Shilts, Randy (1993). Conduct Unbecoming: Gays & Lesbians in the U.S. Military Vietnam to the Persian Gulf. New York, St. Martin's Press. ISBN 031209261X

Further reading
Dalessandro, Robert J.; Gerald Torrence (2009). Willing Patriots: Men of Color in the First World War. Schiffer. ISBN978-0-7643-3233-3. Gibson, Truman K., Jr.; Steve Huntley (2005). Knocking Down Barriers: My Fight for Black America (http:// www.nupress.northwestern.edu/title.cfm?ISBN=0-8101-2292-8). Northwestern University Press. ISBN0-8101-2292-8. Hhn, Maria; Martin Klimke (2010). A Breath of Freedom: The Civil Rights Struggle, African American GIs, and Germany. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN978-0230104730. Miller, Richard E. (2004). The Messman Chronicles: African Americans in the U.S. Navy, 19321943. Naval Institute Press. ISBN1-55750-539-X.

Military history of African Americans

15

External links
"African Americans in the U.S. Army" (http://www.army.mil/africanamericans/). U.S. Army. "Story of America's Black Patriots" (http://www.forloveofliberty.net). U.S. Army. Simpson, Diana (compiled by) (February 1999). "African-Americans in Military History" (http://www.au.af. mil/au/aul/bibs/afhist/aftoc.htm). Air University Library, Maxwell Air Force Base. "Black History at Arlington National Cemetery" (http://www.arlingtoncemetery.org/historical_information/ black_history.html). Historical Information. Arlington National Cemetery. Retrieved 2007-07-04. Black Confederates documentary book (https://scv.secure-sites.us/store/BLACKCONFED.jpg) "Black Military World" (http://www.blackmilitaryworld.com/). "Black Military History: African Americans in the service of their country" (http://www.fatherryan.org/ blackmilitary/). Father Ryan High School. "A Chronology of African American Military Service: From the Colonial Era through the Antebellum Period" (http://www.ufphq.com/aams.htm). First Kansas Colored Infantry flag, Civil War, Kansas Museum of History (http://www.kshs.org/cool2/ coolflg1.htm) The "Colored" Soldiers, Kansas Historical Society (http://www.kshs.org/exhibits/flags/flags4.htm)

Colonial history of the United States


The colonial history of the United States covers the history from the start of European settlement and especially the history of the thirteen colonies of Britain until they declared independence in 1776. In the late 16th century, England, France, Spain and the Netherlands launched major colonization programs in eastern North America.[1] Many early attemptsnotably the English Lost Colony of Roanokeended in failure, and everywhere the death rate of the first arrivals was very high, but key successful colonies were established. European settlers came from a variety of social and religious groups. No aristocrats settled permanently, but a number of adventurers, soldiers, farmers, and tradesmen arrived. Ethnic diversity was an American characteristic as the Dutch of New Netherland, the Swedes and Finns of New Sweden, the English Quakers of Pennsylvania, the English Puritans of New England, the English settlers of Jamestown, and the "worthy poor" of Georgia, came to the new continent and built colonies with distinctive social, religious, political and economic styles. Occasionally one colony took control of another (during wars between their European parents), but unlike in Nova Scotia they did not expel the previous inhabitants, but instead lived side by side in peace. There were no major civil wars among the 13 colonies, and the two chief armed rebellions (in Virginia and New York) were short-lived failures. The four distinct regions were: New England, the Middle Colonies, the Chesapeake Bay Colonies (Upper South) and the Lower South. Some historians add a fifth region, the frontier, which was never separately organized.[1] By the time European settlers arrived around 1600-1650, the majority of the Native Americans living in the eastern United States had been decimated by new diseases, introduced to them decades before by explorers and sailors.[2] For a timeline of the colonial history of the United States, see Timeline of Colonial America.

Goals of colonization
Colonizers came from European kingdoms with highly developed military, naval, governmental and entrepreneurial capabilities. The Spanish and Portuguese centuries-old experience of conquest and colonization during the Reconquista, coupled with new oceanic ship navigation skills, provided the tools, ability, and desire to colonize the New World. England, France and the Netherlands started colonies in both the West Indies and North America. They had the ability to build ocean-worthy ships, but did not have as strong a history of colonization in foreign lands as did Spain. However, English entrepreneurs gave their colonies a base of merchant-based investment that needed

Colonial history of the United States much less government support.[3]

16

Mercantilism
Mercantilism was the basic policy imposed by Britain on its colonies from the 1660s. Mercantilism meant that the government and merchants based in England became partners with the goal of increasing political power and private wealth, to the exclusion of other empires and even merchants based in its own colonies. The government protected its London-based merchantsand kept others outby trade barriers, regulations, and subsidies to domestic industries in order to maximize exports from and minimize imports to the realm. The government had to fight smuggling, especially by American merchants, some of whose activities (which included direct trade with the French, Spanish, Dutch, and Portuguese) were classified as such by the Navigation Acts. The goal of mercantilism was to run trade surpluses, so that gold and silver would pour into London. The government took its share through duties and taxes, with the remainder going to merchants in Britain. The government spent much of its revenue on a superb Royal Navy, which not only protected the British colonies but threatened the colonies of the other empires, and sometimes seized them. Thus the British Navy captured New Amsterdam (New York) in 1664. The colonies were captive markets for British industry, and the goal was to enrich the mother country.[4]

Religious persecution
The prospect of religious persecution by authorities of the crown and the Church of England prompted a significant number of colonization efforts. People fleeing persecution by King Charles I and Anglican Archbishop William Laud were responsible for settling most of New England, and the Province of Maryland was founded in part to be a haven for Roman Catholics.

Early colonial failures


Numerous failed colonies were attempted--they died because of disease, starvation or wars with Indians or other European powers. Spain had numerous failed attempts, including Lucas Vzquez de Aylln in Georgia in 1526; Pnfilo de Narvez in Florida in 1528-36; Pensacola in West Florida 1559-61; Fort San Juan in North Carolina 1567-68; and the Ajacan Mission 1570-71, in Virginia.[1] The French failed at Parris Island, South Carolina in 1562-63; Fort Caroline, Florida, in 1564-65; and Saint Croix Island, Maine 1604-5.[1] The most notable English failures were the "Lost Colony of Roanoke" (1587-90) in North Carolina and Popham Colony in Maine (1607-8). It was at the Roanoke Colony that the first English child, Virginia Dare, was born in the Americas; her fate is unknown. The Kingdom of Scotland tried to establish a colony in Central America called "New Caledonia" in the 1690s; it was a total failure.

Spanish colonies
At one time, Spain claimed and controlled North America west of the Mississippi and south of the Canadian border. Additionally, Spain claimed what are now the states of Louisiana, Florida, and parts of Georgia and Mississippi.

Florida
Spain established several small outposts in Florida. The most important, St. Augustine, Florida, founded in 1565, was repeatedly attacked and burned, but was the first permanent European settlement in what is now the continental United States. Pirate attacks were unrelenting against small outposts as well as St. Augustine. The British and their colonies repeatedly made war with Spain and its colonies and outposts. South Carolina launched large scale raiding expeditions in the early 18th century, which effectively destroyed the Spanish mission system. St. Augustine and

Colonial history of the United States Pensacola survived, but English-allied Indians such as the Yamasee conducted slave raids throughout Florida, killing or enslaving most of the region's natives.[1] In the mid-18th century, invading Seminoles from Georgia killed most of the remaining local Indians. Florida had about 3,000 Spaniards when Britain took control in 1763. Nearly all quickly left. Even though control was restored to Spain in 1783, Spain sent no more settlers or missionaries to Florida. The United States took possession in 1819.[5]

17

New Mexico
Throughout the 16th century, Spain explored the southwest from Mexico with the most notable explorer being Francisco Coronado whose expedition rode throughout modern New Mexico, Arizona, southern Colorado, the panhandle of Oklahoma, and Kansas. The first colonization was under Don Juan de Oate in 1598 where the first settlement in San Juan de Los Caballeros near Espaola, New Mexico and later Santa Fe, New Mexico around 1609. The second colonization came in 1692 under Diego de Vargas (after the Pueblo Revolt briefly drove the Spanish out). Ownership was by Spain (223 years) and Mexico (25 years) until 1846, when the American Army of the West took over in the Mexican-American War. About of a third of the population in the 21st century descends from the Spanish settlers.[1] [6]

California
Further information: Spanish missions in CaliforniaandTerritorial evolution of California Spanish explorers sailed along the coast of present day California from the early 16th century to the mid-18th century, but no settlements were established over those centuries. Spain, from 1769 until the independence of Mexico in 1820, sent missionaries and soldiers to Alta California who created a series of Franciscan missions, accompanied by presidios (forts), pueblos (settlements)s, and ranchos (land grant ranches), along the southern and central coast of California. Father Junpero Serra, a Franciscan missionary, founded the first missions in Spanish upper The ruins of the Spanish Mission San Juan Capistrano Las Californias, starting with Mission San Diego de Alcal in in California. 1769. Through the Spanish and Mexican eras they eventually comprised a series of 21 missions to spread Christianity among the local Native Americans, linked by El Camino Real ("The Royal Road"). They were established to convert the indigenous peoples of California, while protecting historic Spanish claims to the area. The missions introduced European technology, livestock, and crops. The Indian Reductions 'converted' the native peoples into groups of Mission Indians, which also forced many from their ancestral homelands and cultures, to be laborers in the missions and on their, and the ranchos, surrounding lands. [6] At the time of the 1846 U.S. acquisition of California as a territory from Mexico, the missions had previously been secularized and their lands transferred to hundreds of Mexican land grant ranchos from Northern to Southern California. The indigenous Native American population was around 150,000; the Californios (Mexican era Californians) around 10,000; with the rest immigrant Americans and other nationalities involved in trade and business in California.

Colonial history of the United States

18

New Mexico
Further information: Santa Fe de Nuevo MxicoandSpanish missions in New Mexico

Texas
Further information: Spanish Texas,Mexican Texas,andSpanish missions in Texas

New France
New France was the vast area explored and claimed by France. It was composed of several colonies. They were Acadia, Canada, Newfoundland, Louisiana, le-Royale (present-day Cape Breton Island), and le Saint Jean (present-day Prince Edward Island). Although all of these territories would come under British control in the 18th century, only portions of Canada and Louisiana became parts of the United States.

Pays d'en Haut


By 1660, French fur trappers based in Montreal pushed (orange) in contrast to the borders of contemporary Canada and the west along the Great Lakes and founded Green Bay, United States. Saint Ignace, Sault Sainte Marie, Vincennes, and Detroit in 1701. By 1773, the population of Detroit was 1,400.[7] At the end of the War for Independence in 1783, the region south of the Great Lakes formally became part of the United States.
The 1750 possessions of Britain (pink), France (blue), and Spain

Illinois Country
The Illinois country by 1752 had a populaion of 2,573.[8] Most of the population was concentrated around Kaskaskia, Cahokia, and Sainte Genevieve.

Louisiana
French Louisiana, first settled at Mobile in 1702, started its growth when 7,000 French immigrants arrived in New Orleans in 1718.[9] The areas around New Orleans and west of the Mississippi were given to Spain in 1760.[10] Louisiana was taken back by France in 1800, and sold to the United States in 1803 in the Louisiana Purchase.[11]

New Netherland

Colonial history of the United States

19

New Netherland series Exploration Fortifications:


Fort Amsterdam Fort Casimir

Fort Nassau (North) Fort Altena Fort Orange Fort Goede Hoop De Wal Fort Wilhelmus Fort Nya Korsholm De Rondout Settlements:
Noten Eylandt Colen Donck

Fort Nassau (South) Fort Beversreede

New Amsterdam Rensselaerswyck New Haarlem Noortwyck Beverwijck Wiltwyck Bergen Pavonia Vriessendael Achter Col Vlissingen Oude Dorpe

Greenwich Heemstede Rustdorp Gravesende Breuckelen New Amersfoort Midwout New Utrecht Boswyck Swaanendael New Amstel Nieuw Dorp

The Patroon System


Charter of Freedoms and Exemptions

Directors of New Netherland:


Cornelius Jacobsen May (1620-25)

Willem Verhulst (1625-26) Peter Minuit (1626-32) Sebastiaen Jansen Krol (1632-33) Wouter van Twiller (1633-38) Willem Kieft (1638-47) Peter Stuyvesant (1647-64) People of New Netherland
New Netherlander

Twelve Men Eight Men Flushing Remonstrance

Colonial history of the United States

20

Nieuw-Nederland, or New Netherland, chartered in 1614, was a colonial province of the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands in what became New York State and parts of Connecticut, New Jersey, Pennsylvania and Delaware. The peak population was less than 10,000. The Dutch established a patroon system with feudal-like rights given to a few powerful landholders; they also established religious tolerance and free trade. The colony's capital, New Amsterdam, founded in 1625 and located at the southern tip of the island of Manhattan, would grow to become a major world city. The city was captured by the English in A map of New Amsterdam in 1660 1664; they took complete control of the colony in 1674 and renamed it New York. However the Dutch landholdings remained, and the Hudson River Valley maintained a traditional Dutch character until the 1820s.[12] [13]

New Sweden
New Sweden (Swedish: Nya Sverige) was a Swedish colony along the Delaware River Valley from 1638 to 1655. The few hundred settlers huddled around Fort Christina. It was captured by the Dutch in 1655 and merged into New Netherland, and most traces of Swedish culture faded away.[14]

Russian colonies
Russia explored the area that became Alaska starting with the Second Kamchatka expedition in the 1730s and early 1740s. Their first settlement was founded in 1784 by Grigory Shelikhov.[15] The Russian-American Company was formed in 1799 with the influence of Nikolay Rezanov for the purpose of buying sea otters for their fur from native hunters. In 1867 the U.S. purchased Alaska and nearly all Russians left except a few missionaries of the Russian Orthodox Church working among the natives.[16]

Map of New Sweden by Amandus Johnson

Colonial history of the United States

21

English colonies
England made its first successful efforts at the start of the 17th century for several reasons. During this era, English proto-nationalism and national assertiveness blossomed under the threat of Spanish invasion, assisted by a degree of Protestant militarism and the energy of Queen Elizabeth. At this time, however, there was no official attempt by the English government to create a colonial empire. Rather, the motivation behind the founding of colonies was piecemeal and variable. Practical considerations, such as commercial enterprise, overpopulation and the desire for freedom of religion, played their parts. The main waves of settlement came in the 17th century. After 1700 most immigrants to Colonial America arrived as indentured servants--young unmarried men and women seeking a new life in a much richer environment.[17] In addition the British shipped 50,000 convicts to its American colonies.[18]

Chesapeake Bay area


Virginia
The 1606 grants by James I to the London and Plymouth companies. The overlapping area (yellow) was granted to both companies on the stipulation that neither found a settlement within 100 miles (160km) of each other. The location of the Jamestown Settlement is shown by "J"

The first successful English colony was Jamestown, established in 1607 near Chesapeake Bay. The business venture was financed and coordinated by the London Virginia Company, a joint stock company looking for gold. Its first years were extremely difficult, with very high death rates from disease and starvation, wars with local Indians, and little gold. The colony survived and flourished by turning to tobacco as a cash crop. By the late 17th century, Virginia's export economy was largely based on tobacco, and new, richer settlers came in to take up large portions of land, build large plantations and import indentured servants and slaves. In 1676, Bacon's Rebellion occurred, but was suppressed by royal officials. After Bacon's Rebellion, African slaves rapidly replaced indentured servants as Virginia's main labor force.[19] [20] The colonial assembly shared power with a royally appointed governor. On a more local level, governmental power was invested in county courts, which were self-perpetuating (the incumbents filled any vacancies and there never were popular elections). As cash crop producers, Chesapeake plantations were heavily dependent on trade with England. With easy navigation by river, there were few towns and no cities; planters shipped directly to Britain. High death rates and a very young population profile characterized the colony during its first years.[20]

New England
Puritans The Puritans, a much larger group than the Pilgrims, established the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1629 with 400 settlers. They sought to reform the Church of England by creating a new, pure church in the New World. By 1640, 20,000 had arrived; many died soon after arrival, but the others found a healthy climate and an ample food supply. The Massachusetts settlement spawned other Puritan colonies in New England, including the New Haven, Saybrook, and Connecticut colonies. During the 17th century the New Haven and Saybrook colonies were absorbed by Connecticut. The Puritans created a deeply religious, socially tight-knit, and politically innovative culture that still influences the modern United States.[21] They hoped this new land would serve as a "redeemer nation". They fled England and in

Colonial history of the United States America attempted to create a "nation of saints" or a "City upon a Hill": an intensely religious, thoroughly righteous community designed to be an example for all of Europe. Roger Williams, who preached religious toleration, separation of Church and State, and a complete break with the Church of England, was banished and founded Rhode Island Colony, which became a haven for other refugees from the Puritan community, such as Anne Hutchinson.[22] Economically, Puritan New England fulfilled the expectations of its founders. Unlike the cash crop-oriented plantations of the Chesapeake region, the Puritan economy was based on the efforts of self-supporting farmsteads who traded only for goods they could not produce themselves.[23] There was a generally higher economic standing and standard of living in New England than in the Chesapeake. Along with agriculture, fishing, and logging, New England became an important mercantile and shipbuilding center, serving as the hub for trading between the southern colonies and Europe.[24] Other New England The Pilgrims were a small Protestant sect based in England and the Netherlands. One group sailed on the Mayflower and settled in Plymouth, Massachusetts in 1620. After drawing up the Mayflower Compact by which they gave themselves broad powers of self-governance, they established the small Plymouth Colony. William Bradford was their main leader. Providence Plantation was founded in 1636 by Rev. Roger Williams on land provided by the Narragansett sachem Canonicus. Williams, fleeing from religious persecution in the Massachusetts Bay Colony, agreed with his fellow settlers on an egalitarian constitution providing for majority rule "in civil things" and "liberty of conscience".[19] Other colonists who disagreed with Puritans in Massachusetts settled to the north, mingling with adventurers and profit-oriented settlers to establish more religiously diverse colonies in New Hampshire and Maine. These small settlements were absorbed by Massachusetts when it made significant land claims in the 1640s and 1650s, but New Hampshire was eventually given a separate charter in 1679. (Maine remained a part of Massachusetts until achieving statehood in 1820.) Dominion of New England Under King James II of England, the New England colonies (as well as New York and the Jerseys) were briefly united as the Dominion of New England (168689). Governor Edmund Andros seized colonial charters, revoked land titles, and ruled without local assemblies, causing anger among the population. Taking advantage of the overthrow of James II in the Glorious Revolution, in 1689 Bostonians revolted, arresting Andros. The Dominion of New England was dissolved and governments resumed under their earlier charters.[25] However, the Massachusetts charter had been revoked in 1684, and a new one was issued in 1691 that combined Massachusetts and Plymouth into the Province of Massachusetts Bay. Although King William sought to at least militarily unite the New England colonies (for example, by appointing the Earl of Bellomont to three simultaneous governorships, and military command over Connecticut and Rhode Island), these attempts at unified control failed.

22

Middle Colonies
The Middle Colonies, consisting of the present-day states of New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware, were characterized by a large degree of diversityreligious, political, economic, and ethnic. The Dutch colony of New Netherland was taken over by the British and renamed New York but large numbers of Dutch remained in the colony. New Jersey began as a division of New York, and was for a time divided into the proprietary colonies of East and West Jersey. Many German and Irish immigrants settled in these areas, as well as in Connecticut. A large portion of the settlers who came to Pennsylvania were German.[24] Philadelphia became the center of the colonies. By the end of the colonial period 30,000 people lived there from many diverse nations and trades. Pennsylvania was founded in 1681 as a proprietary colony of the Quaker William Penn. It came to include the territory of Delaware, which had once been part of New Netherland, and had government independent of that

Colonial history of the United States established in Philadelphia, but was never a separate colony.

23

Lower South
The colonial South included the plantation colonies of the Chesapeake region (Virginia, Maryland, and, by some classifications, Delaware) and the lower South (Carolina, which eventually split into North and South Carolina, and Georgia).[24] Carolinas The first attempted English settlement south of Virginia was the Province of Carolina. It was a private venture, financed by a group of English Lords Proprietors, who obtained a Royal Charter to the Carolinas in 1663, hoping that a new colony in the south would become profitable like Jamestown. Carolina was not settled until 1670, and even then the first attempt failed because there was no incentive for emigration to that area. Eventually, however, the Lords combined their remaining capital and financed a settlement mission to the area led by Sir John Colleton. The expedition located fertile and defensible ground at what was to become Charleston (originally Charles Town for Charles II of England), thus beginning the English colonization of the mainland. The original settlers in South Carolina established a lucrative trade in provisions, deerskins and Indian captives with the Caribbean islands. They came mainly from the English colony of Barbados and brought African slaves with them. Barbados, as a wealthy sugarcane plantation island, was one of the early English colonies to use large numbers of Africans in plantation style agriculture. The cultivation of rice was introduced during the 1690s via Africans from the rice-growing regions of Africa. North Carolina remained a frontier throughout the early colonial period.[24] At first, South Carolina was politically divided. Its ethnic makeup included the original settlers, a group of rich, slave-owning English settlers from the island of Barbados; and Huguenots, a French-speaking community of Protestants. Nearly continuous frontier warfare during the era of King William's War and Queen Anne's War drove economic and political wedges between merchants and planters. The disaster of the 1715 Yamasee War, which threatened the colony's viability, set off a decade of political turmoil. By 1729, the proprietary government had collapsed, and the Proprietors sold both colonies back to the British crown.[24] Georgia James Oglethorpe, an 18th century British Member of Parliament, established the Georgia Colony in 1733 as a common solution to two problems. At that time, tension between Spain and Great Britain was high, and the British feared that Spanish Florida was threatening the British Carolinas. Oglethorpe decided to establish a colony in the contested border region of Georgia and populate it with debtors who would otherwise have been imprisoned according to standard British practice. This plan would both rid Great Britain of its undesirable elements and provide her with a base from which to attack Florida. The first colonists arrived in 1733.[24]

Savannah, Georgia Colony, Early 1700's

Georgia was established on strict moralistic principles. Slavery was forbidden, as were alcohol and other forms of supposed immorality. However, the reality of the colony was far from ideal. The colonists were unhappy about the puritanical lifestyle and complained that their colony could not compete economically with the Carolina rice plantations. Georgia initially failed to prosper, but eventually the restrictions were lifted, slavery was allowed, and it became as prosperous as the Carolinas. The colony of Georgia

Colonial history of the United States never had a specific religion. It consisted of people of varied faiths. East and West Florida In 1763, Spain ceded Florida to Great Britain, which established the colonies of East and West Florida. The Floridas remained loyal to Great Britain during the American Revolution. They were returned to Spain in 1783 (in exchange for the Bahamas), at which time most of the British left. The Spanish then neglected the Floridas: few Spaniards lived there when the US bought the area in 1819.[1]

24

British colonial government


Each colony had a paid colonial agent in London to represent its interests. The three forms of colonial government in 1776 were provincial, proprietary, and charter. These governments were all subordinate to the king in London, with no explicit relationship with the British Parliament. Beginning late in the 17th century, the administration of all British colonies was overseen by a Board of Trade.

Provincial colonies
New Hampshire, New York, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, and eventually Massachusetts, were provincial colonies. The provincial government was governed by commissions created at pleasure by the monarch. A governor (and in some provinces his council) were appointed by the crown. The governor was invested with general executive powers, and authorized to call a locally elected assembly. The governor's council would sit as an upper house when the assembly was in session in addition to its role in advising the governor. Assemblies were made up of representatives elected by the freeholders and planters (landowners) of the province. The governor had the power of absolute veto, and could prorogue (i.e., delay) and dissolve the assembly. The assembly's role was to make all local laws and ordinances, ensuring that they were not inconsistent with the laws of England. In practice this did not always occur, since many of the provincial assemblies sought to expand their powers and limit those of the governor and crown. Laws could be examined by the Board of Trade, which also held veto power of legislation.

Proprietary colonies
Pennsylvania (which included Delaware), New Jersey, and Maryland were proprietary colonies. They were governed much as royal colonies except that lords proprietors, rather than the king, appointed the governor. They were set up after the Restoration of 1660 and typically enjoyed greater civil and religious liberty.[26]

Charter colonies
Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Providence Plantation, and Connecticut were charter colonies. The Massachusetts charter was revoked in 1684, and was replaced by a provincial charter that was issued in 1691. Charter governments were political corporations created by letters patent, giving the grantees control of the land and the powers of legislative government. The charters provided a fundamental constitution and divided powers among legislative, executive, and judicial functions, with those powers being vested in officials.[27]

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Political culture
As Bonomi (1971) shows, the most distinctive feature of colonial society was the vibrant political culture, which attracted the most talented and ambitious young men into politics.[28] First, suffrage was the most widespread in the world, with every man who owned a certain amount of property allowed to vote.[29] While fewer than 1% of British men could vote, a majority of white American men were eligible. The roots of democracy were present,[30] although deference was typically shown to social elites in colonial elections.[31] Second, in the colonies a very wide range of public and private business was decided by elected bodies, especially the assemblies and county governments in each colony.[32] They handled land grants, commercial subsidies, and taxation, as well as oversight of roads, poor relief, taverns, and schools.[33] Americans sued each other at a very high rate, with binding decisions made not by a great lord but by local judges and juries. This promoted the rapid expansion of the legal profession, so that the intense involvement of lawyers in politics became an American characteristic by the 1770s.[34] Thirdly, the American colonies were exceptional in the world because of the representation of many different interest groups in political decision-making. Unlike Europe, where aristocratic families and the established church were in control, the American political culture was open to economic, social, religious, ethnic and geographical interests, with merchants, landlords, petty farmers, artisans, Anglicans, Presbyterians, Quakers, Germans, Scotch Irish, Yankees, Yorkers, and many other identifiable groups taking part. Elected representatives learned to listen to these interests because 90% of the men in the lower houses lived in their districts, unlike England where it was common to have a member of Parliament and absentee member of Parliament.[35] Finally, and most dramatically, the Americans were fascinated by and increasingly adopted the political values of Republicanism, which stressed equal rights, the need for virtuous citizens, and the evils of corruption, luxury, and aristocracy.[36] [37] The Republicanism provided the framework for colonial resistance to British schemes of taxation after 1763, which escalated into the Revolution. None of the colonies had stable political parties of the sort that formed in the 1790s, but each had shifting factions that vied for power, especially in the perennial battles between the appointed governor and the elected assembly.[38] There were often "country" and "court" factions, representing those opposed and in favor, respectively, of the governor's actions and agenda. Massachusetts, which from its 1691 charter had particularly low requirements for voting eligibility and strong rural representation in its assembly, also had a strong populist faction that represented the province's lower classes. Up and down the colonies non-English ethnic groups had clusters of settlements. The most numerous were the Scotch Irish[39] and the Germans.[40] Each group assimilated into the dominant English, Protestant commercial and political culture, albeit with local variations. They tended to vote in blocs and politicians negotiated with group leaders for votes. They generally retained their historic languages and cultural traditions, even as they merged into the emerging American culture.[41] Ethnocultural factors were most visible in Pennsylvania. During 1756-76, the Quakers were the largest faction in the legislature, but they were losing their dominance to the emerging Presbyterian faction based on Scotch-Irish votes, supported by Germans.[42]

Unification of the British colonies


A common defense
Efforts at common defense of the colonies (principally against shared threats from Indians, the French, and the Dutch) began as early as the 1640s, when the Puritan colonies of New England formed a confederation to coordinate military and judicial matters. From the 1670s several royal governors, notably Sir Edmund Andros (who at various times governed New York, New England, and Virginia) and Francis Nicholson (governed Maryland, Virginia, Nova

Colonial history of the United States Scotia, and Carolina) proposed or attempted to implement means to coordinate defensive and offensive military matters. Andros successfully negotiated the Covenant Chain, a series of Indian treaties that brought relative calm to the frontiers of the middle colonies for many years. One event that reminded colonists of their shared identity as British subjects was the War of the Austrian Succession (17401748) in Europe. This conflict spilled over into the colonies, where it was known as "King George's War". The major battles took place in Europe, but American colonial troops fought the French and their Indian allies in New York, New England, and Nova Scotia. At the Albany Congress of 1754, Benjamin Franklin proposed that the colonies be united by a Grand Council overseeing a common policy for defense, expansion, and Indian affairs. While the plan was thwarted by colonial legislatures and King George II, it was an early indication that the British colonies of North America were headed towards unification.[43]

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French and Indian War


The French and Indian War (17541763) was the American extension of the general European conflict known as the Seven Years' War. Although previous colonial wars in North America had started in Europe and then spread to the colonies, the French and Indian War is notable for having started in North America and then spreading to Europe. Increasing competition between Britain and France, especially in the Great Lakes and Ohio valley, was one of the primary origins of the war.[44] The French and Indian War took on a new George Washington during the French and Indian War significance for the British North American colonists when William Pitt the Elder decided that, in order to win the war against France, major military resources needed to be devoted to North America. For the first time, the continent became one of the main theaters of what could be termed a "world war". During the war, the position of the British colonies as part of the British Empire was made truly apparent, as British military and civilian officials took on an increased Benjamin Franklin's political cartoon calling for presence in the lives of Americans. The war colonial unity during the French and Indian War; it also increased a sense of American unity in would be used again during the American Revolution. other ways. It caused men, who might normally have never left their own colony, to travel across the continent, fighting alongside men from decidedly different, yet still "American", backgrounds. Throughout the course of the war, British officers trained American ones (most notably George Washington) for battlewhich would later benefit the American Revolution. Also, colonial legislatures and officials had to cooperate

Colonial history of the United States intensively, for the first time, in pursuit of the continent-wide military effort.[44] The relations between the British military establishment and the colonists were not always positive, setting the stage for later distrust and dislike of British troops. In the Treaty of Paris (1763), France formally ceded the eastern part of its vast North American empire to Britain (having secretly given the territory of Louisiana west of the Mississippi River to Spain the previous year). Before the war, Britain held the thirteen American colonies, most of present-day Nova Scotia, and most of the Hudson Bay watershed. Following the war, Britain gained all French territory east of the Mississippi River, including Quebec, the Great Lakes, and the Ohio River valley. Britain also gained Spanish Florida, from which it formed the colonies of East and West Florida. In removing a major foreign threat to the thirteen colonies, the war also largely removed the colonists' need of

27

Territorial changes following the French and Indian War: land held by the British before 1763 is shown in red, land gained by Britain in 1763 is shown in pink.

colonial protection. The British and colonists triumphed jointly over a common foe. The colonists' loyalty to the mother country was stronger than ever before. However, disunity was beginning to form. British Prime Minister William Pitt the Elder had decided to wage the war in the colonies with the use of troops from the colonies and tax funds from Britain itself. This was a successful wartime strategy, but after the war was over, each side believed that it had borne a greater burden than the other. The British elite, the most heavily taxed of any in Europe, pointed out angrily that the colonists paid little to the royal coffers. The colonists replied that their sons had fought and died in a war that served European interests more than their own. This dispute was a link in the chain of events that soon brought about the American Revolution.[44]

Ties to the British Empire


Although the colonies were very different from one another, they were still a part of the British Empire in more than just name. Socially, the colonial elite of Boston, New York, Charleston, and Philadelphia saw their identity as British. Although many had never been to Britain, they imitated British styles of dress, dance, and etiquette. This social upper echelon built its mansions in the Georgian style, copied the furniture designs of Thomas Chippendale, and participated in the intellectual currents of Europe, such as the Enlightenment. To many of their inhabitants, the seaport cities of colonial America were truly British cities.[45] Republicanism Many of the political structures of the colonies drew upon the republicanism expressed by opposition leaders in Britain, most notably the Commonwealth men and the Whig traditions. Many Americans at the time saw the colonies' systems of governance as modeled after the British constitution of the time, with the king corresponding to the governor, the House of Commons to the colonial assembly, and the House of Lords to the Governor's council. The codes of law of the colonies were often drawn directly from English law; indeed, English common law survives not only in Canada, but also throughout the United States. Eventually, it was a dispute over the meaning of some of

Colonial history of the United States these political ideals, especially political representation, and republicanism that led to the American Revolution.[46] Consumption Another point on which the colonies found themselves more similar than different was the booming import of British goods. The British economy had begun to grow rapidly at the end of the 17th century, and by the mid-18th century, small factories in Britain were producing much more than the nation could consume. Finding a market for their goods in the British colonies of North America, Britain increased her exports to that region by 360% between 1740 and 1770. Because British merchants offered generous credit to their customers, Americans began buying staggering amounts of British goods. From Nova Scotia to Georgia, all British subjects bought similar products, creating and anglicizing a sort of common identity.[45]

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Atlantic world
In recent years historians have enlarged their perspective to cover the entire Atlantic world in a subfield now known as Atlantic history.[47] [48] Of special interest are such themes as international migration, trade, colonization, comparative military and governmental institutions, the transmission of religions and missionary work, and the slave trade. It was the Age of the Enlightenment, and ideas flowed back and forth across the Atlantic, with Philadelphian Benjamin Franklin playing a major role. Warfare was critical, for as Furstenberg, (2008) explains, from 1754 to 1815, the major imperial players - Britain, the American colonies, Spain, France, the First Nations (Indians) and the United States fought a series of conflicts that can be called a "Long War for the West" over control of the region.[49] Women played a role in the emergence of the capitalist economy in the Atlantic world. The types of local commercial exchange in which they participated independently - especially markets in dairy and produce commodities - were well integrated with the trade networks between colonial merchants throughout the Atlantic region. For example, local women merchants were important suppliers of foodstuffs to transatlantic shipping concerns.[50]

Tax protests lead to Revolution


In the colonial era, Americans insisted on their rights as Englishmen to have their own legislature raise all taxes. Tax loads in practice were very light, and far lower than in England. Beginning in 1765 the British Parliament asserted its supreme authority to lay taxes, and a series of American protests began that led directly to the American Revolution. The first wave of protests attacked the Stamp Act of 1765, and marked the first time Americans from each of the 13 colonies met together and planned a common front against illegal taxes. The Boston Tea Party of 1773 dumped British tea into Boston Harbor because it contained a hidden tax Americans refused to pay. The British responded by trying to crush traditional liberties in Massachusetts, leading to the American revolution starting in 1775.[51] The Parliament attempted a series of taxes and punishments which met more and more resistance: First Quartering Act (1765); Declaratory Act (1766); Townshend Revenue Act (1767); and Tea Act (1773). In response to the Boston Tea Party Parliament passed the Intolerable Acts: Second Quartering Act (1774); Quebec Act (1774); Massachusetts Government Act (1774); Administration of Justice Act (1774); Boston Port Act (1774); Prohibitory Act (1775). By this point the 13 colonies had organized themselves into the Continental Congress and began setting up shadow governments and drilling their militia in preparation for war.[52]

Colonial history of the United States

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Colonial life
New England
In New England, the Puritans created self-governing communities of religious congregations of farmers, or yeomen, and their families. High-level politicians gave out plots of land to male settlers, or proprietors, who then divided the land amongst themselves. Large portions were usually given to men of higher social standing, but every white manwho wasn't indentured or criminally bondedhad enough land to support a family. Every male citizen had a voice in the town meeting. The town meeting levied taxes, built roads, and elected officials who managed town affairs. The towns did not have courts--that was a function of a larger unit, the county, whose officials were appointed by the state government.[53] The Congregational Church, the church the Puritans founded, was not automatically joined by all New England residents because of Puritan beliefs that God singled out only a few specific people for salvation. Instead, membership was limited to those who could convincingly "test" before members of the church that they had been saved. They were known as "the elect" or "Saints" and made up less than 40% of the population of New England.[54] Farm life A majority of New England residents were small farmers. Within these small farm families, and English families as well, a man had complete power over the property and his wife. When married, an English woman lost her maiden name and personal identity, meaning she could not own property, file lawsuits, or participate in political life, even when widowed. The role of wives was to raise and nurture healthy children and support their husbands. Most women carried out these duties. In the mid-18th century, women usually married in their early 20s and had 6 to 8 children, most of whom survived to adulthood. Farm women provided most of the materials needed by the rest of the family by spinning yarn from wool and knitting sweaters and stockings, making candles and soap from ashes, and churning milk into butter.[55] Most New England parents tried to help their sons establish farms of their own. When sons married, fathers gave them gifts of land, livestock, or farming equipment; daughters received household goods, farm animals, and/or cash. Arranged marriages were very unusual; normally, children chose their own spouses from within a circle of suitable acquaintances who shared their race, religion, and social standing. Parents retained veto power over their children's marriages. New England farming families generally lived in wooden houses long-term economic growth because of the abundance of trees. A typical New England farmhouse was one-and-a-half stories tall and had a strong frame (usually made of large square timbers) that was covered by wooden clapboard siding. A large chimney stood in the middle of the house that provided cooking facilities and warmth during the winter. One side of the ground floor contained a hall, a general-purpose room where the family worked and ate meals. Adjacent to the hall was the parlor, a room used to entertain guests that contained the family's best furnishings and the parent's bed. Children slept in a loft above, while the kitchen was either part of the hall or was located in a shed along the back of the house. Because colonial families

Colonial history of the United States were large, these small dwellings had much activity and there was little privacy. By the middle of the 18th century, this way of life was facing a crisis as the region's population had nearly doubled each generationfrom 100,000 in 1700 to 200,000 in 1725, to 350,000 by 1750because farm households had many children, and most people lived until they were 60 years old. As colonists in Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island continued to subdivide their land between farmers, the farms became too small to support single families. This overpopulation threatened the New England ideal of a society of independent yeoman farmers.[56] Some farmers obtained land grants to create farms in undeveloped land in Massachusetts and Connecticut or bought plots of land from speculators in New Hampshire and what later became Vermont. Other farmers became agricultural innovators. They planted nutritious English grass such as red clover and timothy-grass, which provided more feed for livestock, and potatoes, which provided a high production rate that was an advantage for small farms. Families increased their productivity by exchanging goods and labor with each other. They loaned livestock and grazing land to one another and worked together to spin yarn, sew quilts, and shuck corn. Migration, agricultural innovation, and economic cooperation were creative measures that preserved New England's yeoman society until the 19th century. Town life By the mid-18th century in New England, shipbuilding was a staple. The British crown often turned to the cheap, yet strongly built American ships. There was a shipyard at the mouth of almost every river in New England. By 1750, a variety of artisans, shopkeepers, and merchants provided services to the growing farming population. Blacksmiths, wheelwrights, and furniture makers set up shops in rural villages. There they built and repaired goods needed by farm families. Stores selling English manufactures such as cloth, iron utensils, and window Saltbox-style homes originated in New England after 1650 glass as well as West Indian products like sugar and molasses were set up by traders. The storekeepers of these shops sold their imported goods in exchange for crops and other local products including roof shingles, potash, and barrel staves. These local goods were shipped to towns and cities all along the Atlantic Coast. Enterprising men set up stables and taverns along wagon roads to service this transportation system. After these products had been delivered to port towns such as Boston and Salem in Massachusetts, New Haven in Connecticut, and Newport and Providence in Rhode Island, merchants then exported them to the West Indies where they were traded for molasses, sugar, gold coins, and bills of exchange (credit slips). They carried the West Indian products to New England factories where the raw sugar was turned into granulated sugar and the molasses distilled into rum. The gold and credit slips were sent to England where they were exchanged for manufactures, which were shipped back to the colonies and sold along with the sugar and rum to farmers. Other New England merchants took advantage of the rich fishing areas along the Atlantic Coast and financed a large fishing fleet, transporting its catch of mackerel and cod to the West Indies and Europe. Some merchants exploited the vast amounts of timber along the coasts and rivers of northern New England. They funded sawmills that supplied cheap wood for houses and shipbuilding. Hundreds of New England shipwrights built oceangoing ships, which they sold to British and American merchants. Many merchants became very wealthy by providing their goods to the agricultural population and ended up dominating the society of sea port cities. Unlike yeoman farmhouses, these merchants resembled the lifestyle of that of the upper class of England living in elegant 212-story houses designed the new Georgian style. These Georgian houses had a symmetrical faade with equal numbers of windows on both sides of the central door. The interior consisted of a passageway down the middle of the house with specialized rooms such as a library, dining room,

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Colonial history of the United States formal parlor, and master bedroom off the sides. Unlike the multi-purpose space of the yeoman houses, each of these rooms served a separate purpose. In a Georgian house, men mainly used certain rooms, such as the library, while women mostly used the kitchen. These houses contained bedrooms on the second floor that provided privacy to parents and children. Culture and education Education was primarily the responsibility of families, but numerous religious groups, especially the Puritans in New England, established tax-supported elementary schools so their children could read the Bible. Nearly all the religious denominations set up their own schools and colleges to train ministers. Each city, and most towns, had private academies for the children of affluent families.[57] Elementary education was widespread in New England. Early Puritan settlers believed it was necessary to study the Bible, so children were taught to read at an early age. It was also required that each town pay for a primary school. About 10 percent enjoyed secondary schooling and funded grammar schools in larger towns. Most boys learned skills from their fathers on the farm or as apprentices to artisans. Few girls attended formal schools, but most were able to get some education at home or at so-called "Dame schools" where women taught basic reading and writing skills in their own houses. By 1750, nearly 90% of New England's women Massachusetts Hall, oldest surviving building at Harvard University, and almost all of its men could read and write. Puritans built 1718-1720 as a dormitory founded Harvard College in 1636 and Yale College in 1701. Later, Baptists founded Rhode Island College (now Brown University) in 1764 and Congregationalists established Dartmouth College in 1769. Virginia founded schools the College of William and Mary in 1693; it was primarily Anglican. The colleges were designed for aspiring ministers, lawyers or doctors. There were no departments or majors, as every student shared the same curriculum, which focused on Latin and Greek, mathematics, and history, philosophy, logic, ethics, rhetoric, oratory, and a little basic science. There were no sports or fraternities and few extracurricular activities apart from literary societies. There were no separate seminaries, law schools, or divinity schools. The first medical schools were founded late in the colonial era in Philadelphia and New York.[58] New Englanders wrote journals, pamphlets, books and especially sermonsmore than all of the other colonies combined. Cotton Mather, a Boston minister published Magnalia Christi Americana (The Great Works of Christ in America, 1702), while revivalist Jonathan Edwards wrote his philosophical work, A Careful and Strict Enquiry Into...Notions of...Freedom of Will... (1754). Most music had a religious theme as well and was mainly the singing of Psalms. Because of New England's deep religious beliefs, artistic works that were insufficiently religious or too "worldly" were banned, especially the theater. The leading theologian and philosopher of the colonial era was Jonathan Edwards of Massachusetts, an interpreter of Calvinism, and the leader of the First Great Awakening.

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Colonial history of the United States Religion Some migrants who came to Colonial America were in search of religious freedom. London did not make the Church of England official in the coloniesit never sent a bishopso religious practice became diverse.[59] The Great Awakening was a major religious revival movement that took place in most colonies in the 1730s and 1740s.[60] The movement began with Jonathan Edwards, a Massachusetts preacher who sought to return to the Pilgrims' strict Calvinist roots and to reawaken the "Fear of God." English preacher George Whitefield and other itinerant preachers continued the movement, traveling across the colonies and preaching in a dramatic and emotional style. Followers of Edwards and other preachers of similar religiosity called themselves the "New Lights", as contrasted with the "Old Lights", who disapproved of their movement. To promote their viewpoints, the two sides established academies and colleges, including Princeton and Williams College. The Great Awakening has been called the first truly American event.[61] A similar pietistic revival movement took place among some German and Dutch settlers, leading to more divisions. By the 1770s, the Baptists were growing rapidly both in the north (where they founded Brown University), and in the South (where they challenged the previously unquestioned moral authority of the Anglican establishment).

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Mid-Atlantic Region
Unlike New England, the Mid-Atlantic Region gained much of its population from new immigration, and by 1750, the combined populations of New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania had reached nearly 300,000 people. By 1750, about 60,000 Irish and 50,000 Germans came to live in British North America, many of them settling in the Mid-Atlantic Region. William Penn, the man who founded the colony of Pennsylvania in 1682, attracted an influx of British Quakers with his policies of religious liberty and freehold ownership. ("Freehold" meant owning land free and clear, with the right to resell it to anyone.) The first major influx of settlers were the Scotch Irish, who headed to the frontier. Many Germans came to escape the religious conflicts and declining economic opportunities in Germany and Switzerland. Ways of life Much of the architecture of the Middle Colonies reflects the diversity of its peoples. In Albany and New York City, a majority of the buildings were Dutch style with brick exteriors and high gables at each end while many Dutch churches were shaped liked an octagon. Using cut stone to build their houses, German and Welsh settlers in Pennsylvania followed the way of their homeland and completely ignored the plethora of timber in the area. An example of this would be Germantown, Pennsylvania where 80 percent of the buildings in the town were made entirely of stone. On the other hand, settlers from Ireland took advantage of America's ample supply of timber and constructed sturdy log cabins. Ethnic cultures also affected the styles of furniture. Rural Quakers preferred simple designs in furnishings such as tables, chairs, chests and shunned elaborate decorations. However, some urban Quakers had much more elaborate furniture. The city of Philadelphia became a major center of furniture-making because of its massive wealth from Quaker and British merchants. Philadelphian cabinet makers built elegant desks and highboys. German artisans created intricate carved designs on their chests and other furniture with painted scenes of flowers and birds. German potters also crafted a large array of jugs, pots, and plates, of both elegant and traditional design. There were ethnic differences in the treatment of women. Among Puritan settlers in New England, wives almost never worked in the fields with their husbands. In German communities in Pennsylvania, however, many women worked in fields and stables. German and Dutch immigrants granted women more control over property, which was not permitted in the local English law. Unlike English colonial wives, German and Dutch wives owned their own clothes and other items and were also given the ability to write wills disposing of the property brought into the marriage.

Colonial history of the United States By the time of the Revolutionary War, approximately 85 percent of white Americans were of English, Irish, Welsh, or Scottish descent. Approximately 8.8 percent of whites were of German ancestry, and 3.5 percent were of Dutch origin. Farming Ethnicity made a difference in agricultural practice. As an example, German farmers generally preferred oxen rather than horses to pull their plows and Scots-Irish made a farming economy based on hogs and corn. In Ireland, people farmed intensively, working small pieces of land trying to get the largest possible production-rate from their crops. In the American colonies, settlers from northern Ireland focused on mixed-farming. Using this technique, they grew corn for human consumption and as feed for hogs and other livestock. Many improvement-minded farmers of all different backgrounds began using new agricultural practices to raise their output. During the 1750s, these agricultural innovators replaced the hand sickles and scythes used to harvest hay, wheat, and barley with the cradle scythe, a tool with wooden fingers that arranged the stalks of grain for easy collection. This tool was able to triple the amount of work done by farmers in one day. Farmers also began fertilizing their fields with dung and lime and rotating their crops to keep the soil fertile. Before 1720, most colonists in the mid-Atlantic region worked with small-scale farming and paid for imported manufactures by supplying the West Indies with corn and flour. In New York, a fur-pelt export trade to Europe flourished adding additional wealth to the region. After 1720, mid-Atlantic farming stimulated with the international demand for wheat. A massive population explosion in Europe brought wheat prices up. By 1770, a bushel of wheat cost twice as much as it did in 1720. Farmers also expanded their production of flax seed and corn since flax was a high demand in the Irish linen industry and a demand for corn existed in the West Indies. Some immigrants who just arrived purchased farms and shared in this export wealth, but many poor German and Irish immigrants were forced to work as agricultural wage laborers. Merchants and artisans also hired these homeless workers for a domestic system for the manufacture of cloth and other goods. Merchants often bought wool and flax from farmers and employed newly arrived immigrants, who had been textile workers in Ireland and Germany, to work in their homes spinning the materials into yarn and cloth. Large farmers and merchants became wealthy, while farmers with smaller farms and artisans only made enough for subsistence. The Mid-Atlantic region, by 1750, was divided by both ethnic background and wealth. Seaports Seaports, which expanded from wheat trade, had more social classes than anywhere else in the Middle Colonies. By 1750, the population of Philadelphia had reached 25,000, New York 15,000, and the port of Baltimore 7,000. Merchants dominated seaport society and about 40 merchants controlled half of Philadelphia's trade. Wealthy merchants in Philadelphia and New York, like their counterparts in New England, built elegant Georgian-style mansions. Shopkeepers, artisans, shipwrights, butchers, coopers, seamstresses, cobblers, bakers, carpenters, masons, and many other specialized professions, made up the middle class of seaport society. Wives and husbands often worked as a team and taught their children their crafts to pass it on through the family. Many of these artisans and traders made enough money to create a modest life. Laborers stood at the bottom of seaport society. These poor people worked on the docks unloading inbound vessels and loading outbound vessels with wheat, corn, and flaxseed. Many of these were African American; some were free while others were enslaved. In 1750, blacks made up about 10 percent of the population of New York and Philadelphia. Hundreds of seamen, some who were African American, worked as sailors on merchant ships.

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Colonial history of the United States

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Southern Colonies
The Southern Colonies were mainly dominated by the wealthy planters in Maryland, Virginia, and South Carolina. They owned increasingly large plantations that were worked by African slaves. Of the 650,000 inhabitants of the South in 1750, about 250,000 or 40 percent, were slaves. The plantations grew tobacco, indigo and rice for export, and raised most of their own food supplies.[62] In addition, many small subsistence farms were family owned and operated by yeoman. Most white men owned some land, and therefore could vote.[63] Women in the South Since the social history revolution in the 1970s historians have paid special attention to the role of women, family and gender in the colonial South.[64] [65] [66] In the early Chesapeake colonies, very few women were present. Much of the population consisted of young, single, white indentured servants, and as such the colonies, to a large degree, lacked any social cohesiveness. African women entered the colony as early as 1619, although their status: free, slave or indentured servant remains a historical debate. In the 17th century high mortality rates for newcomers and a very high ratio of men to women made family life either impossible or unstable for most colonists. These factors, along with dispersed settlements and a reluctance to live in villages, together with a growing immigration of white indentured servants and black slaves made families and communities in the Virginia-Maryland region before 1700 fundamentally different from their counterparts in Europe and New England. These extreme conditions both demeaned and empowered women. Lacking male protectors, women, especially teenage girls who were indentured servants, often were vulnerable to exploitation and abuse. On the other hand, without parental oversight, young women had much more freedom in choosing spouses, and the shortage of eligible women enabled them to use marriage as an avenue to upward mobility. The high death rates meant that Chesapeake wives generally became widows who inherited property; many widows increased their property by remarrying as soon as possible. As the population began to stabilize around 1700, women married younger, remained wed longer, bore more children, and lost influence within the family polity.[67] Slaves The enslaved African (known as African slaves, although they were not considered slaves until they were officially purchased by a planter or plantation owner) who worked on the indigo, tobacco, and rice fields in the South came from mainly western and central Africa. Slavery in Colonial America was very oppressive as it passed on from generation to generation, and slaves had no legal rights. The colonies that had the most specialization in production of goods, such as sugar and coffee, relied most on slaves and consequentially, had the highest per capita (including slaves) income in the New World. However, the slaves did not accrue wages or receive rights and provided free labor to those who purchased them and received just enough to live. They were considered in Chattel slavery. Between 1500 and 1700, over 60% of the 6 million people who were brought or traveled to the New World were involuntary slaves. In 1700, there were about 9,600 slaves in the Chesapeake region and a few hundred in the Carolinas. About 170,000 more Africans were forcibly brought over the next five decades. By 1750, there were more than 250,000 slaves in British America; and, in the Carolinas, they made up about 60 percent of the total population. The first post-colonial Census found 697,681 slaves and 59,527 free blacks, who together made up about 20% of the country's population. Most slaves in South Carolina were born in Africa, while half the slaves in Virginia and Maryland were born in the colonies.

Colonial history of the United States

35

Footnotes
[1] Cooke, ed. North America in Colonial Times (1998) [2] Richard Middleton, Colonial America: A History, 1565-1776 (3rd ed. 2002) ch 2 [3] Wallace Notestein, English People on Eve of Colonization, 1603-30 (1954) [4] William R. Nester, The Great Frontier War: Britain, France, and the Imperial Struggle for North America, 1607-1755 (Praeger, 2000) p, 54. [5] Michael Gannon, The New History of Florida (1996) [6] David J. Weber, The Spanish Frontier in North America (2009) [7] Jacqueline Peterson, Jennifer S. H. Brown, Many roads to Red River (2001), p69 [8] Guy Frgault, Le Grand Marquis: Pierre de Rigaud de Vaudreuil et la Louisiane (Montreal, 1952), pp. 129-130 [9] Havard G., Vidal C., Histoire de l'Amrique franaise, p. 205. [10] France in America, W. J. Eccles, 1990 [11] Junius P. Rodriguez, The Louisiana Purchase: A Historical and Geographical Encyclopedia (2002) [12] Michael G. Kammen, Colonial New York: A History (1996) [13] John Andrew Doyle, English Colonies in America: Volume IV The Middle Colonies (1907) ch. 1 online (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=4wYOAAAAIAAJ) [14] Amandus Johnson The Swedes on the Delaware (1927) [15] Meeting of Frontiers: Alaska - The Russian Colonization of Alaska (http:/ / lcweb2. loc. gov/ intldl/ mtfhtml/ mfak/ mfakrcol. html) [16] Hubert Howe Bancroft, The Works of Hubert Howe Bancroft vol. 33: History of Alaska, 1730-1885 (1886) online (http:/ / www. archive. org/ stream/ historyofalaska100banc/ historyofalaska100banc_djvu. txt) [17] Herbert Moller, "Sex Composition and Correlated Culture Patterns of Colonial America," William and Mary Quarterly Vol. 2, No. 2 (Apr., 1945), pp. 113-153 in JSTOR (http:/ / www. jstor. org/ stable/ 1923515) [18] James Davie Butler, "British Convicts Shipped to American Colonies," American Historical Review 2 (October 1896): 12-33 online (http:/ / www. dinsdoc. com/ butler-1. htm) [19] Alan Taylor, American Colonies,, 2001. [20] Ronald L. Heinemann, Old Dominion, New Commonwealth: A History of Virginia, 1607-2007, 2008. [21] Ernest Lee Tuveson, Redeemer nation: the idea of America's millennial role (University of Chicago Press, 1980) [22] Benjamin Woods Labaree, Colonial Massachusetts: a history (1979) [23] Anne Mackin, Americans and their land: the house built on abundance (University of Michigan Press, 2006) p 29 [24] James Ciment, ed. Colonial America: An Encyclopedia of Social, Political, Cultural, and Economic History, 2005. [25] James Truslow Adams, The founding of New England (1921) pp 398-431 online (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=k4eo4r9BFdAC) [26] John Andrew Doyle, English Colonies in America: Volume IV The Middle Colonies (1907) online (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=4wYOAAAAIAAJ) [27] Louise Phelps Kellogg, The American colonial charter (1904) online (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=2QIGe_0PYqsC) [28] Patricia U. Bonomi, A Factious People: Politics and Society in Colonial New York (Columbia U.P., 1971) p 281 [29] Robert J. Dinkin, Voting in Provincial America: A Study of Elections in the Thirteen Colonies, 1689-1776 (1977) [30] Pole, J. R. (1962). "Historians and the Problem of Early American Democracy". American Historical Review 67: 62646. [31] Richard R. Beeman, "The Varieties of Deference in Eighteenth-Century America," Early American Studies: An Interdisciplinary Journal, Volume 3#2 Fall 2005, pp. 311-340 [32] Patricia U. Bonomi, A Factious People: Politics and Society in Colonial New York (Columbia U.P., 1971) pp 281-2 [33] Cooke, Encyclopedia of the North American Colonies (1993) vol 1 pp 341-62, 391-402; 435-39 [34] Anton-Hermann Chroust, The Rise of the Legal Profession in America: Volume 1, The Colonial Experience (1965) [35] Bonomi, A Factious People, p. 282 [36] Bonomi, A Factious People, pp 281-286 [37] On the historiography, see Alan Tully, "Colonial Politics," in Daniel Vickers ed. A Companion to Colonial America (Blackwell, 2006) pp 288-310 [38] Jack P. Greene, Peripheries and Center: Constitutional Development in the Extended Polities of the British Empire and the United States, 1607-1788 (2008) [39] James Graham Leyburn, The Scotch-Irish: A Social History (1989) [40] Aaron Spencer Fogleman, Hopeful Journeys: German Immigration, Settlement and Political Culture in Colonial America, 1717-1775 (1996). [41] Jack P. Greene, "'Pluribus' or 'Unum?' White Ethnicity in the Formation of Colonial American Culture," History Now, 1998, Vol. 4 Issue 1, pp 1-12 [42] Wayne L. Bockelman, and Owen S. Ireland, "The Internal Revolution in Pennsylvania: An Ethnic-Religious Interpretation," Pennsylvania History, March 1974, Vol. 41 Issue 2, pp 125-159 [43] H. W. Brands, The First American: The Life and Times of Benjamin Franklin (2002) [44] Fred Anderson, The War That Made America: A Short History of the French and Indian War (2006) [45] Daniel Vickers, ed. A Companion to Colonial America (2006), ch 13-16

Colonial history of the United States


[46] Bernard Bailyn, The Ideological Origins of the American Revolution (1967); Jack P. Greene and J. R. Pole, eds. A Companion to the American Revolution (2003) [47] David Armitage and Michael J. Braddick, eds., The British Atlantic World, 1500-1800 (2002); [48] Alison. Games, "Atlantic History: Definitions, Challenges, and Opportunities," American Historical Review, June 2006, Vol. 111 Issue 3, pp 741-757 [49] Franois Furstenberg, "The Significance of the Trans-Appalachian Frontier in Atlantic History," American Historical Review, Jun2008, Vol. 113 Issue 3, pp 647-677, [50] James E.. McWilliams, "Butter, Milk, and a 'Spare Ribb': Women's Work and the Transatlantic Economic Transition in Seventeenth-Century Massachusetts," New England Quarterly, Mar 2009, Vol. 82 Issue 1, pp 5-24 [51] Thomas P. Slaughter, "The Tax Man Cometh: Ideological Opposition to Internal Taxes, 1760-1790," William and Mary Quarterly Vol. 41, No. 4 (Oct., 1984), pp. 566-591 in JSTOR (http:/ / www. jstor. org/ stable/ 1919154) [52] Francis D. Cogliano, Revolutionary America, 17631815; A Political History (2nd ed. 2008) pp 49-76 [53] Kenneth A. Lockridge, A New England Town, The First Hundred Years: Dedham, Massachusetts, 1636-1736 (1969) [54] Joseph A. Conforti, Saints and Strangers: New England in British North America (2005) [55] Brian Donahue, The Great Meadow: Farmers and the Land in Colonial Concord (Yale Agrarian Studies Series) (2007) [56] Percy Wells Bidwell, Rural economy in New England at the beginning of the nineteenth century (1916) full text online (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=6P8YAAAAYAAJ) [57] Lawrence A. Cremin, American Education: The Colonial Experience, 1607-1783 (Harper, 1972) [58] Cremin, American Education: The Colonial Experience, 1607-1783 (1972) [59] Sydney E. Ahlstrom, A Religious History of the American People (2nd ed. 2004) ch 17-22 [60] Sydney E. Ahlstrom, A Religious History of the American People (2nd ed. 2004) ch 18, 20 [61] Historian Jon Butler has questioned the concept of a Great Awakening, but most historians use it. John M. Murrin (June 1983). "No Awakening, No Revolution? More Counterfactual Speculations". Reviews in American History (The Johns Hopkins University Press) 11 (2): 161171. doi:10.2307/2702135. ISSN0048-7511. JSTOR2702135. [62] Robert W. Twyman and David C. Roller, eds., Encyclopedia of Southern History (1979). ISBN 0-8071-0575-9. [63] Robert E. Brown and B. Katherine Brown, Virginia, 1705-1786: Democracy or Aristocracy? (1964) [64] Cynthia A. Kierner, "Gender, Families, and Households in the Southern Colonies," Journal of Southern History, Aug 2007, Vol. 73 Issue 3, pp 643-658 [65] On Virginia see Kathleen M. Brown, Good Wives, Nasty Wenches, and Anxious Patriarchs: Gender, Race, and Power in Colonial Virginia (1996) 512pp excerpt and text search (http:/ / www. amazon. com/ dp/ 0807846236/ ) [66] Ben Marsh, Georgia's Frontier Women: Female Fortunes in a Southern Colony (2007) [67] Lois Green Carr and Lorena S. Walsh, "The Planter's Wife: The Experience of White Women in Seventeenth-Century Maryland," William and Mary Quarterly, 34 (October 1977), 542-71 in JSTOR (http:/ / www. jstor. org/ stable/ 2936182)

36

Bibliography
Reference books
American National Biography (20 vol 2000; also online); scholarly biographies of every major figure Ciment, James, ed. Colonial America: An Encyclopedia of Social, Political, Cultural, and Economic History (2005) Cooke, Jacob Ernest, ed. Encyclopedia of the North American Colonies (3 vol 1993) Cooke, Jacob, ed. North America in Colonial Times: An Encyclopedia for Students (1998) Gallay, Alan, ed. Colonial Wars of North America, 1512-1763: An Encyclopedia (1996) excerpt and text search (http://www.amazon.com/dp/0824072081) Gipson, Lawrence. The British Empire Before the American Revolution (15 volumes) (19361970), Pulitzer Prize; highly detailed discussion of every British colony in the New World Vickers, Daniel, ed. A Companion to Colonial America (2006)

Colonial history of the United States

37

Surveys
Adams, James Truslow (1921). The Founding of New England (http://www.dinsdoc.com/adams-1-0a.htm). New York: Atlantic Monthly Press. Andrews, Charles M. (1934-38). The Colonial Period of American History. (the standard overview in four volumes) Bonomi, Patricia U. (1988). Under the Cope of Heaven: Religion, Society, and Politics in Colonial America. (online at ACLS History e-book project) Conforti, Joseph A. Saints and Strangers: New England in British North America (2006). 236pp; the latest scholarly history of New England Greene, Evarts Boutelle. Provincial America, 1690-1740 (1905) online edition (http://www.dinsdoc.com/ greene-3-0a.htm) old, comprehensive overview by scholar Kupperman, Karen Ordahl, ed. Major Problems In American Colonial History: Documents and Essays (1999) short excerpts from scholars and primary sources McNeese, Tim. Colonial America 1543-1763 (2010), short survey Middleton, Richard and Anne Lombard. Colonial America: A History, 1565-1776 (4th ed 2011), 624pp excerpt and text search (http://www.amazon.com/dp/0631221417/) Savelle, Max. Seeds of Liberty: The Genesis of the American Mind (1965) comprehensive survey of intellectual history online edition (http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=65448513) Taylor, Alan. American Colonies, (2001) survey by leading scholar excerpt and text search (http://www. amazon.com/dp/0142002100/)

Special topics
Andrews, Charles M. (October 1914). "Colonial Commerce" (http://www.dinsdoc.com/andrews-1.htm). American Historical Review (American Historical Association) 20 (1): 4363. doi:10.2307/1836116. JSTOR1836116. Also online at JSTOR Andrews, Charles M. (1904). Colonial Self-Government, 1652-1689. online (http://www.archive.org/stream/ colonialselfgov00andrgoog/colonialselfgov00andrgoog_djvu.txt) Beeman, Richard R. "The Varieties of Political Experience in Eighteenth-Century America (2006) excerpt and text search (http://www.amazon.com/gp/reader/0812219775) Beer, George Louis. "British Colonial Policy, 1754-1765," Political Science Quarterly, vol 22 (March 1907) pp 148; online edition (http://dinsdoc.com/beer-1.htm) Berkin, Carol. First Generations: Women in Colonial America (1997) 276pp excerpt and text search (http:// www.amazon.com/dp/0809016060) Bonomi, Patricia U. (1971). A Factious People: Politics and Society in Colonial New York. Breen, T. H (1980). Puritans and Adventurers: Change and Persistence in Early America. Brown, Kathleen M. Good Wives, Nasty Wenches, and Anxious Patriarchs: Gender, Race, and Power in Colonial Virginia (1996) 512pp excerpt and text search (http://www.amazon.com/dp/0807846236/) Bruce, Philip A. Economic History of Virginia in the Seventeenth Century: An Inquiry into the Material Condition of the People, Based on Original and Contemporaneous Records. (1896), very old fashioned history online edition (http://www.dinsdoc.com/bruce-1-0a.htm) Carr, Lois Green and Philip D. Morgan. Colonial Chesapeake Society (1991), 524pp excerpt and text search (http://www.amazon.com/dp/0807843431/) Crane, Verner W. (1920). The Southern Frontier, 1670-1732. Crane, Verner W. (April 1919). "The Southern Frontier in Queen Anne's War" (http://dinsdoc.com/crane-1. htm). American Historical Review (American Historical Association) 24 (3): 37995. doi:10.2307/1835775. JSTOR1835775. in JSTOR

Colonial history of the United States Fischer, David Hackett. Albion's Seed: Four British Folkways in America (1989), comprehensive look at major ethnic groups excerpt and text search (http://www.amazon.com/dp/0195069056/) Hatfield, April Lee. Atlantic Virginia: Intercolonial Relations in the Seventeenth Century (2007) excerpt and text search (http://www.amazon.com/dp/081221997X) Illick, Joseph E. Colonial Pennsylvania: A History, (1976) online edition (http://www.questia.com/library/ book/colonial-pennsylvania-a-history-by-joseph-e-illick.jsp) Kammen, Michael. Colonial New York: A History, (2003) Kidd, Thomas S. The Great Awakening: The Roots of Evangelical Christianity in Colonial America (2009) Kulikoff, Allan (2000). From British Peasants to Colonial American Farmers. Labaree, Benjamin Woods. Colonial Massachusetts: A History, (1979) Morgan, Edmund S. American Slavery, American Freedom: The Ordeal of Colonial Virginia (1975) Pulitzer Prize online edition (http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=101062594) Tate, Thad W. Chesapeake in the Seventeenth Century (1980) excerpt and text search (http://www.amazon. com/dp/0393009564) Wood, Betty. Slavery in Colonial America, 1619-1776 (2005)

38

Primary sources
Kavenagh, W. Keith, ed. Foundations of Colonial America: A Documentary History (1973) 4 vol. Rushforth, Brett, Paul Mapp, and Alan Taylor, eds. North America and the Atlantic World: A History in Documents (2008) Sarson, Steven, and Jack P. Greene, eds. The American Colonies and the British Empire, 1607-1783 (8 vol, 2010); primary sources

Online sources
Classics of American Colonial History complete text of older scholarly articles (http://www.dinsdoc.com/ colonial-3.htm) Archiving Early America (http://earlyamerica.com/) Colonial History of the United States (http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Gazetteer/Places/America/ United_States/_Topics/history/_Periods/colonial/home.html) at Thayer's American History site Colonial America 1600-1775, K12 Resources (http://web.archive.org/20071023013255/http://falcon.jmu. edu/~ramseyil/colonial.htm) at the Wayback Machine (archived October 23, 2007)

External links
Colonial American Culture (http://www.history.com/topics/colonial-culture)

House of Burgesses

39

House of Burgesses
House of Burgesses

Patrick Henry in the House of Burgesses by Peter F. Rothermel Timeline Colony of Virginia Established Succeeded by Disbanded 1619 Virginia House of Delegates 1776 Meeting place

Reconstructed chamber in Williamsburg Jamestown, Virginia (1619-1699) Williamsburg, Virginia (1699-1776)

The House of Burgesses was the first assembly of elected representatives of English colonists in North America. The House was established by the Virginia Company, who created the body as part of an effort to encourage English craftsmen to settle in North America. Its first meeting was held in Jamestown, Virginia, on July 30, 1619.[1] The word "Burgess" means an elected or appointed official of a municipality, or the representative of a borough in the English House of Commons.

House of Burgesses

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Origins
In the 1610s, the Virginia Company of London ended monopoly on land ownership, believing that the colonists would display greater initiative if they could gain ownership of land. The changes encouraged private investment from the colony's settlers, which allowed them to own land rather than simply being sharecroppers. The company designed four large corporations, termed cities [sic], to encompass the developed portion of the colony. Company officials adopted English Common Law as the basis of their system in the Virginia colony, replacing the governor as the final voice on legal matters. The House of Burgesses consisted of delegates elected by the colonists, and these delegates would meet annually at Jamestown. (In Bermuda, previously part of Virginia, the House of Assembly was created that same year). Prompted by the Virginia Company, colonial governor Sir George Yeardley helped facilitate elections of Burgesses to this new legislative body, and these elections would come from eleven boroughs adjacent to the James River, along with eleven additional burgesses. The House's first session of July 30, 1619, accomplished little. It was cut short by an outbreak of malaria. The assembly had 22 members from the following constituencies:[2] The colony's governor, appointed in London, The governor's council, a group of six citizens selected by the governor, The House of Burgesses was later responsible for orchestrating the assassination of several prominent British Officials, further antagonizing loyalists The burgesses from various locales, initially larger plantations; counties were included later. White men over the age of 17 who owned land were eligible to vote.[2] The House was also called the Virgina House of London.

Meeting places
In 1699, the seat of the House of Burgesses was moved to Middle Plantation, soon renamed Williamsburg, in honor of King William III. The Burgesses met there in two consecutive Capitol buildings (the first use of the word in the English Colonies). In December 1778, they moved the capital city to Richmond for safety reasons during the American Revolutionary War. The present Capitol at Colonial Williamsburg is a reconstruction of the earlier of the two lost buildings. In the Revolutionary War they burned down the House three times.

Legacy
The Assembly became the Virginia House of Delegates in 1776, forming the lower house of the Virginia General Assembly, the legislative branch of the Commonwealth (State) of Virginia. In honor of the original House of Burgesses, every other year, the Virginia General Assembly traditionally leaves the current Virginia State Capitol in Richmond, and meets for one day in the restored Capitol at Colonial Williamsburg. In 2006, the Assembly held a special session at Jamestown to mark the 400th anniversary of its founding as part of the Jamestown 2007 celebration.

House of Burgesses

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References
[1] http:/ / www. ushistory. org/ us/ 2f. asp [2] http:/ / www. u-s-history. com/ pages/ h1151. html

Further reading
Hatch, Charles E., Jr., (1956 rev). America's Oldest Legislative Assembly & Its Jamestown Statehouses, Appendix II. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Mayer, Henry (1986). A Son of Thunder, Patrick Henry and the American Republic. New York: Franklin Watts.

Buffalo Soldier

42

Buffalo Soldier
Buffalo Soldiers (unofficial)

Buffalo Soldiers of the 25th Infantry Regiment, 1890 Active Country 18661951 United States of America

Buffalo Soldiers originally were members of the U.S. 10th Cavalry Regiment of the United States Army, formed on September 21, 1866 at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. The nickname was given to the "Negro Cavalry" by the Native American tribes they fought; the term eventually became synonymous with all of the African-American regiments formed in 1866: 9th Cavalry Regiment 10th Cavalry Regiment 24th Infantry Regiment 25th Infantry Regiment

Although several African-American regiments were raised during the Civil War to fight alongside the Union Army (including the 54th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry and the many United States Colored Troops Regiments), the "Buffalo Soldiers" were established by Congress as the first peacetime all-black regiments in the regular U.S. Army. On September 6, 2005, Mark Matthews, who was the oldest living of the original Buffalo Soldiers, died at the age of 111. He was buried at Arlington National Cemetery.[1]

Etymology
Sources disagree on how the nickname "Buffalo Soldiers" began. According to the Buffalo Soldiers National Museum, the name originated with the Cheyenne warriors in the winter of 1877, the actual Cheyenne translation being "Wild Buffalo." However, writer Walter Hill documented the account of Colonel Benjamin Grierson, who founded the 10th Cavalry regiment, recalling an 1871 campaign against Comanches. Hill attributed the origin of the name to the Comanche due to Grierson's assertions. Some sources assert that the nickname was given out of respect for the fierce fighting ability of the 10th cavalry.[2] Other sources assert that Native Americans called the black cavalry troops "buffalo soldiers" because of their dark curly hair, which resembled a buffalo's coat.[3] Still other sources point to a combination of both legends.[4] The term Buffalo Soldiers became a generic term for all African-American soldiers. It is now used for U.S. Army units that trace their direct lineage back to the 9th and 10th Cavalry units whose service earned them an honored place in U.S. history. In September 1867, Private John Randall of Troop G of the 10th Cavalry Regiment was assigned to escort two civilians on a hunting trip. The hunters suddenly became the hunted when a band of 70 Cheyenne warriors swept down on them. The two civilians quickly fell in the initial attack and Randall's horse was shot out from beneath him. Randall managed to scramble to safety behind a washout under the railroad tracks, where he fended off the attack with only his pistol until help from the nearby camp arrived. The Indians beat a hasty retreat, leaving behind 13 fallen warriors. Private Randall suffered a gunshot wound to his shoulder and 11 lance wounds, but recovered. The Cheyenne quickly spread word of this new type of soldier, "who had fought like a cornered buffalo; who like a

Buffalo Soldier buffalo had suffered wound after wound, yet had not died; and who like a buffalo had a thick and shaggy mane of hair."[5] [6]

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Service
During the American Civil War, the U.S. government formed regiments known as the United States Colored Troops, composed of black soldiers. After the war, Congress reorganized the Army and authorized the formation of two regiments of black cavalry with the designations 9th and 10th U.S. Cavalry, and four regiments of black infantry, designated the 38th, 39th, 40th and 41st Infantry Regiments (Colored). The 38th and 41st were reorganized as the 25th Infantry Regiment, with headquarters in Jackson Barracks in New Orleans, Louisiana, in November 1869. The 39th and 40th were reorganized as the 24th Infantry Regiment, with headquarters at Fort Clark, Texas, in April 1869. All of these units were composed of black enlisted men commanded by both white and black officers. These included the first commander of the 10th Cavalry Benjamin Grierson, the first commander of the 9th Cavalry Edward Hatch, Medal of Honor recipient Louis H. Carpenter, the unforgettable Nicholas M. Nolan, and the first black graduate of West Point, Henry O. Flipper.

Indian Wars
From 1866 to the early 1890s, these regiments served at a variety of posts in the Southwestern United States (Apache Wars) and Great Plains regions. They participated in most of the military campaigns in these areas and earned a distinguished record. Thirteen enlisted men and six officers from these four regiments earned the Medal of Honor during the Indian Wars. In addition to the military campaigns, the "Buffalo Soldiers" served a variety of roles along the frontier from building roads to escorting the U.S. mail. On 17 April 1875, regimental headquarters for the 9th and 10th Cavalries were transferred to Fort Concho, Texas. Companies actually arrived at Fort Concho in May 1873. At various times from 1873 through 1885, Fort Concho housed 9th Cavalry companies AF, K, and M, 10th Cavalry companies A, DG, I, L, and M, 24th Infantry companies DG, and K, and 25th Infantry companies G and K.[7] A lesser known action was the 9th Cavalry's participation in the fabled Johnson County War, an 1892 land war in Johnson County, Wyoming between small farmers and large, wealthy ranchers. It culminated in a lengthy shootout between local farmers, a band of hired killers, and a sheriff's posse. The 6th Cavalry was ordered in by President Benjamin Harrison to quell the violence and capture the band of hired killers. Soon afterward, however, the 9th Cavalry was specifically called on to replace the 6th. The 6th Cavalry was swaying under the local political and social pressures and was unable to keep the peace in the tense environment.

Buffalo Soldier in the 9th Cavalry, 1890

The Buffalo Soldiers responded within about two weeks from Nebraska, and moved the men to the rail town of Suggs,Wyoming, creating "Camp Bettens" despite a racist and hostile local population. One soldier was killed and two wounded in gun battles with locals. Nevertheless, the 9th Cavalry remained in Wyoming for nearly a year to quell tensions in the area.[8] [9]

Buffalo Soldier

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18981918
After most of the Indian Wars ended in the 1890s, the regiments continued to serve and participated in the 1898 Spanish-American War (including the Battle of San Juan Hill) in Cuba, where five more Medals of Honor were earned.[10] [11] The regiments took part in the Philippine-American War from 1899 to 1903 and the 1916 Mexican Expedition.[10] [11] In 1918 the 10th Cavalry fought at the Battle of Ambos Nogales in the First World War, where they assisted in forcing the surrender of the federal Mexican and German forces.[10] [11] Buffalo soldiers fought in the last engagement of the Indian Wars; the small Battle of Bear Valley in southern Arizona which occurred in 1918 between U.S. cavalry and Yaqui natives.[10] [11]

Buffalo Soldiers who participated in the Spanish American War

Park Rangers
Another little-known contribution of the Buffalo Soldiers involved eight troops of the 9th Cavalry Regiment and one company of the 24th Infantry Regiment who served in California's Sierra Nevada as some of the first national park rangers. In 1899, Buffalo Soldiers from Company H, 24th Infantry Regiment briefly served in Yosemite National Park, Sequoia National Park and General Grant (Kings Canyon) National Parks.[12] U.S. Army regiments had been serving in these national parks since 1891, but until 1899 the soldiers serving were white. Beginning in 1899, and continuing in 1903 and 1904, African-American regiments served during the summer months in the second and third oldest national parks in the United States (Sequoia and Yosemite). Because these soldiers served before the National Park Service was created (1916), they were "park rangers" before the term was coined. A lasting legacy of the soldiers as park rangers is the Ranger Hat (popularly known as the Smokey Bear Hat). Although not officially adopted by the Army until 1911, the distinctive hat crease, called a Montana Peak, (or pinch) can be seen being worn by several of the Buffalo Soldiers in park photographs dating back to 1899. Soldiers serving in the Spanish American War began to recrease the Stetson hat with a Montana "pinch" to better shed water from the torrential tropical rains. Many retained that distinctive "pinch" upon their return to the U.S. The park photographs, in all likelihood, show Buffalo Soldiers who were veterans from that 1898 war. One particular Buffalo Soldier stands out in history: Captain Charles Young who served with Troop "I", 9th Cavalry Regiment in Sequoia National Park during the summer of 1903. Charles Young was the third African American to graduate from the United States Military Academy. At the time of his death, he was the highest ranking African American in the U.S. military. He made history in Sequoia National Park in 1903 by becoming Acting Military Superintendent of Sequoia and General Grant National Parks. Charles Young was also the first African American superintendent of a national park. During Young's tenure in the park, he named a Giant Sequoia for Booker T. Washington. Recently, another Giant Sequoia in Giant Forest was named in Captain Young's honor. Some of Young's descendants were in attendance at the ceremony.[13]

Buffalo Soldier

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In 1903, 9th Cavalrymen in Sequoia built the first trail to the top of Mount Whitney, the highest mountain in the contiguous United States. They also built the first wagon road into Sequoia's Giant Forest, the most famous grove of Giant Sequoia trees in Sequoia National Park. In 1904, 9th Cavalrymen in Yosemite built an arboretum on the South Fork of the Merced River in the southern section of Yosemite National Park. This arboretum had pathways and benches, and some plants were identified in both English and Latin. Yosemite's arboretum is considered to be the first museum in the National Park System. The Buffalo Soldiers National Museum in Houston, NPS cites a 1904 report, where Yosemite superintentent (Lt. Col.) John Texas Bigelow, Jr. declared the arboretum "To provide a great museum of nature for the general public free of cost ..." Unfortunately, the forces of developers, miners and greed cut the boundaries of Yosemite in 1905 and the arboretum was nearly destroyed.[14] In the Sierra Nevada, the Buffalo Soldiers regularly endured long days in the saddle, slim rations, racism, and separation from family and friends. As military stewards, the African American cavalry and infantry regiments protected the national parks from illegal grazing, poaching, timber thieves, and forest fires. Yosemite Park Ranger Shelton Johnson researched and interpreted the history in an attempt to recover and celebrate the contributions of the Buffalo Soldiers of the Sierra Nevada.[15] In total, 23 "Buffalo Soldiers" received the Medal of Honor during the Indian Wars.[16]

West Point
On March 23, 1907, the United States Military Academy Detachment of Cavalry was changed to a "colored" unit. This had been a long time coming. It had been proposed in 1897 at the "Cavalry and Light Artillery School" at Fort Riley, Kansas that West Point Cadets learn their riding skills from the black non-commissioned officers who were considered the best. The one hundred man detachment from the 9th Cavalry served to teach future officers at West Point riding instruction, mounted drill and tactics until 1947.[17]

Systemic prejudice
The "Buffalo Soldiers" were often confronted with racial prejudice from other members of the U.S. Army. Civilians in the areas where the soldiers were stationed occasionally reacted to them with violence. Buffalo Soldiers were attacked during racial disturbances in: Rio Grande City, Texas in 1899[18] Brownsville, Texas in 1906[19] Houston, Texas in 1917[20] [21] General of the Armies John J. Pershing is a controversial figure regarding the Buffalo Soldiers. He served with the 10th Cavalry from October 1895 to May 1897. He served again with them for less than six months in Cuba. Because he saw the "Buffalo Soldiers" as good soldiers, he was looked down upon and called "Nigger Jack" by white cadets and officers at West Point. It was only later during the Spanish-American War that the press changed that insulting term to "Black Jack." [22] During World War I Pershing bowed to the racial policies of President of the United States Woodrow Wilson, Secretary of War Newton D. Baker and the southern Democratic Party with its "separate but

Buffalo Soldier equal" philosophy. For the first time in American history, Pershing allowed American soldiers (African-Americans) to be under the command of a foreign power.[23]

46

World War I
The Buffalo Soldiers did not participate with the American Expeditionary Force (AEF) during World War I, but experienced non-commissioned officers were provided to other segregated black units for combat servicesuch as the 317th Engineer Battalion [24]. The Soldiers of the 92nd Infantry Division (United States) and the 93rd Infantry Division (United States) were the first Black Americans to fight in France. The four regiments of 93rd fought under French command for the duration of the war. In August 1918, the 10th Cavalry supported the 35th Infantry Regiment in a border skirmish, the Battle of Ambos Nogales, in which German military advisors fought along with Mexican soldiers. This was the only battle during World War I where Germans engaged and died in combat against United States soldiers in North America. The 35th Infantry Regiment was stationed at Nogales, Arizona on August 27, 1918, when at about 4:10 PM, a gun battle erupted unintentionally when a Mexican civilian attempted to pass through the border, back to Mexico, without being interrogated at the U.S. Customs house. After the initial shooting, reinforcements from both sides rushed to the border. For the Americans, the reinforcements were the 10th Cavalry, off duty 35th Regimental soldiers and milita. Hostilities quickly escalated and several soldiers were killed and others wounded on both sides. A cease fire was arranged later after the US forces took the heights south of Nogales.[11] [25] [26]

World War II
Early in the 20th century, the Buffalo Soldiers found themselves being used more as laborers and service troops than as active combat units. During World War II the 9th and 10th Cavalry Regiments were disbanded and the soldiers were moved into service-oriented units, along with the entire 2nd Cavalry Division. One of the infantry regiments, the 24th Infantry Regiment, served in combat in the Pacific theater. Another was the 92nd Infantry Division, AKA the "Buffalo Division", which served in combat during the Italian Campaign in the Mediterranean theater. Another was the 93rd Infantry Divisionincluding the 25th Infantry Regimentwhich served in the Pacific theater.[27]

Despite some official resistance and administrative barriers, black airmen were trained and played a part in the air war in Europe, gaining a reputation for skill and bravery (see Tuskegee Airmen). In early 1945, after the Battle of the Bulge, American forces in Europe experienced a shortage of combat troops so the embargo on using black soldiers in combat units was relaxed. The American Military History says: Faced with a shortage of infantry replacements during the enemy's counteroffensive, General Eisenhower offered Negro soldiers in service units an opportunity to volunteer for duty with the infantry. More than 4,500 responded, many taking reductions in grade in order to meet specified requirements. The 6th Army Group formed these men into provisional companies, while the 12th Army Group employed them as an additional platoon in existing rifle companies. The excellent record established by these volunteers, particularly those serving as platoons, presaged major postwar changes in the traditional approach to employing Negro troops.

With colors flying and guidons down, the lead troops of the famous 9th Cavalry pass in review at the regiment's new home in rebuilt Camp Funston. Ft. Riley, Kansas, May 1941.

Buffalo Soldier

47

Korean War and integration


The 24th Infantry Regiment saw combat during the Korean War and was the last segregated regiment to engage in combat. The 24th was deactivated in 1951, and its soldiers were integrated into other units in Korea. On December 12, 1951, the last Buffalo Soldier units, the 27th Cavalry and the 28th (Horse) Cavalry, were disbanded. The 28th Cavalry was inactivated at Assi-Okba, Algeria in April 1944 in North Africa, and marked the end of the regiment.[28] There are monuments to the Buffalo Soldiers in Kansas at Fort Leavenworth and Junction City.[29] Then-Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Colin Powell, who initiated the project to get a statue to honor the Buffalo Soldiers when he was posted as a brigadier general to Fort Leavenworth, was guest speaker for the unveiling of the Fort Leavenworth monument in July 1992.

Controversy
In the last decade, the employment of the Buffalo Soldiers by the United States Army in the Indian Wars has led a few historians to call Buffalo Soldier Monument on Fort Leavenworth, for the "critical reappraisal" of the "Negro regiments." In this Kansas viewpoint, shared by a small minority,[30] the Buffalo Soldiers were used as mere shock troops or accessories to the forcefully-expansionist goals of the U.S. government at the expense of the Native Americans and other minorities.[30] [31]

Legacy
Music
The song and music of Soul Saga (Song Of The Buffalo Soldier) has had several renditions. In 1974, it was produced by Quincy Jones in the album Body Heat.[32] In 1975, the album Symphonic Soul contained another variation and was released by Henry Mancini and his Orchestra.[33] The song "Buffalo Soldier", co-written by Bob Marley and King Sporty, first appeared on the 1983 album Confrontation. Many Jamaicans, especially Rastafarians like Marley, identified with the "Buffalo Soldiers" as an example of black men who performed with exceeding courage, honor, valor, and distinction in a field that was dominated by whites and persevered despite endemic racism and prejudice.[34] The song "Wavin' Flag" by Somalian/Canadian rapper K'naan from his album Troubadour includes the line "Cause we just move forward like Buffalo Soldiers." This song was produced by Kerry Brothers, Jr. (co-produced by Bruno Mars).[35] It was performed acoustically live on Q TV.[36]

Buffalo Soldier

48

Films
The 1960 Western film Sergeant Rutledge, starring Woody Strode, tells the story of the trial of a 19th-century black Army non-commissioned officer falsely accused of rape and murder. One of the characters narrates the history of the term "buffalo soldier". The movie's theme song, titled Captain Buffalo, was written by Mack David and Jerry Livingston.[37] On November 22, 1968, an episode of the television series The High Chaparral titled "The Buffalo Soldiers" [38], starring Yaphet Kotto, paid tribute to the soldier's patriotic spirit. The 1970 television film Carter's Army (also known as the Black Brigade), starring Stephen Boyd, Rosey Grier and Richard Pryor, depicted a black unit during World War II, led by a white officer.
Buffalo Soldier Memorial of El Paso, in Fort Bliss, depicting CPL John Ross, I Troop, 9th Cavalry, during an encounter in the Guadalupe Mountains during the Indian Wars

The 1979 television film Buffalo Soldiers [39], starring Stan Shaw and John Beck, depicted African-American cavalry soldiers and their actions in the West during the Indian Wars of the late 19th century. The 1997 television film Buffalo Soldiers [40], starring Danny Glover, drew attention to their role in the military history of the United States. The 2006 History Channel special "Honor Deferred" describe members of the Buffalo soldiers in WWII Italy. The film Miracle at St. Anna, directed by Spike Lee, chronicles the Buffalo Soldiers who served in the invasion of Italy. It is based on the novel of the same name by James McBride.

Video games
In the wild west themed video games Red Dead Revolver (2004) and Red Dead Redemption (2010) by Rockstar Games, "Buffalo Soldier" is a name of a playable black character in a Union Army uniform.

Notes
[1] Shaughnessy, Larry (September 19, 2005), "Oldest Buffalo Soldier to be Buried at Arlington" (http:/ / www. cnn. com/ 2005/ US/ 09/ 17/ buffalo. soldier/ index. html), CNN, , retrieved 2007-04-24 [2] Brief History (Buffalo Soldiers National Museum) (http:/ / www. nps. gov/ goga/ planyourvisit/ upload/ sb-buffalo-2008. pdf), 2008, , retrieved 2009-11-30 [3] National Park Service (PDF), Buffalo Soldiers (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20070104024555/ http:/ / www. nps. gov/ archive/ goga/ maps/ bulletins/ sb-buffalo. pdf), archived from the original (http:/ / www. nps. gov/ archive/ goga/ maps/ bulletins/ sb-buffalo. pdf) on 2007-01-04, , retrieved 2007-05-01 [4] The Smithsonian Institution, The Price of Freedom: Printable Exhibition (http:/ / americanhistory. si. edu/ militaryhistory/ printable/ section. asp?id=6), , retrieved 2007-05-01 [5] 7-10 Cav (http:/ / www. globalsecurity. org/ military/ agency/ army/ 7-10cav. htm) Global Security.org which references (Starr 1981:46). [6] "Official 4ID History 4th Infantry Division Homepage: History" (http:/ / www. carson. army. mil/ units/ 4id/ units/ unitsindex. html). United States Army. 02-08-2010. . [7] Fort Concho National Historic Landmark (http:/ / www. fortconcho. com/ buffalo. htm), San Angelo, TX: Fort Concho NHL, , retrieved 2 January 2009 [8] Fields, Elizibeth Arnett. Historic Contexts for the American Military Experience (https:/ / www. denix. osd. mil/ denix/ Public/ ES-Programs/ Conservation/ Legacy/ AAME/ aame2. html) [9] Schubert, Frank N. " The Suggs Affray: The Black Cavalry in the Johnson County War (http:/ / links. jstor. org/ sici?sici=0043-3810(197301)4:1<57:TSATBC>2. 0. CO;2-L)". The Western Historical Quarterly, Vol. 4, No. 1 (January, 1973), pp. 5768. [10] "10th Cavalry Squadron History" (http:/ / www. hood. army. mil/ 4id_1-10cavalrysquadron/ sqdrnhist. htm). US Army. . [11] Finley, James P. Huachuca Illustrated Vol. 2 Part 5, Buffalo Soldiers at Huachuca: Yaqui Fight in Bear Valley. Library of Congress 1996, ISBN 93-206790 [12] Johnson, Shelton Invisible Men: Buffalo Soldiers of the Sierra Nevada (http:/ / www. cr. nps. gov/ history/ hisnps/ NPShistorians/ invisiblemen2. pdf). Park Histories: Sequoia NP (and Kings Canyon NP), National Parks Service. Retrieved: 2007-05-18. [13] Leckie, William H. (1967), The Buffalo Soldiers: A Narrative of the Negro Cavalry in the West, Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, LCCN67-15571

Buffalo Soldier
[14] Wallis, O. L. (September 1951), "Yosemite's Pioneer Arboreetum" (http:/ / www. yosemite. ca. us/ library/ yosemite_nature_notes/ 30/ 30-9. pdf), Yosemite Nature Notes (Yosimite Natural History Association, Inc.) XXX, Number 9: pp.83, , retrieved 2010-05-05 [15] Johnson, Shelton, Shadows in the Range of Light (http:/ / shadowsoldier. wilderness. net), , retrieved 2007-04-24 [16] "Medal of Honor Recipients: Indian Wars Period" (http:/ / www. history. army. mil/ html/ moh/ indianwars. html). . [17] Buckley, Gail Lumet (2001), [:http:/ / www. amazon. com/ American-Patriots-Blacks-Military-Revolution/ dp/ 0375502793 American Patriots: The Story of Blacks in the Military from the Revolution to Desert Storm (Hardcover) (http:/ / www. amazon. com/ dp/ 0375502793)], Random House; 1st edition (May 22, 2001), ISBN0375502793, [18] Christian, Garna (August 17, 2001), Handbook of Texas Online: Rio Grande City, Texas (http:/ / www. tshaonline. org/ handbook/ online/ articles/ view/ RR/ hfr5. html), , retrieved 2007-04-24 [19] Christian, Garna (February 17, 2005), Handbook of Texas Online: Brownsville, Texas (http:/ / www. tshaonline. org/ handbook/ online/ articles/ BB/ pkb6. html), , retrieved 2007-04-24 [20] Haynes, Robert (April 6, 2004), Handbook of Texas Online: Houston, Texas (http:/ / www. tshaonline. org/ handbook/ online/ articles/ HH/ jch4. html), , retrieved 2007-04-24 [21] The Officer Down Memorial Page (Police Officer Rufus E. Daniels) (http:/ / www. odmp. org/ officer. php?oid=3793), , retrieved 2007-04-24 [22] Frank E. Vandiver, Black Jack: The Life and Times of John J. Pershing Volume I (Texas A&M University Press, Third printing, 1977) ISBN 0-89096-024-0 , 67. [23] Pershing was a first lieutenant and took command of a troop of the 10th Cavalry Regiment in October of 1895. In 1897, Pershing became an instructor at West Point, where he joined the tactical staff. While at West Point, cadets upset over Pershing's harsh treatment and high standards took to calling him "Nigger Jack," in reference to his service with the 10th Cavalry.1 This was softened (or sanitized) to the more euphonic "Black Jack" by reporters covering Pershing during World War I.2 At the start of the Spanish-American War, First Lieutenant Pershing was offered a brevet rank and commissioned a major of volunteers on August 26, 1898. He fought with the 10th Cavalry (Buffalo Soldiers) on Kettle and San Juan Hill in Cuba and was cited for gallantry.

49

During World War I General Pershing exercised significant control over the American Expeditionary Force. He had a full delegation of authority from President of the United States Woodrow Wilson and Secretary of War Newton D. Baker. Baker, cognizant of the endless problems of domestic and allied political involvement in military decision making in wartime, gave Pershing unmatched authority to run his command as he saw fit. In turn, Pershing exercised his prerogative carefully, not engaging in issues that might distract or diminish his command. While earlier a champion of the African-American soldier, he did not champion their full participation on the battlefield, bowing to widespread racial attitudes among white Americans, plus Wilson's reactionary racial views and the political debts he owed to southern "separate but equal" Democratic law makers.3
[24] http:/ / www. tioh. hqda. pentagon. mil/ Eng/ 317EngineerBattalion. htm [25] Wharfield, Harold B., Colonel, USAF retired (1965), Tenth Cavalry and Border Fights, El Cajon, CA: self published, pp.8597 [26] Clendenen, Clarence, Colonel (US Army retired) (1969), Blood on the Border; the United States Army and the Mexican irregulars, New York: Macmillan, ISBN002526110X, 978-0025261105 [27] Hargrove, Hondon B. (1985), Buffalo Soldiers in Italy: Black Americans in World War II, Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company, ISBN0-89950-116-8 [28] The 28th Cavalry: The U.S. Army's Last Horse Cavalry Regiment (http:/ / www. buffalosoldiers-lawtonftsill. org/ 28-cav. htm), , retrieved 2007-04-24 [29] Services Buffalo Soldier Monument (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20070627001955/ http:/ / garrison. leavenworth. army. mil/ sites/ about/ Buffalo. asp), archived from the original (http:/ / garrison. leavenworth. army. mil/ sites/ about/ Buffalo. asp) on 2007-06-27, , retrieved 2007-04-24 [30] The shame of the Buffalo Soldiers (http:/ / www. hartford-hwp. com/ archives/ 45a/ 389. html), , retrieved 2007-07-24 [31] The Buffalo Soldier of the West and the Elimination of the Native American Race (http:/ / debate. uvm. edu/ dreadlibrary/ mullin. html), , retrieved 2007-07-24 [32] Soul Saga (Song of the Bufallo Soldier) (http:/ / www. amazon. com/ dp/ B000W0248E), Jones, Quincy, 1974, A&M. 1988, Album Body Heat. ASIN: B000W0248E [33] Soul Saga (Song of the Bufallo Soldier) (http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=oOAFZGwReNM), Mancini, Henry, 1975, RCA CPL1-0672 (Quadraphonic) album Symphonic Soul." [34] Black Heretics, Black Prophets: Radical Political Intellectuals (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=kX7oSejCWnQC& pg=PA198& lpg=PA198& dq="buffalo+ soldier+ was"+ + song& source=web& ots=ymguglqfqf& sig=wCjYdXML-rxe-fDUno2ZwNmDpM4& hl=en& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=5& ct=result#PPA198,M1) Bogues, Anthony, Page 198, via Google Books. Accessed 2008-06-28. (http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=HlgxZtL_3Ws& feature=related) [35] "K'Naan feat. Chali 2na (of Jurassic 5), Chubb Rock, Damian Marley, Mos Def 'Troubadour' (Audio CD) Detail Underground Hip Hop Store" (http:/ / www. undergroundhiphop. com/ store/ detail. asp?UPC=AM47802CD). Underground Hip Hop. . Retrieved 2010-05-02. [36] 'Waving Flag' by K'naan on QTV (http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=TxmEd9lcn0k& NR=1) youtube.com [37] IMDb. Sergeant Rutledge: Soundtrack. (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0054292/ soundtrack)

Buffalo Soldier
[38] http:/ / www. thehighchaparral. com/ ep236. htm [39] http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0408599/ [40] http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0118790/ [1]

50

1 Note reference 2 Note reference[2] 3 Note reference[22] [3]

References
[1] http:/ / www. nps. gov/ pwso/ honor/ pershing. htm [2] Bak, Richard, Editor. "The Rough Riders" by Theodore Roosevelt. Page 172. Taylor Publishing, 1997. [3] Frank E. Vandiver, Black Jack: The Life and Times of John J. Pershing Volume II (Texas A&M University Press, Third printing, 1977) ISBN 0-89096-024-0

External links
Buffalo Soldiers at San Juan Hill (http://www.history.army.mil/documents/spanam/BSSJH/BS-SJH.htm) Buffalo Soldier Monument Fort Leavenworth, Kansas (http://garrison.leavenworth.army.mil/sites/about/ Buffalo.asp) Buffalo Soldier National Museum (http://www.buffalosoldiermuseum.com/) Photograph Gallery of Buffalo Soldiers On the Eve of War (World War II) (http://www.history.army.mil/ topics/afam/buffalo.htm) at the United States Army Center of Military History Buffalo Soldiers (http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/BB/qlb1.html) from the Handbook of Texas Online shadowsoldier.wilderness.net (http://shadowsoldier.wilderness.net), a website devoted to remembering the contributions of the buffalo soldiers of the Sierra Nevada, by Park Ranger Shelton Johnson, Yosemite National Park A Path to Lunch (http://www.apathtolunch.com/2011/04/liberation-day-and-liberation-of.html) Liberation Day and the Liberation of America, Buffalo Soldiers in Lunigiana and Versilia, Italy.

John Murray, 4th Earl of Dunmore

51

John Murray, 4th Earl of Dunmore


Earl of Dunmore

Royal Governor of New York In office 17701771 Monarch Preceded by Succeeded by George III Sir Henry Moore William Tryon

Crown Governor of Virginia In office 17711775 Monarch Preceded by Succeeded by George III Lord Botetourt Commonwealth of Virginia

Governor of the Bahamas In office 17871796 Monarch Preceded by Succeeded by George III James Edward Powell John Forbes

Personal details Born 1730 Taymouth, Scotland 25 February 1809 Ramsgate, Kent, England British

Died

Nationality

John Murray, 4th Earl of Dunmore John Murray, 4th Earl of Dunmore (1732 25 February 1809) was a British peer and colonial governor. He was the son of William Murray, 3rd Earl of Dunmore, and his wife Catherine (n Murray). He is best remembered as the last royal governor of the Colony of Virginia.

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Early career
Born in Taymouth, Scotland in 1730, John was the eldest son of William and Catherine Murray, and the nephew of John Murray, second Earl of Dunmore. In 1745 William Murray and John (then only 15) joined the ill-fated campaign of "Bonnie Prince Charlie" (Charles Edward Stuart). Young John was appointed a page to Prince Charles. The second Earl remained with the Hanoverian regime. After the Jacobite army was defeated at Culloden (1746), the Murrays were put under house arrest, and William was imprisoned in the Tower. By 1750, William had received a conditional pardon. His son John, now 20, joined the British Army. In 1756, after the deaths of his uncle and father, John became the fourth Earl of Dunmore, and sat as a Scottish representative peer in the House of Lords from 1761 to 1774 and from 1776 to 1790.

Colonial governor of New York


He was named as the British governor of the Province of New York from 1770 to 1771. Soon after his appointment, however, in 1770, Virginia's governor, Norborne Berkeley, 4th Baron Botetourt (Lord Botetourt) died, and Dunmore was named to replace him.[1]

Colonial governor of Virginia


Dunmore actively served as royal governor of the Colony of Virginia from 25 September 1771 until his departure to New York in 1776; he continued to hold the position and to draw his pay until 1783 when American independence was recognized. Despite growing issues with Great Britain, Lord Botetourt had been a popular governor in Virginia, even though he served only five years. Lacking in diplomatic skills, Dunmore maintained a contentious relationship with the colonists.[2] During his term as Virginia's colonial governor, he directed a series of campaigns against the Indians known as Lord Dunmore's War. The Shawnee were the main target of these attacks, and his purpose was to strengthen Virginia's claims in the west, particularly in the Ohio Country. However, some have accused him of colluding with the Shawnees and arranging the war to deplete the Virginia militia and help safeguard the Loyalist cause, should there be a colonial rebellion. When the House of Burgesses of the Colonial Assembly recommended the formation of a committee of correspondence to communicate their concerns to leaders in Great Britain in March 1773, he immediately dissolved the Assembly. Many of burgesses gathered a short distance away at the Raleigh Tavern and continued discussing their problems with the new taxes and lack of representation in England. At this time colonists in Massachusetts were also at sharp odds with the British, and punitive action had been taken. As a gesture of support, the reconvened House of Burgesses passed a resolution making 1 June 1774 a day of fasting and prayer in Virginia. In response, Dunmore again dissolved the House. From 1774, Dunmore was continually clashing with colonial leaders. Dunmore saw rising unrest in the colony and sought to deprive Virginia militia of supplies needed for insurrection. The Second Virginia Convention had elected delegates to the Continental Congress. Dunmore issued a proclamation against electing delegates to the Congress, but did not take serious action. On 23 March, Patrick Henry's "Give me Liberty, or give me Death!" speech at the Second Convention and the accompanying resolution calling for forming an armed resistance[3] made Dunmore "think it prudent to remove some Gunpowder which was in a Magazine in this place."[4] [5] Dunmore gave a key to Lieutenant Henry Colins, commander of H.M.S. Magdalen, and ordered him to remove the powder, provoking what

John Murray, 4th Earl of Dunmore became known as the Gunpowder Incident. On the night of 20 April 1775, royal marines loaded fifteen half barrels of powder into the governor's wagon intent on transporting it down the Quarterpath Road to the James River to be loaded aboard the British ship. This was discovered while underway, and local militia rallied to the scene, and riders spread word of the incident across the colony.

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Confronted by Hanover militia


The Hanover militia, led by Patrick Henry, arrived outside of Williamsburg on 3 May. That day, Dunmore evacuated his family from the Governor's Palace to his hunting lodge, Porto Bello in York County, adjacent to the York River.[6] On 6 May, Dunmore issued a proclamation against "a certain Patrick Henry . . . and a Number of deluded Followers" who had organised "an Independent Company . . . and put themselves in a Posture of War."[3] As hostilities continued, Dunmore left Williamsburg himself on 8 June 1775, retreating to Porto Bello where he joined his family. From there, being dislodged by the Virginia rebels and wounded in the leg,[7] he took refuge on the British warship Fowey in the York River. Washington's comment in December 1775 was, I do not think that forcing his lordship on shipboard is sufficient. Nothing less than depriving him of life or liberty will secure peace to Virginia, as motives of resentment actuate his conduct to a degree equal to the total destruction of that colony.[7]

Lord Dunmore's Proclamation


Dunmore is noted for Lord Dunmore's Proclamation, also known as Lord Dunmore's Offer of Emancipation, on 7 November 1775, whereby he offered freedom to slaves who abandoned their Patriot masters to join the British. This was the first mass emancipation of slaves in North America. As governor of Virginia, Dunmore had withheld his signature from a bill against the slave trade.[2] However, by the end of the war, an estimated 100,000 escaped slaves sought refuge with the British, an estimated 20,000 of them served in the army, though the majority served in noncombatant roles. He organised these Black Loyalists into the Ethiopian Regiment. However, after the Battle of Kemp's Landing, Dunmore became over-confident, which precipitated his defeat at the Battle of Great Bridge, 9 December 1775. Following the defeat at Great Bridge, he loaded his troops, and many Virginia Loyalists, onto British ships; as there was an outbreak of smallpox at the time, this had disastrous consequences, particularly for the ex-slaves; some 500 of the 800 members of the Ethiopian Regiment died.

Final skirmishes and return to Britain


On New Year's Day in 1776, Dunmore gave orders to burn waterfront buildings in Norfolk from which patriot troops were firing on his ships. In doing so, he fell into another trap, as this gave the rebels an excuse to burn the entire city.[8] When it became apparent that his supporters were not going to be able to return to Virginia, Dunmore retreated to New York. Some ships of his refugee fleet were sent south, mostly to Florida, but the rumor that their black passengers were resold into slavery appears to be based on propaganda stories circulated by the anti-British forces at the time.[9] When he realized he could not regain control in Virginia, he returned to Britain in July 1776. He continued to serve in his post as Governor of Virginia until 1783, when the independence of the United States was recognized. From 1787 to 1796, he served as governor of the Bahamas.

John Murray, 4th Earl of Dunmore

54

Personal life
Lord Dunmore married Lady Charlotte, daughter of Alexander Stewart, 6th Earl of Galloway, in 1759. Their daughter Lady Augusta Murray was the daughter-in-law of King George III. The Dunmores had another daughter close to her age, Lady Catherine Murray, and soon after they landed in Virginia, they had another child, Lady Virginia Murray. Dunmore died in March 1809 and was succeeded in the earldom by his eldest son George. The Countess of Dunmore died in 1818.

Legacy
Dunmore County, Virginia, formed in 1772, was named in his honour. However, as the American Revolution got underway, the citizens changed its name to Shenandoah County in 1778. Lake Dunmore in Salisbury, Vermont, was named after him in 1773, since he had claimed ownership of the area while he was Governor of New York.[10] Porto Bello, the hunting lodge of Lord Dunmore, still stands on the grounds of Camp Peary in York County, Virginia. It is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Access to the base is highly restricted, so the structure is not available for public viewing. The Dunmore Pineapple was built in 1761 before he left Scotland. The building is now owned by the National Trust for Scotland and is leased to the Landmark Trust who use it to provide holiday accommodation. The gardens are open to the public year round. Dunmore Street in Norfolk, Virginia was named for him. It is said that the naming of Dunmore Street was not to honour the ex-governor, but to celebrate the place in Norfolk where he had last set foot. The borough of Dunmore in Lackawanna County, Pennsylvania is also named in his honour. Lord Dunmore Drive in Virginia Beach, VA

References
Kidd, Charles, Williamson, David (editors). Debrett's Peerage and Baronetage (1990 edition). New York: St Martin's Press, 1990. Leigh Rayment's Peerage Pages [11] www.thepeerage.com [12]
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] http:/ / research. history. org/ pf/ declaring/ bio_dunmore. cfm http:/ / www. pbs. org/ wgbh/ aia/ part2/ 2h47. html http:/ / www. redhill. org/ timeline. html Proclamation (http:/ / earlyamerica. com/ review/ 2004_summer_fall/ proclamation. htm) Principles of Freedom (http:/ / research. history. org/ pf/ declaring/ gunpowder. cfm) Kibler, J. Luther (April 1931). "Numerous Errors in Wilstach's 'Tidewater Virginia' Challenge Criticism". The William and Mary Quarterly, 2nd Ser. (The William and Mary Quarterly, Vol. 11, No. 2) 11 (2): 152156. doi:10.2307/1921010. JSTOR1921010. [7] "Dunmore, John Murray". Appletons' Cyclopdia of American Biography. 1900. [8] Guy, Louis L. jr. Norfolk's Worst Nightmare (http:/ / www. norfolkhistorical. org/ insights/ 2001_spring/ nightmare. html) Norfolk Historical Society Courier (Spring 2001)- accessed 3 January 2008 [9] Pybus, Cassandra Jefferson's Faulty Math: The Question of Slave Defections in the American Revolution (http:/ / www. historycooperative. org/ journals/ wm/ 62. 2/ pybus. html) William and Mary Quarterly vol. 62 no. 2 (2005)- subscription [10] Zaremba, Robert E. and Danielle R. Jeanloz, Around Middlebury (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?isbn=0738504491) (Arcadia Publishing, 2000), p. 95. [11] http:/ / www. leighrayment. com/ [12] http:/ / www. thepeerage. com/

United States Colored Troops

55

United States Colored Troops


The United States Colored Troops (USCT) were regiments of the United States Army during the American Civil War that were composed of African American ("colored") soldiers. First recruited in 1863, by the end of the Civil War, the men of the 175 regiments of the USCT constituted approximately one-tenth of the Union Army. The men of the USCT were the forerunners of the well-known Buffalo Soldiers, who fought in the Indian Wars later in the nineteenth century and received their nickname in the American West.

History
The U.S. Congress passed the Second Confiscation Act[1] in July 1862. It freed slaves of owners in rebellion against the United States, and a militia act empowered the President to use freed slaves in any capacity in the army. President Abraham Lincoln was concerned with public opinion in the four border states that remained in the Union, as they had numerous slaveholders, as well as with northern Democrats who supported the war but were less supportive of abolition than many northern Republicans. Lincoln opposed early efforts to recruit black soldiers, although he accepted the Army's using them as paid workers. Union Army setbacks in battles over the summer of 1862 led Lincoln to emancipating all slaves in states at war with the Union. In September 1862 Lincoln issued his preliminary Emancipation Proclamation, announcing that all slaves in rebellious states would be free as of January 1. Recruitment of colored regiments began in full force following the Proclamation of January 1863.[2]

22nd Regiment banner - Sic semper tyrannis

African-American soldiers at an abandoned farmhouse in Dutch Gap, Virginia, 1864.

The United States War Department issued General Order Number 143 on May 22, 1863, establishing a "Bureau of Colored Troops" to facilitate the recruitment of African-American soldiers to fight for the Union Army.[3] Regiments, including infantry, cavalry, engineers, light artillery, and heavy artillery units, were recruited from all states of the Union and became known as the United States Colored Troops (USCT). Approximately 175 regiments composed of more than 178,000 free blacks and freedmen served during the last two years of the war. Their service bolstered the Union war effort at a critical time. By war's end, the men of the USCT composed nearly one tenth of all Union troops. The USCT suffered 2,751 combat casualties during the

United States Colored Troops

56

war, and 68,178 losses from all causes. Disease caused the most fatalities for all troops.[4] USCT regiments were led by white officers, and rank advancement was limited for black soldiers. The Supervisory Committee for Recruiting Colored Regiments in Philadelphia opened a Free Military Academy for Applicants for the Command of Colored Troops at the end of 1863.[5] For a time, black soldiers received less pay than their white counterparts, but they (and their supporters) lobbied for equal pay.[6] Notable members of USCT regiments included Martin Robinson Delany, and the sons of Frederick Douglass.

Volunteer Regiments
Before the USCT was formed, several Volunteer regiments were raised from free blacks, including freedmen in the South. For instance, freedmen from the Roanoke Island Freedmen's Colony, established in 1863 on the island, formed the first company of the North Carolina Colored Volunteers.[7] Nearly all of the Volunteer regiments were converted into USCT units. Detachment, Quartermaster's Department . Pioneer Corps, 1st Division, 16th Army Corps. Pioneer Corps, Cavalry Division, 16th Army Corps. State Volunteers Four regiments were considered Regular units, rather than auxiliaries, because they were formed from free northern blacks at the start of the war. They got the same pay and benefits as Regular Army or State Militia regiments. Their veteran status allowed them to get valuable federal government jobs after the war, from which African Americans had usually been excluded in earlier years. But, the men received no recognition for honors and awards until the turn of the 20th century.

Sgt. Major Christian Fleetwood, Medal of Honor recipient.

Sgt. William Carney, Medal of Honor recipient.

5th Massachusetts (Colored) Volunteer Cavalry Regiment 54th Massachusetts (Colored) Volunteer Infantry Regiment 55th Massachusetts (Colored) Volunteer Infantry Regiment 29th Connecticut (Colored) Volunteer Infantry Regiment

United States Colored Troops Corps d'Afrique The Corps d'Afrique was formed in New Orleans after it was taken by Union forces. It was formed around the Louisiana Native Guards. The Native Guards were Militia units formed from property-owning free people of color, the group of mixed-race people who had developed as a third class in New Orleans since the colonial years, between the native-born French colonists (called French Crole) and the African slaves. (Today the people of color descended from this group are generally referred to as Louisiana Creole.) After the United States made the Louisiana Purchase, many Americans entered New Orleans and ignored the status of the free people of color, grouping them with the mass of blacks, then mostly slaves. The Confederates did not allow the free people of color to serve in their army. For later units of the Corps d'Afrique, the Union recruited freedmen liberated as slaves from nearby plantations. They were treated and paid as auxiliaries although they served with distinction at the Battle of Port Hudson. Units included: 4 Regiments of Louisiana Native Guards (renamed the 1st-4th Corps de Afrique Infantry, later made into the 73rd-76th US (Colored) Infantry on April 4, 1864). 1st and 2nd Brigade Marching Bands, Corps d'Afrique (later made into Nos. 1 and 2 Bands, USCT). 1 Regiment of Cavalry (1st Corps d'Afrique Cavalry, later made into the 4th US (Colored) Cavalry). 22 Regiments of Infantry (1st-20th, 22nd, and 26th Corps d'Afrique Infantry, later converted into the 77th-79th, 80th-83rd, 84th-88th, and 89th-93rd US (Colored) Infantry on April 4, 1864). 5 Regiments of Engineers (1st-5th Corps d'Afrique Engineers, later converted into the 95th-99th US (Colored) Infantry regiments on April 4, 1864). 1 Regiment of Heavy Artillery (later converted into the 10th US (Colored Heavy) Artillery on May 21, 1864).

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USCT Regiments
6 Regiments of Cavalry [1st-6th USC Cavalry] 1 Regiment of Light Artillery [2nd USC (Light) Artillery] 1 Independent USC (Heavy) Artillery Battery 13 Heavy Artillery Regiments [1st and 3rd-14th USC (Heavy) Artillery] 1 unassigned Company of Infantry [Company A, US Colored Infantry] 1 Independent USC Company of Infantry [Southard's Company, Pennsylvania (Colored) Infantry] 1 Independent USC Regiment of Infantry [Powell's Regiment, US Colored Infantry] 135 Regiments of Infantry [1st-138th USC Infantry] (The 94th, 105th, and 126th USC Infantry regiments were never fully formed) Notes: 1. The 2nd USC (Light) Artillery Regiment (USCA) was made up of 9 separate batteries grouped into 3 nominal battalions of three batteries each. The batteries were usually detached. I Battalion: A,B & C Batteries. II Battalion: D, E & F Batteries. III Battalion: G, H & I Batteries. 1. The second raising of the 11th USC Infantry (USCI) was created by converting the 7th USC (Heavy) Artillery into an infantry unit. 2. The second raising of the 79th USC Infantry (USCI) was formed from the 1st Kansas Colored Infantry. 3. The second raising of the 83rd USC Infantry (USCI) was formed from the 2nd Kansas Colored Infantry. 4. The second raising of the 87th USCI was formed from merging the first raisings of the 87th and 96th USCI. 5. The second raising of the 113th USCI was formed by merging the first raisings of the 11th, 112th, and 113th USCI.

United States Colored Troops

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Notable actions
USCT regiments fought in all theaters of the war, but mainly served as garrison troops in rear areas. The most famous USCT action took place at the Battle of the Crater during the Siege of Petersburg. Regiments of USCT suffered heavy casualties attempting to break through Confederate lines. Other notable engagements include Fort Wagner and the Battle of Nashville. USCT soldiers suffered extra violence at the hands of Confederate soldiers. They were victims of battlefield massacres and atrocities, most notably at Fort Pillow in Tennessee. They were at risk for murder by Confederate soldiers, rather than being held as prisoners of war.[8] The prisoner exchange protocol broke down over the Confederacy's position on black prisoners of war. Confederate law stated that blacks captured in uniform be tried as slave insurrectionists in civil courtsa capital offense with automatic sentence of death.[9] USCT soldiers were often murdered without being taken to court. The law became a stumbling block for prisoner exchange.

German-American Lt.-Col. William N. Reed, fallen in the Battle of Olustee

USCT soldiers were among the first Union forces to enter Richmond, Virginia, after its fall in April 1865. The 41st USCT regiment was present at the surrender of the Army of Northern Virginia at Appomattox. Following the war, USCT regiments served among the occupation troops in former Confederate states.

Awards
Soldiers who fought in the Army of the James were eligible for the Butler Medal, commissioned by that army's commander, Maj. Gen. Benjamin Butler. In 1861 at Fort Monroe in Virginia, he was the first to declare refugee slaves as contraband and refused to return them to slaveholders. This became a policy throughout the Union Army. African-American soldiers won the Medal of Honor, the nation's highest award: Sergeant William Harvey Carney of the 54th Massachusetts (Colored) Volunteer Infantry was awarded the Medal of Honor for his actions at the Battle of Fort Wagner in July 1863. During the advance, Carney was wounded but still went on. When the color-bearer was shot, Carney grabbed the flagstaff and planted it in the parapet, while the rest of his regiment stormed the fortification. When his regiment was forced to retreat, he was wounded two more times while he carried the colors back to Union lines. He did not relinquish it until he handed it to another soldier of the 54th. Sergeant Major Christian Fleetwood was awarded the Medal of Honor for his actions with the 4th USCT in the Battle of Chaffin's Farm in Virginia in September 1864, during the campaign to take Petersburg. Fleetwood took up the regimental colors after 11 other USCT soldiers had been shot down while carrying them forward.

Postbellum
The USCT was disbanded in the fall of 1865. In 1867 the Regular Army was set at 10 regiments of cavalry and 45 regiments of infantry. The Army was authorized to raise two regiments of black cavalry (the 9th and 10th (Colored) Cavalry) and four regiments of black infantry (the 38th, 39th, 40th, and 41st (Colored) Infantry), who were mostly drawn from USCT veterans. In 1869 the Regular Army was kept at 10 regiments of cavalry but cut to 25 regiments of Infantry, reducing the black complement to two regiments (the 24th and 25th (Colored) Infantry).

United States Colored Troops

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Legacy
After the war many USCT veterans struggled for recognition and had difficulty obtaining the pensions they were due. Since the USCT was considered an auxiliary force, its members were not considered veterans by the Department of War's standards. The Federal government did not address the inequality until 1890, and many of the veterans did not receive service and disability pensions until the early 1900s. The history of the USCT's wartime contribution was kept alive within the black community by historians such as W. E. B. Du Bois. The units and their contributions have been the subject of more books and movies since the 1970s.

Company E, 4th US Colored Troops at Fort Lincoln, [10] November 17th, 1865. Library of Congress link at

They also had difficulty receiving official recognition for achievement and valor. Often recommendations for decorations were filed away and ignored. Another problem was that the government would mail the award certificate and medal to the recipient, who had to pay the postage due (whether he was white or black). Most former USCT recipients had to return them for lack of funds. The motion picture Glory, starring Denzel Washington, Morgan Freeman and Matthew Broderick, portrayed the African-American soldiers of the 54th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry Regiment. It showed their training and participation in several battles, including the second assault on Fort Wagner on July 18, 1863.[11] Although the 54th was not a USCT regiment, but a Volunteer regiment originally raised from free blacks in Boston, the film portrays the experiences and hardships that African-American troops went through during the Civil War.

Legacy and honors


A national celebration in commemoration of the service of the United States Colored Troops was held in September 1996. The African American Civil War Memorial (1997), featuring Spirit of Freedom by sculptor Ed Hamilton, was erected at the corner of Vermont Avenue and U Street, NW. It is administered by the National Park Service. In 1999 the African American Civil War Museum opened nearby. In July 2011, it celebrated a grand opening of its new museum facility at 1925 Vermont Avenue, just across from the Memorial. It plans four years of related events during the 150th anniversary of the Civil War and the 50th anniversary of the Civil Rights Movement, to commemorate African-American contributions under the theme: "From the Civil War to Civil Rights".

Numbers of United States Colored Troops by state, North and South


North Connecticut Colorado Territory Delaware District of Columbia Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Number South Number 4,969 5,526 1,044 3,486 24,502 17,869 5,035 5,462

1,764 Alabama 95 Arkansas 954 Florida 3,269 Georgia 1,811 Louisiana 1,597 Mississippi 440 North Carolina 2,080 South Carolina

United States Colored Troops

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Kentucky Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Missouri New Hampshire New Jersey New York Ohio Pennsylvania Rhode Island Vermont West Virginia Wisconsin Total from the North 23,703 Tennessee 104 Texas 8,718 Virginia 3,966 1,387 Total from the South 104 8,344 At large 125 Not accounted for 1,185 4,125 5,092 8,612 1,837 120 196 155 79,283 Total 178,895 733 5,083 93,796 20,133 47 5,723

Notes
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] Rodriguez, Junius P. Slavery in the United States: a Social, Political, and Historical Encyclopedia, ABC-CLIO, 2007, vol. 2, pg 241 Cornish, The Sable Arm, pp. 29-111. Cornish, The Sable Arm, p. 130. Cornish, The Sable Arm, p. 288; McPherson, The Negro's Civil War, p. 237. Cornish, The Sable Arm, p. 218. McPherson, The Negro's Civil War, Chapter XIV, "The Struggle for Equal Pay," pp. 193-203.

[7] "The Roanoke Island Freedmen's Colony" (http:/ / www. carolinacountry. com/ storypages/ ourstories/ freedmen/ freedmen. html) Carolina Country Magazine, date?, accessed 10 November 2010 [8] Cornish, The Sable Arm, pp. 173-180. [9] Williams, George W., History of the Negro Race in America from 1619 to 1880: Negros as Slaves, as Soldiers, and as Citizens, vol. II, New York: G.P. Putnam Son's, 1883, pp. 351-352. [10] (http:/ / www. loc. gov/ pictures/ item/ cwp2003000946/ PP/ ) [11] See the film review by the historian James M. McPherson, The Glory Story, The New Republic, January 8 & 15, 1990, pp. 22-27.

References
Dudley Taylor Cornish, The Sable Arm: Negro Troops in the Union Army, 1861-1865 (New York: W.W. Norton, 1965). Jesse J. Johnson, Black Armed Forces Officers 1736-1971 (Hampton Publ., 1971) James M. McPherson, The Negro's Civil War: How American Negroes Felt and Acted During the War for the Union (New York: Pantheon Books, 1965). George W. Williams, A History of the Negro Troops in the War of the Rebellion (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1887).

United States Colored Troops

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External links
United States Colored Troops in the Civil War (http://www.lwfaam.net/cw/) United States Colored Troops (http://www.forloveofliberty.net/stories/united-states-colored-troops/95) US Army African Americans in the U.S. Army (http://www.army.mil/africanamericans/) Mr. Lincoln and Freedom: Black Soldiers (http://www.mrlincolnandfreedom.org/inside.asp?ID=50& subjectID=3) 1863 Picture and News Report on the First Colored Regiment (http://www.sonofthesouth.net/leefoundation/ civil-war/1863/february/first-colored-troops.htm) in the US African American Civil War Memorial and Museum (http://www.afroamcivilwar.org) 5th United States Colored Infantry (http://www.5thusci-companyg.org) 8th USCT (http://battleofolustee.org/8th_usct.html) 19th USCT (http://www.19usct.com) 35th USCT (http://battleofolustee.org/35th_usct.html) (previously the 1st North Carolina Colored Volunteers) 54th Massachusetts (http://battleofolustee.org/54th_mass_inf.html)

Free people of color


A free person of color in the context of the history of slavery in the Americas, is a person of full or partial African descent who was not enslaved. In the United States, such persons were referred to as "free Negroes," though many were of mixed race (in the terminology of the day, mulattos, generally of European and African descent). Free people of color was especially a term used in New Orleans and the former Louisiana Territory, where a substantial third class of primarily mixed-race, free people developed. There were also free people of color in Caribbean and Latin American slave societies. There colonial societies classified mixed-race people in a variety of ways, generally related to appearance and to the proportion of African ancestry.

History
Free people of color, or gens de couleur libre, played an important role in the history of New Orleans and the southern part of the state, former Louisiana Territory. When French settlers and traders first arrived in the colony, the men took Native American women as their concubines or common-law wives; and when African slaves were imported to the colony, they took African women as wives. As the colony grew and more white women arrived from France and Germany, some French men or ethnic French Creoles still took mixed-race women as mistresses or places before they officially married. In the period of French and Spanish rule, the free people of color had developed formal arrangements for places, which the young women's mothers negotiated, often to include a kind of dowry or property transfer to the young women, freedom for them and their children, and education for the children. The French Creole men often paid for education of their "natural" (illegitimate) mixed-race children from these relationships, especially if they were sons. Free people of color developed as a separate class between the colonial French and Spanish and the enslaved black African workers. They often achieved education and some measure of wealth; they spoke French and practiced Catholicism, although there was also development of syncretic religion. At one time the center of their residential community was the French Quarter. Many were artisans who owned property and their own businesses. They formed a social category distinct from both whites and slaves.[1] Free people of color were also an important part of the history of the Caribbean during the period of slavery and afterward. Again as the descendants of French men and African slaves, they achieved wealth and power, particularly in the French colony of Saint-Domingue. It achieved independence as Haiti in 1804. In Saint-Domingue, Martinique,

Free people of color Guadeloupe, and other French Caribbean colonies before slavery was abolished, the free people of color were known as gens de couleur libres, and affranchis. They were also an important part of the populations of British Jamaica, the Spanish Captaincy General of Santo Domingo, Cuba and Puerto Rico, and Portuguese Brazil.

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Definition
Many slave societies allowed masters to free their slaves. As the population of color became larger and more threatening to the white ruling class, governments put increasing restrictions on manumissions. These usually included taxes, requirements that some socially useful reason be cited for manumission, and requirements that the newly freed person show that he or she had some means of support. Masters might free their slaves for a variety of reasons, but the most common was family relationship between master and slave. Throughout the slave societies of the Americas, some white male slaveowners took advantage of the subordinate status of their female slaves and required them to engage in sexual relations. The Southern diarist Mary Chesnut famously wrote that "like the patriarchs of old our men live all in one house with their wives and their concubines, and the mulattoes one sees in every family exactly resemble the white children..."[2] In some places, especially in Caribbean and South American slave societies, the European might acknowledge the relationship and his children. Some were common-law marriages of affection. Slaveholders were more likely to free their mixed-race children of these relationships than they were to free other slaves. They also sometimes freed the enslaved women who were their concubines. Slaves might achieve freedom by purchasing it, whether at market or reduced value. Some masters hired out their slaves and allowed them to keep a portion of their earnings. From money saved, they could buy freedom. In other cases, relatives who were already free purchased the freedom of another. Sometimes masters, or the government, would free slaves without payment as a reward for some notable service: a slave who revealed slave conspiracies for uprisings was commonly rewarded with freedom. Some enslaved black people, such as Charlotte Dupuy, held by slave of Henry Clay, Secretary of State, sued for freedom in what were known as freedom suits. Slavery law included provisions for persons to sue on the basis of being illegally held in slavery, through a free maternal line, or other reasons. In the nineteenth century, with the abolition and prohibition of slavery in northern states, and increased travel, some slaves sued for freedom on the grounds of having been held illegally in a free state. (Most free states had provisions that slaveholders had to forfeit their "property" if they remained in the state.) These legal cases often created an ambiguous legal space, even if they did not always side in favor of the black defendants. Dupuy lost her suit because it was based on the promise of freedom from an owner before Clay.[3] In the freedom suits, the court had to "assume" the defendant's freedom in order to acknowledge the petition, since enslaved people ordinarily had no legal standing as citizens. For a greater discussion of the liminal space of freedom created by these court cases refer to Edlie Wong's forthcoming Neither Fugitive nor Free: Atlantic Slavery, Freedom Suits, and the Legal Culture of Travel.[4] Many free people of color were born free. By the 19th century, there were flourishing families of free coloreds who had been free for generations. In the United States many of the "old issue" free people of color (those free before the Civil War) were descended from African Americans born free during the colonial period in Virginia. Most of those were descendants of white servant women who entered into relationships with African men, indentured servant, slave or free. Their relationships demonstrated the fluid nature of the early working class, before institutionalized slavery hardened lines between ethnic groups. Many of their descendants later migrated to the frontiers of North and South Carolina, Kentucky and Tennessee, and west, as well as further south.[5] Sometimes they formed isolated settlements in the frontier where they were relatively free of racial strictures common to the plantation areas. In many cases they were well received and respected on the frontier. Sometimes they identified as Indian or Portuguese, or their neighbors classified them that way, in an attempt to explain their physical characteristics that were different from northern Europeans.[5]

Free people of color After the American Revolutionary War, a number of slaveholders in the North and Upper South freed their slaves in the period from 1783-1810. From the language of the deeds and wills, many were inspired by the Revolution's ideals; others awarded service. In Virginia, Maryland and Delaware, Quakers and Moravians were influential in persuading slaveholders to free their slaves. The proportion of free blacks went from one percent before the Revolution to 10 percent by 1810 in the Upper South. By 1860, on the eve of the American Civil War, 91 percent of blacks in Delaware were free, and 49.7 percent of blacks in Maryland.[6] Technically a maroon was also a free person of color. This term described slaves who had escaped and lived in areas outside settlements. Because maroons lived outside slave society, scholars regard them as quite different in character from free people of color, who made their way legally within societies. Many people who lived as free within the slave society did not have formal liberty papers. In some cases these were runaways, who just hid in the towns among free people of color and tried to maintain a low profile. In other cases they were "living as free" with the permission of their master, sometimes in return for payment of rent or a share of money they earned by trades. The master never made their freedom official. Like the maroons, these people were always at risk of losing their freedom.

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Economic impact
Free people of color filled an important niche in the economy of slave societies. In most places, they worked as artisans and small retail merchants in the towns. In many places, especially in British-influenced colonies such as the United States, there were restrictions on people of color owning slaves and agricultural land. Many free blacks lived in the countryside and some became major slaveholders. Many stayed on or near the plantations where they or their ancestors had been slaves, and where they had extended family. Masters often used free blacks as plantation managers or overseers, especially if one had a family relationship with the mixed-race man.[7] Free people of color often were hired by the government as rural police, to hunt down runaway slaves and keeping order among the slave population. From the view of the white master class in places such as Haiti or Jamaica, this was a critical function in a society in which the enslaved people on large plantations vastly outnumbered whites.[8] In places where law or social custom permitted it, some free coloreds managed to acquire good agricultural land and slaves and become planters themselves. There were free colored-owned plantations in almost all the slave societies of the Americas. In the United States, free people of color may have owned the most property in Louisiana, which had developed a distinct creole or mixed-race class. A man who had a relationship with a woman of color sometimes also arranged for a transfer of wealth to her and their children, whether through deed of land and property to the mother and/or children under the system of plaage, or by arranging for an apprenticeship to a trade for their mixed-race children, which provided them more of a chance to make a skilled living. In St. Domingue/Haiti by the late colonial period, gens de couleur owned about one-third of the land and about one-quarter of the slaves.[9]

Post-slavery
When the end of slavery came, the distinction between former free coloreds and former slaves persisted in some societies. Because of advantages in education and experience, free people of color often provided much of the leadership for the newly freed, as in Haiti where Toussaint Louverture, the national liberator, and several of his top generals were former free coloreds. Similarly, in the United States, many of the blacks elected as state and local officials during Reconstruction in the South had been free in the South before the Civil War.[10] In addition, many educated blacks whose families had long been free in the North went to the South to work and help the freedmen. Some were elected to office.

Free people of color

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Notable free people of color


Toussaint Louverture, leader of the Haitian Revolution. Chevalier de Saint-Georges, composer and swordsman in late 18th-century France. Julien Raimond, leader from Saint-Domingue of the campaign in France and the colony to extend full citizenship to free men of color following the French Revolution. Frederick Douglass, American slave who escaped to the North, achieved education and led abolition movement in the US. John Sweat Rock, born free in New Jersey, 19th c. teacher, doctor, lawyer, abolitionist, first black admitted to the US Supreme Court Bar. James Forten, born free in Philadelphia, became a wealthy businessman (sailmaker) and strong abolitionist. Charles Henry Langston, abolitionist and activist in Ohio and Kansas John Mercer Langston, abolitionist, politician and activist in Ohio, Washington, DC; and Virginia, first dean of Howard University Law Department, first president of Virginia State Univ., first black elected to US Congress from Virginia (1888) Robert Purvis, born free in Charleston, became active abolitionist in Philadelphia, supported the Underground Railroad and used inherited wealth to create services for African Americans. Marie Laveau, early 19th c. Edmond Dd Rose Nicaud John Chavis, born free c. 1762 in North Carolina, Chavis was a teacher and a preacher among both white and free persons on color until the mid-19th century when laws became stringent. Thomas Day, born free c. 1801 in Virginia. Famous furniture maker/craftsman in Caswell County, North Carolina. William Ellison, born a slave c. 1790, Wealthy businessman.

References
[1] "French Speaking Hommes de Couleur Libre Left Indelible Mark on the Culture and Development of the French Quarter" (http:/ / www. frenchquarter. com/ history/ freepeople. php), FrenchQuarter.com. Retrieved 5/10/08. [2] Mary Boykin Miller Chesnut and C. Vann Woodward. 1981. Mary Chesnut's Civil War. (New Haven: Yale University Press) [3] Beale, Roberts. Letter. 1829, Original at National Archives, Washington, DC. Digital version found at Decatur House. "Charlotte Dupuy's Petition", 'Half Had Not Been Told to Me' (http:/ / www. preservationnation. org/ travel-and-sites/ sites/ southern-region/ decatur-house/ charlotte-dupuys-petition. html), African American History on Lafayette Square. Last Accessed March 15, 2009 [4] Book announcement listed on Rutgers University English Department Faculty profile page accessed at http:/ / english. rutgers. edu/ faculty/ profiles/ wong. html [5] Paul Heinegg, Free African Americans of Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Maryland and Delaware (http:/ / www. freeafricanamericans. com/ ), accessed 15 Feb 2008 [6] Peter Kolchin, American Slavery, 1619-1877, New York: Hill and Wang, 1999, 7th printing, p. 82 [7] Berlin, Ira. Slaves Without Masters: The Free Negro in the Antebellum South (The New Press, 1974 and 2007) [8] King, Stewart. Blue Coat or Powdered Wig: Free People of Color in Pre-revolutionary Saint Domingue. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2000, Chapter 4. [9] King, Stewart. Blue Coat or Powdered Wig: Free People of Color in Pre-revolutionary Saint Domingue. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2000, chapter 6. [10] Heritage of Freedom: Free People of Color in the Americas, 1492-1900. New York: Facts on File, 2010.

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External links
Free Men of Color Leave Indelible Mark on New Orleans Culture (http://www.frenchquarter.com/history/ freepeople.php) Gens de Couleur Libres (New Orleans Public Library) (http://nutrias.org/~nopl/exhibits/fmc/fmc.htm) Gens de Couleur Libres (Frenchcreoles.com) (http://www.frenchcreoles.com/CreoleCulture/gens de couleur libre/gens de couleur libre.htm) The University of North Carolina at Greensboro Digital Library on American Slavery: Browse Subjects - Free People of Color (http://library.uncg.edu/slavery/index.aspx?s=3)

Colony of Virginia

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Colony of Virginia
Colony of Virginia
British colony 16071776

Coat of arms

Capital

Jamestown Williamsburg (from 1699) English Anglicanism

Language(s) Religion

Colony of Virginia

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Government King - 16031625 - 17601776 Governor - 1607 - 17711775 Legislature History -Founding -Independence Currency 1607 1776 Pound sterling Edward Wingfield (first) Lord Dunmore (last) House of Burgesses James I (first) George III (last) Constitutional monarchy

The Colony of Virginia (also known frequently as the Virginia Colony, the Province of Virginia, and occasionally as the Dominion and Colony of Virginia) was the English colony in North America that existed briefly during the 16th century, and then continuously from 1607 until the American Revolution (as a British colony after 1707). The name Virginia was first applied by Sir Walter Raleigh and Queen Elizabeth I in 1584. After the English Civil War in the mid 17th century, the Virginia Colony was nicknamed "The Old Dominion" by King Charles II for its perceived loyalty to the English monarchy during the era of the Commonwealth of England. After independence from Great Britain in 1776 the Virginia Colony became the Commonwealth of Virginia, one of the original thirteen states of the United States, adopting as its official slogan "The Old Dominion". After the United States was formed, the entire states of West Virginia, Kentucky, Indiana and Illinois, and portions of Ohio were all later created from the territory encompassed earlier by the Colony of Virginia.

History
The name "Virginia" is the oldest designation for English claims in North America. In 1584 Sir Walter Raleigh sent Philip Amadas and Arthur Barlowe to explore what is now the North Carolina coast, and they returned with word of a regional king (weroance) named Wingina, who ruled a land supposedly called Wingandacoa. The latter word may have Lines show legal treaty frontiers between Virginia Colony and Indian Nations in inspired the Queen to name the colony various years. Red: Treaty of 1646. Green: Treaty of Albany (1684). Blue: Treaty "Virginia", noting her status as the "Virgin of Albany (1722). Orange: Proclamation of 1763. Black: Treaty of Camp Charlotte Queen."[1] [2] On the next voyage, Raleigh (1774). Area west of this line in present-day Southwest VA was ceded by the Cherokee in 1775. was to learn that, while the chief of the Secotans was indeed called Wingina, the expression wingandacoa heard by the English upon arrival actually meant "What good clothes you wear!" in Carolina Algonquian, and was not the name of the country as previously misunderstood.[3] Initially, the term "Virginia" was applied to the entire eastern coast of North America from the 34th parallel (near Cape Fear) north to the 48th parallel, including the shorelines of Acadia and a large portion of inland Canada. Although Spain, France, Sweden, and the Netherlands all had competing claims to the region, none of these

Colony of Virginia prevented the English from becoming the first European power to colonize successfully the Mid-Atlantic coastline. Earlier attempts had been made by the Spanish in what is now Georgia (San Miguel de Gualdape, 152627; several Spanish missions in Georgia between 1568 and 1684), South Carolina (Santa Elena, 156687), North Carolina (Joara, 156768) and Virginia (Ajacan Mission, 157071); and by French in South Carolina (Charlesfort, 156263). Farther south, the Spanish colony of Spanish Florida, centered on St. Augustine, was established in 1565, while to the north, the French were establishing settlements in what is now Canada (Charlesbourg-Royal briefly occupied 1541-43; Port Royal, established in 1605).

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Settlements at Roanoke Island


In 1584, Sir Walter Raleigh sent his first colonization mission to the island of Roanoke (in present-day North Carolina). This was the first English settlement, although it did not survive, it was a military research expedition with a very narrow focus. Joachim Gans was sequestered on Roanoke Island to research copper smelting techniques of the indigenous tribes in order to reduce European smelting times from 16 weeks to 4 days; giving the English a strategic advantage over other European nations in smelting and forging cannons for their warships.[4] [5] What is unique about the inclusion of Joachim Gans in this expedition was that Jews were not allowed in England until Oliver Cromwell allowed them back into England in 1655 by refusing to extend Expulsion Laws imposed roughly 300 years earlier by Edward I in 1290.[6] In 1587, Raleigh sent another group to again attempt to establish a permanent settlement. The first English child born in the New World was named Virginia Dare. The expedition leader, John White returned to England for supplies that same year, but was unable to return to the colony due to war between England and Spain. When he finally did return in 1590, he found the colony abandoned. The houses were intact, but the colonists had completely disappeared. Although there are a number of theories about the fate of the colony, it remains a mystery and has come to be known as the "Lost Colony". Dare County was named in honor of the baby Virginia Dare, who was among those whose fate is unknown. The word Croatoan was found carved into a tree, the name of a tribe on a nearby island.[7] [8]

Virginia Company: Plymouth and London branches


Following the death of Queen Elizabeth I in 1603, King James I ascended to the throne. England was financially pressed following years of war with Spain. Additionally, England's forests and other natural resources were nearly exhausted after centuries of supporting the population. In order to remedy these vital resources, they were supplemented in part by trade with other nations, as well as exploitation of Northern Ireland labor and resources via Ulster plantation. The Muscovy Company in particular, had success importing goods such as lumber and pitch from the Dutch. However, the volatile and unstable conditions of the various trade relationships throughout Europe positioned England to consider other alternatives in the New World. Investment capital was raised to bring back gold and other riches and seek the Northwest Passage to the Middle East and India. James granted a proprietary charter to two competing branches of the Virginia Company, which were supported by investors. These were the Plymouth Company and the London Company. By the terms of the charter, the Plymouth Company was permitted to establish a colony of 100 miles (160km) square between the 38th parallel and the 45th parallel (roughly between Chesapeake Bay and the current U.S.-Canada border). The London Company was permitted to establish between the 34th parallel and the 41st parallel (approximately between Cape Fear and Long Island Sound), and also owned a large portion of Atlantic and Inland Canada. In the area of overlap, the two companies were not permitted to establish colonies within one hundred miles of each other. During 1606, each company organized expeditions to establish settlements within the area of their rights. In the plot of the play "Eastward Hoe", presented on the London stage in 1605, the villains of the piece attempt to flee to Virginia after accumulating debts in England.

Colony of Virginia Popham Colony In August 1606, the first Plymouth Company ship, Richard, sailed for the New World. However, it was intercepted and captured by the Spanish near Florida in November 1606 and never reached Virginia. The next attempt was more successful. About 120 colonists left Plymouth on May 31, 1607 in two ships. Colony leader George Popham sailed aboard the Gift of God, while second-in-command Ralegh Gilbert traveled on the Mary and John, whose captain was Robert Davies. Captain Davies maintained a diary which is one of the modern sources of information about the Popham Colony. Arriving in August 1607, these Plymouth Company colonists established their settlement, known as the Popham Colony, in the present-day town of Phippsburg, Maine near the mouth of the Kennebec River. They intended to trade precious metals, spices, furs, and show that the local forests could be used to build English ships. Half of the colonists returned to England in the fall of 1607 aboard the Gift of God; the other half stayed through the winter, spring, and summer, during which time they built a 30-ton ship, a pinnace they named Virginia. Late that summer, all the remaining colonists returned to England aboard the Virginia and the Mary and John. The short-lived colony had lasted about a year. Although not permanent, it was the second English colony in the region, after Cuttyhunk in 1602, that would eventually become known as New England. The exact site of the Popham Colony had long been lost until its rediscovery in 1994. Jamestown The London Company hired Captain Christopher Newport to lead its expedition. On December 20, 1606, he set sail from England with his flagship, the Susan Constant, and two smaller ships, the Godspeed, and the Discovery, with 105 men and boys, plus 39 sailors.[9] After an unusually long voyage of 144 days, they arrived at the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay, and came ashore at the point where the southern side of the bay meets the Atlantic Ocean, an event which has come to be called the "First Landing". They erected a cross, and named the point of land Cape Henry, in honor of Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales, the eldest son of King James. Their instructions were to select a location inland along a waterway where they would be less vulnerable to the Spanish or other Europeans also seeking to establish colonies. They sailed westward into the Bay and reached the mouth of Hampton Roads, stopping at a location now known as Old Point Comfort. Keeping the shoreline to their right, they then ventured up the largest river, which they named the James, for their king. After exploring at least as far upriver as the confluence of the Appomattox River at present-day Hopewell, they returned downstream to Jamestown Island, which offered a favorable defensive position against enemy ships and deep water anchorage adjacent to the land. Within 2 weeks, they had constructed their first fort, and named their settlement Jamestown. In addition to securing gold and other precious minerals to send back to the waiting investors in England, the survival plan for the Jamestown colonists depended upon regular supplies from England and trade with the Native Americans. The location they selected was largely cutoff from the mainland, and offered little game for hunting, no fresh drinking water, and very limited ground for farming. Captain Newport returned to England twice, delivering the First Supply and the Second Supply missions during 1608, and leaving the Discovery for the use of the colonists. However, death from disease and conflicts with the Natives Americans took a fearsome toll of the colonists. Despite attempts at mining minerals, growing silk, and exporting the native Virginia tobacco, no profitable exports had been identified, and it was unclear whether the settlement would survive financially.

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Colony of Virginia

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In 1609, with the abandonment of the Plymouth Company settlement, the London Company's Virginia charter was adjusted to include the territory north of the 34th parallel and south of the 39th parallel, with its original coastal grant extended "from sea to sea". Thus, at least on paper, the Virginia Colony in its original sense extended to the coast of the Pacific Ocean, in what is now California, with all the states in between (Kentucky, Missouri, Colorado, Utah, etc.) belonging to Virginia. For practical purposes, though, the original Virginians rarely ventured far inland to what was then known as "The Virginia Wilderness", although the concept itself helped renew the interest of investors, and additional funds enabled an expanded effort, known as the Third Supply. For the Third Supply, the London Company had a new ship built. The Sea Venture was specifically designed for emigration of additional colonists and transporting supplies. It became the flagship of the Admiral of the convoy, Sir George Somers. The The 1609 charter for the Virginia colony "from sea to sea" Third Supply was the largest to date, with 8 other ships joining the Sea Venture. The new Captain of the Sea Venture was mission's Vice-Admiral, Christopher Newport. Hundreds of new colonists were aboard the ships. However, weather was to drastically affect the mission. Bermuda: The Somers Isles A few days out of London, the 9 ships of the Third Supply mission encountered a massive hurricane in the Atlantic Ocean. They became separated during the three days the storm lasted. Admiral Sir George Somers had the new Sea Venture, carrying most of the supplies of the mission, deliberately driven aground onto the reefs of Bermuda to avoid sinking. However, while there was no loss of life, the ship was wrecked beyond repair, stranding its survivors on the uninhabited archipelago, to which they laid claim for England. The survivors at Bermuda eventually built two smaller ships and most of them continued on to Jamestown, leaving a few on Bermuda to secure the claim. The Company's possession of Bermuda was made official in 1612, when the third and final charter extended the boundaries of 'Virginia' far enough out to sea to encompass Bermuda, which was also known, for a time, as Virgineola. Bermuda has since been known officially also as The Somers Isles (in commemoration of Admiral Somers). The shareholders of the Virginia Company spun off a second company, the Somers Isles Company, which administered Bermuda from 1615 til 1684. However, upon their arrival at Jamestown, the survivors of the Sea Venture discovered that the 10 month delay had greatly aggravated other adverse conditions. Seven of the other ships had arrived carrying more colonists, but little in the way of food and supplies. Combined with a drought, and hostile relations with the Native Americans, the loss of the supplies which had been aboard the Sea Venture had resulted in the Starving Time in late 1609 to May 1610, during which over 80% of the colonists perished. The survivors from Bermuda had brought few supplies and food with them, and it appeared to all that Jamestown must be abandoned and it would be necessary to return to England.

Colony of Virginia A timely arrival: Lord De La Warr Samuel Argall was the captain of one of the seven ships of the Third Supply which had arrived at Jamestown in 1609 after becoming separated from the Sea Venture, whose fate was unknown. Depositing his passengers and limited supplies, he had returned to England with word of the plight of the colonists at Jamestown. The King had authorized another leader, Thomas West, 3rd Baron De La Warr, later better known as "Lord Delaware", to have greater powers, and the London Company had organized another Supply mission. They set sail from London on April 1, 1610. Just after the survivors of the Starving Time and those who had joined them from Bermuda had abandoned Jamestown, the ships of the new supply mission sailed up the James River with food, supplies, a doctor, and more colonists. Lord Delaware was determined that the colony was to survive, and intercepted the departing ships about 10 miles (16km) downstream of Jamestown. The colonists thanked Providence for the Colony's salvation. Among these individuals who had briefly abandoned Jamestown was "The Generall Historie of Virginia, New-England, and the Summer Isles", by Capt. John Rolfe, a Sea Venture survivor who had lost his wife and son in John Smith Bermuda. He was a businessman from London who had some untried seeds for new, sweeter strains of tobacco with him, as well as some untried marketing ideas. It was to turn out that John Rolfe held the key to the Colony's economic success. By 1612, Rolfe's new strains of tobacco had been successfully cultivated and exported. Finally, a cash crop to export had been identified, and plantations and new outposts sprung up, initially both upriver and downriver along the navigable portion of the James River, and thereafter along the other rivers and waterways of the area. The settlement at Jamestown could finally be considered permanently established.[10]

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Relations
In 1620, a successor to the Plymouth Company sent colonists to the New World aboard the Mayflower. Known as Pilgrims, they successfully established a settlement in what became Massachusetts. The portion of what had been Virginia north of the 40th parallel became known as New England, according to books written by Captain John Smith, who had made a voyage there. In 1624, the Virginia Company's charter was revoked by King James I and the Virginia Colony was transferred to royal authority as a crown colony. Subsequent charters for the Maryland Colony in 1632 and the Carolina Colony in 1665 further reduced the Virginia Colony to coastal borders it held until the American Revolution.

Colored version of 1612 John Smith map

Colony of Virginia

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Names and nicknames for Virginia


Charles II gave Virginia the title of "Old Dominion" in gratitude of Virginia's loyalty to the crown during the English Civil War; Virginia maintains "Old Dominion" as its state nickname. Accordingly, the University of Virginia's athletic teams use "Cavaliers" as one of their nicknames, and Virginia has named one of the other state public universities "Old Dominion University".

References
[1] Stewart, George (1945). Names on the Land: A Historical Account of Place-Naming in the United States. New York: Random House. p.22. [2] Sams, Conway (1916). The Conquest of Virginia: the Forest Primeval; An Account Based on Original Documents. New York and London: G.P. Putnam's Sons. pp.28283. [3] http:/ / homepages. rootsweb. ancestry. com/ ~jmack/ algonqin/ mook1. htm [4] Joachim Gans of Prague: The First Jew in English America, American Jewish History - by Grassl, Gary C., Volume 86, Number 2, June 1998, pp. 195-217 Sylvester Jordain's "A Discovery of the [5] Colonial Williamsburg: the journal of the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, Barmudas" Volumes 22-24, Pg 8, Published by Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, 2000 [6] "Jews and the state: dangerous alliances and the perils of privilege", Volume 19 of Studies in contemporary Jewry, by Ezra Mendelsohn, Pg 7, Oxford University Press US, 2003, ISBN 0195170873, 9780195170870 [7] "American Archaeology Uncovers the Earliest English Colonies", by Lois Miner Huey, Page 16, Published by Marshall Cavendish, 2009, ISBN 0761442642, 9780761442646 [8] "Sir Walter Raleigh's lost colony: An historical sketch of the attempts of Sir Walter Raleigh to establish a colony in Virginia, with the traditions of an Indian tribe in North Carolina. Indicating the fate of the colony of Englishmen left on Roanoke Island in 1587", Volume 210, Advance Presses 1888, pg 7 [9] Prelude to Jamestown (http:/ / www. nps. gov/ jame/ historyculture/ prelude-to-jamestown. htm) [10] "The Story of Jamestown" (http:/ / www. nps. gov/ history/ history/ online_books/ hh/ 2/ hh2b3. htm). NPS Historical Handbook. National Park Service. . Retrieved 18 March 2011.

Further reading
Heinemann, Ronald L., John G. Kolp, Anthony S. Parent Jr., and William G. Shade, Old Dominion, New Commonwealth: A History of Virginia, 1607-2007 (2007). ISBN 978-0-8139-2609-4. Rubin, Louis D. Virginia: A Bicentennial History. States and the Nation Series. (1977), popular Wallenstein, Peter. Cradle of America: Four Centuries of Virginia History (2007). ISBN 978-0-7006-1507-0.

External links
Library of Congress: Evolution of the Virginia Colony, 1610-1630 (http://memory.loc.gov/learn/features/ timeline/colonial/virginia/virginia.html) Jamestown, Virginia (http://www.jamestown1607.org/) The Wreck of The [[Sea Venture (http://www.clairehope.btinternet.co.uk/PDFs/ LinebaughRediker_seaventure.pdf)]]

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History of the Caribbean


The history of the Caribbean reveals the significant role the region played in the colonial struggles of the European powers since the 15th century. In the 20th century the Caribbean was again important during World War II, in decolonization wave in the post-war period, and in the tension between Communist Cuba and the United States (US). Genocide, slavery, immigration and rivalry between world powers have given Caribbean history an impact disproportionate to the size of this small region.

Before European contact


The oldest evidence of humans in the Caribbean is the Casirimoid culture in Cuba and Hispaniola which dates back to 4500 BCE and is associated with edge grinders similar to those used in Archaic Age Central America. There is also another series of Archaic Age sites discovered by Christi Torres Trinidad at Banwari Trace where 4000-year-old remains have been found. These sites, which belong to the Archaic (pre-ceramic) age, have been termed Ortoiroid. The earliest evidence of humans in the Lesser Antilles are from 2000BCE in Antigua. A lack of pre-ceramic sites in the Windward Islands and differences in technology suggest that these Archaic settlers may have Central American origins. Whether an Ortoiroid colonisation of the islands took place is uncertain, but there is little evidence of one. Between 400BCE and 200BCE the first ceramic-using agriculturalists, the Saladoid culture, entered Trinidad from South America. They expanded down the Orinoco River to Trinidad, and then spread rapidly up the islands of the Caribbean. Some time after 250CE another group, the Barrancoid entered Trinidad. The Barancoid society collapsed along the Orinoco around 650 and another group, the Arauquinoid, expanded into these areas and up the Caribbean chain. Around 1300 a new group, the Mayoid entered Trinidad and remained the dominant culture until Spanish settlement. At the time of the European discovery of most of the islands of the Caribbean, three major Amerindian indigenous peoples lived on the islands: the Tano in the Greater Antilles, The Bahamas and the Leeward Islands; the Island Caribs and Galibi in the Windward Islands; and the Ciboney in western Cuba. The Tanos are subdivided into Classic Tanos, who occupied Hispaniola and Puerto Rico, Western Tanos, who occupied Cuba, Jamaica, and the Bahamian archipelago, and the Eastern Tanos, who occupied the Leeward Islands.[1] Trinidad was inhabited by both Carib speaking and Arawak-speaking groups. New scientific dna studies have changed some of the above pre-Columbian indigenous history[2]

Colonial era
Soon after the voyages of Christopher Columbus to the Americas, both Portuguese and Spanish ships began claiming territories in Central and South America. These colonies brought in gold, and other European powers, most specifically England, the Netherlands, and France, hoped to establish profitable colonies of their own. Colonial rivalries made the Caribbean a cockpit for European wars for centuries.

Spanish conquest
During the first voyage of the explorer Christopher Columbus (mandated by the Spanish crown to conquer) contact was made with the Lucayans in the Bahamas and the Tano in Cuba and the northern coast of Hispaniola, and a few of the native people were taken back to Spain. Small amounts of gold were found in their personal ornaments and other objects such as masks and belts. The Spanish, who came seeking wealth, enslaved the native population and rapidly drove them to near-extinction. To supplement the Amerindian labour, the Spanish imported African slaves. (see also Slavery in the Spanish New World colonies) Although Spain claimed the entire Caribbean, they settled only the larger islands of Hispaniola (1493), Puerto Rico (1508), Jamaica (1509), Cuba (1511), and Trinidad (1530), although the Spanish made an exception in the case of the small 'pearl islands' of Cubagua and Margarita off the

History of the Caribbean Venezuelan coast because of their valuable pearl beds which were worked extensively between 1508 and1530.

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Other European powers


The other European powers established a presence in the Caribbean after the Spanish Empire declined, partly due to the reduced native population of the area from European diseases. Francis Drake was an English privateer who attacked many Spanish ships and forts in the Caribbean, including San Juan harbour in 1595. His most celebrated Caribbean exploit was the capture of the Spanish Silver Train at Nombre de Dios in March, 1573. British colonisation of Bermuda began in 1612. British West Indian colonisation began with St. Kitts in 1623 and Barbados in 1627. The former was used as a base for British colonisation of neighbouring Nevis (1628), Antigua (1632),[3] Montserrat (1632), Anguilla (1650) and Tortola (1672). French colonisation too began on St. Kitts, the British and the French splitting the island amongst themselves in 1625. It was used as a base to colonise the much larger Guadeloupe (1635) and Martinique (1635), St. Martin (1648), St Barts (1648), and St Croix (1650), but was lost completely to Britain in 1713. From Martinique the French colonised St. Lucia (1643), Grenada (1649), Dominica (1715), and St. Vincent (1719). The English admiral William Penn seized Jamaica in 1655 and it remained under British rule for over 300 years.[4] The Caribbean was known for pirates, especially between 1640 and 1680; see piracy in the Caribbean. The term "buccaneer" is often used to describe a pirate operating in this region. In 1625 French buccaneers established a settlement on Tortuga, just to the north of Hispaniola, that the Spanish were never able to permanently destroy despite several attempts. The settlement on Tortuga was officially established in 1659 under the commission of King Louis XIV. In 1670 Cap Franois (later Cap Franais, now Cap-Hatien) was established on the mainland of Hispaniola. Under the 1697 Treaty of Ryswick, Spain officially ceded the western third of Hispaniola to France.[5] The Dutch took over Saba, Saint Martin, Sint Eustatius, Curaao, Bonaire, Aruba,[6] Tobago, St. Croix, Tortola, Anegada, Virgin Gorda, Anguilla and a short time Puerto Rico, together called the Dutch West Indies, in the seventeenth century. The Danish first ruled part, then all of the present U.S. Virgin Islands since 1672, selling sovereignty over these Danish West Indies in 1917 to the United States which still administers them.

Impact of Colonialism on the Caribbean


The exploitation of the Caribbean landscape dates back to the Spanish conquistadors around 1600 who mined the islands for gold which they brought back to Spain. The more significant development came when Christopher Columbus wrote back to Spain that the islands were made for sugar development.[7] The history of Caribbean agricultural dependency is closely linked with European colonialism which altered the financial potential of the region by introducing a plantation system. Much like the Spanish enslaved indigenous Indians to work in gold mines, the seventeenth century and brought a new series of oppressors in the form of the Dutch, the English, and the French. By the middle of the eighteenth century sugar was Britain's largest import which made the Caribbean that much more important as a colony.[8] The New

A medalion showing the Capture of Trinidad and Tobago by the British in 1797.

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World plantations were established in order to fulfill the growing needs of the Old World. The sugar plantations were built with the intention of exporting the sugar back to Britain which is why the British did not need to stimulate local demand for the sugar with wages. A system of slavery was adapted since it allowed the colonizer to have an abundant work force with little worry about declining demands for sugar.[9] In the 19th century wages were finally introduced with the abolition of slavery. The new system in place however was similar to the previous as it was based on white capital Sir Ralph Abercromby, Commander of the and colored labor.[10] Large numbers of unskilled workers were hired British forces that captured Trinidad and Tobago. to perform repeated tasks, which made if very difficult for these workers to ever leave and pursue any non farming employment. Unlike other countries, where there was an urban option for finding work, the Caribbean countries had money invested in agriculture and lacked any core industrial base.[11] The cities that did exist offered limited opportunities to citizens and almost none for the unskilled masses who had worked in agriculture their entire lives. The products produced brought in no profits for the countries since they were sold to the colonial occupant buyer who controlled the price the products were sold at. This resulted in extremely low wages with no potential for growth since the occupant nations had no intention of selling the products at a higher price to themselves.[12] The result of this economic exploitation was a plantation dependence which saw the Caribbean nations possessing a large quantity of unskilled workers capable of performing agricultural tasks and not much else. After many years of colonial rule the nations also saw no profits brought into their country since the sugar production was controlled by the colonial rulers. This left the Caribbean nations with little capital to invest towards enhancing any future industries unlike European nations which were developing rapidly and separating themselves technologically and economically from most impoverished nations of the world.

Wars
The Caribbean region was war-torn throughout much of colonial history, but the wars were often based in Europe, with only minor battles fought in the Caribbean. Some wars, however, were borne of political turmoil in the Caribbean itself. Thirty Years' War between the Netherlands and Spain. The First, Second, and Third Anglo-Dutch Wars were battles for supremacy. Nine Years' War between the European powers. The War of Spanish Succession (European name) or Queen Anne's War (American name) spawned a generation of some of the most infamous pirates. The War of Jenkins' Ear (American name) or The War of Austrian Succession (European name) Spain and Britain fought over trade rights; Britain invaded Spanish Florida and attacked the citadel of Cartagena de las Indias in present-day Colombia. The Seven Years' War (European name) or French & Indian War (American name) was the first "world war" between France, her ally Spain, and Britain; France was defeated and was willing to give up all of Canada to keep a few highly profitable sugar-growing islands in the Caribbean. Britain seized Havana toward the end, and traded that single city for all of Florida at the Treaty of Paris in 1763. In addition France ceded Grenada, Dominica, and St.Vincent to Britain. The American Revolution saw large British and French fleets battling in the Caribbean again. American independence was assured by French naval victories in the Caribbean, but all the British islands that were captured by the French were returned to Britain at the end of the war.

History of the Caribbean The French Revolutionary War enabled the creation of the newly independent Republic of Haiti. In addition in the Treaty of Amiens in 1802 Spain ceded Trinidad to Britain. Following the end of the Napoleonic War in 1814 France ceded St.Lucia to Britain. The Spanish-American War ended Spanish control of Cuba (which soon became independent) and Puerto Rico (which became a US colony), and heralded the period of American dominance of the islands.

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Independence
Haiti the former French colony of Saint-Domingue on Hispaniola, was the first Caribbean nation to gain independence from European powers in 1804. This followed 13 years of warfare which commenced as a slave uprising in 1791 and quickly became the Haitian Revolution under the leadership of Toussaint l'Ouverture, where the former slaves defeated the French army (twice), the Spanish army, and the British army, before becoming the world's first and oldest black republic, and also the second-oldest republic in the Western Hemisphere after the United States. This is additionally notable as being the only successful Map of Antilles / Caribbean in 1843. slave uprising in history. The remaining two-thirds of Hispaniola were conquered by Haitian forces in 1821. In 1844, the newly-formed Dominican Republic declared its independence from Haiti. The nations bordering the Caribbean in Central America gained independence with the 1821 establishment of the First Mexican Empire - which at that time included the modern states of Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica. The nations bordering the Caribbean in South America also gained independence from Spain in 1821 with the establishment of Gran Colombia - which comprised the modern states of Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, and Panama. Cuba and Puerto Rico remained a Spanish colonies until the Spanish American War in 1898, after which Cuba attained its independence in 1902, and Puerto Rico became an unincorporated territory of the United States, being the last of the Greater Antilles under colonial control. Between 1958 and 1962 most of the British-controlled Caribbean was integrated as the new West Indies Federation in an attempt to create a single unified future independent state - but it failed. The following former British Caribbean island colonies achieved independence in their own right; Jamaica (1962), Trinidad & Tobago (1962), Barbados (1966), Bahamas (1973), Grenada (1974), Dominica (1978), St. Lucia (1979), St. Vincent (1979), Antigua & Barbuda (1981), St. Kitts & Nevis (1983). In addition British Honduras in Central America became independent as Belize (1981), British Guiana in South America became independent as Guyana (1966), and Dutch Guiana also in South America became independent as Suriname (1975).

Relations with the US


Since the Monroe Doctrine, the United States gained a major influence on most Caribbean nations. In the early part of the twentieth century this influence was extended by participation in The Banana Wars. Areas outside British or French control became known in Europe as "America's tropical empire". Victory in the Spanish-American war and the signing of the Platt amendment in 1901 ensured that the United States would have the right to interfere in Cuban political and economic affairs, militarily if necessary. After the Cuban revolution of 1959 relations deteriorated rapidly leading to the Bay of Pigs Invasion, the Cuban Missile Crisis and successive US attempts to destabilise the island. The US invaded and occupied Hispaniola (present day Dominican Republic and Haiti) for 19 years (191534), subsequently dominating the Haitian economy through aid and loan

History of the Caribbean repayments. The US invaded Haiti again in 1994 and in 2004 were accused by CARICOM of arranging a coup d'tat to remove elected Haitian leader Jean-Bertrand Aristide. In 1965, 23,000 US troops were sent to the Dominican Republic to quash a local uprising against military rule. President Lyndon Johnson had ordered the invasion to stem what he claimed to be a "Communist threat", however the mission appeared ambiguous and was roundly condemned throughout the hemisphere as a return to gunboat diplomacy. In 1983 the US invaded Grenada to remove populist left-wing leader Maurice Bishop. The US maintains a naval military base in Cuba at Guantanamo Bay. The base is one of five unified commands whose "area of responsibility" is Latin America and the Caribbean. The command is headquartered in a Miami, Florida office building. As an arm of the economic and political network of the Americas, the influence of the United States stretches beyond a military context. In economic terms, the United States represents a primary market for the export of Caribbean goods. Notably, this is a recent historical trend. The post-war era reflects a time of transition for the Caribbean basin when, as colonial powers sought to disentangle from the region (as part of a larger trend of decolonization), the US began to expand its hegemony throughout the region. This pattern is confirmed by economic initiatives such as the Caribbean Basin Initiative (CBI), which sought to congeal alliances with the region in light of a perceived Soviet threat. The CBI marks the emergence of the Caribbean basin as a geopolitical area of strategic interest to the US. This relationship has carried through to the 21st century, as reflected by the Caribbean Basin Trade Partnership Act. The Caribbean Basin is also of strategic interest in regards to trade routes; it has been estimated that nearly half of US foreign cargo and crude oil imports are brought via Caribbean seaways. During wartime, these figures only stand to increase. It is important to note that the US is also of strategic interest to the Caribbean. Caribbean foreign policy seeks to strengthen its participation in a global free market economy. As an extension of this, Caribbean states do not wish to be excluded from their primary market in the US, or be bypassed in the creation of wider hemispheric trading blocs that stand to drastically alter trade and production in the Caribbean Basin. As such, the US has played an influential role in shaping the Caribbeans role in this hemispheric market. Likewise, building trade relationships with the US has always figured in strongly with the political goal of economic security in post-independence Caribbean states.

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References
[1] Rouse, Irving. The Tainos : Rise and Decline of the People Who Greeted Columbus ISBN 0-300-05696-6. [2] http:/ / www. springerlink. com/ content/ l44159176047237w [3] Adapted from the works of Colville Petty O.B.E and Nik Douglas. (2009). "History & Culture" (http:/ / www. anguilla-vacation. com/ island/ history-culture). anguilla-vacation.com. . Retrieved 2009-05-07. [4] "History" (http:/ / www. cayman. gov. ky/ servlet/ page?_pageid=560& _dad=portal30& _schema=PORTAL30& _mode=3). The government of the Cayman Islands. 2009. . Retrieved 2009-05-07. [5] Haggerty, Richard A. (1989). "Haiti, A Country Study: French Settlement and Sovereignty" (http:/ / countrystudies. us/ haiti/ 7. htm). US Library of Congress. . Retrieved 2009-03-30. [6] "Aruba - History and Heritage" (http:/ / www. smithsonianmag. com/ travel/ destination-hunter/ north-america/ caribbean-atlantic/ aruba/ aruba-history-heritage. html). Smithsonian.com. November 6, 2007. . Retrieved 2009-05-07. [7] Cross, Malcolm. Urbanization and Urban Growth in the Caribbean. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1979. pp.114 [8] Cross, Malcolm. Urbanization and Urban Growth in the Caribbean. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1979. pp.3 [9] Cross, Malcolm. Urbanization and Urban Growth in the Caribbean. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1979. pp.5 [10] Cross, Malcolm. Urbanization and Urban Growth in the Caribbean. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1979. pp.23 [11] Cross, Malcolm. Urbanization and Urban Growth in the Caribbean. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1979. pp.27 [12] Cross, Malcolm. Urbanization and Urban Growth in the Caribbean. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1979. pp.28

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Further reading
de Kadt, Emanuel, (editor). Patterns of foreign influence in the Caribbean, London, New York, published for the Royal Institute of International Affairs by Oxford University Press, 1972. Kurlansky, Mark. 1992. A Continent of Islands: Searching for the Caribbean Destiny. Addison-Wesley Publishing. Klooster, Wim, Illicit riches. Dutch trade in the Caribbean, 1648-1795, 1998 KITLV

External links
Caribbean Hall of Fame (http://www.caribbeanhalloffame.com/people.asp) Caribbean Geology & Tectonics (http://www.fiu.edu/orgs/caribgeol/) Caribbean settlement in Britain (http://www.itzcaribbean.com/caribbean_population_britain.php) Izabal, Green Caribbean (http://www.izabalonline.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=7& Itemid=3) Centro de Estudios Avanzados de Puerto Rico y el Caribe (http://www.ceaprc.org/)

Banwari Trace
Banwari Trace, an Archaic (pre-ceramic) site in southwestern Trinidad, is presumably the oldest archaeological site in the Caribbean. The site has revealed two separate periods of occupation; one between 7200 and 6100 BP (Strata I and II) and the other between 6100 BP and 5500 BP. Dated to about 5000 BCE or 7000 B.P (years Before Present), the archaeological site at Banwari Trace in southwestern Trinidad is the oldest pre-Columbian site in the West Indies. Archaeological research of the site has also shed light on the patterns of migration of Archaic (pre-ceramic) peoples from mainland South America to the Lesser Antilles via Trinidad between 5000 and 2000 BCE. In November 1969, the Trinidad and Tobago Historical Society discovered the remains of a human skeleton at Banwari Trace. Lying on its left-hand side, in a typical Amerindian crouched burial position along a northwest axis, Banwari Man (as it is now commonly called) was found 20-cm below the surface. Only two items were associated with the burial, a round pebble by the skull and needlepoint by the hip. Banwari Man was apparently interred in a shell midden and subsequently covered by shell refuse. Based on its stratigraphic location in the sites archaeological deposits, the burial can be dated to the period shortly before the end of occupation, approximately 3,400 BC or 5,400 years old.[1] The Banwari Trace complex shows a highly distinctive cultural assemblage, typically consisting of artifacts made of stone and bone. Objects associated with hunting and fishing include bone projectile points, most likely used for tipping arrows and fish spears, beveled peccary teeth used as fishhooks, and bipointed pencil hooks of bone which were intended to be attached in the middle to a fishing-line. A variety of ground stone tools were manufactured for the processing of especially vegetable foods, including blunt or pointed conical pestles, large grinding stones and round to oval manos.[2] In 2004, Banwari Trace was included in the 2004 World Monuments Watch, by the World Monuments Fund, a private international organization. It was hoped that listing would help garner the financial and technical support necessary to properly survey, document, preserve, interpret, and protect the site.

Banwari Trace

79

External links
Banwari Trace in Trinidad - the Oldest Site in the West Indies! [3], from the Archaeology Centre, University of the West Indies, Trinidad and Tobago Banwari Trace [4], from triniview.com

References
[1] http:/ / wikimapia. org/ 10449924/ Banwari-Trace-Archaeological-Site [2] http:/ / trinidad-tobago. strabon-caraibes. org/ index. php?option=com_content& view=article& catid=29:pre-columbian& id=78:banwari-man& Itemid=58 [3] http:/ / sta. uwi. edu/ fhe/ archaeology/ [4] http:/ / www. triniview. com/ TnT/ Banwari_Trace. htm

5th millennium BC
Millennia: Centuries: 7thmillenniumBC 6thmillenniumBC 5thmillenniumBC 51stcenturyBC 50thcenturyBC 49thcenturyBC 48thcenturyBC 47thcenturyBC 46thcenturyBC 45thcenturyBC 44thcenturyBC 43rdcenturyBC 42ndcenturyBC

The Neolithic
Mesolithic Europe Boian culture Cucuteni-Trypillian culture Linear Pottery Culture Malta Temples Sesklo Culture Varna culture Vina culture Vuedol culture China Tibet Korea South Asia Mehrgarh farming, animal husbandry pottery, metallurgy, wheel circular ditches, henges, megaliths Neolithic religion Chalcolithic

The 5th millennium BC saw the spread of agriculture from the Near East throughout southern and central Europe. Urban cultures in Mesopotamia and Anatolia flourished, developing the wheel. Copper ornaments became more common, marking the Chalcolithic. Animal husbandry spread throughout Eurasia, reaching China. World population grew slightly throughout the millennium, maybe from 5 to 7 million people.

5th millennium BC

80

Cultures
Badari culture on the Nile (c. 44004000 BC) Comb Ceramic culture (also endured the 6th, 4th) Maykop culture Yangshao culture Merimde culture on the Nile (c. 45704250 BC) Predynastic Egypt Proto-Austronesian culture is based on the south coast of China. They combine extensive maritime technology, fishing with hooks and nets and gardening. (c. 5000 BC) Samara culture Sredny Stog culture Lengyel culture in eastern Europe Ubaid culture Cycladic culturea distinctive Neolithic culture amalgamating Anatolian and mainland Greek elements arose in the western Aegean before 4000 BC Vina culture (also endured the 6th, 4th, and 3rd millennia) Yumuktepe and Gzlkule cultutes in south Anatolia

Events
c. 5000 BC: Pelasgians migrate to the Balkans 50004500 BC: Gar Dalam phase of Neolithic farmers on Malta, possibly immigrant farmers from the Agrigento region of Sicily. 50004000 BC: Bowl, from Banpo, near Xi'an, Shaanxi, is made. Neolithic period. Yangshao culture. It is now kept at Banpo Museum. 50002000 BC: Neolithic period in China. 49004600 BC: Arrangements of circular ditches are built in Central Europe. 4800 BC: Dimini culture replaces the Sesklo culture in Thessaly (48004000 BC) c. 4500 BC: Settlement of Chirokitia dates from this period. c. 4500 BC: Ending of Neolithic IA (the Aceramic) in Cyprus c. 4350 BC: Kikai Caldera forms in a massive VEI7 eruption. 4300 BC: Theta Botis became the nearest visible star to the celestial north pole. It remained the closest until 3942 BC when it was replaced by Thuban. c. 42503750 BC: Menhir alignments at Menec, Carnac, France are made. 4200 BC: Date of Mesolithic examples of Naalebinding found in Denmark, marking spread of technology to Northern Europe. (Bender 1990)
Cucuteni-Trypillia culture

41003500 BC: New wave of immigration to Malta from Sicily leads to the ebbu and Marr phases, and to the gantija phase of temple builders.

5th millennium BC

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Inventions, discoveries, introductions


Rice is domesticated in China. Later it is introduced in the Ganges Valley and the rest of Asia (c. 5000 BC). Farming reaches Atlantic coast of Europe from Ancient Near East (c. 5000 BC). Maize is cultivated in Mexico (c. 5000 BC).[1] Writing systems, such as ideographic Vinca script, Tartaria tablets (c. 5000 BC) c. 5000 BC, Metallurgy appears. c. 5000 BC, Agriculture starts in Ancient Japan. Beans and gourds are cultivated. Plough is introduced in Europe (c. 4500 BC) Copper pins dating to 4000 BC found in Egypt.[1] Water buffalo are domesticated in China Beer brewing is developed. Wheel is developed in Mesopotamia and India

Environmental changes
Holocene Epoch
Pleistocene Holocene/Anthropocene Preboreal (10.3 ka 9 ka), Boreal (9 ka 7.5 ka), Atlantic (7.5 ka 5 ka), Subboreal (5 ka 2.5 ka) Subatlantic (2.5 ka present)

50004900 BC: The Older Peron transgression, a warm period that would dominate the 5th millennium, begins in this period.

Calendars and chronology


4713 BC: The epoch (origin) of the Julian Period described by Joseph Justus Scaliger occurred on January 1, the astronomical Julian day number zero. 4121 BC: Eduard Meyer's date for the creation of the Egyptian calendar, based on his calculations of the Sothic cycle. 4004 BC: According to the Ussher chronology, created by James Ussher based on the Old Testament of the Bible, this is when the universe is created at nightfall preceding October 23.

References
[1] Roberts, J: "History of the World." Penguin, 1994.

Free negro

82

Free negro
A free Negro or free black is the term used prior to the abolition of slavery in the United States to describe African Americans who were not slaves. Almost all African Americans came to the United States as slaves, but from the earliest days of American slavery, slaveholders set men and women free for various reasons. Sometimes an owner died and the heirs did not want slaves, or a slave was freed as reward for his or her good service, or the slave was able to pay in order to be freed.[1] Free blacks in the antebellum periodthose years from the formation of the Union until the Civil Warwere quite outspoken about the injustice of slavery.[2] Free blacks in America were first documented in Northampton County, Virginia, in 1662. By 1776, approximately 8 percent of African Americans were free. In the two decades after the Revolution, many slaveholders in the Chesapeake Bay area freed slaves. For instance, in Virginia, the number of free blacks increased from a few thousand before the war to 13,000 by 1790 and 20,000 by 1800.[3] The numbers were more dramatic in Delaware and Maryland, where a higher percentage of slaves were freed, in part because of changing economies that decreased the need for slave labor and immigration by free blacks to Delaware from Maryland and Virginia. By 1810, 75 percent of blacks in Delaware were free, compared to 7.2 percent of the blacks in Virginia.[4] By 1810, 4 percent of blacks in the South (10 percent in the Upper South), and 75 percent of blacks in the North were free. On the eve of the American Civil War, 10 percent of African Americans nationwide, close to half a million people, were free.[5] Black men enlisted as soldiers and fought in the American Revolution and the War of 1812. Some owned land, homes, businesses, and paid taxes. In some Northern cities blacks voted. Blacks were also outspoken in print. Freedom's Journal, the first black-owned newspaper, appeared in 1827. This paper and other early writings by blacks fueled the attack against slavery and racist conceptions about the intellectual inferiority of African Americans.[2] Free blacks were often mixed-race people; many were born in North America. A half-black/half-white person was called a mulatto (male) or a mulatress (female). Negro is a Portuguese and Spanish term that means "black". The term colored was ubiquitously employed by 1820 to describe mixed-race free Negroes. In Virginia and North Carolina in 1790, most free negro families were the descendants of colonial-era families of white servant women who had children by slaves or free African Americans.[6] At that time, few families that were free, perhaps as low as 1 percent of the total, were descended from white slave owners who had children by their slaves. Under the law of partus sequitur ventrum, male slaveholders were not required to free their children by their slaves. Many free African American families in colonial North Carolina and Virginia became landowners.[6] Some of them also became slave owners. In some cases, this was in order to protect members of their own families, whom they purchased from other owners. In other cases, they participated in the full slave economy. For example, a freedman named Cyprian Ricard purchased an estate in Louisiana that included 100 slaves.[7] [8] Planters who had mixed-race children sometimes arranged for their education, even in schools in the North, or as apprentices in crafts. Others settled property on them. Some freed the children and their mothers. While fewer in number than in the Upper South, free blacks in the Deep South were more often mixed-race children of wealthy planters, especially in Louisiana and Charleston. They had more opportunities to accumulate wealth. Sometimes they were the recipients of transfers of property and social capital. For instance, Wilberforce University, founded by Methodist and African Methodist Episcopal (AME) representatives in Ohio in 1856 for the education of African-American youth, was in its first years largely supported by wealthy southern planters who paid for the education of their mixed-race children. When the war broke out, the school lost most of its 200 students.[9] The college closed for a couple of years before the AME Church bought it and began to operate it.

Free negro The historian John D. Winters, in his The Civil War in Louisiana. estimates that three thousand free blacks volunteered for militia duty in Louisiana by 1862, but two others historians, Lawrence L. Hewitt and Arthur W. Bergeron, in their Louisianians in the Civil War claim his number is too high, that no more than two thousand participated. Fifteen free blacks are documented by Hewitt and Bergeron as having joined the Confederate Army as privates.The three most prominent instances of such volunteers were in St. Landry Parish in south Louisiana, the most notable being Charles F. Lutz.[10] [11]

83

Notable free Negroes


Walter L. Cohen, Born in 1860, held federal appointments in New Orleans from Presidents William McKinley, Theodore Roosevelt, Warren G. Harding, and Calvin Coolidge[12] William Ellison Jr., Former slave and wealthy businessman Ayuba Suleiman Diallo, Former slave and businessman Thomas L. Jennings, First African American granted a U.S. Patent

References
[1] Freed In the 17th Century (http:/ / www. issues-views. com/ index. php/ sect/ 1006/ article/ 1093) Reprinted from Issues & Views, Spring 1998 [2] [3] [4] [5] Free Blacks in the Antebellum Period (http:/ / memory. loc. gov/ ammem/ aaohtml/ exhibit/ aopart2. html) Philip D. Morgan, Slave Counterpoint, University of North Carolina Press, 1998, p.490 Peter Kolchin, American Slavery: 16191877, New York: Hill and Wang, 1994, pp.78, 81-82 Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience By Anthony Appiah, Kwame Anthony Appiah, Henry Louis Gates Page 299 [6] Freedom in the Archives (http:/ / www. common-place. org/ vol-05/ no-01/ heinegg-hoff/ index. shtml) Paul Heinegg and Henry B. Hoff. [7] Meltzer, Milton (1993). Slavery: A World History (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=8qMc-y3ya9UC& pg=RA1-PA234& lpg=RA1-PA234& dq=cyprian+ ricard+ louisiana& source=web& ots=tTDmSc5lwa& sig=lHuu78lMvbrZ3-6zQFIqxKykjxI). DaCapo. ISBN0306805367. . Retrieved 2007-10-16. [8] Franklin, John Hope; Moss, Alfred A. (1994). From Slavery to Freedom: A History of African Americans. McGraw-Hill. p.156. ISBN978-0679430872. [9] James T. Campbell, Songs of Zion (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=XfWCqvkp_OUC& pg=PA215& source=gbs_toc_r& cad=0_0#PPA260,M1), New York: Oxford University Press, 1995, p.259-260, accessed 13 Jan 2009 [10] "Lawrence L. Hewitt and Arthur W. Bergeron, Louisianians in the Civil War" (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=jaGDoE1FB78C& pg=PA110& lpg=PA110& dq=John+ D. + Winters+ + + Civil+ War+ + + Louisiana& source=bl& ots=_ElHGC2iOx& sig=X70dk2rErqVpsNJ_kTUR5La7i60& hl=en& ei=N3cZTKLMOIH68AbTpfG6DA& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=1& ved=0CBYQ6AEwADgU#v=onepage& q=John D. Winters + Civil War + Louisiana& f=false). Google Books. . Retrieved June 16, 2010. [11] John D. Winters, The Civil War in Louisiana, Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1963, ISBN: 0-8071-0834-0, p. 21 [12] "[[Louisiana Historical Association (http:/ / www. lahistory. org/ site20. php)], A Dictionary of Louisiana Biography (lahistory.org)"]. lahistory.org. . Retrieved December 21, 2010.

External Links
The University of North Carolina at Greensboro Digital Library on American Slavery: Browse Subjects - Free People of Color (http://library.uncg.edu/slavery/index.aspx?s=3)

History of the United States (17891849)

84

History of the United States (17891849)


This article covers the history of the United States from 1789 through 1849, the period of westward expansion. With the election of George Washington as the first president in 1789, the new government acted quickly to rebuild the nation's financial structure. Enacting the program of Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton, the government assumed the Revolutionary war debts of the state and the national government, and refinanced them with new federal bonds. It paid for the program through new tariffs and taxes, especially the controversial Whiskey Tax. Congress adopted and sent to the states a Bill of Rights as 10 amendments to the new constitution; these amendments, written by Madison, are the U.S. Bill of Rights. President Washington set up a cabinet form of government, with departments of State, Treasury, and War, along with an Attorney General (the Justice Department was created in 1870). The Judiciary Act of 1789 established the entire federal judiciary, including the Supreme Court. The Court became important under the leadership of Chief Justice John Marshall (18011834), Federalist and nationalist who built a strong Supreme Court and strengthened the national government. The 1790s were highly contentious, as the First Party System emerged in the contest between Alexander Hamilton and his Federalist party, and Thomas Jefferson and his Republican party. Washington and Hamilton were building a strong national government, with a broad financial base, and the support of merchants and financiers throughout the country. Jeffersonians opposed the new national Bank, the Navy, and federal taxes. The Federalists favored Britain, which was embattled in a series of wars with France. Jefferson's victory in 1800 opened the era of Jeffersonian democracy, and doomed the upper-crust Federalists to increasingly marginal roles. The Louisiana Purchase, in 1803 opened vast Western expanses of fertile land, that exactly met the needs of the rapidly expanding population of yeomen farmers whom Jefferson championed. The Americans declared war on Britain (the War of 1812) to uphold American honor at sea, and to end the Indian raids in the west.[1] Despite incompetent government management, and a series of defeats early on, Americans found new generals like Andrew Jackson, William Henry Harrison, and Winfield Scott, who repulsed British invasions and broke the alliance between the British and the Indians that held up settlement of the Old Northwest. The Federalists, who had opposed the war to the point of trading with the enemy and threatening secession, were devastated by the triumphant ending of the war. The remaining Indians east of the Mississippi were kept on reservations or moved via the Trail of Tears to reservations in what later became Oklahoma. The spread of democracy opened the ballot box to nearly all white men, allowing the Jacksonian democracy to dominate politics during the Second Party System. Whigs, representing wealthier planters, merchants, financiers and professionals, wanted to modernize the society, using tariffs and federally funded internal improvements; they were blocked by the Jacksonians, who closed down the national Bank in the 1830s. The Jacksonians wanted expansionthat is "Manifest Destiny"into new lands that would be occupied by farmers and planters. Thanks to the annexation of Texas, the defeat of Mexico in war, and a compromise with Britain, the western third of the nation rounded out the continental United States by 1848. Howe (2007) argues that the transformation America underwent was not so much political democratization but rather the explosive growth of technologies and networks of infrastructure and communicationthe telegraph, railroads, the post office, and an expanding print industry. They made possible the religious revivals of the Second Great Awakening, the expansion of education and social reform. They modernized party politics, as speeded up business by enabling the fast, efficient movement of goods, money and people across an expanding nation. They transformed a loose-knit collection of parochial agricultural communities into a powerful cosmopolitan nation [2] Economic modernization proceeded rapidly, thanks to highly profitable cotton crops in the South, new textile and machine-making industries in the Northeast, and a fast developing transportation infrastructure. Breaking loose from European models, the Americans developed their own high culture, notably in literature and in higher education. The Second Great Awakening brought revivals across the country, forming new denominations

History of the United States (17891849) and greatly increasing church membership, especially among Methodists and Baptists. By the 1840s increasing numbers of immigrants were arriving from Europe, especially British, Irish, and Germans. Many settled in the cities, which were starting to emerge as a major factor in the economy and society. The Whigs had warned that annexation of Texas would lead to a crisis over slavery, and they were proven right by the turmoil of the 1850s that led to civil war.

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Federalist Era
Washington Administration: 17891797
George Washington, a renowned hero of the American Revolutionary War, commander of the Continental Army, and president of the Constitutional Convention, was unanimously chosen as the first President of the United States under the new U.S. Constitution. All the leaders of the new nation were committed to republicanism, and the doubts of the Anti-Federalists of 1788 were allayed with the passage of a Bill of Rights as the first 10 amendments to the Constitution in 1791.[3] The first census, conducted by Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson, enumerated a population of 3.9 million, with a density of 4.5 people per square mile of land area. There were only 12 cities of more than 5,000 population, as the great majority of the people were farmers. Congress passed the Judiciary Act of 1789, which established the entire federal judiciary. At the time, the act provided for a Supreme Court of six justices, three circuit courts, and 13 district courts. It also created the offices of U.S. Marshal, Deputy Marshal, and District Attorney in each federal judicial district. The Compromise of 1790 located to the national capital in the southern state of Maryland (now the District of Columbia), and enabled the federal assumption of state debts.[4]

The Lansdowne portrait by Gilbert Stuart

Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton, with Washington's support and Jefferson's opposition, convinced Congress to pass a far-reaching financial program that funded the debts of the American Revolution, set up a national bank, and set up a system of tariffs and taxes to pay for all. His policies had the effect of linking the economic interests of the states, and of wealthy Americans, to the success of the national government, as well as enhancing the international financial standing of the new nation.[5] The Whiskey Rebellion in 1794when settlers in the Monongahela Valley of western Pennsylvania protested against the new federal tax on whiskey, which the settlers shipped across the mountains to earn money. It was the first serious test of the federal government. Washington ordered federal marshals to serve court orders requiring the tax protesters to appear in federal district court. By August 1794, the protests became dangerously close to outright rebellion, and on August 7, several thousand armed settlers gathered near Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Washington then invoked the Militia Law of 1792 to summon the militias of several states. A force of 13,000 men was organized, and Washington personally led it to Western Pennsylvania. The revolt immediately collapsed, and there was no violence.[6]

History of the United States (17891849) Foreign policy unexpectedly took center stage starting in 1793, when revolutionary France and conservative Britain went to war, opening a period of intense European conflict that lasted until 1815. The American policy was, "remain neutral", but the Jeffersonians strongly favored France, and deeply distrusted the British, who they saw as enemies of Republicanism. Hamilton and the business community favored Britain, which was by far America's largest trading partner. The tensions with Britain were resolved with the Jay Treaty of 1794, which opened up 10 years of prosperous trade, and forced the British to withdraw from their forts in the American Far West. The Jeffersonians tried to defeat the treaty, but failed when Washington threw his prestige into the conflict.[7] Continuing conflict between Hamilton and Jefferson, especially over foreign policy, led to the formation of the Federalist and Republican parties. Although Washington warned against political parties in his farewell address, he generally supported Hamilton and Hamiltonian programs over those of Jefferson. After his death in 1799 he became the great symbolic hero of the Federalists.[8]

86

Emergence of political parties


The First Party System between 1792 and 1824 featured two national parties competing for control of the presidency, Congress, and the states: the Federalist Party was created by Alexander Hamilton and was dominant to 1800. The rival Republican Party (Democratic-Republican Party) was created by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, and was dominant after 1800. Both parties originated in national politics but moved to organize supporters and voters in every state. These comprised "probably the first modern party system in the world" because they were based on voters, not factions of aristocrats at court or parliament.[9] The Federalists appealed to the business community, the Republicans to the planters and farmers. By 1796 politics in every state was nearly monopolized by the two parties. Jefferson wrote on Feb. 12, 1798: Two political Sects have arisen within the U. S. the one believing that the executive is the branch of our government which the most needs support; the other that like the analogous branch in the English Government, it is already too strong for the republican parts of the Constitution; and therefore in equivocal cases they incline to the legislative powers: the former of these are called federalists, sometimes aristocrats or monocrats, and sometimes tories, after the corresponding sect in the English Government of exactly the same definition: the latter are stiled republicans, whigs, jacobins, anarchists, disorganizers, etc. these terms are in familiar use with most persons."[10] The Federalists promoted the financial system of Treasury Secretary Hamilton, which emphasized federal assumption of state debts, a tariff to pay off those debts, a national bank to facilitate financing, and encouragement of banking and manufacturing. The Republicans, based in the plantation South, opposed a strong executive power, were hostile to a standing army and navy, demanded a limited reading of the Constitutional powers of the federal government, and strongly opposed the Hamilton financial program. Perhaps even more important was foreign policy, where the Federalists favored Britain because of its political stability and its close ties to American trade, while the Republicans admired the French and the French Revolution. Jefferson was especially fearful that British aristocratic influences would undermine republicanism. Britain and France were at war 17931815, with one brief interruption. American policy was neutrality, with the federalists hostile to France, and the Republicans hostile to Britain. The Jay Treaty of 1794 marked the decisive mobilization of the two parties and their supporters in every state. President Washington, while officially nonpartisan, generally supported the Federalists and that party made Washington their iconic hero.

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Adams Administration: 17971801


Washington retired in 1797, firmly declining to serve for more than eight years as the nation's head. Vice President John Adams was elected the new President, narrowly defeating Jefferson. Even before he entered the presidency, Adams had quarreled with Alexander Hamiltonand thus was handicapped by a divided Federalist party.[11] These domestic difficulties were compounded by international complications: France, angered by American approval in 1795 of the Jay Treaty with its great enemy Britain proclaimed that food and war material bound for British ports were subject to seizure by the French navy. By 1797, France had seized 300 American ships and had broken off diplomatic relations with the United States. When Adams sent three other commissioners to Paris to negotiate, agents of Foreign Minister Charles Maurice de Talleyrand (whom Adams labeled "X, Y and Z" in his report to Congress) informed the Americans that negotiations could John Adams only begin if the United States loaned France $12 million and bribed officials of the French government. American hostility to France rose to an excited pitch. Federalists used the "XYZ Affair" to create a new American army, strengthen the fledgling United States Navy, impose the Alien and Sedition Acts to stop pro-French activities, and enact new taxes to pay for it. the Alien and Sedition Acts, which had severe repercussions for American civil liberties. The Naturalization Act, which changed the residency requirement for citizenship from five to 14 years, was targeted at Irish and French immigrants suspected of supporting the Republican Party. One of the Alien acts, still in effect in the 21st century, gave the President the power to expel or imprison aliens in time of war. The Sedition Act proscribed writing, speaking or publishing anything of "a false, scandalous and malicious" nature against the President or Congress. The few convictions won under the Sedition Act only created martyrs to the cause of civil liberties and Alexander Hamilton aroused support for the Republicans. Jefferson and his allies launched a counterattack, with two states stating in the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions that state legislatures could nullify acts of Congress. However, all the other states rejected this proposition, and nullificationor it was as it was called, the "principle of 98"became the preserve of a faction of the Republicans called the Quids.[12] In 1799, after a series of naval battles with the French (known as the Quasi-War), full-scale war seemed inevitable. In this crisis, Adams broke with his party and sent three new commissioners to France. Napoleon, who had just come to power, received them cordially, and the danger of conflict subsided with the negotiation of the Convention of 1800, which formally released the United States from its 1778 wartime alliance with France. However, reflecting American weakness, France refused to pay $20 million in compensation for American ships seized by the French navy.[13] In his final hours in office, Adams appointed John Marshall as chief justice. Serving until his death in 1835, Marshall dramatically expanded the powers of the Supreme Court and provided a Federalist interpretation of the Constitution that made for a strong national government.[14]

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Thomas Jefferson
Under Washington and Adams the Federalists had established a strong government, but sometimes it followed policies that alienated the citizenry. For example, in 1798, to pay for the rapidly expanding army and navy, the Federalists had enacted a new tax on houses, land and slaves, affecting every property owner in the country. In the Fries's Rebellion hundreds of farmers in Pennsylvania revolted--Federalists saw a breakdown in civil society. Some tax resisters were arrested--then pardoned by Adams. Republicans denounced this action as an example of Federalist tyranny.[15] Jefferson had steadily gathered behind him a great mass of small farmers, shopkeepers and other workers which asserted themselves as Democratic-Republicans in the election of 1800. Jefferson enjoyed extraordinary favor because of his appeal to American idealism. In his inaugural address, the first such speech in the new capital of Thomas Jefferson Washington, DC, he promised "a wise and frugal government" to preserve order among the inhabitants but would "leave them otherwise free to regulate their own pursuits of industry, and improvement".[16] Jefferson encouraged agriculture and westward expansion, most notably by the Louisiana Purchase and subsequent Lewis and Clark Expedition. Believing America to be a haven for the oppressed, he reduced the residency requirement for naturalization back to five years again. By the end of his second term, Jefferson and Secretary of the Treasury Albert Gallatin had reduced the national debt to less than $560 million. This was accomplished by reducing the number of executive department employees and Army and Navy officers and enlisted men, and by otherwise curtailing government and military spending. To protect its shipping interests overseas, the U.S. fought the First Barbary War (18011805) in North Africa. This was followed later by the Second Barbary War (1815). With the upcoming expiration of the 20-year ban on Congressional action on the subject, Jefferson, a lifelong enemy of the slave trade, calls on Congress to criminalize the international slave trade, calling it "violations of human rights which have been so long continued on the unoffending inhabitants of Africa, and which the morality, the reputation, and the best interests of our country have long been eager to proscribe."[17]

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Louisiana Purchase and the War of 1812


The Louisiana Purchase in 1803 gave Western farmers use of the important Mississippi River waterway, removed the French presence from the western border of the United States, and provided U.S. settlers with vast potential for expansion. A few weeks afterward, war resumed between Britain and Napoleon's France. The United States, dependent on European revenues from the export of agricultural goods, tried to export food and raw materials to both warring Great Powers and to profit from transporting goods between their home markets and Caribbean colonies. Both sides permitted this trade when it benefited them but opposed it when it did not. Following the 1805 destruction of the French navy at the Battle of Trafalgar, Britain sought to impose a stranglehold over French overseas trade ties. Thus, in retaliation Growth in the US 180010 against U.S. trade practices, Britain imposed a loose blockade of the American coast. Believing that Britain could not rely on other sources of food than the United States, Congress and President Jefferson suspended all U.S. trade with foreign nations in the Embargo Act of 1807, hoping to get the British to end their blockade of the American coast. The Embargo Act, however, devastated American agricultural exports and weakened American ports while Britain found other sources of food.[18] James Madison won the U.S. presidential election of 1808, largely on the strength of his abilities in foreign affairs at a time when Britain and France were both on the brink of war with the United States. He was quick to repeal the Embargo Act, refreshing American seaports.

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In response to continued British interference with American shipping (including the practice of impressment of American sailors into the British Navy), and to British aid to American Indians in the Old Northwest, the Twelfth Congressled by Southern and Western Jeffersoniansdeclared war on Britain in 1812. Westerners and Southerners were the most ardent supporters of the war, given their concerns about defending national honor and expanding western Battle of Lake Erie; American victory in 1813 meant control of the Northwest; painting settlements, and having access to by William H. Powell (1865) world markets for their agricultural exports. New England was making a fine profit and its Federalists opposed the war, almost to the point of secession. The Federalist reputation collapsed in the triumphalism of 1815 and the party no longer played a national role. The United States and Britain came to a draw in the war after bitter fighting that lasted even after the Burning of Washington in August 1814 and Andrew Jackson's smashing defeat of the British invasion army at the Battle of New Orleans in January 1815. The Treaty of Ghent, officially ending the war, returned to the status quo ante bellum, but Britain's alliance with the Native Americans ended, and the Indians were the major losers of the war. News of the victory at New Orleans over the best British combat troops came at the same time as news of the peace, giving Americans a psychological triumph and opening the Era of Good Feelings. The war destroyed the Federalist Party, and opened roles as national candidates to generals Andrew Jackson and William Henry Harrison among others, as well as civilian leaders James Monroe, John Quincy Adams, and Henry Clay.[19]

Tecumseh and Governor William Henry Harrison; Tecumseh's death in the Battle of the Thames in 1813 ended British hopes to create a neutral Indian state in the Midwest

Era of Good Feelings and the Rise of Nationalism


Following the War of 1812, America began to assert a newfound sense of nationalism. America began to rally around national heroes such as Andrew Jackson and patriotic feelings emerged in such works as Francis Scott Key's poem The Star Spangled Banner. Under the direction of Chief Justice John Marshall, the Supreme Court issued a series of opinions reinforcing the role of the national government.[20] These decisions included McCulloch v Maryland and Gibbons v Ogden; both of which reaffirmed the supremacy of the national government over the states. The signing of the Adams-Onis Treaty helped to settle the western border of the country through popular and peaceable means.[21]

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Sectionalism
Even as nationalism increased across the country, its effects were limited by a renewed sense of sectionalism. The New England states that had opposed the War of 1812 felt an increasing decline in political power with the demise of the Federalist Party. This loss was tempered with the arrival of a new industrial movement and increased demands for northern banking. The industrial revolution in the United States was advanced by the immigration of Samuel Slater from Great Britain and arrival of textile mills beginning in Lowell, Massachusetts. In the south, the invention of the cotton gin by Eli Whitney radically increased the value of slave labor. The export of southern cotton was now the predominant export of the U.S. The western states continued to thrive under the "frontier spirit." Individualism was prized as exemplified by Davey Crockett and James Fenimore Cooper's folk hero Natty Bumpo from The Leatherstocking Tales. Following the death of Tecumseh in 1813, Native Americans lacked the unity to stop white settlement.

Era of Good Feelings


Domestically, the presidency of James Monroe (18171825) was hailed at the time and since as the "Era of Good Feelings" because of the decline of partisan politics and heated rhetoric after the war. The Federalist Party collapsed, but without an opponent the Republican party decayed as sectional interests came to the fore. The Monroe Doctrine was drafted by Secretary of State John Quincy Adams in collaboration with the British, and proclaimed by Monroe in late 1823. He asserted the Americas should be free from additional European colonization and free from European interference in sovereign countries' affairs. It further stated the United States' intention to stay neutral in wars between European powers and their colonies but to consider any new colonies or interference with independent countries in the Americas as hostile acts towards the United States. No new colonies were ever formed.

Emergence of Second Party System


Monroe was reelected without opposition in 1820, and the old caucus system for selecting Republican candidates collapsed in 1820. In the presidential election of 1824, factions in Tennessee and Pennsylvania put forth Andrew Jackson. From Kentucky came Speaker of the House Henry Clay, while Massachusetts produced Secretary of State Adams; a rump congressional caucus put forward Treasury Secretary William H. Crawford. Personality and sectional allegiance played important roles in determining the outcome of the election. Adams won the electoral votes from New England and most of New York; Clay won his western base of Kentucky, Ohio and Missouri; Jackson won his base in the Southeast, and plus Illinois, Indiana, North Carolina, South Carolina, Pennsylvania, Maryland and New Jersey; and Crawford won his base in the South, Virginia, Georgia and Delaware. No candidate gained a majority in the Electoral College, so the president was selected by the House of Representatives, where Clay was the most influential figure. In return for Clay's support, which won him the presidency, John Quincy Adams appointed Clay as secretary of state in what Jacksonians denounced as The Corrupt Bargain. During Adams' administration, new party alignments appeared. Adams' followers took the name of "National Republicans", to reflect the mainstream of Jeffersonian Republicanism. Though he governed honestly and efficiently, Adams was not a popular president, and his administration was marked with frustrations. Adams failed in his effort to institute a national system of roads and canals as part of the American System economic plan. His coldly intellectual temperament did not win friends.

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Jacksonian democracy
Charismatic Andrew Jackson, by contrast, in collaboration with strategist Martin Van Buren rallied his followers in the newly emerging Democratic Party. In the election of 1828, Jackson defeated Adams by an overwhelming electoral majority. The election saw the coming to power of Jacksonian Democracy, thus marking the transition from the First Party System (which reflected Jeffersonian Democracy) to the Second Party System. Historians debate the significance of the election, with many arguing that it marked the beginning of modern American politics, with the decisive establishment of democracy and the formation of the two party system.[22]

Suffrage of all white men


Starting in the 1820s, American politics became less aristocratic and enfranchisement increased as many state and local offices went from being appointed to elective, and the old requirements for voters to own property were abolished. Voice voting in states gave way to printed ballots, and by the 1830s only South Carolina did not have popularly chosen presidential electors. Jacksonian Democracy drew its support from the small farmers of the West, and the workers, artisans and small merchants of the East. They favored geographical expansion to create more farms for people like them, and distrusted the upper classes who envisioned an industrial nation built on finance and manufacturing. The entrepreneurs, for whom Henry Clay and Daniel Webster were heroes, fought back and formed the Whig party.
President Andrew Jackson Political machines appeared early in the history of the United States, and for all the exhortations of Jacksonian Democracy, it was they and not the average voter that nominated candidates. In addition, the system supported establishment politicians and party loyalists, and much legislation was designed to reward rich men and businesses who supported a particular party or candidate. Also during this period, a series of reforms resulted in changes to the electoral system which rewarded winners or plurality getters in smaller districts instead of the old method of dividing state offices among the biggest vote getters. As a consequence, the chance of single issue and ideology-based candidates being elected to major office dwindled and so those parties who were successful were pragmatist ones with no fixed beliefs.

Examples of single issue parties included the Anti-Masons, who emerged as a group set to outlaw Freemasonry in the United States after a man who threatened to expose the Masons' secrets was kidnapped and murdered. They ran a candidate for president (William Wirt) in 1832, but succeeded in only winning the state of Vermont and then quietly disappeared. Others included abolitionist parties, socialists like the Workingmen's Party, the Locofocos (who opposed monopoly capitalism), and assorted nativist parties who's chief object was opposition to the Roman Catholic Church in the US. As pointed out above, none of these parties were capable of mounting a broad enough appeal to voters or winning major elections. The election of 1828 was a significant benchmark marking the climax of the trend toward broader voter eligibility and participation. Vermont had universal male suffrage since its entry into the Union, and Tennessee permitted suffrage for the vast majority of taxpayers. New Jersey, Maryland and South Carolina all abolished property and tax-paying requirements between 1807 and 1810. States entering the Union after 1815 either had universal white male suffrage or a low taxpaying requirement. From 1815 to 1821, Connecticut, Massachusetts and New York abolished all property requirements. In 1824, members of the Electoral College were still selected by six state legislatures. By 1828, presidential electors were chosen by popular vote in every state but Delaware and South Carolina. Nothing dramatized this democratic sentiment more than the election of Andrew Jackson.[23]

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Trail of Tears
In 1830, Congress passed the Indian Removal Act, which authorized the President to negotiate treaties that exchanged Indian tribal lands in the eastern states for lands west of the Mississippi River. In 1834, a special Indian territory was established in what is now the eastern part of Oklahoma. In all, Native American tribes signed 94 treaties during Jackson's two terms, ceding thousands of square miles to the Federal government. The Cherokees insisted on their independence from state government authority and faced expulsion from their lands when a faction of Cherokees signed the Treaty of New Echota in 1835, obtaining money in exchange for their land. Despite protests from the elected Cherokee government and many white supporters, the Cherokees were forced to trek to the Indian Territory in 1838. Many died of disease and privation in what became known as the "Trail of Tears".

Picking cotton in GeorgiaLarger version

Nullification Crisis
Toward the end of his first term in office, Jackson was forced to confront the state of South Carolina on the issue of the protective tariff. The protective tariff passed by Congress and signed into law by Jackson in 1832 was milder than that of 1828, but it further embittered many in the state. In response, several South Carolina citizens endorsed the "states rights" principle of "nullification", which was enunciated by John C. Calhoun, Jackson's Vice President until 1832, in his South Carolina Exposition and Protest (1828). South Carolina dealt with the tariff by adopting the Ordinance of Nullification, which declared both the Tariff of 1828 and the Tariff of 1832 null and void within state borders. Nullification was only the most recent in a series of state challenges to the authority of the federal government. In response to South Carolina's threat, Jackson sent seven small naval vessels and a man-of-war to Charleston in November 1832. On December 10, he issued a resounding proclamation against the nullifiers. South Carolina, the President declared, stood on "the brink of insurrection and treason", and he appealed to the people of the state to reassert their allegiance to that Union for which their ancestors had fought. Senator Henry Clay, though an advocate of protection and a political rival of Jackson, piloted a compromise measure through Congress. Clay's 1833 compromise tariff specified that all duties more than 20% of the value of the goods imported were to be reduced by easy stages, so that by 1842, the duties on all articles would reach the level of the moderate tariff of 1816. The rest of the South declared South Carolina's course unwise and unconstitutional. Eventually, South Carolina rescinded its action. Jackson had committed the federal government to the principle of Union supremacy. South Carolina, however, had obtained many of the demands it sought and had demonstrated that a single state could force its will on Congress.

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Banking
Even before the nullification issue had been settled, another controversy arose to challenge Jackson's leadership. It concerned the rechartering of the Second Bank of the United States. The First Bank of the United States had been established in 1791, under Alexander Hamilton's guidance and had been chartered for a 20-year period. After the Revolutionary War, the United States had a large war debt to France and others, and the banking system of the fledgling nation was in disarray, as state banks printed their own currency, and the plethora of different bank notes made commerce difficult. Hamilton's national bank had been chartered to solve the debt problem and to unify the nation under one currency. While it stabilized the currency and stimulated trade, it was resented by Westerners and workers who believed that it was granting special favors to a few powerful men. When its charter expired in 1811, it was not renewed.[24] For the next few years, the banking business was in the hands of State-Chartered banks, which issued currency in excessive amounts, creating great confusion and fueling inflation and concerns that state banks could not provide the country with a uniform currency. the absence of a national bank during the War of 1812 greatly hindered financial operations of the government; therefore a second Bank of the United States was created in 1816. From its inception, the Second Bank was unpopular in the newer states and territories and with less prosperous people everywhere. Opponents claimed the bank possessed a virtual monopoly over the country's credit and currency, and reiterated that it represented the interests of the wealthy elite. Jackson, elected as a popular champion against it, vetoed a bill to recharter the bank. He also personally detested banks due to a brush with bankruptcy in his youth. In his message to Congress, he denounced monopoly and special privilege, saying that "our rich men have not been content with equal protection and equal benefits, but have besought us to make them richer by act of Congress".[25]

Jackson slays the many-headed monster that is the Bank of the United States

In the election campaign that followed, the bank question caused a fundamental division between the merchant, manufacturing and financial interests (generally creditors who favored tight money and high interest rates), and the laboring and agrarian sectors, who were often in debt to banks and therefore favored an increased money supply and lower interest rates. The outcome was an enthusiastic endorsement of "Jacksonism". Jackson saw his reelection in 1832 as a popular mandate to crush the bank irrevocably; he found a ready-made weapon in a provision of the bank's charter authorizing removal of public funds. In September 1833 Jackson ordered that no more government money be deposited in the bank and that the money already in its custody be gradually withdrawn in the ordinary course of meeting the expenses of government. Carefully-selected state banks, stringently restricted, were provided as a substitute. For the next generation, the US would get by on a relatively-unregulated state banking system. This banking system helped fuel westward expansion through easy credit, but kept the nation vulnerable to periodic panics. It was not until the Civil War that the Federal government again chartered a national bank.

History of the United States (17891849) Jackson groomed Martin van Buren as his successor, and he was easily elected president in 1836. However, a few months into his administration, the country fell into a deep economic slump known as the Panic of 1837, caused in large part by excessive speculation. Banks failed and unemployment soared. Although the depression had its roots in Jackson's economic policies, van Buren was blamed for the disaster. In the 1840 presidential election, he was defeated by the Whig candidate William Henry Harrison. However, his presidency would prove a non-starter when he fell ill with pneumonia and died after only a month in office. John Tyler, his vice president, succeeded him. Tyler was not popular since he had not been elected to the presidency, and was widely referred to as "His Accidency". The Whigs expelled him, and he became a president without a party.

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Age of Reform
Spurred on by the Second Great Awakening, Americans entered a period of rapid social change and experimentation. New social movements arose, as well as many new alternatives to traditional religious thought. This period of American history was marked by the destruction of some traditional roles of society and the erection of new social standards. One of the unique aspects of the Age of Reform was that it was heavily grounded in religion, in contrast to the anti-clericalism that characterized contemporary European reformers.[26]

Second Great Awakening


The Second Great Awakening was a Protestant religious revival movement that flourished in 18001840 in every region. It expressed Arminian theology by which every person could be saved through a direct personal confrontation with Jesus Christ during an intensely emotional revival meeting. Millions join the churches, often new denominations. Many converts believed that the Awakening heralded a new millennial age, so that the Second Great Awakening stimulated the establishment of many reform movements designed to remedy the evils of society before the Second Coming of Jesus Christ.[27] For example, the charismatic Charles Grandison Finney, in upstate New York and the Old Northwest was highly effective. At the Rochester Revival of 1830, prominent citizens concerned with the city's poverty and absenteeism had invited Finney to the city. The wave of religious revival contributed to tremendous growth of the Methodist, Baptists, Disciples, and other evangelical denominations.[28] [29] Utopians As the Second Great Awakening challenged the traditional beliefs of the Calvinist faith, the movement inspired other groups to call into question their views on religion and society. Many of these utopianist groups also believed in millennialism which prophesied the return of Christ and the beginning of a new age. The Harmony Society made three attempts to effect a millennial society with the most notable example at New Harmony, Indiana. Later, Scottish industrialist Robert Owen bought New Harmony and attempted to form a secular Utopian community there. Frenchman Charles Fourier began a similar secular experiment with his "phalanxes" that were spread across the Midwestern United States. However, none of these utopian communities lasted very long except for the Shakers.

During the Second Great Awakening, church membership rose sharply.

History of the United States (17891849) One of the earliest movements was that of the Shakers in which members of a community held all of their possessions in "common" and lived in a prosperous, inventive, self-supporting society, with no sexual activity.[30] The Shakers, founded by an English immigrant to the United States Mother Ann Lee, peaked at around 6,000 in 1850 in communities from Maine to Kentucky. The Shakers condemned sexuality and demanded absolute celibacy. New members could only come from conversions, and from children brought to the Shaker villages. The Shakers persisted into the 20th century, but lost most of their originality by the middle of the 19th century. They are famed for their artistic craftsmanship, especially their furniture and handicrafts. The Perfectionist movement, led by John Humphrey Noyes, founded the utopian Oneida Community in 1848 with fifty-one devotees, in Oneida, New York. Noyes believed that the act of final conversion led to absolute and complete release from sin. Though their sexual practices were unorthodox, the community prospered because Noyes opted for modern manufacturing. Eventually abandoning religion to become a joint-stock company, Oneida thrived for many years and continues today as a silverware company.[31] Joseph Smith also experienced a religious conversion in this era; under his guidance Mormon history began. Because of their unusual beliefs, which included recognition of the Book of Mormon as a supplement to the Bible, Mormons were rejected by mainstream Christians and forced to flee en masse from upstate New York to Ohio, to Missouri and then to Nauvoo, Illinois, where Smith was killed and they were again forced to flee. They Settled around the Great Salt Lake, then part of Mexico. In 1848, the region came under American control and later formed the Utah Territory. National policy was to suppress polygamy, and Utah was only admitted as a state in 1896 after the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints backtracked from Smith's demand that all the leaders practice polygamy.[32] For Americans wishing to bridge the gap between the earthly and spiritual worlds, spiritualism provided a means of communing with the dead. Spiritualists used mediums to communicate between the living and the dead through a variety of different means. The most famous mediums, the Fox sisters claimed a direct link to the spirit world. Spiritualism would gain a much larger following after the heavy number of casualties during the Civil War; First Lady Mary Todd Lincoln was a believer.[33] Other groups seeking spiritual awaking gained popularity in the mid-19th century. Philosopher Ralph Waldo Emerson began the American transcendentalist movement in New England, to promote self-reliance and better understanding of the universe through contemplation of the over-soul. Transcendentalism was in essence an American offshoot of the Romantic movement in Europe. Among transcendentalists' core beliefs was an ideal spiritual state that "transcends" the physical, and is only realized through intuition rather than doctrine. Like many of the movements, the transcendentalists split over the idea of self-reliance. While Emerson and Henry David Thoreau promoted the idea of independent living, George Ripley brought transcendentalists together in a phalanx at Brook Farm to live cooperatively. Other authors such as Nathaniel Hawthorne and Edgar Allan Poe rejected transcendentalist beliefs.[34] So many of these new religious and spiritual groups began or concentrated within miles of each other in upstate New York that this area was nicknamed "the burned-over district" because there were so few people left who had not experienced a conversion.[35] [36]

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Public schools movement


Education in the United States had long been a local affair with schools governed by locally elected school boards. As with much of the culture of the United States, education varied widely in the North and the South. In the New England states public education was common, although it was often class-based with the working class receiving little benefits. Instruction and curriculum were all locally determined and teachers were expected to meet rigorous demands of strict moral behavior. Schools taught religious values and applied Calvinist philosophies of discipline which included corporal punishment and public humiliation. In the South, there was very little organization of a public education system. Public schools were very rare and most education took place in the home with the family acting as instructors. The wealthier planter families were able to bring in tutors for instruction in the classics but

History of the United States (17891849) many yeoman farming families had little access to education outside of the family unit. The reform movement in education began in Massachusetts when Horace Mann started the common school movement. Mann advocated a statewide curriculum and instituted financing of school through local property taxes. Mann also fought protracted battles against the Calvinist influence in discipline, preferring positive reinforcement to physical punishment. Most children learned to read and write and spell from Noah Webster's Blue Backed Speller and later the McGuffey Readers. The readings inculcated moral values as well as literacy. Most states tried to emulate Massachusetts, but New England retained its leadership position for another century. German immigrants brought in kindergartens and gymnasiums, while Yankee orators sponsored the Lyceum movement that provided popular education for hundreds of towns and small cities.

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Asylum movement
The social conscience that was raised in the early 19th century helped to elevate the awareness of mental illness and its treatment. A leading advocate of reform for mental illness was Dorothea Dix, a Massachusetts woman who made an intensive study of the conditions that the mentally ill were kept in. Dix's report to the Massachusetts state legislature along with the development of the Kirkbride Plan helped to alleviate the miserable conditions for many of the mentally ill. Although these facilities often fell short of their intended purpose, reformers continued to follow Dix's advocacy and call for increased study and treatment of mental illness.

Women
Zagarri (2007) argues the Revolution created an ongoing debate on the rights of woman and created an environment favorable to womens participation in politics. She asserts that for a brief decades, a "comprehensive transformation in womens rights, roles, and responsibilities seemed not only possible but perhaps inevitable" (p.8) However the opening of possibilities also engendered a backlash that actually set back the cause of womens rights and led to a greater rigidity that marginalized women from political life.[37] During the building of the new republic, American women were able to gain a limited political voice in what is known as republican motherhood. Under this philosophy, as promoted by leaders such as Abigail Adams, women were seen as the protectors of liberty and republicanism. Mothers were charged with passing down these ideals to their children through instruction of patriotic thoughts and feelings. During the 1830s and 1840s, many of the changes in the status of women that occurred in the post-Revolutionary periodsuch as the belief in love between spouses and the role of women in the homecontinued at an accelerated pace. This was an age of reform movements, in which Americans sought to improve the moral fiber of themselves and of their nation in unprecedented numbers. The wife's role in this process was important because she was seen as the cultivator of morality in her husband and children. Besides domesticity, women were also expected to be pious, pure, and submissive to men. These four components were considered by many at the time to be "the natural state" of womanhood, echoes of this ideology still existing today. The view that the wife should find fulfillment in these values is called the Cult of True Womanhood or the Cult of Domesticity.[38] In the South, tradition still abounded with society women on the pedestal and dedicated to entertaining and hosting others. This phenomenon is reflected in the 1965 book, The Inevitable Guest, based on a collection of letters by friends and relatives in North and South Carolina to Miss Jemima Darby, a distant relative of the author.[39] Under the doctrine of two spheres, women were to exist in the domestic sphere at home while their husbands operated in the public sphere of politics and business. Women took on the new role of softening their husbands and instructing their children in piety and not republican values, while men handled the business and financial affairs of the family. Some doctors of this period even went so far as to suggest that women should not get an education, lest they divert blood away from the uterus to the brain and produce weak children. The coverture laws ensured that men would hold political power over their wives.

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Anti-slavery movements
By 1800, many political leaders were convinced that slavery was undesirable, and should eventually be abolished, and the slaves returned to their natural homes in Africa. The American Colonization Society, which was active in both North and South, tried to implement these ideas and established the colony of Liberia in Africa as a means to repatriate slaves out of white society. Prominent leaders included Henry Clay and President James Monroewho gave his name to Monrovia, the capital of Liberia. However after 1840 the abolitionists rejected the idea of repatriation to Africa.[40] The slavery abolitionist movement among white Protestants was based on evangelical principles of the Second Great Awakening. Evangelist Theodore Weld led abolitionist revivals that called for immediate emancipation of slaves. William Lloyd Garrison founded The Liberator, an anti-slavery newspaper, and the American Anti-Slavery Society to call for abolition. A controversial figure, Garrison often was the focus of public anger. His advocacy of women's rights and inclusion of women in the leadership of the Society caused a rift within the movement. Rejecting Garrison's idea that abolition and women's rights were connected Lewis Tappan broke with the Society and formed the American and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society. Most abolitionists were not as extreme as Garrison, who vowed that "The Liberator" would not cease publication until slavery was abolished.[41] White abolitionists did not always face agreeable communities in the North. Garrison was almost lynched in Boston while newspaper publisher Elijah Lovejoy was killed in Alton, Illinois. The anger over abolition even spilled over into Congress where a gag rule was instituted to prevent any discussion of slavery on the floor of either chamber. Most whites viewed African-Americans as an inferior race and had little taste for abolitionists, often assuming that all were like Garrison. African-Americans had little freedom even in states where slavery was not permitted, being shunned by whites, subjected to discriminatory laws, and often forced to compete with Irish immigrants for menial, low-wage jobs. In the South meanwhile, planters argued that slavery was necessary to operate their plantations profitably and that emancipated slaves would attempt to Africanize the country as they had done in Haiti. Both free-born African American citizens and former slaves took on leading roles in abolitionism as well. By far the most prominent spokesperson for abolition in the African American community was Frederick Douglass, an escaped slave whose eloquent condemnations of slavery drew both crowds of supporters as well as threats against his life. Douglass was a keen user of the printed word both through his newspaper The North Star and three best-selling autobiographies. At one extreme David Walker published An Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World calling for African American revolt against white tyranny. The Underground Railroad helped some slaves out of the South through a series of trails and safe houses known as stations. Known as conductors, escaped slaves volunteered to return to the South to lead others to safety; former slaves, such as Harriet Tubman, risked their lives on these journeys.[42]
Frederick Douglass

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Women as abolitionists

Lucretia Mott

Elizabeth Cady Stanton

Angelia and Sarah Grimk were southerners who moved North to advocate against slavery. The American Anti-Slavery Society welcomed women. Garrison along with Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott were so appalled that women were not allowed to participate at the World Anti-Slavery Convention in London that they called for a women's rights convention in Seneca Falls, New York. It was at this convention that Sojourner Truth became recognized as a leading spokesperson for both abolition and women's rights. Women abolitionists increasingly began to compare women's situation with the plight of slaves. This new polemic squarely blamed men for all the restrictions of women's role, and argued that the relationship between the sexes was one-sided, controlling and oppressive. There were strong religious roots; most feminists emerged from the Quaker and Congregationalist churches in the Northeast.[43]

Prohibition
Alcohol consumption was another target of reformers in the 1850s. Americans drank heavily, which contributed to violent behavior, crime, health problems, and poor workplace performance. Groups such as the American Temperance Society condemned liquor as being a scourge on society and urged temperance among their followers. The state of Maine attempted in 1851 to ban alcohol sales and production entirely, but it met resistance and was abandoned. The prohibition movement was forgotten during the Civil War, but would return in the 1870s.

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Economic growth
In this period, the United States rapidly expanded economically from an agrarian nation into an industrial power. Industrialization in America involved two important developments. First, transportation was expanded. Second, improvements were made to industrial processes such as the use of interchangeable parts and railroads to ship goods more quickly. The government helped protect American manufacturers by passing a protective tariff.[45]

Westward expansion
After Napoleon's defeat and the Congress of Vienna in 1815, an exhausted Europe would enjoy more than three decades of peace. The United States shifted its attention away from foreign policy to internal development. With the end of the wartime British alliance with Native Americans east of the Mississippi River, white settlers were determined to colonize indigenous lands beyond the Mississippi. In the 1830s, the federal government forcibly deported the southeastern tribes to what is now Oklahoma. The "Trail of Tears", as the Cherokee called it, was performed at the instigation of Andrew Jackson. The Supreme Court ruled the deportation unconstitutional, but Jackson ignored this, allegedly saying "Now that you have proven, enforce."

The Boston Manufacturing Company was organized in 1813 by Francis Cabot Lowell, a wealthy Boston merchant, in partnership with a group of investors known as the Boston Associates, for the [44] manufacture of cotton textiles.

Historical movement of U.S. population. Note the major westward expansion in the 19th century.

The steady growth of the United States after 1815 contrasted with the orderly, static European society, and travelers from the latter described the rough, sometimes violent, but on the whole hugely optimistic and forward-looking attitude of most Americans. While land ownership was something most Europeans could only dream of, contemporary accounts show that the average American farmer lived a hard life of physical labor with little money or recreation. Europeans Growth from 1840 to 1850 commonly talked of the egalitarianism of American society, which had no landed nobility and which theoretically allowed anyone regardless of birth to become successful. While the US had more millionaires than any country in Europe by 1850, it was nonetheless true that most rich men were born into rich families. The major Northeastern cities all had at least 1,000 individuals that year with assets of at least $100,000 at a time when $4,000 was a substantial sum of money and the average laborer was paid $1 a day. In addition, as settlement moved westward, so did wealth. In particular, New England was much less economically important in 1830 than in 1789 as people went west in search of better farmland, and many of the old families there

History of the United States (17891849) declined in wealth and importance. The old Chesapeake Bay tobacco industry had collapsed by 1800 due to exhausted soil and low prices. Westward expansion by official acts of the U.S. Government was accompanied by the western (and northern in the case of New England) movement of settlers on and beyond the frontier. Daniel Boone was one frontiersman who pioneered the settlement of Kentucky. This pattern was followed throughout the West as American hunters and trappers traded with the Indians and explored the land. As skilled fighters and hunters, these Mountain Men trapped beaver in small groups throughout the Rocky Mountains. After the demise of the fur trade, they established trading posts throughout the west, continued trade with the Indians and served as guides and hunters for the western migration of settlers to Utah, Oregon and California. Americans asserted a right to colonize vast expanses of North America beyond their country's borders, especially into Oregon, California, and Texas. By the mid-1840s, U.S. expansionism was articulated in the ideology of "Manifest Destiny". The Oregon Territory had been jointly administered by the US and Great Britain since 1819, but the two nations fell into disputes over the territory. President Polk (Democrat) negotiated a compromise that gave half the area to the US (everything south of the 49th parallel except for Vancouver Island). American annexation of the Republic of Texas in 1845 was unacceptable to Mexico and led to war. In May 1846, Congress declared war on Mexico after a border incident. Troops under the command of General Zachary Taylor defeated Santa Anna's army in northern Mexico while other American troops took possession of New Mexico and California. Mexico continued to resist despite a chaotic political situation, and so Polk launched an invasion of the country's heartland. An army led by Winfield Scott occupied the port of Veracruz, and pressed inland amid bloody fighting. Santa Anna offered to cede Texas and California north of Monterrey Bay, but negotiations broke down and the fighting resumed. In September 1847, Scott's army captured Mexico City. Santa Anna was forced to flee and a provisional government began the task of negotiating peace. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was signed on February 2, 1848. It recognized the Rio Grande as the southern boundary of Texas and ceded what is now the states of California, Nevada, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico to the United States, while also paying Mexico $15,000,000 for the territory. The war was opposed by Whigs in the US (including Congressman Abraham Lincoln) who considered it a European-style war of conquest and imperialism. In the presidential election of 1848, Zachary Taylor ran as a Whig and won easily when the Democrats became split, even though he was an apolitical military man who never voted in his life. With Texas and Florida having been admitted to the union as slave states in 1845, California was made a free state in 1850. Major events in the western movement of the U.S. population were the Homestead Act, a law by which, for a nominal price, a settler was given title to 160 acres (65 ha) of land to farm; the opening of the Oregon Territory to settlement; the Texas Revolution; the opening of the Oregon Trail; the Mormon Emigration to Utah in 184647; the California Gold Rush of 1849; the Colorado Gold Rush of 1859; and the completion of the nation's First Transcontinental Railroad on May 10, 1869.

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US Population Distribution

1790

1800

1820

Notes
[1] Norman K. Risjord, "1812: Conservatives, War Hawks, and the Nation's Honor". William And Mary Quarterly 1961 18(2): 196210. in JSTOR (http:/ / www. jstor. org/ stable/ 1918543) [2] Daniel Walker Howe, What Hath God Wrought: The Transformation of America, 18151848 (2007), which is dedicated to the memory of John Quincy Adams. [3] Forrest McDonald, The Presidency of George Washington (American Presidency Series) (1988) [4] Charles Warren, The Supreme Court in United States History, Vol. 1: 17891821 (1926) [5] Max M. Edling, and Mark D. Kaplanoff, "Alexander Hamilton's Fiscal Reform: Transforming the Structure of Taxation in the Early Republic," William and Mary Quarterly, Oct 2004, Vol. 61 Issue 4, pp 713-744 [6] George E. Connor, "The politics of insurrection: A comparative analysis of the Shays', Whiskey, and Fries' Rebellions," Social Science Journal, 1992, Vol. 29 Issue 3, pp 259-81 [7] Stanley M. Elkins, and Eric McKitrick, The Age of Federalism: The Early American Republic, 17881800 (1994), ch. 9 [8] James Sharp, American Politics in the Early Republic: The New Nation in Crisis (1995) [9] William Nisbet Chambers, The First Party System: Federalists and Republicans (1972) p. v [10] Francis N. Thorpe, ed "A Letter from Jefferson on the Political Parties, 1798," American Historical Review v.3#3 (April 1898) pp 48889 [11] Ralph A. Brown, Presidency of John Adams (American Presidency Series) (1975) [12] Kevin Gutzman, "The Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions Reconsidered: 'An Appeal to the Real Laws of Our Country,'" Journal of Southern History 66 (2000), pp 473-96. [13] Alexander De Conde, The quasi-war: the politics and diplomacy of the undeclared war with France 17971801 (1966). [14] Jean Edward Smith, John Marshall: Definer of a Nation (1996) [15] Whitman H. Ridgway, "Fries in the Federalist Imagination: A Crisis of Republican Society," Pennsylvania History, Jan 2000, Vol. 67 Issue 1, pp 141-160 [16] LaGreca, Gen. Happy Birthday, Thomas Jefferson (http:/ / www. frontpagemag. com/ Articles/ Read. aspx?GUID=0c2766df-28f4-4a96-a425-c574ac952428). Front Page Magazine: April 13, 2007 [17] Paul Finkelman, "Regulating the African Slave Trade," Civil War History Volume: 54#4 (2008) pp 379+. [18] Marshall Smelser, The Democratic Republic: 18011815 (1968) ch 7-8 [19] Walter R. Borneman, 1812: The War That Forged a Nation (2005) [20] Jean Edward Smith, John Marshall: Definer of a Nation (1998) [21] George Dangerfield, The awakening of American nationalism, 18151828 (1965) [22] David Waldstreicher, "The Birth of Modern Politics: Andrew Jackson, John Quincy Adams, and the Election of 1828./Vindicating Andrew Jackson: The 1828 Election and the Rise of the Two Party System," Journal of the Early Republic, Winter 2010, Vol. 30 Issue 4, pp 674-678 [23] Alexander Keyssar, The Right to Vote: The Contested History of Democracy in the United States (2000) pp 22-42

History of the United States (17891849)


[24] Edward S. Kaplan, The Bank of the United States and the American Economy (1999) [25] Bray Hammond, Banks and Politics in America from the Revolution to the Civil War (1967)p. 406 [26] Paul S. Boyer, Clifford Clark, and Sandra Hawley, The Enduring Vision: A History of the American People: to 1877 (2009) p 226 [27] Timothy L. Smith, Revivalism and Social Reform: American Protestantism on the Eve of the Civil War (1957) [28] Sydney Ahlstrom, A Religious History of the American People (1972) ch 27-30 [29] Dickson D. Bruce, Jr., And They All Sang Hallelujah: Plain Folk Camp-Meeting Religion, 18001845 (1974) [30] Stephen J. Stein, The Shaker Experience in America: A History of the United Society of Believers (1994) [31] Hillebrand, Randall (February 20, 2008). "The Shakers / Oneida Community (Part Two): The Oneida Community" (http:/ / www. nyhistory. com/ central/ oneida. htm). New York History Net: For Historians and Students of New York History and Culture. Albany, NY: Institute for New York State Studies. . Retrieved December 14, 2009. [32] Richard L. Bushman, Joseph Smith: Rough Stone Rolling (2007) [33] Barbara Weisberg, Talking to the Dead: Kate and Maggie Fox and the Rise of Spiritualism (2005) [34] Philip F. Gura, American Transcendentalism: A History (2008) [35] Whitney R. Cross, The Burned-over District: The Social and Intellectual History of Enthusiastic Religion in Western New York, 18001850 (1950) [36] Judith Wellman, Grassroots Reform in the Burned-over District of Upstate New York: Religion, Abolitionism, and Democracy (2000) excerpt and text search (http:/ / www. amazon. com/ Grassroots-Reform-Burned-over-District-Upstate/ dp/ 0815337922/ ) [37] Rosemarie Zagarri, Revolutionary Backlash: Women and Politics in the Early American Republic (2007). 233 pp [38] Barbara Welter, "The Cult of True Womanhood: 18201860", American Quarterly Vol. 18, No. 2, Part 1 (Summer, 1966), pp. 151174 in JSTOR (http:/ / www. jstor. org/ stable/ 2711179) [39] "Books: The Inevitable Guest" (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=ZtIDAAAAMBAJ& pg=PA33& lpg=PA33& dq=John+ A. + Cawthon#v=onepage& q=John A. Cawthon& f=false). The Alcalde: The University of Texas Alumni Magazine 54 (1): 33. September 1965. . Retrieved July 14, 2010. [40] Eric Burin, Slavery and the Peculiar Solution: A History of the American Colonization Society (University Press of Florida, 2005) [41] Stanley Harrold, The American Abolitionists (Longman, 2000) [42] Fergus M Bordewich, Bound for Canaan: The Underground Railroad and the War for the Soul of America (2005) [43] Lori D. Ginzberg. Elizabeth Cady Stanton: An American Life (2010) [44] "Boston Manufacturing Company Collection" (http:/ / www. library. hbs. edu/ hc/ wes/ collections/ labor/ textiles/ content/ 1001956083. html). Women, Enterprise and Society: A Guide to Resources in the Business Manuscripts Collection at Baker Library. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School, Harvard U.. 2009 [copyright date]. . Retrieved December 14, 2009. [45] Kelly, Martin (October 30, 2009). "Overview of the Industrial Revolution: The United States and the Industrial Revolution in the 19th Century" (http:/ / americanhistory. about. com/ od/ industrialrev/ a/ indrevoverview. htm). AmericanHistory.About.com. New York, NY: NYTC. . Retrieved December 14, 2009.

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Further reading
Surveys
Appleby, Joyce. Inheriting the Revolution: the First Generation of Americans. 2000. Covers the period from 1790 to 1830 through the lives of those born after 1776. Howe, Daniel Walker. What Hath God Wrought: The Transformation of America, 18151848 (Oxford History of the United States) (2007); Pulitzer prize excerpt and text search (http://www.amazon.com/dp/0195392434/) Wood, Gordon. Empire of Liberty: A History of the Early Republic, 17891815 (Oxford History of the United States) (2009) excerpt and text search (http://www.amazon.com/dp/0195039149/)

History of the United States (17891849)

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Cultural and intellectual history


Perry, Lewis. Intellectual Life in America Henry Steele Commager, The Empire of Reason: How Europe Imagined and America Realized the Enlightenment

Interpretations of the spirit of the age


Henry Adams: History of the United States During the Administrations of Thomas Jefferson and James Madison v. 1 ch. 15 on America in 1800 C. Edward Skeen, 1816: America Rising. 2004 surveys postwar America & sees a new nation being born Perry Miller. The Life of the Mind in America: From the Revolution to The Civil War (1965) Vernon Parrington, Main Currents in American Thought (1927) online (http://xroads.virginia.edu/~HYPER/ parrington/) (Vol 2: the Romantic Revolution, 18001860) Sellers, Charles. The Market Revolution: Jacksonian America 181546 Smith, Page. The Shaping of America: A People's History of the Young Republic (1980). popular

Studies
Steven Watts. The Republic Reborn: War and the Making of Liberal America, 17901820 (1987) (a richly documented study which offers dozens of case studies and snapshots of life in the early republic) Kastor, Peter J. The Nation's Crucible: The Louisiana Purchase and the Creation of America. 2004. Ratcliffe, D. J.: Party Spirit in a Frontier Republic: Democratic Politics in Ohio, 17931821 (1998) Richard Bushman, Joseph Smith: Rough Stone Rolling. 2005. 'An excellent cultural history of New England and upstate New York, Ohio, Missouri, Illinois, as well as full biography of a most interesting American from 1805 to 1844'

From a legal perspective


Morton J. Horwitz. The Transformation of American Law, 17801860 (1977) (uses the evolution of the law, especially as seen in the decisions of state courts in the north, as a way of measuring intellectual and cultural changes in the whole society) James Willard Hurst, Law and the Conditions of Freedom in the Nineteenth Century United States (University of Wisconsin Press, 1956) Lawrence M. Friedman. A History of American Law, 2d Ed. (1985) G. Edward White (with Gerald Gunther). The Marshall Court and Cultural Change, 18151835 (1990) R. Kent Newmyer, Supreme Court Justice Joseph Story: Statesman of the Old Republic (1985).

Social history
Jack Larkin: The Reshaping of Everyday Life, 1790184 (Harper & Row, 1988) Daniel J. Boorstin, The Americans: The National Experience

External links
Frontier History of the United States (http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Gazetteer/Places/America/ United_States/_Topics/history/_Periods/frontier/home.html) at Thayer's American History site A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns, 1787-1825 (http://dca.tufts.edu/features/aas/index.html)

Freedom's Journal

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Freedom's Journal
Freedom's Journal

Volume 1, no.3, 23 March 1827 Type Format Owner Weekly newspaper Tabloid John Russwurm Samuel Cornish Cornish & Russwurm John B. Russwurm Samuel Cornish 16 March 1827 English

Publisher Editor

Founded Language

Ceased publication 28 March 1829 Headquarters OCLC number New York City 1570144 [1]

Freedom's Journal was the first African American owned and operated newspaper published in the United States. Published weekly in New York City from 16 March 1827 to 28 March 1829, the journal was edited by John Russwurm and co-editor, Samuel Cornish who contributed only through 14 September 1827 issue. Freedom's Journal was superseded by The Rights of All, published between 1829 and 1830 by Cornish. Though they lived different lives and careers, Cornish who was the first to establish an African-American Presbyterian and Russwurm who was a member of the Haytian Emigration Society came together as the original editors of Freedom's Journal. According to African American journalist, Garland Penn, Cornish and Russwurm's objective with Freedom's Journal was to go up against other local newspapers published in New York City that attacked African-Americans and encouraged slavery.[2] For example, Mordecai Noah was an African-American hater who wrote articles that degraded African-Americans; however, Noah was not the only journalist who wrote these kinds of articles and other editors that published newspapers in New York City also wrote articles that mocked blacks and supported slavery.[3] The Abolitionist press focused their attention mainly on paternalism as well as relying on racist stereotypes. They usually portrayed slaves as children who relied heavily on the support of whites in order to survive or as ignorant fools who were happy with their status as slaves and who did not even want freedom. They also depicted African-Americans as inferior beings that threatened the white society and who did not know how to behave properly in society nor how to be good citizens of the United States.[4]

Freedom's Journal The editors Cornish and Russwurn used Freedom's Journal to oppose the other racist newspapers in New York City and in order to publicly protest their current treatment. They believed that these mass accounts inaccurately represented blacks in New York City and that their newspaper would be a response to the mass newspapers in NYC that distorted African-Americans. People were ignorant of the truth and they thought Freedom's Journal might change the perception of Black's in society.[5] Cornish and Russwurm argued in the first issue of the freedom journal that, "Too long have others spoken for us, too long has the public been deceived by misrepresentations." [6] However, Cornish and Russwurm's objective for Freedom's Journal did not only concern racism against African-Americans but also involved the autonomy and identity of African-Americans in society.[7] They wanted to strengthen the bonds in the small African-American communities and wanted African-Americans to be conscious of their position in the white society.[8] "We deem it expedient to establish a paper," they remarked, "and bring into operation all the means with which out benevolent creator has endowed us, for the moral, religious, civil and literary improvement of our race."[9] Freedom's Journal provided international, national, and regional information on current - events and contained editorials declaiming slavery, lynching, and other injustices. The Journal also published biographies of prominent African Americans and listings of births, deaths, and marriages in the African American community in New York. Freedom's Journal circulated in 11 states, the District of Columbia, Haiti, Europe, and Canada. Freedom's Journal had many articles on information such as world wide news, and many job listings, and announcements on housing, weddings, and funerals. This helped blacks become more aware of the world. The newspaper employed subscription agents such as David Walker, who in 1829 published the first of four articles that called for rebellion. The pamphlet "Walker's Appeal" stated, "...it is no more harm for you to kill the man who is trying to kill you than it is for you to take a drink of water..." This statement was widely read, with Walker distributing copies of his pamphlet into the Southern United States, where it was widely banned.

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References
Freedom's Journal in Wisconsin history [10], includes digitized facimilies of all 103 issues.
[1] http:/ / worldcat. org/ oclc/ 1570144 [2] Bacon, Jacqueline. The First African-American Newspaper: Freedom's Journal. Lexington Books, 2007, p. 43-45. [3] Bacon, Jacqueline. The First African-American Newspaper: Freedom's Journal. Lexington Books, 2007, p.38-39. [4] Rhodes, Jane. "The Visibility of Race and Media History." Critical Studies in Mass Communication. Routlegde, 1993, p. 186. [5] Bacon, Jacqueline. The First African-American Newspaper: Freedom's Journal. Lexington Books, 2007, p.41-43s. [6] Rhodes, Jane. "The Visibility of Race and Media History." Critical Studies in Mass Communication. Routlegde, 1993, p. 187. [7] Bacon, Jacqueline. The First African-American Newspaper: Freedom's Journal. Lexington Books, 2007, p.43. [8] Rhodes, Jane. "The Visibility of Race and Media History." Critical Studies in Mass Communication. Routlegde, 1993, p. 187. [9] Bacon, Jacqueline. The First African-American Newspaper: Freedom's Journal. Lexington Books, 2007, p.42. [10] http:/ / www. wisconsinhistory. org/ libraryarchives/ aanp/ freedom/

External links
Freedoms's Journal (http://www.aaregistry.com/detail.php?id=755) at the African American Registry

List of African-American firsts

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List of African-American firsts


African American topics

Category Portal

African Americans are a demographic minority in the United States. The first achievements by African Americans in various fields historically establish a foothold, providing a precedent for more widespread cultural change. The shorthand phrase for this is "breaking the color barrier."[1] [2] One commonly cited example is that of Jackie Robinson, who was the first African American of the modern era to become a Major League Baseball player, ending 60 years of segregated leagues. Segregated Negro Leagues had been established for decades, featuring many talented athletes.[3]
18th century 19th century: 1820s 1830s 1840s 1850s 1860s 1870s 1880s 1890s 20th century: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s 21st century: 2000s 2010s See also References

18th century
1760 First known African-American published author: Jupiter Hammon (poem "An Evening Thought: Salvation by Christ with Penitential Cries", published as a broadside) 1770 First person shot to death during the Boston Massacre: Crispus Attucks, called the first martyr of the revolution. 1773 First known African-American woman to publish a book: Phillis Wheatley (Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral) First separate African American church: Silver Bluff Baptist Church, Aiken County, South Carolina[4]
[5]

1774 First African-American Baptist congregation: First Baptist Church, Petersburg, Virginia 1777 First known African-American church congregation: First Colored Baptist Church, renamed First African Baptist Church, Savannah, Georgia. This claim is contested by the First Baptist Church, Petersburg, Virginia (1774) and historians of the Silver Bluff Baptist Church (17731775) of Aiken County, South Carolina[4] 1778

List of African-American firsts First African-American U.S. military regiment: the 1st Rhode Island Regiment 1780s Jean Baptiste Point du Sable, popularly known as "The Father of Chicago", was the first known settler in the area which is now Chicago, Illinois. 1783 First African American to formally practice medicine in the U.S.: James Derham, who did not hold an M.D. degree (See also: 1847) 1792 First major African-American Back-to-Africa movement: 1,200 slaves who escaped to settle in Settler Town, Sierra Leone 1793 First African Methodist Episcopal Church established: Richard Allen founded Mother Bethel A.M.E. Church, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 1794 First African Episcopal Church established: Absalom Jones founded African Episcopal Church of St. Thomas, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

108

19th century
1800s
1804 First African American ordained as an Episcopal priest in the United States: Absalom Jones in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 1807 First African Presbyterian Church opened in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

1810s
1816 First fully independent African-American denomination established: Richard Allen founded the African Methodist Episcopal Church (AME) in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and was elected bishop. Several black congregations withdrew from the Methodist Episcopal Church and created their own denomination.

1820s
1821 First African American to hold a patent: Thomas L. Jennings, for a dry-cleaning process 1823 First African American to receive a degree from an American college: Alexander Twilight, Middlebury College (See also: 1836) 1827 First African-American owned-and-operated newspaper: Freedom's Journal

List of African-American firsts

109

1830s
1836 First African American elected to public office and to serve in a state legislature: Alexander Twilight, Vermont (See also: 1823) 1837 First African-American doctor: Dr. James McCune Smith from the University of Glasgow, Scotland (See also: 1783, 1847)

1840s
1845 First African American licensed to practice law in the United States: Macon Allen from the Boston bar
[6]

1847 First African American to graduate from a U.S. medical school: Dr. David J. Peck[7] (Rush Medical College) (See also: 1783, 1837) First independent African-American nation and first African-American president of any nation: Joseph Jenkins Roberts, Liberia 1849 First African-American college professor: Charles L. Reason, New York Central College

1850s
1851 First African-American member of the Society of Jesus (Jesuits), Patrick Francis Healy. (See also 1866, 1874) 1853 First novel written by an African American: Clotel; or, The President's Daughter, by William Wells Brown.[8] [9] [10] 1854 First African-American Roman Catholic priest: James Augustine Healy. (see 1875 and 1886) First institute of higher learning created to educate African Americans: Ashmun Institute in Pennsylvania, renamed Lincoln University in 1866. 1856 First African-American college president: Bishop Daniel Payne, Wilberforce College 1858 First published play by an African American: The Escape; or, A Leap for Freedom by William Wells Brown First African-American female college professor: Sarah Jane Woodson Early, Wilberforce College

List of African-American firsts

110

1860s
1861 First North American military unit with African-American officers: 1st Louisiana Native Guard of the Confederate Army First African-American U.S. federal government civil servant: William Cooper Nell 1862 First African-American woman to earn a B.A.: Mary Jane Patterson, Oberlin College[11] First recognized U.S. Army African American combat unit, the 1st South Carolina Volunteers 1863 First college owned and operated by African Americans: Wilberforce College, Ohio (The college was founded earlier, but not owned by the AME Church until 1863) 1865 First African-American field officer in the U.S. Army: Martin Delany First African-American attorney admitted to the bar of the U.S. Supreme Court: John Swett Rock 1866 First African-American to earn a Ph.D.: Father Patrick Francis Healy, S.J. (from University of Louvain, Belgium). (see also 1851, 1874) First African-American woman enlistee in the U.S. Army: Cathay Williams 1868 First elected African-American Lieutenant Governor: Oscar Dunn (Louisiana). (See also: 1871, May) First African-American mayor: Pierre Caliste Landry, Donaldsonville, Louisiana[12] 1869 First African-American U.S. diplomat: Ebenezer Don Carlos Bassett, minister to Haiti First African-American woman school principal: Fanny Jackson Coppin (Institute for Colored Youth)

1870s
1870 First African American to vote in an election under the 15th Amendment to the United States Constitution, granting voting rights regardless of race: Thomas Mundy Peterson[13] First African American to graduate from Harvard College: Richard Theodore Greener January: First African American elected to either chamber of the U.S. Congress: Senator Hiram Rhodes Revels (R-Miss.)[14] May: First African-American acting governor: Oscar James Dunn of Louisiana from May till August 9, 1871, when sitting Governor Warmoth was incapacitated and chose to recuperate in Mississippi. (See also: Douglas Wilder, 1990) December: First African American elected to U.S. House of Representatives: Joseph Rainey (R-S.C.)[15] 1872 First African-American governor (non-elected): P. B. S. Pinchback of Louisiana (See also: Douglas Wilder, 1990) First African-American nominee for Vice President of the United States: Frederick Douglass by the Equal Rights Party.[16]

List of African-American firsts 1874 First African-American president of a major college/university: Father Patrick Francis Healy, S.J. of Georgetown College. (See also: 1851, 1866) 1875 First African-American Roman Catholic bishop: Bishop James Augustine Healy, of Portland, Maine. (See also: 1854) 1876 First African American to earn a doctorate degree from an American university: Edward Alexander Bouchet (Yale College Ph.D., physics; also first African American to graduate from Yale, 1874) (See also: 1866) 1877 First African-American graduate of West Point and first African-American commissioned officer in the U.S. military: Henry Ossian Flipper. 1879 First African American to graduate from a formal nursing school: Mary Eliza Mahoney, Boston, Massachusetts

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1880s
1880 First African American to command a U.S. ship: Captain Michael Healy. 1881 First African American whose signature appeared on U.S. paper currency: Blanche K. Bruce, Registrar of the Treasury. 1883 First known African-American woman to graduate from one of the Seven Sisters college: Hortense Parker (Mount Holyoke College) 1884 First African American to play professional baseball at the major-league level: Moses Fleetwood Walker. (See also: Jackie Robinson, 1947) 1885 First African-American woman to hold a patent: Sarah E. Goode, for the cabinet bed, Chicago, Illinois 1886 First African-American Roman Catholic priest publicly known at the time to be African-American: Augustine Tolton, Quincy and Chicago, Illinois (See also: 1854)

List of African-American firsts

112

1890s
1891 First African-American police officer in present-day New York City: Wiley Overton, hired by the Brooklyn Police Department prior to 1898 incorporation of the five boroughs into the City of New York.[17] (See also: Samuel J. Battle, 1911) 1892 First African American to sing at Carnegie Hall: Matilda Sissieretta Joyner Jones First African American named to a College Football All-America Team: William H. Lewis, Harvard University 1895 First African American to earn a doctorate degree (Ph.D.) from Harvard University: W.E.B. Du Bois First African-American woman to work for the United States Postal Service: Mary Fields 1896 First African American appointed to serve as U.S. Army Paymaster: Richard R. Wright

20th century
1900s
1901 First African American invited to dine at the White House: Booker T. Washington 1902 First African-American professional basketball player: Harry Lew (New England Professional Basketball League) (See also: 1950) 1903 First Broadway musical written by African Americans, and the first to star African Americans: In Dahomey First African-American woman to found and become president of a bank: Maggie L. Walker, St. Luke Penny Savings Bank (since 1930 the Consolidated Bank & Trust Company), Richmond, Virginia 1904 First Greek-letter fraternal organization established by African Americans: Sigma Pi Phi First African American to participate in the Olympic Games, and first to win a medal: George Poage (two bronze medals) 1906 First intercollegiate Greek-letter organization established by African Americans: Alpha Phi Alpha (), at Cornell University 1907 First African-American Greek Orthodox priest and missionary in America: Very Rev. Fr. Raphael Morgan (Robert Josias Morgan) 1908 First African-American heavyweight boxing champion: Jack Johnson First African-American Olympic gold medal winner: John Taylor (Track and field medley relay team). (See also: DeHart Hubbard, 1924)

List of African-American firsts First intercollegiate Greek-letter sorority established by African Americans: Alpha Kappa Alpha (K) 1909 First African-American scholar to address the American Historical Association: W.E.B. Du Bois

113

1910s
1910 First African-American millionaire: Madam C. J. Walker 1911 First intercollegiate Greek-letter society established by African Americans at a historically black college: Omega Psi Phi (), at Howard University First African-American police officer in New York City: Samuel J. Battle, following the 1898 incorporation of the five boroughs into the City of New York, and the hiring of three African-American officers in the Brooklyn Police Department. Battle was also the NYPD's first African-American sergeant (1926), lieutenant (1935), and parole commissioner (1941).[17] (See also: Wiley Overton, 1891) 1915 First African-American alderman of Chicago: Oscar Stanton De Priest 1916 First African-American football player to play in a Rose Bowl game: Fritz Pollard, Brown University First African-American serviceman to become a colonel in the United States Army: Charles Young First African-American woman to be a police officer in Los Angeles, seven years after the LAPD hired the first woman officer in the country: Georgia Robinson[18] [19] 1917 First African-American police officer killed in the line of duty: NYPD officer Robert H. Holmes First African-American woman to win a major sports title: Lucy Diggs Slowe, American Tennis Association

1920s
1920 First African-American NFL football players: Fritz Pollard (Akron Pros) and Bobby Marshall (Rock Island Independents) First African-American bishops of the Methodist Episcopal Church: Robert Elijah Jones and Matthew Wesley Clair. 1921 First African-American woman to become a pilot, first American to hold an international pilot license: Bessie Coleman First African-American NFL football coach: Fritz Pollard, co-head coach, Akron Pros, while continuing to play running back First African-American woman to earn a Ph.D. in the U.S.: Sadie Tanner Mossell, Ph.D. in Economics from the University of Pennsylvania 1924 First African American to win individual Olympic gold medal: DeHart Hubbard (Long jump, 1924 Summer Olympics). (See also: John Taylor, 1908)

List of African-American firsts 1925 First African-American Foreign Service Officer: Clifton R. Wharton, Sr. 1926 First African-American woman to receive a degree (Ph.D.) from Yale University: Otelia Cromwell, who had previously been the first African-American graduate of Smith College. 1927 First African American to star in an international motion picture: Josephine Baker in La Sirne des tropiques.[20] 1928 First post-Reconstruction African American elected to U.S. House of Representatives: Oscar Stanton De Priest (Republican; Illinois) 1929 First African-American sportscaster: Sherman "Jocko" Maxwell (WNJR, Newark, New Jersey)[12]

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1930s
1931 First African-American composer to have symphony performed by leading orchestra: William Grant Still, Symphony No. 1, by Rochester Philharmonic Orchestra 1932 First African American on a presidential ticket in the 20th century: James W. Ford (Communist Party USA, as vice-presidential candidate running with William Z. Foster) 1934 First African American elected to the U.S. House of Representatives as a Democrat: Arthur W. Mitchell (Illinois) First trade union set up for African-American domestic workers by Dora Lee Jones 1935 First known interracial jazz group: Benny Goodman Trio (Benny Goodman, Teddy Wilson, Gene Krupa)[21] 1936 First African American to conduct a major U.S. orchestra: William Grant Still (Los Angeles Philharmonic) 1937 First African-American federal magistrate: William H. Hastie (later the first African-American governor of the United States Virgin Islands) 1938 First African-American female federal agency head: Mary McLeod Bethune (National Youth Administration)

List of African-American firsts

115

1940s
1940 First African American to win an Academy Award: Hattie McDaniel (Best Supporting Actress, Gone with the Wind, 1939) First African American to be portrayed on a U.S. postage stamp: Booker T. Washington First African-American U.S. Army brigadier general: Benjamin O. Davis, Sr. 1941 First African American to give a White House Command Performance: Josh White 1942 First African American to be awarded the Navy Cross: Doris Miller First African-American member of the U.S. Marine Corps: Alfred Masters[22] 1943 First African-American artists to have a #1 hit on the Billboard charts: Mills Brothers ("Paper Doll"), topped "Best Sellers in Stores" chart on November 6 (See also: Tommy Edwards, 1958; The Platters, 1959) 1944 First African-American commissioned officers in the U.S. Navy: The "Golden Thirteen" First African American commissioned as a U.S. Navy officer from the Naval Reserve Officer Training Corps: Samuel Gravely. Gravely was also the first African American to command a U.S. Navy warship (1962), and the first promoted to the rank of admiral (1971). First African American to co-pastor with a white minister at the first interracial church: Dr. Howard Thurman with Dr. Alfred Fisk, Church for the Fellowship of All Peoples, San Francisco First African American to receive a contract with a major American opera company: Camilla Williams 1945 First African-American member of the New York City Opera: Todd Duncan First African-American U.S. Marine Corps officer: Frederick C. Branch 1947 First African-American Major League Baseball player of the modern era: Jackie Robinson (Brooklyn Dodgers). (See also: Moses Fleetwood Walker, 1884) First African-American consensus college All-American basketball player: Don Barksdale First African-American artist to receive sole credit for a #1 hit on the Billboard charts: Count Basie ("Open the Door, Richard"), topped "Best Sellers in Stores" chart on February 22 (See also: Mills Brothers, 1943; Nat King Cole, 1950; Tommy Edwards, 1958; The Platters, 1959) First African-American full-time faculty member at a predominantly white law school: William Robert Ming (University of Chicago Law School) 1948 First African-American man to receive an Academy Award: James Baskett (Honorary Academy Award for his portrayal of "Uncle Remus" in Song of the South, 1946) (See also: Sidney Poitier, 1964) First African-American U.S. Navy aviator: Jesse L. Brown First African-American composer to have an opera performed by a major U.S. company: William Grant Still (Troubled Island, New York City Opera)

List of African-American firsts First African-American woman to win an Olympic gold medal: Alice Coachman First African American on an Olympic basketball team and first African American Olympic gold medal basketball winner: Don Barksdale, in the 1948 Summer Olympics First African American to design and construct a professional golf course: Bill Powell First African American since Reconstruction to enroll at a traditionally white university of the South: Silas Hunt (University of Arkansas Law School)[23] [24] 1949 First African-American graduate of the U.S. Naval Academy: Wesley Brown First African American to hold rank of Ambassador of the United States: Edward R. Dudley, ambassador, and previously minister, to Liberia (See also: 1869) First African American to have opera performed by major company: William Grant Still, Troubled Island, New York City Opera First African American to win an MVP award in Major League Baseball: Jackie Robinson (Brooklyn Dodgers, National League) (See also: Elston Howard, 1963)

116

1950s
1950 First African American to win Pulitzer Prize: Gwendolyn Brooks (Book of poetry, Annie Allen, 1949) First African American to win Nobel Peace Prize: Ralph Bunche First individual African American as subject on the cover of Life magazine: Jackie Robinson, May 8, 1950 First African-American NBA basketball players: Earl Lloyd (Washington Capitols), Chuck Cooper (Boston Celtics), and Nat "Sweetwater" Clifton (New York Knicks)[25] (See also: 1902) First African-American star of a network television sitcom: Ethel Waters, Beulah First African-American woman to compete on the world tennis tour: Althea Gibson First African-American solo singer to have a #1 hit on the Billboard charts: Nat King Cole ("Mona Lisa"), topped "Best Sellers in Stores" chart on July 15 (See also: Mills Brothers, 1943; Count Basie, 1947; Tommy Edwards, 1958; The Platters, 1959) First African American nominated for a Golden Globe Award: Juano Hernndez (Most Promising Newcomer Male, Intruder in the Dust) 1951 First African American named to the College Football Hall of Fame: Duke Slater, University of Iowa (19181921) 1952 First African-American woman elected to a United States state senate: Cora Brown, Democrat (Michigan) First African-American U.S. Marine Corps aviator: Frank E. Petersen First African-American woman to be nominated for a national political office: Charlotta Bass, Vice President (Progressive Party) (See also: 2000) 1953 First African-American basketball player to play in the NBA All-Star Game: Don Barksdale in the 1953 NBA All-Star Game

List of African-American firsts First African American named as Dean of chapel at a majority white university: Howard Thurman at Marsh Chapel, Boston University First African-American woman to be made a member of ASCAP: Jessie Mae Robinson First African-American quarterback to play in the National Football League during the modern (post-World War II) era: Willie Thrower (Chicago Bears)[26] 1954 First African-American U.S. Navy Diver: Carl Brashear First African-American woman to be nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actress: Dorothy Dandridge (Carmen Jones, 1954). (At that time, nominations were announced in November of the year of release, instead of early the following year.) First individual African-American woman as subject on the cover of Life magazine: Dorothy Dandridge, November 1, 1954 First African-American page for the U.S. Supreme Court, and first to be enrolled in the Capitol Page School: Charles V. Bush 1955 First African-American member of the Metropolitan Opera: Marian Anderson First African-American male dancer in a major ballet company: Arthur Mitchell (New York City Ballet; also first African-American principal dancer of a major ballet company (NYCB), 1956.[27] (See also: 1969) First African-American singer to appear in a telecast opera: Leontyne Price in NBC's production of Tosca 1956 First African-American U.S. Secret Service agent: Charles Gittens[28] [29] First African-American male star of a network television show: Nat King Cole, The Nat King Cole Show First African American to break the color barrier in a bowl game in the Deep South: Bobby Grier, (Pittsburgh Panthers in the 1956 Sugar Bowl)[30] First African American Wimbledon tennis champion: Althea Gibson (doubles, with Englishwoman Angela Buxton); also first African American to win a Grand Slam event (French Open). (See also: Arthur Ashe, 1968; Serena Williams, 2003) First African American to win the Cy Young Award as the top pitcher in Major League Baseball, in the award's inaugural year: Don Newcombe (Brooklyn Dodgers) 1957 First African American assistant coach in the NFL: Lowell W. Perry (See also: 1966) First African American to win the Best Actor Award at the Cannes Film Festival: John Kitzmiller (Dolina Miru) First African American to win Major League Baseball's Gold Glove, in the award's inaugural year: Willie Mays (New York Giants)[31] 1958 First African American to reach #1 on the Billboard Hot 100: Tommy Edwards ("It's All in the Game"), September 29 (See also: The Platters, 1959) First African American flight attendant: Ruth Carol Taylor (Mohawk Airlines)[32] 1959

117

List of African-American firsts First African-American Grammy Award winners, in the award's inaugural year: Ella Fitzgerald and Count Basie (two awards each)[33] First African American television journalist: Louis Lomax First African American group to reach #1 on the Billboard Hot 100: The Platters ("Smoke Gets in Your Eyes"), January 19 (See also: Tommy Edwards, 1958) First African American to win a major national player of the year award in college basketball: Oscar Robertson, USBWA Player of the Year[34] (in that award's inaugural year)

118

1960s
1960 First African-American U.S. presidential candidate: Rev. Clennon King, on the Independent Afro-American party 1961 First African American to win the Heisman Trophy: Ernie Davis 1962 First African American to be inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame: Jackie Robinson (See also: Satchel Paige, 1971) First African-American coach in Major League Baseball: John Jordan "Buck" O'Neil (Chicago Cubs) First African-American male professional wrestler to win a world heavyweight championship: Bobo Brazil (NWA) First African-American composer nominated for an Academy Award: Duke Ellington (Best Music, Scoring of a Motion Picture, Paris Blues) First African-American attorney general of a state: Edward Brooke (Massachusetts) (See also: 1966) 1963 First African-American bank examiner for the United States Department of the Treasury: Roland Burris First African American named as Time magazine's Man of the Year: Martin Luther King, Jr.[35] First African-American police officer of the NYPD to be named a precinct commander: Lloyd Sealy, commander of the NYPD's 28th precinct in Harlem.[36] First African American to be named American League MVP: Elston Howard (New York Yankees) (See also: Jackie Robinson, 1949) First African-American chess master: Walter Harris[37] [38] First African American to appear as a series regular on a prime time dramatic television series: Cicely Tyson, "East Side/West Side" (CBS). First African Americans inducted to the Basketball Hall of Fame: New York Renaissance, inducted as a team. (See also: Bob Douglas, 1972; Bill Russell, 1975; Clarence Gaines, 1982) First African American to graduate from the U.S. Air Force Academy: Charles V. Bush. First African American to win a top-level NASCAR race: Wendell Scott at Speedway Park, Jacksonville, Florida 1964 First movie with African-American interracial marriage: One Potato, Two Potato,[39] actors Bernie Hamilton and Barbara Barrie, written by Orville H. Hampton, Raphael Hayes, directed by Larry Peerce

List of African-American firsts First African-American man to win the Academy Award for Best Actor: Sidney Poitier (Lilies of the Field, 1963) (See also: James Baskett, 1948) 1965 First African-American airline pilot hired by a major U.S. passenger airline: Marlon Green First African-American nationally syndicated cartoonist: Morrie Turner (Wee Pals) First African-American title character of a comic book series: Lobo (Dell Comics).[40] (See also: The Falcon, 1969, and Luke Cage, 1972) First African-American star of a network television drama: Bill Cosby, I Spy (co-star with Robert Culp) First African-American cast member of a daytime soap opera: Micki Grant who played Peggy Nolan Harris on Another World until 1972. First African-American Playboy Playmate centerfold: Jennifer Jackson (March issue) First African-American U.S. Air Force general: Benjamin Oliver Davis, Jr. (three-star lieutenant general) First African-American female Ambassador of the United States: Patricia Roberts Harris, ambassador to Luxembourg First African-American NFL official: Burl Toler, field judge/head linesman First African-American to win a national chess championship: Frank Street, Jr. (U.S. Amateur Championship)[41] First African-American United States Solicitor General: Thurgood Marshall (See also: 1967) 1966 First African-American coach in the National Basketball Association: Bill Russell (Boston Celtics) First African-American mayor of a U.S. city: Robert C. Henry, (Springfield, Ohio, appointed by city commission) First African-American model on the cover of a Vogue (British Vogue) magazine: Donyale Luna First post-Reconstruction African American elected to the U.S. Senate (and first African American elected to the U.S. Senate by popular vote): Edward Brooke (Republican; Massachusetts) (See also: 1962) First African American Cabinet secretary: Robert C. Weaver (Department of Housing and Urban Development) First African-American Major League Baseball umpire: Emmett Ashford First African-American NFL broadcaster: Lowell W. Perry (CBS, on Pittsburgh Steelers games) (See also: 1957) First African-American fire commissioner of a major U.S. City: Robert O. Lowery of the New York City Fire Department First African American elected to president, American Psychological Association: Kenneth Bancroft Clark 1967 First African American elected mayor of a large U.S. city: Carl B. Stokes (Cleveland, Ohio) First African American appointed to the Supreme Court of the United States: Thurgood Marshall (See also: 1965) First African American selected for astronaut training: Robert Henry Lawrence, Jr.

119

List of African-American firsts First African American to win a PGA Tour event: Charlie Sifford (1967 Greater Hartford Open Invitational) First African American to be inducted into the Pro Football Hall of Fame: Emlen Tunnell First African-American interracial kiss on network television: entertainers Nancy Sinatra (Caucasian) and Sammy Davis, Jr. (African American) on Sinatra's variety special Movin' With Nancy, airing December 11 on NBC[42] (See also: 1968) 1968 First African-American interracial kiss on a network television drama: Uhura, played by Nichelle Nichols (African American), and Captain Kirk, played by William Shatner (white Canadian): Star Trek: "Plato's Stepchildren" (See also: 1967) First African-American woman elected to U.S. House of Representatives: Shirley Chisholm (Democrat; New York) First African-American appointed as a United States Assistant Secretary of State: Barbara M. Watson First African-American man to win a Grand Slam tennis event: Arthur Ashe (US Open) (See also: Althea Gibson, 1956; Serena Williams, 2003) First African American to start at quarterback in the modern era of professional football: Marlin Briscoe (Denver Broncos, AFL) First African-American commissioned officer awarded the Medal of Honor: Riley L. Pitts First fine-arts museum devoted to African-American work: Studio Museum in Harlem First African-American woman as Presidential candidate: Charlene Mitchell (See also: Shirley Chisholm, 1972) First African-American woman reporter for the New York Times: Nancy Hicks Maynard First African-American coach to win NBA Championship: Bill Russell 1969 First African-American superhero: The Falcon, Marvel Comics' Captain America #117 (Sept. 1969).[40] (See also: Lobo, 1965 and Luke Cage, 1972) First African-American graduate of Harvard Business School: Lillian Lincoln First African-American director of a major Hollywood motion picture: Gordon Parks (The Learning Tree) First African-American founder of a classical training school and company of ballet: Arthur Mitchell, Dance Theatre of Harlem (See also: 1955) First African-American woman to appear on the Grand Ole Opry: Linda Martell

120

1970s
1970 First African-American U.S. Navy Master Diver: Carl Brashear First African-American member of the New York Stock Exchange: Joseph L. Searles III [43] First African-American basketball player to win the NBA All Star MVP, the NBA Finals MVP, & the NBA MVP all in the same season: Willis Reed (New York Knicks) First African-American NCAA Division I basketball coach:Will Robinson (Illinois State University) 1971 First African-American owners of a radio station: Hal Jackson and Percy Sutton, WLIB-New York

List of African-American firsts First African-American pitcher to be inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame: Satchel Paige (See also: Jackie Robinson, 1962) First African-American president of the New York City Board of Education: Isaiah Edward Robinson, Jr. First African American to win an Academy Award in a non-acting category, winning Academy Award for Best Original Song: Isaac Hayes 1972 First African American to campaign for the U.S. presidency in a major political party and to win a U.S. presidential primary/caucus: Shirley Chisholm (Democratic Party, New Jersey primary) (See also: 1968) First African-American superhero to star in own comic-book series: Luke Cage, Marvel Comics' Luke Cage, Hero for Hire #1 (June 1972).[40] (See also: Lobo, 1965, and the Falcon, 1969) First African-American general manager in the National Basketball Association: Wayne Embry First African-American interracial kiss in a mainstream comics magazine: "The Men Who Called Him Monster", by writer Don McGregor (See also: 1975) and artist Luis Garcia, in Warren Publishing's black-and-white horror-comics magazine Creepy #43 (Jan. 1972) First African-American interracial male kiss on network television: Sammy Davis, Jr. (African American) and Carroll O'Connor (Caucasian) in All in the Family[44] First African-American individual inducted to the Basketball Hall of Fame: Bob Douglas, inducted as a contributor. (See also: New York Renaissance, 1963; Bill Russell, 1975; Clarence Gaines, 1982) First African-American woman Broadway director: Vinnette Justine Carroll (Don't Bother Me, I Can't Cope) First African-American comic-book creator to receive a "created by" cover-credit: Wayne Howard (Midnight Tales #1) 1973 First African American to hold the plant manager position at a U.S. automobile company: Lowell W. Perry First African American elected mayor of Los Angeles, California: Tom Bradley First African-American Bond Girl in a James Bond movie: Gloria Hendry (playing Rosie Carver), Live and Let Die. First African-American Bond villain: Yaphet Kotto, playing Mr. Big/Dr. Kananga, Live and Let Die. First African-American woman mayor of a U.S. metropolitan city: Doris A. Davis, Compton, California First African-American artistic director of a professional regional theater: Harold Scott (Cincinnati Playhouse in the Park) 1974 First African-American model on the cover of American Vogue magazine: Beverly Johnson 1975 First African American elected mayor, and first mayor, of Washington, D.C.: Walter Washington First African-American manager in Major League Baseball: Frank Robinson (Cleveland Indians) First African-American four-star general: Daniel James, Jr. First African-American women named as Time magazine's, Person of the Year: Barbara Jordan and Addie L. Wyatt [45]

121

List of African-American firsts First TV-series cast with African-American interracial couple: The Jeffersons, actors Franklin Cover (Caucasian) and Roxie Roker (African American) as Tom & Helen Willis; series creator: Norman Lear First African-American model on the cover of ELLE magazine: Beverly Johnson First African American to win Super Bowl MVP in NFL: Franco Harris (Pittsburgh Steelers). Of mixed heritage, Harris was also first Italian American to win the award. First African-American game show host: Adam Wade (CBS' Musical Chairs) First African-American interracial kiss in a color comic book: Amazing Adventures #31 (July 1975), feature "Killraven: Warrior of the Worlds", characters M'Shulla Scott and Carmilla Frost, by writer Don McGregor (See also: 1972) and artist P. Craig Russell First African American inducted to the Basketball Hall of Fame as a player: Bill Russell (See also: New York Renaissance, 1963; Bob Douglas, 1972; Clarence Gaines, 1982) First African American to play in a men's major golf championship: Lee Elder (The Masters) 1976 First African-American woman elected officer of international labor union: Addie L. Wyatt 1977 First African American, and first woman, appointed director of the Peace Corps: Carolyn R. Payton First African-American woman in the U.S. Cabinet: Patricia Roberts Harris, Secretary of Housing and Urban Development First African-American woman whose signature appeared on U.S. currency: Azie Taylor Morton, the 36th Treasurer of the United States First African-American publisher of mainstream gay publication: Alan Bell (Gaysweek)[46] [47] First African-American woman to join the Daughters of the American Revolution: Karen Batchelor[48] 1978 First African-American broadcast network news anchor: Max Robinson 1979 First African American and first person to win the Emmy Award Best Supporting Actress in a Miniseries: Esther Rolle First African-American U.S. Marine Corps general officer: Frank E. Petersen First African-American man to win Daytime Emmy Award for lead actor in a soap opera: Al Freeman, Jr. (Ed Hall in One Life to Live) First African-American head football coach in Division I-A: Willie Jeffries

122

1980s
1980 First African-American television channel Black Entertainment Television 1981 First African American to play in the NHL: Val James (Buffalo Sabres)[49] 1982 First African-American male to win the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor: Louis Gossett, Jr. First African American to receive the Pulitzer Prize for Drama: Charles Fuller for A Soldier's Play

List of African-American firsts First African American inducted to the Basketball Hall of Fame as a coach: Clarence Gaines (See also: New York Renaissance, 1963; Bob Douglas, 1972; Bill Russell, 1975) First African-American U.S. Army four-star General: Roscoe Robinson, Jr. 1983 First African-American astronaut: Guion Stewart "Guy" Bluford, Jr. (Challenger mission STS-8).[50] First African-American mayor of Chicago: Harold Washington First African-American Miss America: Vanessa L. Williams First African-American owners of a major metropolitan newspaper: Robert C. and Nancy Hicks Maynard, (Oakland Tribune) First African-American WWE Tag Team Champion: Tony Atlas (Partnered with Rocky Johnson, a Black Nova Scotian) (See also: Doom, 1990; Men on a Mission, 1994) 1984 First African American to win a delegate-awarding U.S. presidential primary/caucus: Jesse Jackson (Louisiana, the District of Columbia, South Carolina, Virginia and one of two separate Mississippi contests). First African-American coach to win the NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Championship: John Thompson (Georgetown) First African-American New York City Police Commissioner: Benjamin Ward 1985 First African American to become a member of the U.S. Navy's Blue Angels precision flying team: Donnie Cochran. Also first African American to command the team (1994). 1986 First African-American Formula One racecar driver: Willy T. Ribbs[51] (See also: Ribbs, 1991) First African-American musicians inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, in the inaugural class: Chuck Berry, James Brown, Ray Charles, Sam Cooke, Fats Domino, and Little Richard First African-American to die in spaceflight: Ronald McNair First African-American wrestling manager: Slick 1987 First African-American woman, and first woman, inducted into the Rock & Roll Hall of Fame: Aretha Franklin 1988 First African-American woman elected to a U.S. judgeship, and first appointed to a state supreme court: Juanita Kidd Stout First African-American candidate for President of the United States to obtain ballot access in all 50 states: Lenora Fulani First African American to win a medal at the Winter Olympics (a bronze in figure skating): Debi Thomas First African-American quarterback to start (and win) in the Super Bowl: Doug Williams First African-American NFL referee: Johnny Grier 1989 First African-American NFL coach of the modern era: Art Shell, Los Angeles Raiders

123

List of African-American firsts First African-American mayor of New York City: David Dinkins First African-American Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff: Colin Powell First African American, and first woman, ordained bishop in the Episcopal Church: Barbara Clementine Harris First African-American Chairman of the Democratic National Committee: Ron Brown

124

1990s
1990 First elected African-American governor: Douglas Wilder (Democrat; Virginia) (See also: Oscar Dunn, 1871; P. B. S. Pinchback, 1872) First African American elected president of the Harvard Law Review: Barack Obama[52] (See also: 2008, 2009) First African-American Miss USA: Carole Gist First African-American Playboy Playmate of the Year: Renee Tenison First all African-American band to win the Grammy Award for Best Hard Rock Performance: Living Colour for "Cult of Personality" First African American tag team to win the WCW World Tag Team Championship: Doom (Butch Reed and Ron Simmons) (See also: Tony Atlas, 1983; Men on a Mission, 1994) 1991 First African American nominated for a Best Director Academy Award. John Singleton for Boyz n the Hood First African American to qualify for the Indianapolis 500 auto race: Willy T. Ribbs (See also: Ribbs, 1986) First African-American woman mayor of Washington, D.C.: Sharon Pratt Kelly First African-American NBA Coach of the Year: Don Chaney (Houston Rockets) 1992 First African-American WCW World Heavyweight Champion: Ron Simmons First African-American woman astronaut: Dr. Mae Jemison (Space Shuttle Endeavour) First African-American woman elected to U.S. Senate: Carol Moseley Braun (Democrat; Illinois) First African American to manage a Major League Baseball team to a World Series Championship: Cito Gaston (Toronto Blue Jays) First African-American woman to moderate a Presidential debate : Carole Simpson (second debate of 1992 campaign) 1993 First African-American woman appointed U.S. Secretary of Energy: Hazel R. O'Leary First African American to win the Nobel Prize for Literature: Toni Morrison First African-American woman named Poet Laureate of the United States: Rita Dove, also the youngest person named to that position First African American appointed Surgeon General of the United States: Joycelyn Elders First African American appointed Director of the National Drug Control Policy: Lee P. Brown First African-American United States Secretary of Commerce: Ron Brown

List of African-American firsts 1994 First African-American woman director of a major-studio movie: Darnell Martin (Columbia Pictures' I Like It Like That) First African American to win the United States Amateur Championship: Tiger Woods[53] First tag team made up of two African Americans to win the WWE Tag Team Championship: Men on a Mission (Nelson Frazier, Jr., aka Mabel, and Robert Horne, aka Mo) (See also: Tony Atlas, 1983; Doom, 1990) 1995 First African-American inductee to the Radio Hall of Fame: Hal Jackson First African-American Sergeant Major of the Army: Gene C. McKinney 1996 First African-American mayor of San Francisco: Willie Lewis Brown, Jr. (also first African-American Speaker of the California Assembly, 1980) First African-American U.S. Navy four-star admiral: J. Paul Reason[54] First African-American MLB general manager to win the World Series: Bob Watson (New York Yankees), 1996 World Series 1997 First African American to win a men's major golf championship: Tiger Woods (The Masters)[53] First African-American model to appear on the cover of Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Edition: Tyra Banks First African-American actor to star in the lead role in a comic-book adaptation movie (Spawn): Michael Jai White First African-American Director of the National Park Service: Robert Stanton[55] 1998 First African American appointed U.S. Secretary of Labor: Alexis Herman First African-American woman to hold the rank of rear admiral in the U.S. Navy: Lillian Fishburne First African-American Master Chief Petty Officer of the Coast Guard: Vincent W. Patton III First African-American mayor of Houston: Lee P. Brown First African American to play in the Presidents Cup: Tiger Woods[53] First African American to win the WWE Championship: Dwayne "The Rock" Johnson First African American to win the WWE Women's Championship: Jacqueline Moore 1999 First African American to be awarded the International Grandmaster title in chess: Maurice Ashley First African American Sergeant Major of the Marine Corps: Alford L. McMichael First African-American CEO of a Fortune 500 company: Franklin Raines of Fannie Mae[56] 2000 First African American nominated for Vice President of the United States by a Federal Election Commission-recognized and federally funded political party: Ezola B. Foster (See also: 1952; FEC established 1975)

125

List of African-American firsts

126

21st century
2000s
2001 First African-American Secretary of State: Colin Powell First African-American president of the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops: Wilton Daniel Gregory First African-American president of the Unitarian Universalist Association: Rev. William G. Sinkford First African-American president of an Ivy League university: Ruth J. Simmons at Brown University, also the first permanent female president of Brown. First African-American woman to win the ASCAP Pop Music Songwriter of the Year award: Beyonc Knowles First African-American woman to be appointed National Security Advisor: Condoleezza Rice (See also: 2005) First African-American billionaire: Robert L. Johnson, founder of Black Entertainment Television First African-American female billionaire: Sheila Johnson 2002 First African-American woman to win the Academy Award for Best Actress: Halle Berry (Monster's Ball, 2001) First African-American Winter Olympic gold medal winner: Vonetta Flowers (two-woman bobsleigh). (See also: Shani Davis, 2006) First African-American female combat pilot in the U.S. Armed Services: Captain Vernice Armour, USMC First African American to hold the #1 rank in tennis: Venus Williams, February 25, 2002. First African American to hold the year-end #1 rank in tennis: Serena Williams First African American to be named year-end world champion by the International Tennis Federation: Serena Williams First African-American Arena Football League head coach to win ArenaBowl: Darren Arbet (San Jose SaberCats), ArenaBowl XVI First African-American general manager in the National Football League: Ozzie Newsome (Baltimore Ravens) 2003 First African American to win a Career Grand Slam in tennis: Serena Williams (See also: Althea Gibson, 1956; Arthur Ashe, 1968) 2004 First African American General Manager for World Wrestling Entertainment: Theodore Long First African American to win Broadway theater's Tony Award for Best Actress in a Play: Phylicia Rashd First African-American NBA general manager to win the NBA Finals: Joe Dumars (Detroit Pistons), 2004 NBA Finals First African-American Canadian Football League Head Coach to win the Grey Cup: Pinball Clemons (Toronto Argonauts), 92nd Grey Cup

List of African-American firsts 2005 First African-American woman appointed Secretary of State: Condoleezza Rice (See also: 2001) First African-American woman U.S. Coast Guard aviator: Jeanine Menze 2006 First African-American individual Winter Olympic gold medal winner: Shani Davis (men's 1,000 meter speed skating) (See also: Vonetta Flowers, 2002) First African-American Extreme Championship Wrestling champion: Bobby Lashley First African American to command a United States Marine Corps division: Major General Walter E. Gaskin First African American to reach the peak of Mount Everest: Sophia Danenberg 2007 First African-American Governor of Massachusetts: Deval Patrick First African-American NFL head coaches to reach the Super Bowl: Lovie Smith and Tony Dungy, Super Bowl XLI[57] First African-American NFL head coach to win the Super Bowl: Tony Dungy (Indianapolis Colts), Super Bowl XLI First known African-American woman to reach the North Pole: Barbara Hillary[58] First African-American female professional wrestler to win the NWA World Women's Championship: Amazing Kong 2008 First African American to be nominated as a major-party U.S. presidential candidate: Barack Obama, Democratic Party First African American to referee a Super Bowl game: Mike Carey (Super Bowl XLII) First African-American NFL general manager to win the Super Bowl: Jerry Reese (New York Giants), Super Bowl XLII First African-American woman elected Speaker of a state House of Representatives: California Rep. Karen Bass First African-American governor of New York State: David Paterson (elected as lieutenant governor, succeeded on resignation of previous governor) First African American to own a movie and TV studio: Tyler Perry First African American elected President of the United States: Barack Obama First African American to be appointed to the United States Senate by a state governor: Roland Burris First African-American female combat pilot in the United States Air Force: Major Shawna Rochelle Kimbrell 2009 First African-American President of the United States: Barack Obama First African-American First Lady of the United States: Michelle Obama First African-American chair of the Republican National Committee: Michael Steele First African-American United States Attorney General: Eric Holder First African-American woman United States Ambassador to the United Nations: Susan Rice First African-American United States Trade Representative: Ron Kirk

127

List of African-American firsts First African-American woman Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency: Lisa P. Jackson First African-American White House Social Secretary: Desire Rogers First African American to appear by himself on a circulating U.S. coin: Duke Ellington (District of Columbia quarter).[59] First African American to win the Pulitzer Prize for History: Annette Gordon-Reed, The Hemingses of Monticello: An American Family First African-American Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration: Charles F. Bolden, Jr. First African-American woman rabbi: Alysa Stanton First African-American woman CEO of an S&P 100 Company: Ursula Burns, Xerox Corporation. First African-American doubles team to be named year-end world champion by the International Tennis Federation: Serena and Venus Williams First African-American to win an Academy Awards for an Adapted screenplay (Push by Sapphire) Geoffrey S. Fletcher First African-American Disney Princess: Tiana

128

2010s
2010 First African-American to win the WWE Diva's Championship: Alicia Fox First African-American Chief Justice of the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court: Roderick L. Ireland

References
[1] Juguo, Zhang (2001). W. E. B. Du Bois: The Quest for the Abolition of the Color Line. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-93087-1 [2] Herbst, Philip H (1997). The Color of Words: An Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Ethnic Bias in the United States. Intercultural Press. p. 57. ISBN 978-1-877864-97-1 [3] Sailes, Gary Alan (1998). "Jackie Robinson: Breaking the Color Barrier in Team Sports". African Americans in Sport: Contemporary Themes, Transaction Publishers. p. 8. ISBN 978-0-7658-0440-2 [4] Albert J. Raboteau, (2004), Slave Religion: The "invisible Institution" in the Antebellum South (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=C3AQUK-6A2cC& pg=PA188& lpg=PA188& dq=Gillfield+ Baptist+ Church,+ Petersburg,+ VA& source=bl& ots=U6q91GTWul& sig=yi0EVoIuLJ9WhNUg3YeqcVkoKBY& hl=en& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=11& ct=result#PPA139,M1), Oxford University Press, p.139. Retrieved January 21, 2009. [5] Walter H. Brooks (April 1922), "The Priority of the Silver Bluff Church and Its Promoters", Journal of Negro History [6] "Long Road to Justice: The African American Experienced in the Massachusetts Courts" (http:/ / www. masshist. org/ longroad/ 03participation/ profiles/ allen. htm). The Massachusetts Historical Society. 1845. . Retrieved 2008-02-15. [7] "Essortment: "First 3 African American Physicians"" (http:/ / ohoh. essortment. com/ africanamerican_rqdo. htm). Ohoh.essortment.com. . Retrieved 2010-04-21. [8] Because it was published in the U.K., the book is not the first African-American novel published in the United States. This credit goes to one of two disputed books: Harriet Wilson's Our Nig (1859), brought to light by Henry Louis Gates, Jr. in 1982; or Julia C. Collins' The Curse of Caste; or The Slave Bride (1865), brought to light by William L. Andrews, an English literature professor at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and Mitch Kachun, a history professor at Western Michigan University, in 2006. Andrews and Kachun document Our Nig as a novelized autobiography, and argue that The Curse of Caste is the first fully fictional novel by an African American to be published in the U.S. [9] Dinitia Smith (October 28, 2006). "A Slave Story Is Rediscovered, and a Dispute Begins" (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2006/ 10/ 28/ books/ 28slav. html?_r=1& oref=slogin). The New York Times: pp.B7. . Retrieved 2008-02-15. [10] Sven Birkerts (October 29, 2006). "Emancipation Days" (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2006/ 10/ 29/ books/ review/ Birkerts. t. html). The New York Times. . Retrieved 2008-02-15. [11] Logan, Rayford W (2004). Howard University: The First Hundred Years 18671967 (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=Fkje44kbjaAC& pg=PA5& lpg=PA5& dq="mary+ jane+ patterson+ oberlin& source=bl& ots=ysbnO8KLL6& sig=fFt0PHMVN0dibTAQzubDNJVxkzo& hl=en& ei=EEFrS9O8FcG0tgfs_PmQBg& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=2& ved=0CAkQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage& q="mary jane patterson oberlin& f=false). New York University Press. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-8147-0263-5

List of African-American firsts


[12] Ron Stodghill, "Driving Back Into Louisianas History", (http:/ / travel. nytimes. com/ 2008/ 05/ 25/ travel/ 25trail. html?scp=4& sq=Louisiana& st=nyt) The New York Times, 25 May 2008, accessed 7 Jul 2008 [13] Mary D. Teasley, Deloris Walker-Moses, Curators (2000). "African-American Firsts Remembered: Lest We Forget" (http:/ / www. npl. org/ Pages/ ProgramsExhibits/ Exhibits/ aafirsts. html). Newark Public Library. . Retrieved November 5, 2008. [14] Revels, the Mississippi State Senate's Adams County representative, was elected by the U.S. Senate in January 1870 to fill an unexpired term. [15] Rainey, a South Carolina state senator, was elected to fill the seat vacated by B. Franklin Whittemore. Rainey took his seat on December 12, 1870. John Willis Menard was actually the first African-American elected to the House (1868) but he was denied his seat. [16] Douglass did not seek the nomination or campaign after being nominated. [17] "A History of African Americans in the NYPD" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20081222023510/ http:/ / www. nycpolicemuseum. org/ html/ tour/ aah/ aahweb. htm). New York City Police Museum. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. nycpolicemuseum. org/ html/ tour/ aah/ aahweb. htm) on December 22, 2008. . [18] Ryan Gail, "Legendary Ladies of the L.A.P.D." (http:/ / www. lawpoa. org/ history. htm), Los Angeles Women Police Officers and Associates. Retrieved February 26, 2010. [19] "Women in the LAPD" (http:/ / www. lapdonline. org/ history_of_the_lapd/ content_basic_view/ 833), Los Angeles Police Department. Retrieved February 26, 2010. [20] Baker, Josephine; Bouillon, Joe (1977). Josephine (First ed.). New York: Harper & Row. ISBN978-0-06-010212-8. [21] Baker, David, compiler. "Important Firsts: Groups and Their Leaders, and Groups and Personnel" (http:/ / jazzinamerica. org/ JazzResources/ ImportantFirsts), Jazz in America / Thelonious Monk Institute of Jazz, n.d. WebCitation archive (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5ue58HIbd). [22] Williams, Janette (2011-09-20). "Political activist Isabell Masters, whose presidential ambitions started in Pasadena, dies at 98" (http:/ / www. pasadenastarnews. com/ news/ ci_18940389). Pasadena Star-News. . Retrieved 2011-10-08. [23] "Silas Hunt Documentary Wins Three Awards" (http:/ / dailyheadlines. uark. edu/ 10830. htm). University of Arkansas. June 14, 2007. . Retrieved October 5, 2011. [24] L. Clifford Davis applied to the law school in 1946, and after several failed attempts was granted admission in September 1947, but was unable to enroll in classes. Hunt later enrolled on February 2, 1948 (http:/ / arkansasblacklawyers. uark. edu/ articles/ ahq68-2. pdf) [25] Because of team schedules for season opening games, Lloyd was the first to play, on October 31, 1950, with Cooper debuting November 1 and Clifton November 4. Cooper was the first African American player to be drafted by an NBA team, and Clifton the first to sign a contract with an NBA team. [26] "Thrower was first black QB to play in NFL" (http:/ / espn. go. com/ classic/ obit/ s/ 2002/ 0221/ 1338084. html). ESPN Classic. February 22, 2002. . Retrieved May 16, 2010 [27] Spelman College: The Black Presence in American Dance website (http:/ / www. spelman. edu/ bush-hewlett/ BlackPresence/ bios. html) [28] "Charles Gittens, 1st black Secret Service agent, dies" (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 60rTwuw4x). Associated Press via The Washington Post. August 9, 2011. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. washingtonpost. com/ local/ charles-gittens-1st-black-secret-service-agent-dies/ 2011/ 08/ 09/ gIQAiyOU5I_story. html) on August 11, 2011. . [29] Wilber, Del Quentin (August 10, 2011). "Charles L. Gittens, first black Secret Service agent, dies at 82" (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 60rU61rc4). The Washington Post. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. washingtonpost. com/ local/ obituaries/ first-black-secret-service-agent-dies/ 2011/ 08/ 10/ gIQAFhYT7I_story. html) on August 11, 2011. . [30] Thamel, Pete (January 1, 2006). "Grier Integrated a Game and Earned the World's Respect" (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2006/ 01/ 01/ sports/ ncaafootball/ 01grier. html). The New York Times. . Retrieved April 10, 2011 [31] While two black players won Gold Gloves that year, only Mays is African American. The other, Minnie Mioso, is a black Cuban. [32] Conrad, Don. "Alaska's World: "Promoting Diversity: Flight attendants reach out to black community during trip to Harlem"" (http:/ / www. alaskasworld. com/ NEWS/ 2005/ 11/ 16_black_fa. asp). Alaska Airlines. . [33] Grammy Awards official site (http:/ / www. grammy. com/ GRAMMY_Awards/ Winners/ ) list of winners for Grammy Award inaugural year, presented May 4, 1959, for recordings made in 1958 [34] In 1998, the award would be renamed the Oscar Robertson Trophy after its first recipient. [35] "Person of the Year: Martin Luther King Jr." (http:/ / www. time. com/ time/ subscriber/ personoftheyear/ archive/ stories/ 1963. html). Time. 3 January 1963. . Retrieved 2008-02-17. [36] New York City Police Museum: A History of African Americans in the NYPD (http:/ / www. nycpolicemuseum. org/ html/ tour/ aah/ aahweb. htm) [37] "Gregory Kearse, "Historic Moments: A Legacy of Excellence", Chess Life July 1998 reprinted at" (http:/ / www. thechessdrum. net/ historicmoments/ HM_BlackChess/ index. html). Thechessdrum.net. . Retrieved 2010-04-21. [38] ""Chess Quiz" Question #43" (http:/ / www. chess. com/ article/ view/ chess-quiz). Chess.com. . Retrieved 2010-04-21. [39] Hudson, David. "Black Cinema" (http:/ / www. greencine. com/ static/ primers/ black-1. jsp), GreenCine.com, n.d. WebCitation archive (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5zzGrcfON). Update of Hudson, "SFBFF: Experience and Empowerment" (http:/ / www. greencine. com/ article?action=view& articleID=76), GreenCine.com, June 10, 2003. WebCitation archive (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5zzGyGfDq). Note: Asian-American interracial marriage had previously been portrayed. [40] The first Black superhero, Marvel's Black Panther, introduced in Fantastic Four #52 (July 1966), is African, not African-American. This is also true of the first Black character to star in his own mainstream comic-book feature, Waku, Prince of the Bantu, who headlined one of four

129

List of African-American firsts


features in the multiple-character omnibus series Jungle Tales (Sept. 1954 Sept. 1955), from Marvel's 1950s predecessor, Atlas Comics. [41] "NM Frank Street, Jr." (http:/ / www. thechessdrum. net/ drummajors/ F_Street. html). The ChessDrum.net. . Retrieved 2010-04-21. [42] Nancy Sinatra. (May 2, 2000). Movin' with Nancy. [DVD Commentary Track]. Chatsworth, CA: Image Entertainment. [43] Bell, Gregory S. (2002). "Joe Searles". In In the Black: A History of African Americans on Wall Street (http:/ / books. google. co. uk/ books?id=u0ZjUFT5AfQC& client=firefox-ahttp:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=Sp3VOOzRGesC& pg=PA143& sig=A_1wg6yUqWhMJlKoSkxWyy3UTwQ). John Wiley and Sons. p. 143. ISBN 978-0-471-21485-4. Retrieved January 30, 2009. [44] "Sammy's Visit". All in the Family. CBS. 1972-02-12. No. 34, season 2. Retrieved on 2008-02-15. In the comedy All in the Family, at the last moment as a picture is taken, Sammy Davis, Jr., playing himself, chides the bigoted but celebrity-fawning Archie Bunker with a kiss on the cheek. [45] "A Dozen Who Made a Difference" (http:/ / www. time. com/ time/ magazine/ article/ 0,9171,947599-5,00. html). Time. 5 January 1976. . Retrieved 2008-02-14. [46] Seabaugh, Cathy (February 1994). "BLK: Focused Coverage for African-American Gays & Lesbians". Chicago Outlines. [47] Chestnut, Mark (June 1992). "BLK: Getting Glossy". Island Lifestyle. [48] Stevens, William K. (1977-12-28). "A Detroit Black Woman's Roots Lead to a Welcome in the D.A.R.; Black Woman's Roots Lead to a Welcome in D.A.R" (http:/ / select. nytimes. com/ gst/ abstract. html?res=F40B11FA3D5A167493CAAB1789D95F438785F9). The New York Times. . [49] The NHL had fielded black players for more than 20 years, with the first being Willie O'Ree in 1958, but all previous black players were Black Canadians and not African American. [50] Cuban cosmonaut Arnaldo Mendez was the first person of African descent in space, in 1980. [51] Lewis Hamilton became the first black Formula One racer in 2006, but he is a British citizen of Grenadan ancestry, and not an African American. Ribbs did not compete in a race, but drove a Formula One car professionally in January 1986 as a tester for the Brabham-BMW at Estoril, Portugal. [52] Butterfield, Fox (February 6, 1990), "First Black Elected to Head Harvard's Law Review" (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 1990/ 02/ 06/ us/ first-black-elected-to-head-harvard-s-law-review. html?pagewanted=2), The New York Times, , retrieved May 2, 2011 [53] Woods' mixed ancestry Chinese, Thai, African-American, white, and Native American also makes him the first Asian American to achieve this feat. He is also the first of only four golfers of primarily non-European descent to win a men's major, with the others being Vijay Singh (an Indian Fijian), Michael Campbell (a Mori from New Zealand), and Y.E. Yang (South Korean). [54] "Reason Is Navy's First Black Four-Star Admiral" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20061027080316/ http:/ / www. defenselink. mil/ news/ Feb1998/ n02191998_9802198. html). U.S. Department of Defense. 1998-02-19. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. defenselink. mil/ news/ Feb1998/ n02191998_9802198. html) on October 27, 2006. . Retrieved 2006-10-30. [55] Historic Listing of National Park Service Officials, USDI, NPS, May 1, 1991, by Harold Danz. Updates after publication by Public Affairs. [56] Farmer, Paula (August). "The First African American To Head A Fortune 500 Company, Franklin D. Raines Takes Over Fannie Mae" (http:/ / www. black-collegian. com/ issues/ 1999-08/ fdraines. shtml). The Black Collegian. . Retrieved 2008-11-07. [57] Smith was the first African-American head coach to reach the Super Bowl solely because of scheduling. The NFC and AFC Championship Games are always held on the same day; in the playoffs that followed the 2006 NFL season, the NFC game was played first. The AFC game was won by the Indianapolis Colts and their African-American head coach Tony Dungy. [58] Meghan Barr (May 6, 2007). "Cancer Survivor, 75, Skis to North Pole" (http:/ / seattletimes. nwsource. com/ html/ nationworld/ 2003696398_northpole07. html). The Seattle Times. . Retrieved 2008-02-17. [59] "Duke Ellington becomes first African American on U.S. coin" (http:/ / www. cnn. com/ 2009/ US/ 02/ 24/ duke. ellington. coin/ index. html?iref=mpstoryview). CNN.com. 2009-02-24. . Retrieved 2010-04-21.

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External links
President Obama's Speech to the NAACP on July 16, 2009 (http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/22425001/vp/ 31951708#31951708) full video by MSNBC Weiner, David * "African-American Firsts In New York (http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2009/08/04/ african-american-firsts-i_n_251130.html)", The Huffington Post, August 4, 2009 Mance, Ajuan "Timeline: Black Firsts in Higher Education (http://blackoncampus.com/timeline/)", Blackoncampus.com, November 5, 2009

Ortoiroid people

131

Ortoiroid people
The Ortoiroid people were the first human settlers of the Caribbean, who peaked culturally from 5000200 BCE.[1] [2] They are believed to have originated in the Orinoco valley in South America, migrating to the Antilles from Trinidad and Tobago to Puerto Rico. The name "Ortoiroid" comes from Ortoire, a shell midden site.[3]

Settlement patterns
The Ortoiroid are believed to have developed in South America before moving to the West Indies.[4] The earliest radiocarbon date for the Ortoiroid is 5230 BCE from Trinidad.[4] The two earliest Ortoiroid sites in Trinidad are the Banwari Trace and St. John site in Oropouche, which date back at least to 5500 BCE.[5] At this time, Trinidad might have still been connected to the South American mainland. The majority of archaeological sites associated with the Ortoiroid are found near or on the coasts.[6] Tobago has at least one Ortoiroid site, Martinique has two, and Antigua has 24 Ortoiroid shell-midden sites. Ortoiroid peoples settle on St. Kitts from 2000 BCE to 400 BCE.[7] In the north, two distinct Ortoiroid subcultures have been identified: the Coroso culture, which flourished from 1500 BCE200 CE, and the Krum Bay culture, which spanned 1500200 BCE. The Coroso people lived in Puerto Rico, where the oldest known site is the Angostura site, dating from 4000 BCE.[2] The Krum Bay people lived in the Virgin Islands.[3] Krum Bay culture, which emerged between 800 BCE and 225 BCE, also extended to St. Thomas.[8] The Ortoiroid are considered the first settlers of the archipelago of Puerto Rico;[6] however, recent reexamination of date, artifact, and agricultural evidence and of assumptions about culture has suggested a more complex picture.[9]

Lifeways and material culture


Ortoiroid peoples were hunter-gatherers.[7] Shellfish remains have been found in these sites indicating that they constituted an important part of the Ortoiroid diet. They also ate turtles, crabs, and fish.[2] They were known for their lithic technology but did not have ceramics.[2] Ortoiroid artifacts include bone spearpoints, perforated animal teeth worn as jewellery, and stone tools, such as manos and metates, net sinkers, pestles, choppers, hammerstones, and pebbles used for grinding.[5] Ortoiroid people lived in caves and in the open. They buried their dead in soil beneath shell middens.[2] Red ochre was found at some sites and may have been used for body paint.[1]

Decline
The Ortoiroid were displaced by the Saladoid people in the West Indies.[5] In many regions, they disappeared by approximately 400 BCE;[3] however, the Coroso culture survived until 200 CE.[2]

Notes
[1] "Rewriting History: There were people before the Caribs and Arawaks ." (http:/ / www. archaeologydaily. com/ news/ 201002043219/ Rewriting-History-There-were-people-before-the-Caribs-and-Arawaks. html) Trinidad and Tobago Express via Archaeology Daily News. 4 Feb 2010 (retrieved 9 July 2011) [2] "Prehistory of the Caribbean Culture Area." (http:/ / www. cr. nps. gov/ seac/ caribpre. htm) Southeast Archaeological Center. (retrieved 9 July 2011) [3] Saunders 211 [4] Rouse 63 [5] Saunders 13 [6] Rouse 69

Ortoiroid people
[7] Saunders 260 [8] Saunders 264 [9] Rodrguez Ramos 17, 54

132

References
Rodrguez Ramos, Reniel. Rethinking Puerto Rican Precolonial History. (http://books.google.com/ books?id=TCUKMzLPMtcC&lpg=PA54&dq=Ortoiroid first Puerto Rico&pg=PA54#v=onepage&q&f=false) Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 2010. ISBN 978-0-8173-8327-5. Rouse, Irving. The Tainos: Rise and Decline of the people who greeted Columbus. (http://books.google.com/ books?id=sgjsDvFiNuUC&lpg=PR1&dq=The Tainos: Rise and Decline of the people who greeted Columbus& pg=PR1#v=onepage&q&f=false) New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1992. ISBN 978-0300051810. Saunders, Nicholas J. The Peoples of the Caribbean: an Encyclopedia of Archeology and Traditional Culture. (http://books.google.com/books?id=XNbqUR_IoOMC&lpg=PA211&dq=Ortoiroid& pg=PA211#v=onepage&q&f=false) ABC-CLIO, 2005. ISBN 978-1576077016.

Further reading
Ferguson, James: Far From Paradise. Latin American Bureau, 1990. ISBN 0-906156-54-8. Kurlansky, Mark. 1992. A Continent of Islands: Searching for the Caribbean Destiny. Addison-Wesley Publishing. Rogozinsky, Jan: A Brief History of the Caribbean. Plume, 1999. ISBN 0-452-28193-8.

Saladoid
Saladoid culture is a pre-columbian indigenous culture of Venezuela and the Caribbean that flourished from 500 BCE to 545 CE.[1]

Name
They have been given the name of the sites where their unique pottery styles were first recognised. The suffix "oid" has been added in this cultural classification. Hence, the name Saladoid is used by archaeologists, to identify the peoples of the early ceramic age.

Chronology
The Saladoid period includes the four following subcultures, defined by ceramic styles. Hacienda Grande culture (250 BCE300 CE) Cuevas culture (400600 CE) Prosperity culture (1300 CE) Coral Bay-Longford culture (350550 CE)[1]

Migrations
This culture is thought to have originated at the lower Orinoco River near the modern settlements of Saladero and Barrancas in Venezuela. Seafaring people from the lowland region of the Orinoco River of South America migrated into and established settlements in the Lesser Antilles, Puerto Rico, and Hispaniola.[1] They displaced the pre-ceramic Ortoiroid culture. As a horticultural people, they initially occupied wetter and more fertile islands that best accommodated their needs. These Indigenous peoples of the Americas were an Arawak-speaking culture.

Saladoid Between 500-280 BCE, they immigrated into Puerto Rico and the Lesser Antilles, eventually making up a large portion of what was to become a single Caribbean culture.

133

Culture
Saladoid people are charaticterized by agriculture, ceramic production, and sedentary settlements.[1] Their unique and highly decorated pottery has enabled archaeologists to recognize their sites and to determine their places of origin. Saladoid ceramics include zoomorphic effigy vessels, incense burners, platters, trays, jars, bowls with strap handles, and bell-shaped containers. The red pottery was painted with white, orange, and black slips.[1] Distinctive Saladoid artifacts are stone pendants, shaped like raptors from South America. These were made from a range of exotic materials, including such as carnelian, turquoise, lapis lazuli, amethyst, crystal quartz, jasper-chalcedony, and fossilized wood. These were traded through the Great and Lesser Antilles and the South American mainland, until 600 CE.[1]

Notes
[1] "Prehistory of the Caribbean Culture Area." (http:/ / www. cr. nps. gov/ seac/ caribpre. htm) Southeast Archaeological Center. (retrieved 9 July 2011)

African-American history
African American topics

Category Portal

African-American history is the portion of American history that specifically discusses the African American or Black American ethnic group in the United States. Most African Americans are the descendants of captive Africans held in the United States from 1619 to 1865. Blacks from the Caribbean whose ancestors immigrated, or who immigrated to the U.S., also traditionally have been considered African American, as they share a common history of predominantly West African or Central African roots, the Middle Passage and slavery. It is these peoples, who in the past were referred to and self-identified collectively as the American Negro, who now generally consider themselves African Americans. Their history is celebrated and highlighted annually in the United States during February, designated as Black History Month, and it is their history that is the focus of this article. Others who sometimes are referred to as African Americans, and who may self-identify as such in US government censuses, include relatively recent Black immigrants from Africa, South America and elsewhere who self-identify as being of African descent.

African-American history

134

African origins
The majority of African Americans descend from slaves, most of whom were sold into slavery as prisoners of war by African states or kidnapped by African, Arab, European or American slave traders. The existing market for slaves in Africa was exploited and expanded by European powers in need of labor for New World plantations. The American slave population was made up of the various ethnic groups from western and central Africa, including the Bakongo, Igbo, Mand, Wolof, Akan, Fon and Makua amongst others. Over time in most areas of the Americas, these different peoples did away with tribal differences and forged a new history and culture that was a creolization of their common pasts and present.[1] Studies of contemporary documents reveal seven regions from which Africans were sold or taken during the Atlantic slave trade. These regions were Senegambia, encompassing the coast from the Senegal River to the Casamance River, where captives as far away as the Upper and Middle Niger River Valley were sold; The Sierra Leone region included territory from the Casamance to the Assini River in the modern countries of Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia and Cte d'Ivoire; The Gold Coast region consisted of mainly modern Ghana; The Bight of Benin region stretched from the Volta River to the Benue River in modern Togo, Benin and southwestern Nigeria; The Bight of Biafra extended from southeastern Nigeria through Cameroon into Gabon; West Central Africa, the largest region, included the Congo and Angola; and The region of Mozambique-Madagascar included the modern countries of Mozambique, parts of Tanzania and Madagascar.[2] Origins and Percentages of African Americans imported into British North America and Louisiana (17001820) [3]
Region West Central Africa Bight of Biafra Sierra Leone Senegambia Gold Coast Bight of Benin Percentage 26.1% 24.4% 15.8% 14.5% 13.1% 4.3%

Mozambique-Madagascar 1.8%

Introduction of slavery
The first African slaves were brought to Jamestown, Virginia in 1619. The English settlers treated these captives as indentured servants and released them after a number of years. This practice was gradually replaced by the system of race-based slavery used in the Caribbean.[4] As servants were freed, they became competition for resources. Additionally, released servants had to be replaced. This, combined with the still ambiguous nature of the social status of Blacks and the difficulty in using any other group of people as forced servants, led to the relegation of Blacks into slavery. Massachusetts was the first colony to legalize slavery in 1641. Other colonies followed suit by passing laws that passed slavery on to the children of slaves and making non-Christian imported servants slaves for life. [5]

African-American history

135 Africans first arrived in 1619, when a Dutch ship sold 19 blacks as indentured servants (not slaves) to Englishmen at Point Comfort (today's Fort Monroe), thirty miles downstream from Jamestown, Virginia. In all, about 10-12 million Africans were transported to Western Hemisphere. The vast majority of these people came from that stretch of the West African coast extending from present-day Senegal to Angola; a small percentage came from Madagascar and East Africa. Only 3% (about 300,000) went to the American colonies. The vast majority went to the West Indies, where they died quickly. Demographic conditions were highly favorable in the American colonies, with less disease, more food, some medical care, and lighter work loads than prevailed in the sugar fields.[6] At first the Africans in the South were outnumbered by white indentured servants, who came voluntarily from Britain. They avoided the plantations. With the vast amount of good land and the shortage of laborers, plantation owners turned to lifetime slaves who worked for their keep but were not paid wages and could not easily escape. Slaves had some legal rights (it was a crime to kill a slave, and a few whites were hanged for it.) Generally the slaves developed their own family system, religion and customs in the slave quarters with little interference from owners, who were only interested in work outputs.

A former slave displays the telltale criss-cross, keloid scars from being bullwhipped.

By 1700 there were 25,000 slaves in the American colonies, about 10% of the population. A few had come from Africa but most came from the West Indies (especially Trinidad, later Trinidad and Tobago), or, increasingly, were native born. Their legal status was now clear: they were slaves for life and so were the children of slave mothers. They could be sold, or freed, and a few ran away. Slowly a free black population emerged, concentrated in port cities along the Atlantic coast from Charleston to Boston. Slaves in the cities and towns had many more privileges, but the great majority of slaves lived on southern tobacco or rice plantations, usually in groups of 20 or more.[7] The most serious slave rebellion was the Stono Uprising, in September 1739 in South Carolina. The colony had about 56,000 slaves, who outnumbered whites 2:1. About 150 slaves rose up, and seizing guns and ammunition, murdered twenty whites, and headed for Spanish Florida. The local militia soon intercepted and killed most of them.[8] All the American colonies had slavery, but it was usually the form of personal servants in the North (where 2% of the people were slaves), and field hands in plantations in the South (where 25% were slaves.)[9]

The Revolution and early America


The later half of the 18th century was a time of political upheaval in the United States. In the midst of cries for relief from British tyranny and oppression, several people pointed out the apparent hypocrisies of slave holders' demanding freedom. The Declaration of Independence, a document that would become a manifesto for human rights and personal freedom, was written by Thomas Jefferson, who owned over 200 slaves. Other Southern statesmen were also major slaveholders. The Second Continental Congress did consider freeing slaves to disrupt British commerce. They removed language from the Declaration of Independence that included the promotion of slavery amongst the offenses of King George III. A number of free Blacks, most notably Prince Hallthe founder of Prince Hall Freemasonry, submitted petitions for the end of slavery. But these petitions were largely ignored.[10] This did not deter Blacks, free and slave, from participating in the Revolution. Crispus Attucks, a free Black tradesman, was the first casualty of the Boston Massacre and of the ensuing American Revolutionary War. 5,000

African-American history Blacks, including Prince Hall, fought in the Continental Army. Many fought side by side with White soldiers at the battles of Lexington and Concord and at Bunker Hill. But when George Washington took command in 1775, he barred any further recruitment of Blacks. By contrast, the British and Loyalists offered emancipation to any slave owned by a Patriot who was willing to join the Loyalist forces. Lord Dunmore, the Governor of Virginia, recruited 300 African American men into his Ethiopian regiment within a month of making this proclamation. In South Carolina 25,000 slaves, more than one-quarter of the total, escaped to join and fight with the British, or fled for freedom in the uproar of war. Thousands of slaves also escaped in Georgia and Virginia, as well as New England and New York. Well-known Black Loyalist soldiers include Colonel Tye and Boston King. The Americans eventually won the war. In the provisional treaty, they demanded the return of property, including slaves. Nonetheless, the British helped up to 4,000 documented African Americans to leave the country for Nova Scotia, Jamaica, and Britain rather than be returned to slavery.[11] The Constitutional Convention of 1787 sought to define the foundation for the government of the newly formed United States of America. The constitution set forth the ideals of freedom and equality while providing for the continuation of the institution of slavery through the fugitive slave clause and the three-fifths compromise. Additionally, free blacks' rights were also restricted in many places. Most were denied the right to vote and were excluded from public schools. Some Blacks sought to fight these contradictions in court. In 1780, Elizabeth Freeman and Quock Walker used language from the new Massachusetts constitution that declared all men were born free and equal in freedom suits to gain release from slavery. A free Black businessman in Boston named Paul Cuffe sought to be excused from paying taxes since he had no voting rights.[12] In the Northern states, the revolutionary spirit did help African Americans. Beginning in the 1750s, there was widespread sentiment during thedAmerican Revolution that slavery was a social evil (for the country as a whole and for the whites) that should eventually be abolished. All the Northern states passed emancipation acts between 1780 and 1804; most of these arranged for gradual emancipation and a special status for freedmen, so there were still a dozen "permanent apprentices" into the 19th century. In 1787 Congress passed the Northwest Ordinance and barred slavery from the large Northwest Territory.[13] In 1790, there were more than 59,000 free Blacks in the United States. By 1810, that number had risen to 186,446. Most of these were in the North, but Revolutionary sentiments also motivated Southern slaveholders. For 20 years after the Revolution, more Southerners also freed slaves, sometimes by manumission or in wills to be accomplished after the slaveholder's death. In the Upper South, the percentage of free blacks rose from about 1% before the Revolution to more than 10% by 1810. Quakers and Moravians worked to persuade slaveholders to free families. In Virginia the number of free blacks increased from 10,000 in 1790 to nearly 30,000 in 1810, but 95% of blacks were still enslaved. In Delaware, three-quarters of all blacks were free by 1810.[14] By 1860 just over 91% of Delaware's blacks were free, and 49.1% of those in Maryland.[15] Among the successful free men was Benjamin Banneker, a Maryland astronomer, mathematician, almanac author, surveyor and farmer, who in 1791 assisted in the initial survey of the boundaries of the future District of Columbia.[16] Despite the challenges of living in the new country, most free Blacks fared far better than the nearly 800,000 enslaved Blacks. Even so, many considered emigrating to Africa.[12]

136

The Antebellum Period


As the United States grew, the institution of slavery became more entrenched in the southern states, while northern states began to abolish it. Pennsylvania was the first, in 1780 passing an act for gradual abolition. A number of events continued to shape views on slavery. The invention of the cotton gin in 1793 allowed the cultivation of short staple cotton, which could be grown in inland areas. This triggered a huge demand for imported slave labor to develop new cotton plantations. There was a 70% increase in the number of slaves in the United States in only 20 years, and they were overwhelmingly concentrated in the Deep South.

African-American history In 1808, Congress abolished the international slave trade. While American Blacks celebrated this as a victory in the fight against slavery, the ban increased the demand for slaves. Changing agricultural practices in the Upper South from tobacco to mixed farming decreased labor requirements, and slaves were sold to traders for the developing Deep South. In addition, the Fugitive Slave Act of 1793 allowed any Black person to be claimed as a runaway unless a White person testified on their behalf. A number of free Blacks, especially indentured children, were kidnapped and sold into slavery with little or no hope of rescue. By 1819 there were exactly 11 free and 11 slave states, which increased sectionalism. Fears of an imbalance in Congress led to the 1820 Missouri Compromise that required states to be admitted to the union in pairs, one slave and one free.[17] Over 1 million slaves were moved from the older seaboard slave states, with their declining economies to the rich cotton states of the southwest; many others were sold and moved locally.[18] Berlin (2000) argues that this "Second Middle Passage shredded the planters' paternalist pretenses in the eyes of black people and prodded slaves and free people of color to create a host of oppositional ideologies and institutions that better accounted for the realities of endless deportations, expulsions and flights that continually remade their world.[19]

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The Black community


The number of free Blacks grew during this time as well. By 1830 there were 319,000 free Blacks in the United States. 150,000 lived in the northern states. While the majority of free blacks lived in poverty, some were able to establish successful businesses that catered to the Black community. Racial discrimination often meant that Blacks were not welcome or would be mistreated in White businesses and other establishments. To counter this, Blacks developed their own communities with Black-owned businesses. Black doctors, lawyers and other businessmen were the foundation of the Black middle class.[20] Blacks organized to help strengthen the Black community and continue the fight against slavery. One of these organizations was the American Society of Free Persons of Colour, founded in 1830. These organizations provided social aid to poor blacks and organized responses to political issues. The Black community also established schools for Black children, since they were often barred from entering public schools.[21] Further supporting the growth of the Black Community was the Black church. Starting in the early 1790s with the African Methodist Episcopal Church, African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church and other churches, the Black church grew to be the focal A large group of African-American spectators point of the Black community. The Black church was both an stands on the banks of Buffalo Bayou to witness a baptism (ca. 1900). expression of community and unique African-American spirituality, and a reaction to European American discrimination. At first, Black preachers formed separate congregations within the existing denominations. Because of discrimination at the higher levels of the church hierarchy, some blacks simply founded separate Black denominations.[22] Free blacks also established Black churches in the South before 1800. After the Great Awakening, many blacks joined the Baptist Church, which allowed for their participation, including roles as elders and preachers. For instance, First Baptist Church and Gillfield Baptist Church of Petersburg, Virginia, both had organized congregations by 1800 and were the first Baptist churches in the city.[23] Petersburg, an industrial city, by 1860 had 3,224 free blacks, the largest population in the South.[24] In Virginia, free blacks also created communities in Richmond, Virginia and other towns, where they could work as artisans and create businesses. Others were able to buy land and farm in frontier areas further from white control.

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Emancipation and Reconstruction


In 1863, during the American Civil War (18611865), President Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, freeing slaves in the southern states at war with the North. The 13th amendment of the U.S. Constitution, ratified in 1865, outlawed slavery in the United States. In 1868, the 14th amendment granted full U.S. citizenship to African-Americans. The 15th amendment, ratified in 1870, extended the right to vote to black males. After the Union victory over the Confederacy, a brief period of southern black progress, called Reconstruction, followed. From 1865 to 1877, under protection of Union troops, some strides were made toward equal rights for African-Americans. Southern black men began to vote and were elected to the United States Congress and to local offices such as sheriff. Coalitions of white and black Republicans passed bills to establish the first public school systems in most states of the South, although sufficient funding was hard to find. Blacks established their own churches, towns and businesses. Tens of thousands migrated to Mississippi for the chance to clear and own their own land, as 90% of the bottomlands were undeveloped. By the end of the century, two-thirds of the farmers who owned land in the Mississippi Delta bottomlands were black.[25] The aftermath of the Civil War accelerated the process of national African-American identity formation. Tens of thousands of Black northerners left homes and careers and also migrated to the defeated South, building schools, printing newspapers, and opening businesses. As Joel Williamson puts it:

The Emancipation Proclamation.

Many of the migrants, women as well as men, came as teachers sponsored by a dozen or so benevolent societies, arriving in the still turbulent wake of Union armies. Others came to organize relief for the refugees.... Still others... came south as religious missionaries... Some came south as business or professional people seeking opportunity on this... special black frontier. Finally, thousands came as soldiers, and when the war was over, many of [their] young men remained there or returned after a stay of some months in the North to complete their education.

Jim Crow, disfranchisement and challenges


The Jim Crow laws were state and local laws in the United States enacted between 1876 and 1965. They mandated de jure segregation in all public facilities, with a supposedly "separate but equal" status for black Americans. In reality, this led to treatment and accommodations that were usually inferior to those provided for white Americans, systematizing a number of economic, educational and social disadvantages. In the face of years of mounting violence and intimidation directed at blacks as well as whites sympathetic to their cause, the U.S. government retreated from its pledge to guarantee constitutional protections to freedmen and women. When President Rutherford B. Hayes withdrew Union troops from the South in 1877 as a result of a national compromise on the election, white Democratic southerners acted quickly to reverse the groundbreaking advances of Reconstruction. To reduce black voting and regain control of state legislatures, Democrats had used a combination of violence, fraud, and intimidation since the election of 1868. These techniques were prominent among paramilitary groups such as the White League and Red Shirts in Louisiana, Mississippi, and Florida prior to the 1876 elections. In South Carolina, for instance, one historian estimated that 150 blacks were killed in the weeks before the election.[26] Massacres occurred at Hamburg and Ellenton.

African-American history White paramilitary violence against African Americans intensified. Many blacks were fearful of this trend, and men like Benjamin "Pap" Singleton began speaking of separating from the South. This idea culminated in the 1879-1880 movement of the Exodusters, who migrated to Kansas. White Democrats first passed laws to make voter registration and elections more complicated. Most of the rules acted overwhelmingly against blacks, but many poor whites were also disfranchised. Interracial coalitions of Populists and Republicans in some states succeeded in controlling legislatures in the 1880s and 1894, which made the Democrats more determined to reduce voting by poorer classes. When Democrats took control of Tennessee in 1888, they passed laws making voter registration more complicated and ended the most competitive political state in the South. Voting by blacks in rural areas and small towns dropped sharply, as did voting by poor whites.[27] [28] From 1890 to 1908, starting with Mississippi and ending with Georgia, ten of eleven Southern states adopted new constitutions Sign for "Colored waiting room", Georgia, 1943 or amendments that effectively disfranchised most blacks and many poor whites. Using a combination of provisions such as poll taxes, residency requirements and literacy tests, states dramatically decreased black voter registration and turnout, in some cases to zero.[29] The grandfather clause was used in many states temporarily to exempt illiterate white voters from literacy tests. As power became concentrated under the Democratic Party in the South, the party positioned itself as a private club and instituted white primaries, closing blacks out of the only competitive contests. By 1910 one-party white rule was firmly established across the South. Although African Americans quickly started litigation to challenge such provisions, early court decisions at the state and national level went against them. In Williams v. Mississippi (1898), the US Supreme Court upheld state provisions. This encouraged other Southern states to adopt similar measures over the next few years, as noted above. Booker T. Washington, of Tuskegee Institute secretly worked with Northern supporters to raise funds and provide representation for African Americans in additional cases, such as Giles v. Harris (1903) and Giles v. Teasley (1904), but again the Supreme Court upheld the states.[29] Seeking to return blacks to their subordinate status under slavery, white supremacists resurrected de facto barriers and enacted new laws to segregate society along racial lines. They limited black access to transportation, schools, restaurants and other public facilities. White supremacists also promoted the idea that blacks' participation in government in the South was ended due to incompetence; this view was disseminated in school textbooks and movies such as The Birth of a Nation in 1915. Although slavery had been abolished, most southern blacks for decades continued to struggle in grinding poverty as agricultural, domestic and menial laborers. Many became sharecroppers, their economic status little changed by emancipation.

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Racial terrorism
After its founding in 1867, the Ku Klux Klan, a secret vigilante organization sworn to perpetuate white supremacy, became a power for a few years in the South and beyond, eventually establishing a northern headquarters in Greenfield, Indiana. Its members hid behind masks and robes to hide their identity while they carried out violence and property damage. The Klan employed lynching, cross burnings and other forms of terrorism, physical violence, house burnings, and intimidation. The Klan's excesses led to the passage of legislation against it, and with Federal enforcement, it was squeezed out by 1871. The anti-Republican and anti-freedmen sentiment only briefly went underground, as violence arose in other incidents, especially after Louisiana's disputed state election in 1872, which contributed to the Colfax and Coushatta

African-American history massacres in Louisiana in 1873 and 1874. Tensions and rumors were high in many parts of the South. when violence erupted, African Americans consistently were killed at a much higher rate than were European Americans. Historians of the 20th century have renamed events long called "riots" in southern history. The common stories featured whites' heroically saving the community from marauding blacks. Upon examination of the evidence, historians have called numerous such events "massacres", as at Colfax, because of the disproportionate number of fatalities for blacks as opposed to whites. The mob violence there resulted in 40-50 blacks dead for each of the three whites killed.[30] While not as widely known as the Klan, the paramilitary organizations that arose in the South during the mid-1870s as the white Democrats mounted a stronger insurgency, were more directed and effective than the Klan in challenging Republican governments, suppressing the black vote and achieving political goals. Unlike the Klan, paramilitary members operated openly, often solicited newspaper coverage, and had distinct political goals: to turn Republicans out of office and suppress or dissuade black voting in order to regain power in 1876. Groups included the White League, that started from white militias in Grant Parish, Louisiana, in 1874 and spread in the Deep South; the Red Shirts, that started in Mississippi in 1875 but had chapters arise and was prominent in the 1876 election campaign in South Carolina, as well as in North Carolina; and other White Line organizations such as rifle clubs.[31] The Jim Crow era accompanied the most cruel wave of "racial" suppression that America has yet experienced. Between 1890 and 1940, millions of African Americans were disfranchised, killed, and brutalized. According to newspaper records kept at the Tuskegee Institute, about 5,000 men, women, and children were murdered outright, tortured to death in documented extrajudicial public rituals of mob violence human sacrifices called "lynchings." The journalist Ida B. Wells estimated that lynchings not reported by the newspapers, plus similar executions under the veneer of "due process", may have amounted to about 20,000 killings. Of the tens of thousands of lynchers and onlookers during this period, it is reported that fewer than 50 whites were ever indicted for their crimes, and only four sentenced. Because blacks were disfranchised, they could not sit on juries or have any part in the political process, including local offices. Meanwhile, the lynchings were a weapon of white mob terror with millions of Afro-Americans living in a constant state of anxiety and fear.[32] Most blacks were denied their right to keep and bear arms under Jim Crow laws, and they were therefore unable to protect themselves or their families.[33]

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Civil rights
In response to these and other setbacks, in the summer of 1905, W. E. B. Du Bois and 28 other prominent, African-American men met secretly at Niagara Falls, Ontario. There, they produced a manifesto calling for an end to racial discrimination, full civil liberties for African Americans and recognition of human brotherhood. The organization they established came to be called the Niagara Movement. After the notorious Springfield, Illinois race riot of 1908, a group of concerned Whitesjoined with the leadership of the Niagara Movement and formed the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) a year later, in 1909. Under the leadership of Du Bois, the NAACP mounted legal challenges to segregation and lobbied legislatures on behalf of black Americans. During this period, African Americans continued to create independent community and institutional lives for themselves. They established schools, churches, social welfare institutions, banks, newspapers and small businesses to serve the needs of their communities.

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The Great Migration and the Harlem Renaissance


During the first half of the 20th century, the largest internal population shift in U.S. history took place. Starting about 1910, through the Great Migration over five million African Americans made choices and "voted with their feet" by moving from the South to northern cities, the West and Midwest in hopes of escaping political discrimination and hatred, violence, finding better jobs, voting and enjoying greater equality and education for their children. In the 1920s, the concentration of blacks in New York led to the cultural movement known as the Harlem Renaissance, whose influence reached nationwide. Black intellectual and cultural circles were influenced by thinkers such as Aim Csaire and Lopold Sdar Senghor, who celebrated blackness, or ngritude; and arts and letters flourished. Writers Zora Neale Hurston, Langston Hughes, Nella Larsen, Claude McKay and Richard Wright; and artists Lois Mailou Jones, William H. Johnson, Romare Bearden, Jacob Lawrence and Archibald Motley gained prominence. The South Side of Chicago, a destination for many on the trains up from Mississippi, Arkansas and Louisiana, became the black capital of America, generating flourishing businesses, music, arts and foods. A new generation of powerful African American political leaders and organizations also came to the fore. Membership in the NAACP rapidly increased as it mounted an anti-lynching campaign in reaction to ongoing southern white violence against blacks. Marcus Garvey's Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League, the Nation of Islam, and union organizer A. Philip Randolph's Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters all were established during this period and found support among African Americans, who became urbanized.

World War I
The U.S. armed forces remained segregated during World War I. Still, many African Americans eagerly volunteered to join the Allied cause following America's entry into the war. More than two million African American men rushed to register for the draft. By the time of the armistice with Germany in November 1918, over 350,000 African Americans had served with the American Expeditionary Force in on the Western Front. Most African American units were relegated to support roles and did not see combat. Still, African Americans played a minor role in America's war effort.

Soldiers of the 369th (15th N.Y.) who won the Croix de Guerre for gallantry in action, 1919

Four African American regiments were integrated into French units because the French suffered heavy losses and badly needed men after three years of a terrible war. One of the most distinguished units was the 369th Infantry Regiment, known as the "Harlem Hellfighters", which was on the front lines for six months, longer than any other American unit in the war. 171 members of the 369th were awarded the Legion of Merit.

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The 371st and 372nd African American Regiments were integrated under the 157th Red Hand Division[34] commanded by the French General Mariano Goybet. They earned glory in the decisive final offensive in Champagne region of France.[35] The two Regiments were decorated by the French Croix de Guerre for their gallantry in the Meuse-Argonne Offensive . Corporal Freddie Stowers of the 371st Infantry Regiment was posthumously awarded a Medal of honor[36] the only African American to be so honored for actions in World War I. During action in France, Stowers had led an assault on German trenches, continuing to lead and encourage his men even after being wounded twice. Stowers died from his wounds, but his men continued the fight on a German machine gun nest near Bussy farm in Champagne, and eventually defeated the German troops.
[34] Stowers was recommended for the Medal of Honor shortly after his 157th I.D.Red Hand flag drawn by General Mariano Goybet death, but according to the Army, the nomination was misplaced. Many believed the recommendation had been intentionally ignored due to institutional racism in the Armed Forces. In 1990, under pressure from Congress, the Defense Department launched an investigation. Based on findings from this investigation, the Army Decorations Board approved the award of the Medal of Honor to Stowers. On April 24, 199173 years after he was killed in actionStowers' two surviving sisters received the Medal of Honor from President George H.W. Bush at the White House.

World War II
Military
Over 1.5 million blacks served in uniform during World War II. They served in segregated units.[37] [38] Famous segregated units, such as the Tuskegee Airmen and the U.S. 761st Tank Battalion proved their value in combat. Approximately 75 percent of the soldiers who served in the European theater as truckers for the Red Ball Express and kept Allied supply lines open were African American.[39] A total of 708 African Americans were killed in combat during World War II.[40]

Black soldiers in France, 1944

The distinguished service of these units was a factor in President Harry S. Truman's order to end discrimination in the Armed Forces in July 1948, with the promulgation of Executive Order 9981. This led in turn to the integration of the Air Force and the other services by the early 1950s.[41] [42]

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Civilian
Large numbers migrated from poor Southern farms to munitions centers. Racial tensions were high in overcrowded cities like Chicago; Detroit and Harlem experienced race riots in 1943.[43] Politically they left the Republican Party and joined the Democratic New Deal Coalition of President Franklin D. Roosevelt, whom they widely admired.[44] The political leaders, ministers and newspaper editors who shaped opinion resolved on a Double V Campaign: Victory over German and Japanese fascism abroad, and victory over discrimination at home. Black newspapers created the Double V Campaign to build black morale and head off radical action.[45] Most Black women had been farm laborers or domestics before the war.[46] Despite discrimination and segregated facilities throughout the South, they escaped the cotton patch and took blue-collar jobs in the cities. Working with the federal Fair Employment Practices Committee, the NAACP and CIO unions, these Black women fought a Double V campaignagainst the Axis abroad and against restrictive hiring practices at home. Their efforts redefined citizenship, equating their patriotism with war work, and seeking equal employment opportunities, government entitlements, and better working conditions as conditions appropriate for full citizens.[47] In the South black women worked in segregated jobs; in the West and most of the North they were integrated, but wildcat strikes erupted in Detroit, Baltimore, and Evansville where white migrants from the South refused to work alongside black women.[48] [49]

Second Great Migration


The Second Great Migration was the migration of more than 5 million African Americans from the South to the other three regions of the United States. It took place place from 1941, through World War II, and lasted until 1970.[50] It was much larger and of a different character than the first Great Migration (19101940). Some historians prefer to distinguish between the movements for those reasons. In the Second Great Migration, more than five million African Americans moved to cities in states in the North, Midwest and West, including many to California, where Los Angeles and Oakland offered many skilled jobs in the defense industry. More of these migrants were already urban laborers who came from the cities of the South. They were better educated and had better skills than people who did not migrate.[50] Compared to the more rural migrants of the period 1910-1940, many African Americans in the South were already living in urban areas and had urban job skills before they relocated. They moved to take jobs in the burgeoning industrial cities and especially the many jobs in the defense industry during World War II (WWII). Workers who were limited to segregated, low-skilled jobs in Southern cities were able to get highly skilled, well-paid jobs at California shipyards.[50] By the end of the Second Great Migration, African Americans had become an urbanized population. More than 80 percent lived in cities. Fifty-three percent remained in the Southern United States, while 40 percent lived in the Northeast and North Central states and 7 percent in the West.[50]

The Civil Rights Movement


The Supreme Court handed down a landmark decision in the case of Brown v. Board of Education (1954) of Topeka. This decision led to the dismantling of legal segregation in all areas of southern life, from schools to restaurants to public restrooms, but it occurred slowly and only after concerted activism by African Americans. Fannie E. Motley graduated from Spring Hill College in Mobile, Alabama in 1956. The ruling also brought new momentum to the Civil Rights Movement. Boycotts against segregated public transportation systems sprang up in the South, the most notable of which was the Montgomery Bus Boycott. Civil rights groups such as the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) organized across the South with tactics such as boycotts, voter registration campaigns, Freedom Rides and other nonviolent direct action, such as marches, pickets and sit-ins to mobilize around issues of equal access and voting rights. Southern segregationists

African-American history fought back to block reform. The conflict grew to involve steadily escalating physical violence, bombings and intimidation by Southern whites. Law enforcement responded to protesters with batons, electric cattle prods, fire hoses, attack dogs and mass arrests. In Virginia, state legislators, school board members and other public officials mounted a campaign of obstructionism and outright defiance to integration called Massive Resistance. It entailed a series of actions to deny state funding to integrated schools and instead fund privately run "segregation academies" for white students. Farmville, Virginia, in Prince Edward County, was one of the plaintiff African-American communities involved in the 1954 Brown v. Board of Education Supreme Court decision. As a last-ditch effort to avoid court-ordered desegregation, officials in the county shut down the county's entire public school system in 1959 and it remained closed for five years.[51] White students were able to attend private schools established by the community for the sole purpose of circumventing integration. The largely black rural population of the county had little recourse. Some families were split up as parents sent their children to live with relatives in other locales to attend public school; but the majority of Prince Edward's more than 2,000 black children, as well as many poor whites, simply remained unschooled until federal court action forced the schools to reopen five years later. Perhaps the high point of the Civil Rights Movement was the 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, which brought more than 250,000 marchers to the grounds of the Lincoln Memorial and the National Mall in Washington, D.C., to speak out for an end to southern racial violence and police brutality, equal opportunity in employment, equal access in education and public accommodations. The organizers of the march were the "Big Seven" of the Civil Rights Movement: Bayard Rustin the strategist who has been called the "invisible man" of the civil rights movement; labor organizer and initiator of the march, A. Phillip Randolph; Roy Wilkins of the NAACP; Whitney Young, Jr., of the National Urban League; Martin Luther King, Jr., of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC); James Farmer of the Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. delivers his famous "I Congress on Racial Equality (CORE); and John Lewis of the Student Have a Dream" speech during the March on Non-violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). Also active behind the Washington scenes and sharing the podium with Dr. King was Dorothy Height, head of the National Council of Negro Women. It was at this event, on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial, that King delivered his historic "I Have a Dream" speech. This march and the conditions which brought it into being are credited with putting pressure on President John F. Kennedy and then Lyndon B. Johnson that culminated in the passage the Civil Rights Act of 1964 that banned discrimination in public accommodations, employment, and labor unions.

144

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145

The "Mississippi Freedom Summer" of 1964 brought thousands of idealistic youth, black and white, to the state to run "freedom schools", to teach basic literacy, history and civics. Other volunteers were involved in voter registration drives. The season was marked by harassment, intimidation and violence directed at civil rights workers and their host families. The disappearance of three youths, James Chaney, Andrew Goodman and Michael Schwerner in Philadelphia, Mississippi, captured the attention of the nation. Six weeks later, searchers found the savagely beaten body President Johnson signs the historic Civil Rights Act of 1964. of Chaney, a black man, in a muddy dam alongside the remains of his two white companions, who had been shot to death. Outrage at the escalating injustices of the "Mississippi Blood Summer",as it by then had come to be known, and at the brutality of the murders, brought about the passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965. The Act struck down barriers to black enfranchisement and was the capstone to more than a decade of major civil rights legislation. By this time, African Americans who questioned the effectiveness of nonviolent protest had gained a greater voice. More militant black leaders, such as Malcolm X of the Nation of Islam and Eldridge Cleaver of the Black Panther Party, called for blacks to defend themselves, using violence, if necessary. From the mid-1960s to the mid-1970s, the Black Power movement urged African Americans to look to Africa for inspiration and emphasized black solidarity, rather than integration.

Post Civil Rights Era African-American history


Politically and economically, blacks have made substantial strides in the post-civil rights era. Civil rights leader Jesse Jackson, who ran for the Democratic Party's presidential nomination in 1984 and 1988, brought unprecedented support and leverage to blacks in politics. In 1989, Douglas Wilder became the first African-American elected governor in U.S. history. In 1992 Carol Moseley-Braun of Illinois became the first black woman elected to the U.S. Senate. There were 8,936 black officeholders in the United States in 2000, showing a net increase of 7,467 since 1970. In 2001 there were 484 black mayors. The 38 African-American members of Congress form the Congressional Black Caucus, which serves as a political bloc for issues relating to African Americans. The appointment of blacks to high federal officesincluding General Colin Powell, Chairman of the U.S. Armed Forces Joint Chiefs of Staff, 19891993, United States Secretary of State, 20012005; Condoleezza Rice, Assistant to the The first African-American President of the President for National Security Affairs, 20012004, Secretary of State United States, Barack Obama in, 20052009; Ron Brown, United States Secretary of Commerce, 19931996; and Supreme Court justices Thurgood Marshall and Clarence Thomasalso demonstrates the increasing visibility of blacks in the political arena. Economic progress for blacks' reaching the extremes of wealth has been slow. According to Forbes richest lists, Oprah Winfrey was the richest African American of the 20th century and has been the world's only black billionaire

African-American history in 2004, 2005, and 2006. [52] Not only was Winfrey the world's only black billionaire but she has been the only black on the Forbes 400 list nearly every year since 1995. BET founder Bob Johnson briefly joined her on the list from 2001-2003 before his ex-wife acquired part of his fortune; although he returned to the list in 2006, he did not make it in 2007. With Winfrey the only African American wealthy enough to rank among America's 400 richest people,[53] blacks currently comprise 0.25% of America's economic elite and comprise 13% of the U.S. population. In 2008, Illinois senator Barack Obama became the first black presidential nominee of the Democratic Party, making him the first African-American presidential candidate from a major political party. He was elected as the 44th President of the United States on November 4, 2008, and inaugurated on January 20, 2009.

146

Social issues
After the Civil Rights Movement gains of the 1950s-1970s, due to government neglect, unfavorable social policies, high poverty rates, changes implemented in the criminal justice system and laws, and a breakdown in traditional family units, African American communities have been suffering from extremely high incarceration rates. African Americans may have the highest imprisonment rate of any major ethnic group in the world. The southern states, which historically had been involved in slavery and post-Reconstruction oppression, now produce the highest rates of incarceration and death penalty application.[54] [55]

Historiography
The history of slavery has always been a major research topic for white scholars, but until the 1950s they generally focused on the political and constitutional themes as debated by white politicians; they did not study the lives of the black slaves. During Reconstruction and the late 19th century, blacks became major actors in the South. The Dunning School of white scholars generally cast the blacks as pawns of white Carpetbaggers during this period, but W. E. B. Du Bois, a black historian, and Ulrich B. Phillips, a white historian, studied the African-American experience in depth. Du Bois' study of Reconstruction provided a more objective context for evaluating its achievements and weaknesses; in addition, he did studies of contemporary black life. Phillips set the main topics of inquiry that still guide the analysis of slave economics. During the first half of the 20th century, Carter G. Woodson was the major black scholar studying and promoting the black historical experience. Woodson insisted that the study of African descendants be scholarly sound, creative, restorative, and, most important, directly relevant to the black community. He popularized black history with a variety of innovative strategies, including Association for the Study of Negro Life outreach activities, Negro History Month (now Black History Month, in February), and a popular black history magazine. Woodson democratized, legitimized, and popularized black history.[56] Benjamin Quarles (190496) had a significant impact on the teaching of African-American history. Quarles and John Hope Franklin provided a bridge between the work of historians in historically black colleges, such as Woodson, and the black history that is now well established in mainline universities. Quarles grew up in Boston, attended Shaw University as an undergraduate, and received a graduate degree at the University of Wisconsin. He began in 1953 teaching at Morgan State College in Baltimore, where he stayed, despite a lucrative offer from Johns Hopkins University. Quarles' books included The Negro in the American Revolution (1961), Black Abolitionists (1969), The Negro in the Civil War (1953), and Lincoln and the Negro (1962), which were narrative accounts of critical wartime episodes that focused on how blacks interacted with their white allies.[57] Black history attempted to reverse centuries of ignorance. While black historians were not alone in advocating a new examination of slavery and racism in the United States, the study of African-American history has often been a political and scholarly struggle to change assumptions. One of the foremost assumptions was that slaves were passive and did not rebel. A series of historians transformed the image of African Americans, revealing a much richer and complex experience. Historians such as Leon F. Litwack showed how former slaves fought to keep their families together and struggled against tremendous odds to define themselves as free people. Others wrote of

African-American history rebellions small and large. In the 21st century, black history is regarded as mainstream. Since proclamation by President Jimmy Carter, it is celebrated every February in the United States during "Black History Month." Proponents of black history believe that it promotes diversity, develops self-esteem, and corrects myths and stereotypes. Opponents argue such curricula are dishonest, divisive, and lack academic credibility and rigor.[58]

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Knowledge of black history


Surveys of 11th and 12th-grade students and adults in 2005 show that American schools have made them very well informed about black history. Both groups were asked to name ten famous Americans, excluding presidents. Of the students, the three highest names were blacks: 67% named Martin Luther King, 60% Rosa Parks, and 44% Harriet Tubman. Among adults, King was 2nd (at 36%) and Parks was tied for 4th with 30%, while Tubman tied for 10th place with Henry Ford, at 16%. When distinguished historians were asked in 2006 to name the most prominent Americans, Parks and Tubman did not make the top 100.[59]

Scholars of African-American history


Herbert Aptheker Ira Berlin John Henrik Clarke W. E. B. Du Bois Eric Foner Steven Hahn John Hope Franklin Henry Louis Gates, Jr. Eugene Genovese Annette Gordon-Reed Lorenzo Greene Vincent Harding William Loren Katz Peter Kolchin David Levering Lewis Leon F. Litwack Rayford Logan Manning Marable Gwendolyn Midlo Hall Cedric Robinson Mark S. Weiner Nell Irvin Painter Charles H. Wesley Carter G. Woodson George G.M James Asa G. Hilliard

Elizabeth Fox-Genovese

Notes
[1] Perry, James A.. "African Roots of African-American Culture" (http:/ / www. black-collegian. com/ issues/ 1998-12/ africanroots12. shtml). The Black Collegian Online. . Retrieved 2007-06-04. [2] Gomez, Michael A: Exchanging Our Country Marks: The Transformation of African Identities in the Colonial and Antebellum South, p. 27. Chapel Hill, 1998 [3] Gomez, Michael A: Exchanging Our Country Marks: The Transformation of African Identities in the Colonial and Antebellum South, p. 29. Chapel Hill, 1998 [4] "New World Exploration and English Ambition" (http:/ / www. pbs. org/ wgbh/ aia/ part1/ 1narr2. html). The Terrible Transformation. PBS. . Retrieved 2007-06-14. [5] "From Indentured Servitude to Racial Slavery" (http:/ / www. pbs. org/ wgbh/ aia/ part1/ 1narr3. html). The Terrible Transformation. PBS. . Retrieved 2007-06-14. [6] Peter Kolchin, American Slavery, 1619-1877 (2nd ed. 2003) [7] Ira Berlin, Many Thousands Gone: The First Two Centuries of Slavery in North America (2000) [8] Peter H. Wood, Black majority: Negroes in colonial South Carolina from 1670 through the Stono Rebellion (1975) [9] Michael Gomez, Exchanging Our Country Marks: The Transformation of African Identities in the Colonial and Antebellum South (1998) [10] "Declarations of Independence, 1770-1783" (http:/ / www. pbs. org/ wgbh/ aia/ part2/ 2narr3. html). Revolution. PBS. . Retrieved 2007-06-14. [11] "The Revolutionary War" (http:/ / www. pbs. org/ wgbh/ aia/ part2/ 2narr4. html). Revolution. . Retrieved 2007-06-15. [12] "The Constitution and the New Nation" (http:/ / www. pbs. org/ wgbh/ aia/ part2/ 2narr5. html). Revolution. . Retrieved 2007-06-15. [13] Peter Kolchin, American Slavery: 1619-1877, New York: Hill and Wang, paperback, 1994, pp. 78-79

African-American history
[14] Peter Kolchin, American Slavery: 1619-1877, New York: Hill and Wang, paperback, 1994, p.78 [15] Peter Kolchin, American Slavery: 1619-1877, New York: Hill and Wang, paperback, 1994, pp.82-83 [16] Bedini, Silvio A. (1999). The Life of Benjamin Banneker: The First African-American Man of Science (2nd ed.). Maryland Historical Society. ISBN0-938420-59-3. [17] "Growth and Entrenchment of Slavery" (http:/ / www. pbs. org/ wgbh/ aia/ part3/ 3narr6. html). Brotherly Love. PBS. . Retrieved 2007-06-16. [18] Adam Rothman, Slave Country: American Expansion and the Origins of the Deep South. (2005) [19] Ira Berlin, Many Thousands Gone: The First Two Centuries of Slavery in North America (2000) [20] "Philadelphia" (http:/ / www. pbs. org/ wgbh/ aia/ part3/ 3narr1. html). Brotherly Love. . Retrieved 2007-06-17. [21] "Freedom and Resistance" (http:/ / www. pbs. org/ wgbh/ aia/ part3/ 3narr2. html). PBS. . Retrieved 2007-06-17. [22] "The Black Church" (http:/ / www. pbs. org/ wgbh/ aia/ part3/ 3narr3. html). PBS. . Retrieved 2007-06-17. [23] Albert J. Raboteau, Slave Religion: The 'Invisible Institution' in the Antebellum South (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=C3AQUK-6A2cC& pg=PA188& lpg=PA188& dq=Gillfield+ Baptist+ Church,+ Petersburg,+ VA& source=bl& ots=U6q91GTWul& sig=yi0EVoIuLJ9WhNUg3YeqcVkoKBY& hl=en& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=11& ct=result#PPA189,M1), New York: Oxford University Press, 2004, p. 137, accessed 27 Dec 2008 [24] "National Register Nominations: Pocahontas Island Historic District" (http:/ / www. nps. gov/ history/ crdi/ publications/ HM14. pdf), Heritage Matters, Jan-Feb 2008, National Park Service, accessed 30 Dec 2008 [25] John C. Willis,Forgotten Time: The Yazoo-Mississippi Delta after the Civil War, Charlottesville: University of Virginia, 2000 [26] Nicholas Lemann, Redemption: The Last Battle of the Civil War, New York: Farrar, Strauss & Giroux, 2007, p. 174 [27] Connie L. Lester, "Disfranchising Laws", Tennessee Encyclopedia (http:/ / tennesseeencyclopedia. net/ imagegallery. php?EntryID=D033), accessed 17 Apr 2008. [28] Richard H. Pildes, "Democracy, Anti-Democracy, and the Canon", Constitutional Commentary, Vol.17, 2000, p. 27 (http:/ / papers. ssrn. com/ sol3/ papers. cfm?abstract_id=224731), accessed 10 Mar 2008. [29] Richard H. Pildes, "Democracy, Anti-Democracy, and the Canon", Constitutional Commentary, Vol.17, 2000, pp.12-13 (http:/ / papers. ssrn. com/ sol3/ papers. cfm?abstract_id=224731), accessed 10 Mar 2008 [30] "Military Report on Colfax Riot, 1875", from the Congressional Record (http:/ / ftp. rootsweb. com/ pub/ usgenweb/ la/ state/ history/ military/ uncat/ colfaxr. txt), accessed 6 Apr 2008. A state historical marker erected in 1950 noted that 150 blacks died and three whites. [31] Nicholas Lemann, Redemption: The Last Battle of the Civil War, New York: Farrar, Strauss & Giroux, 2007, pp.70-76. [32] For the story of the lynchings, see Philip Dray, At the Hands of Persons Unknown: The Lynching of Black America (New York: Random House, 2002). For the systematic oppression and terror inflicted, see Leon F. Litwack, Trouble in Mind: Black Southerners in the Age of Jim Crow (New York, 1998). [33] The Second Amendment: Toward an Afro-Americanist Reconsideration (http:/ / www. guncite. com/ journals/ cd-recon. html) [34] http:/ / www. pbs. org/ opb/ historydetectives/ investigations/ 602_redhandflag. html [35] http:/ / goybet. e-monsite. com/ rubrique,general-goybet-the-red-hands,8693. html [36] Freddie Stowers,Corporal, United States Army (http:/ / www. arlingtoncemetery. net/ fstowers. htm) [37] Neil A. Wynn, African American Experience During World War II (2011) pp 43-62 [38] Ulysses Lee, The Employment of Negro Troops, Vol. 8 The United States Army in World War II (1966) [39] Williams, Rudi. "African Americans Gain Fame as World War II Red Ball Express Drivers (http:/ / www. defenselink. mil/ news/ newsarticle. aspx?id=43934)." American Armed Forces Press Service, Feb. 15, 2002. Retrieved 2007-06-10 [40] Michael Clodfelter. Warfare and Armed Conflicts- A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1500-2000. 2nd Ed. 2002 ISBN 0-7864-1204-6. [41] Alan L. Gropman, Air Force Integrates 1949-64 (1986) [42] Morris J. MacGregor, Jr., Integration of the Armed Forces, 1940-1965 (Washington, 1981). [43] Wynn, African American Experience During World War II (2011) pp 25-42, 63-80 [44] David M. Kennedy, Freedom from Fear: The American People in Depression and War, 19291945 (2001) [45] Lee Finkle, "The Conservative Aims of Militant Rhetoric: Black Protest during World War II,: Journal of American History, Dec 1973, Vol. 60 Issue 3, pp 692-713 in JSTOR (http:/ / www. jstor. org/ pss/ 1917685) [46] Maureen Honey Bitter Fruit: African American Women in World War II (1999). [47] Megan Taylor Shockley, "Working For Democracy: Working-Class African-American Women, Citizenship, and Civil Rights in Detroit, 1940-1954," Michigan Historical Review (2003), 29:125-157. [48] D'Ann Campbell, Women at War with America (1984) pp 128-9 [49] Daniel Kryder, Divided Arsenal: Race and the American State During World War II (2000), pp 113-29) [50] "In Motion: African American Migration Experience, The Second Great Migration" (http:/ / www. inmotionaame. org/ migrations/ topic. cfm?migration=9& topic=1). . Retrieved 2007-03-18. [51] Mercy Seat Films - 'THEY CLOSED OUR SCHOOLS' - Film Credits (http:/ / www. mercyseatfilms. com/ filmcredits. html) [52] http:/ / www. aframnews. com/ html/ 2006-05-10/ publisher. htm [53] http:/ / biz. yahoo. com/ ap/ 070920/ apfn_forbes_400_alphabetical_list. html [54] "One in 100: Behind Bars in America 2008" (http:/ / www. pewcenteronthestates. org/ uploadedFiles/ 8015PCTS_Prison08_FINAL_2-1-1_FORWEB. pdf), Pew Research Center

148

African-American history
[55] "One in 31: The Long Reach of American Corrections" (http:/ / www. pewcenteronthestates. org/ report_detail. aspx?id=49382), Pew Research Center, released March 2, 2009 [56] Pero Gaglo Dagbovie, "Making Black History Practical and Popular: Carter G. Woodson, the Proto Black Studies Movement, and the Struggle for Black Liberation." Western Journal of Black Studies 2004 28(2): 372-383. Issn: 0197-4327 Fulltext: Ebsco [57] August Meier, "Benjamin Quarles and the Historiography of Black America," Civil War History, June 1980, Vol. 26#2 pp 101-116 [58] Abul Pitre and Ruth Ray, "The Controversy Around Black History," Western Journal of Black Studies 2002 26(3): 149-154. Issn: 0197-4327 Fulltext: Ebsco [59] Sam Wineburg and Chauncey Monte-Sano, "'Famous Americans': The Changing Pantheon of American Heroes," Journal of American History (March 2008) 94#4 pp. 11861202.

149

Further reading
Surveys
Earle, Jonathan, and Malcolm Swanston. The Routledge Atlas of African American History (2000) excerpt and text search (http://www.amazon.com/dp/0415921422/) Finkelman, Paul, ed. Encyclopedia of African American History, 1619-1895: From the Colonial Period to the Age of Frederick Douglass (3 vol 2006) Finkelman, Paul, ed. Encyclopedia of African American History, 1896 to the Present: From the Age of Segregation to the Twenty-first Century (5 vol 2009) excerpt and text search (http://www.amazon.com/dp/ 0195167791/) Franklin, John Hope, and Alfred Moss, From Slavery to Freedom. A History of African Americans, (2001), standard textbook; first edition in 1947 excerpt and text search (http://www.amazon.com/dp/0375406719/) Harris, William H. The Harder We Run: Black Workers Since the Civil War. (1982). online edition (http://www. questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=16297018) Hine, Darlene Clark, Rosalyn Terborg-Penn and Elsa Barkley Brown, eds. Black Women in America - An Historical Encyclopedia, (2005) excerpt and text search (http://www.amazon.com/dp/0253327741/) Hine, Darlene Clark, et al. The African-American Odyssey (2 vol, 4th ed. 2007) textbook excerpt and text search vol 1 (http://www.amazon.com/dp/0136150136/) Holt, Thomas C. ed. Major Problems in African-American History: From Freedom to "Freedom Now," 1865-1990s (2000) reader in primary and secondary sources Holt, Thomas C. Children of Fire: A History of African Americans (Hill & Wang; 2010) 438 pages Kelley, Robin D. G., and Earl Lewis, eds. To Make Our World Anew: A History of African Americans. (2000). 672pp; 10 long essays by leading scholars online edition (http://www.questia.com/read/108611978?title=To Make Our World Anew: A History of African Americans) Litwack, Leon, and August Meier. Black Leaders of the 19th Century. (1988) Franklin, John Hope, and August Meier, eds. Black Leaders of the Twentieth Century. (1982), short biographies by scholars. Lowery, Charles D. and John F. Marszalek, eds. Encyclopedia of African-American Civil Rights: From Emancipation to the Present (1992) online edition (http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=71235565) Mandle, Jay R. Not Slave, Not Free: The African American Economic Experience since the Civil War (1992) online edition (http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=3099697) Painter, Nell Irvin. Creating Black Americans: African American History and Its Meanings, 1619 to the Present. (2006), 480 pp Palmer, Colin A. ed. Encyclopedia Of African American Culture And History: The Black Experience In The Americas (6 vol. 2005)

Pinn, Anthony B. The African American Religious Experience in America (2007) excerpt and text search (http:// www.amazon.com/dp/0813031974/)

African-American history Salzman, Jack, David Lionel Smith, and Cornel West, eds. Encyclopedia of African-American Culture and History. (5 vol. 1996). Smallwood, Arwin D The Atlas of African-American History and Politics: From the Slave Trade to Modern Times (1997) Weiner, Mark S. Black Trials: Citizenship from the Beginnings of Slavery to the End of Caste, (2004)

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Since 1940
Graham, Hugh Davis. The Civil Rights Era: Origins and Development of National Policy, 1960-1972 (1990) Kusmer, Kenneth L. and Joe W. Trotter, eds. African-American Urban History since World War II, edited by (2009) ISBN 978-0-226-46510-4 Black Jr., Timuel D. Bridges of Memory; Chicago's First Wave of Black Migration: An Oral History, (2005) ISBN 0-8101-2315-0 Patterson, James T. Grand Expectations: The United States, 1945-1974 (Oxford History of the United States) (1997) Patterson, James T. Restless Giant: The United States from Watergate to Bush v. Gore (Oxford History of the United States) (2007) Wynn, Neil A. African American Experience During World War II (2011)

Historiography and teaching


Arnesen, Eric. "Up From Exclusion: Black and White Workers, Race, and the State of Labor History," Reviews in American History 26#1 March 1998, pp.146174 in Project Muse Dagbovie, Pero Gaglo. African American History Reconsidered (2010); 255 pages; excerpt and text search (http:/ /www.amazon.com/dp/0252077016/) Dagbovie, Pero. The Early Black History Movement, Carter G. Woodson, and Lorenzo Johnston Greene (2007) excerpt and text search (http://www.amazon.com/dp/0252074351/) Dagbovie, Pero Gaglo. "Exploring a Century of Historical Scholarship on Booker T. Washington." Journal of African American History 2007 92(2): 239-264. Issn: 1548-1867 Fulltext: Ebsco Dorsey, Allison. "Black History Is American History: Teaching African American History in the Twenty-first Century." Journal of American History 2007 93(4): 1171-1177. Issn: 0021-8723 Fulltext: History Cooperative Ernest, John. "Liberation Historiography: African-American Historians before the Civil War," American Literary History 14#3, Fall 2002, pp.413443 in Project Muse Eyerman, Ron. Cultural Trauma: Slavery and the Formation of African American Identity (2002) argues that slavery emerged as a central element of the collective identity of African Americans in the post-Reconstruction era. Fields, Barbara J. "Ideology and Race in American History," in J. Morgan Kousser and James M. McPherson , eds., Region, Race, and Reconstruction: Essays in Honor of C. Vann Woodward (1982), Franklin, John Hope. "Afro-American History: State of the Art," Journal of American History (June 1988): 163-173. in JSTOR (http://www.jstor.org/pss/1889663) Goggin, Jacqueline. Carter G. Woodson: A Life in Black History (1993) Hall, Stephen Gilroy. "'To Give a Faithful Account of the Race': History and Historical Consciousness in the African-American Community, 1827-1915." PhD disseratation, Ohio State U. 1999. 470 pp. DAI 2000 60(8): 3084-A. DA9941339 Fulltext: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Harris, Robert L., "Coming of Age: The Transformation of Afro-American Historiography," Journal of Negro History 57 (1982): 107-121. in JSTOR (http://www.jstor.org/pss/2717569) Harris, Robert L., Jr. "The Flowering of Afro-American History." American Historical Review 1987 92(5): 1150-1161. Issn: 0002-8762 in Jstor (http://www.jstor.org/stable/1868489)

African-American history Higginbotham, Evelyn Brooks, "African-American Womens History and the Metalanguage of Race," Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 17 (1992): 251-274. Hine, Darlene Clark, ed. Afro-American History: Past, Present, and Future. (1986). Hine, Darlene Clark. Hine Sight: Black Women and the Re-Construction of American History (1994) excerpt and text search (http://www.amazon.com/dp/0253211247/) Hornsby Jr., Alton, et al. eds. A Companion to African American History. (2005). 580 pp.31 long essays by experts covering African and diasporic connections in the context of the transatlantic slave trade; colonial and antebellum African, European, and indigenous relations; processes of cultural exchange; war and emancipation; post-emancipation community and institution building; intersections of class and gender; migration; and struggles for civil rights. ISBN 0-631-23066-1 McMillen, Neil R. "Up from Jim Crow: Black History Enters the Profession's Mainstream." Reviews in American History 1987 15(4): 543-549. Issn: 0048-7511 in Jstor (http://www.jstor.org/stable/2701928) Meier, August, and Elliott Rudwick. Black History and the Historical Profession, 1915-1980 (1986) Nelson, Hasker. Listening For Our Past: A Lay Guide To African American Oral History Interviewing (2000) excerpt and text search (http://www.amazon.com/dp/0964732106/) Quarles, Benjamin. Black Mosaic: Essays in Afro-American History and Historiography (1988). Rabinowitz, Howard N. "More Than the Woodward Thesis: Assessing The Strange Career of Jim Crow", Journal of American History 75 (Dec. 1988): 842-56. in JSTOR (http://www.jstor.org/pss/1901533) Reidy, Joseph P. "Slave Emancipation Through the Prism of Archives Records" (1997) online (http://www. archives.gov/publications/prologue/1997/summer/slave-emancipation.html) Roper, John Herbert. U. B. Phillips: A Southern Mind (1984), on the white historian of slavery Trotter, Joe W. "African-American History: Origins, Development, and Current State of the Field," OAH Magazine of History 7#4 Summer 1993 online edition (http://www.oah.org/pubs/magazine/africanamerican/ trotter.html) Wright, William D. Black History and Black Identity: A Call for a New Historiography (2002), proposes new racial and ethnic terminology and classifications for the study of black people and history. excerpt and text search (http://www.amazon.com/dp/0275974421/)

151

Primary Sources
Aptheker, Herbert, ed. A Documentary History of the Negro People in the United States. (7 vol 1951-1994) Berlin, Ira, ed. Free at Last: A Documentary History of Slavery, Freedom, and the Civil War (1995) Bracey, John H., and Manisha Sinha, eds. African American Mosaic: A Documentary History from the Slave Trade to the Twenty-First Century, (2 vol 2004) Chafe, William Henry, Raymond Gavins, and Robert Korstad, eds. Remembering Jim Crow: African Americans Tell About Life in the Segregated South (2003) excerpt and text search (http://www.amazon.com/dp/ 1565847784/) Finkenbine, Roy E. Sources of the African-American Past: Primary Sources in American History (2nd ed. 2003) Hampton, Henry, and Steve Fayer, eds. Voices of Freedom (1990), oral histories of civil rights movement King, Martin Luther. I Have a Dream: Writings and Speeches That Changed the World, (1992) excerpt and text search (http://www.amazon.com/dp/0062505521/) King, Martin Luther. Why We Can't Wait (1963; 2000) King, Martin Luther. The Papers of Martin Luther King, Jr.: Volume VI: Advocate of the Social Gospel, September 1948-March 1963 (2007) excerpt and text search (http://www.amazon.com/dp/0520248740/) Levy, Peter B. Let Freedom Ring: A Documentary History of the Modern Civil Rights Movement (1992) online edition (http://www.questia.com/read/27510341?title=Let Freedom Ring: A Documentary History of the Modern Civil Rights Movement)

African-American history Rawick, George P. ed. The American Slave: A Composite Autobiography (19 vols., (1972) oral histories with ex-slaves conducted in 1930s by Works Progress Administration Sernett, Milton C. African American Religious History: A Documentary Witness (1999) excerpt and text search (http://www.amazon.com/dp/0822305941/) Wright, Kai, ed. The African-American Archive: The History of the Black Experience Through Documents (2001)

152

External links
A daily look into the great events and people in African American history (http://www. todayinafricanamericanhistory.com) Pioneering African American oral history video excerpts (http://www.visionaryproject.org/videos) at The National Visionary Leadership Project Black History Daily - 365 days of Black History (http://blackhistorydaily.com) African-American history connection (http://www.aawc.com/aah.html) "African American History Channel" (http://www.africanamericanhistory.tv) - African-American History Channel "Africans in America" (http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia) - PBS 4-Part Series (2007) (http://www.pbs.org/opb/historydetectives/investigations/602_redhandflag.html) PBS Red Hand flag Episode 2008 (http://goybet.e-monsite.com/rubrique,general-goybet-the-red-hands,8693.html)- General Mariano Goybet and the Red Hands. Living Black History: (http://www.amazon.com/dp/0465043895) How Reimagining the African-American Past Can Remake America's Racial Future by Dr. Manning Marable (http://www.manningmarable.net/) (2006) Library of Congress (http://www.loc.gov/rr/mss/guide/african.html) - African American History and Culture Center for Contemporary Black History (http://www.columbia.edu/cu/ccbh/) at Columbia University Encyclopedia Britannica - Guide to Black History (http://search.eb.com/Blackhistory/home.do) Missouri State Archives - African-American History Initiative (http://www.sos.mo.gov/archives/resources/ africanamerican/intro.asp) Black History Month (http://www.blackhistory.com) "Remembering Jim Crow" (http://americanradioworks.publicradio.org/features/remembering/) - Minnesota Public Radio (multi-media) Educational Toys focused on African-American History (http://www.hiatoys.com/index.html), History in Action Toys "Slavery and the Making of America" (http://www.pbs.org/wnet/slavery) - PBS - WNET, New York (4-part series) Timeline (http://www.pbs.org/wnet/slavery/timeline/index.html) of Slavery in America Tennessee Technological University - African-American History and Studies (http://www.tntech.edu/history/ black.html) "They Closed Our Schools", the story of Massive Resistance and the closing of the Prince Edward County, Virginia public schools (http://www.mercyseatfilms.com/filmcredits.html) Black People in History (http://www.itzcaribbean.com/black_people_history.php) Comparative status of African-Americans in Canada in the 1800s (http://www.yorku.ca/aconline/culture/ pioneers.html#cdoctor) Historical resources related to African American history provided free for public use by the State Archives of Florida (http://www.floridamemory.com/OnlineClassroom/blackhistory/) USF Africana Project (http://www.africanaheritage.com/) A guide to African-American genealogy Ancient Egyptian Photo Gallery (http://www.freemaninstitute.com/RTGhistory.htm)

African-American history Research African-American Records at the National Archives (http://www.archives.gov/research/ african-americans/) Memphis Civil Rights Digital Archive (http://www.crossroadstofreedom.org/) Randolph Linsly Simpson African-American Collection (http://beinecke.library.yale.edu/digitallibrary/ simpson.html) Photographs of African-American life and racial attitudes, 18501940, from the collection of the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library at Yale University (http://www.library.yale.edu/beinecke/) Black History Milestones (http://www.history.com/topics/black-history-milestones)

153

Prince Hall Freemasonry


Prince Hall Freemasonry derives from historical events which led to a tradition of separate predominantly African-American Freemasonry in North America. It consists of independent Grand Lodges, which are considered regular by the United Grand Lodge of England.[1]

History
On March 6, 1775, an African American named Prince Hall was made a Master Mason in Irish Constitution Military Lodge No. 441, along with fourteen other African Americans: Cyrus Johnston, Bueston Slinger, Prince Rees, John Canton, Peter Freeman, Benjamin Tiler, Duff Ruform, Thomas Santerson, Prince Rayden, Cato Speain, Boston Smith, Peter Best, Forten Horward, and Richard Titley, all of whom apparently were free by birth. When the Military Lodge left the area, the African Americans were given the authority to meet as a Lodge, form Processions on the days of the Saints John, and conduct Masonic funerals, but not to confer degrees nor to do other Masonic work. These individuals applied for and obtained a Warrant for Charter from the Grand Lodge of England in 1784 and formed African Lodge #459. Despite being stricken from the rolls (like all American Grand Lodges were after the 1813 merger of the Antients and the Moderns), the Lodge restyled itself as African Lodge #1 (not to be confused with the Prince Hall's grave in Copp's Hill Burying various Grand Lodges on the Continent of Africa), and separated itself Ground, Boston. from United Grand Lodge of England-recognized Masonry. This led to a tradition of separate, predominantly African American jurisdictions in North America, which are known collectively as Prince Hall Freemasonry. Widespread racism and segregation in North America made it impossible for African Americans to join many mainstream lodges, and many mainstream Grand Lodges in North America refused to recognize as legitimate the Prince Hall Lodges and Prince Hall Masons in their territory. For many years both Prince Hall and "mainstream" Grand Lodges have had integrated membership, though in some Southern states this has been policy but not practice. Today, Prince Hall Lodges are recognized by the Grand Lodge of England (UGLE) as well as the great majority of state Grand Lodges in the US and many international Grand Lodges. While no Grand Lodge of any kind is universally recognized, at present, Prince Hall Masonry is recognized by some UGLE-recognized Grand Lodges and not by others, but appears to be working its way toward further recognition.[2] According to data compiled in 2008, 41 out of the 51 mainstream US Grand Lodges recognize Prince Hall Grand Lodges. The mainstream state Grand Lodges that do not recognize Prince Hall Grand Lodges are located largely in southern states: Alabama, Georgia, Tennessee, Mississippi, Florida, Louisiana, Arkansas, South Carolina, Kentucky, and West Virginia. [3]

Prince Hall Freemasonry

154

Notable members
There are many notable Masons who were affiliated with Prince Hall originated Grand Lodges. Among the first Grand Masters, Prince Hall African Lodge #459: Prince Hall, Boston, Massachusetts, Grand Master 1791-1807 Nero Prince, Boston, Massachusetts, Grand Master 1808 George Middleton, Boston, Massachusetts, Grand Master 1809-1810. Commander, Bucks of America, a unit of black soldiers during the American Revolution. The unit received a flag from Governor John Hancock for its faithful service. Middleton was also a founder of the African Benevolent Society. Peter Lew, Dracut, Massachusetts, Grand Master 1811-1816, son of Barzillai Lew Sampson H. Moody, Grand Master 1817-1825 John T. Hilton, Grand Master 1826-1827 Walker Lewis, Lowell, Massachusetts, Grand Master 1829-1830 Thomas Dalton, Boston, Massachusetts, Grand Master 1831-1832, son-in-law of Barzillai Lew

References
[1] (http:/ / bessel. org/ masrec/ phaugle. htm) "Report From The United Grand Lodge of England Prince Hall Masonry and the Prince Hall Grand Lodge of Massachusetts"] Accessed March 26, 2008. [2] "Who is Prince Hall?" (http:/ / www. mindspring. com/ ~johnsonx/ whoisph. htm), accessed on 9 February 2006. [3] "Prince Hall Masonry Recognition details: Map of U.S. Recognition Status" (http:/ / bessel. org/ masrec/ phamap. htm). Bessel.org. 2008-10-25. . Retrieved 2008-11-02.

Roundtree, Alton G., and Paul M. Bessel (2006). Out of the Shadows: Prince Hall Freemasonry in America, 200 Years of Endurance. Forestville MD: KLR Publishing

External links
Prince Hall Freemasonry (http://freemasonry.bcy.ca/prince_hall/) Prince Hall Freemasonry, Phylaxis Society (http://www.freemasonry.org/phylaxis/prince_hall.htm) Prince Hall Revisited (http://www.freemasons-freemasonry.com/popefr.html) by Tony Pope, editor of the Australian & New Zealand Masonic Research Council's publications. The Black Heritage Trail The George Middleton House Boston African-American National Historic Site (http:// www.nps.gov/boaf/georgemiddleton.htm) Museum of Afro-American History website George Middleton house and has photo of Bucks of America flag-for reference only} (http://www.afroammuseum.org/site2.htm) Some Famous Prince Hall Freemasons (http://www.webcitation.org/query?url=http://www.geocities.com/ TimesSquare/1914/famous.html&date=2009-10-25+11:23:12) Famous Prince Hall Freemasons (http://www.phaohio.org/mwphgloh/likfm.html)

Chief of the Carib Territory

155

Chief of the Carib Territory


The Chief of the Carib Territory presides over the Carib Council, the local government of the Carib Territory (or Carib Reserve)[1] The position is the equivalent of a village council chairperson elsewhere in Dominica.[2] Beginning in the late 20th century, Carib Chiefs have also acted as a representative of the Carib Territory to other indigenous populations in the Caribbean region, and have worked with organizations including the Caribbean Organization of Indigenous Peoples and the United Nations Working Group on Indigenous Populations.[3] Historically, the Chief was the leader of the Caribs or Kalinago, the indigenous inhabitants of Dominica. Under British colonialism, the title was officially recognized as a ceremonial position beginning in 1903, when the Carib Reserve was established. The colonial governor endowed the Carib Chief with a silver-headed staff and a sash embroidered with "The Chief of the Caribs" in gothic lettering.[4] Colonial authorities suspended the position in 1930 after the "The Carib War," a brief, but violent, civil disturbance.[5] The position of Chief was finally reinstated in 1953, as part of an island-wide system of local council government.[6]
Name Thomas "Indian" Warner 1667 - 1674 Petit Franois (Popot) Wakanik Joseph Brunie Auguiste Franois Served sometime in the first half of the 18th century Served in the middle half of the 18th century Served sometime in the period 1850 - 1875 Served sometime in the period 1875 - 1900 Served during the period when the Carib Reserve was officially established by the British government Period

Jules Benjamin Corriette 1916 - 1926 Thomas "Jolly" John Simon John Office suspended Whitney Frederick Jermandois Francis Masclem Frederick Faustulus Frederick Hilary Frederick Irvince Auguiste Garnet Joseph Charles Williams Garnet Joseph 1926 - 1930 1930 (six minths) 1930 - 1952 1953 - 1959 1959 - 1972 1972 - 1975 1975 - 1979 1979 - 1984 1984 - 1994 1994 - 2004 2004 - 2009 2009 - Present

Chief of the Carib Territory

156

Notes
[1] Though under the Carib Reserve Act, the area's official name is the Carib Reserve, the Carib people themselves prefer the name Carib Territory, and that name is now in more popular use. See, e.g., Kossek 1994, p.191 ("The reserve was renamed 'Carib Territory' by the Caribs themselves."); Honychurch 1998, p.83 ("...the Carib Territory, as it is now popularly called..."). [2] Honychurch 1998, p.83 ("Except for this title, [the Carib Chief] plays the same role as all the other Village Council chairmen in Dominica.") [3] Kossek 1994, p.191. [4] Honychurch 1995, p.161; Honychurch 1998, p.82. [5] See Honychurch 1995, pp.16162 for a detailed account. [6] Honychurch 1995, p.162; Honychurch 1998, p.83.

References
World Statesmen.org (http://worldstatesmen.org/Dominica.html) Honychurch, Lennox (1995), The Dominica Story: A History of the Island, Oxford: Macmillan Education Ltd, ISBN978-0-333-62776-1. Honychurch, Lennox (1998), Dominica: Isle of Adventure (Third ed.), Macmillan Education Ltd, ISBN978-0-333-72065-3. Kossek, Brigitte (1994), "Land Rights, Cultural Identity and Gender Politics in the Carib Territory in Dominica", in Kuppe, Ren; Potz, Richard, Law & Anthropology, 7, Martinus Nijhof, pp.171202, ISBN0792331427.

List of Freemasons
This list is incomplete. This is a list of notable Freemasons. Freemasonry is a fraternal organisation which exists in a number of forms worldwide. Throughout history some members of the fraternity have made no secret of their involvement, while others have not made their membership public. In some cases, membership can only be proven by searching through the fraternity's records. Such records are most often kept at the individual lodge level, and may be lost due to fire, flood, deterioration, or simple carelessness. Grand Lodge governance may have shifted or reorganized, resulting in further loss of records on the member or the name, number, location or even existence of the lodge in question. In areas of the world where Masonry has been suppressed by governments, records of entire grand lodges have been destroyed. Because of this, masonic membership can sometimes be difficult to verify. Standards of "proof" for those on this list may vary widely; some figures with no verified lodge affiliation are claimed as Masons if reliable sources give anecdotal evidence suggesting they were familiar with the "secret" signs and passes, but other figures are rejected over technical questions of regularity in the lodge that initiated them. Where available, specific lodge membership information is provided; where serious questions of verification have been noted by other sources, this is indicated as well.

A
Jos Abad Santos, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines.[1] John Abbott Canadian Prime Minister (18911892). Initiated St. Paul's, No. 374, E.R., Montreal, 1847.[2] William "Bud" Abbott of the Abbott & Costello comedy team.[3] Nicanor Abelardo, Filipino composer. Raised in Luzon Lodge No. 57[4] Sherman Adams Governor of New Hampshire and U.S. Congressman.[3] Gregorio Aglipay, Supreme Bishop of the Philippine Independent Church.[5]

Emilio Aguinaldo President of the Philippines. Pilar Lodge No. 203 (now Pilar Lodge No. 15) at Imus Cavite and was founder of Magdalo Lodge No. 31 (renamed Emilio Aguinaldo Lodge No. 31 in his honor).[3] Agustn I of Mexico, emperor of Mexico[6]

List of Freemasons Nelson Aldrich, United States Senator from Rhode Island. Treasurer of the Grand Lodge of Rhode Island 1877-78, member of What Cheer lodge.[3] Edwin "Buzz" Aldrin Astronaut. Montclair Lodge No. 144, New Jersey.[7] Elizabeth Aldworth, Noted female Mason. Entered Apprentice and Fellowcraft Degree in 1712.[8] Vasile Alecsandri Romanian Poet, playwright, politician and diplomat.[9] Jos Eloy Alfaro Delgado - President of Ecuador[10] Salvador Allende Socialist president of Chile (19701973). Lodge Progreso No. 4, Valparaso.[7] Abd al-Qadir al-Jaza'iri, Sufi mystic, scholar and political leader.1864 (one on-line source says 1867, contemporary sources say 1864), member Henri IV, Paris, but degree work conducted at Lodge of the Pyramids, Alexandria, Egypt[11] [12] Ezra Ames, Portrait painter[3] James Anderson, Presbyterian minister best known for his influence on the early development of Freemasonry. Author of "The Constitutions of the Free-Masons" (1723) and The New Book of Constitutions of the Antient and Honourable Fraternity of Free and Accepted Masons (1738)[13] Edward Neville da Costa Andrade, English physicist. Initiated into Lodge Progresso No. 4 in 1935.[14] Louis Andr, French soldier[15] [16] Jules Anspach, Belgian Liberal politician[17] Lewis Addison Armistead, Confederate general during the American Civil War. Alexandria-Washington Lodge #22, Alexandria, Virginia[18] Galicano Apacible, Filipino politician.[19] Raymond Apple, Chief Rabbi, Great Synagogue (Sydney), Australia, (19722005)[20] Sir Edward Victor Appleton, English Physicist. Nobel Prize 1947. Isaac Newton Lodge No. 859, Cambridge.[7] Dennis Archer, US Politician. Geometry Lodge #49 (Prince Hall), Detroit[21] Constantin Argetoianu, Prime Minister of Romania, 1939.[9] John Armstrong, Jr., American soldier, delegate to the Continental Congress, United States Senator and United States Secretary of War. Hibernia Lodge No. 339, New York.[22] Thomas Arne Composer of Rule Britannia[14] Benedict Arnold, Hiram Lodge No. 1, New Haven, Connecticut[23] Eddy Arnold, singer[3] Franois-Marie Arouet (Voltaire), Raised 1778 by WM Ben Franklin, Loge des Neuf Surs, Paris[24] Gheorghe Asachi Romanian writer, poet, painter, historian, dramatist and translator.[9] Elias Ashmole, 17th-century English antiquary and politician, Warrington Lodge, Lancashire[25] John Jacob Astor, American Financier, The Holland Lodge No. 8, New York, New York, 1790[26] Mustafa Kemal Atatrk National hero and founder of the modern Republic of Turkey. Macedonia Risorta Lodge No. 80 (some claim Lodge Veritas), Thessaloniki[27] [28] [29] Stephen F. Austin Secretary of State for the Republic of Texas. Louisiana Lodge No. 109, Missouri.[3] Gene Autry, Movie and television star, Catoosa Lodge No. 185, OK[30]

157

B
Johann Christian Bach, Composer. Lodge of Nine Muses No. 235, London.[31] Michael Baigent, British author and editor of Freemasonry Today[32] Simmons Jones Baker, US physician, planter, and legislator. Grand Master of Masons of North Carolina in 1832 and again in 1840. Laid the cornerstone of the state capitol building in Raleigh, North Carolina on July 4, 1833.[33] [34] [35] [36] Mikhail Bakunin, Russian revolutionary, Lodge Il Progresso Sociale, Florence 1864,[37] Nicolae Blcescu, Romanian historian, journalist and 1848 revolutionary.[9]

List of Freemasons Henry Baldwin, US Associate Justice (18301844):[38] Master of Lodge No. 45 in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, in 1805[38] Harold Ballard, One time owner of Toronto Maple Leafs National Hockey League team. Corinthian No. 481, GRC, Toronto, ON.[2] Francis Stillman Barnard, Canadian politician and Lieutenant Governor of British Columbia. Raised: Victoria Columbia No. 1. April 17, 1887[39] Simion Brnuiu, Romanian philosopher and politician.[40] Diego Martnez Barrio, Prime minister of Spain and founder of the Republican Union Party[41] Frederic Bartholdi, Sculptor of the Statue of Liberty in New York. Lodge Alsace-Lorraine, Paris.[42] Edmund Barton, first Prime Minister of the Commonwealth of Australia, Speaker of the legislative assembly.[3] William "Count" Basie, Jazz orchestra leader and composer. Wisdom Lodge No. 102 (Prince Hall), Chicago. Also a Shriner.[3] Frederick Bates, Governor of Missouri.[3] Birch Bayh, US Senator from Indiana from 1962-1981.[3] Daniel Carter Beard, Founder of the Boy Scouts. Made a Mason in Mariner's Lodge No. 67, New York City, New York, and later affiliated with Cornucopia Lodge 563, Flushing, New York.[24] Charles Genevive Louis Auguste Andr Timothe d'on de Beaumont, French soldier, diplomat and spy. Raised: January, 1769, Lodge of Immortality No. 376, London[43] Gunning Bedford, Jr, Signer of the US Constitution, first Grand Master of Masons in Delaware.[44] Edvard Bene, President of Czechoslovakia (19351939, 19451948). Ian Amos Komensky Lodge No. 1, Prague.[45] R.B. Bennett, Prime Minister of Canada 1930-1935.[3] Lloyd M. Bentsen, US Senator from Texas[3] Irving Berlin, Composer. Munn Lodge No.190, New York.[46] Silvio Berlusconi, Italian media tycoon and politician. Propaganda Due, Expelled in 1981 (some say 1976) by the Grand Orient of Italy[47] Ramn Emeterio Betances, Puerto Rican politician and statesman. Logia Unin Germana, San Germn, Puerto Rico.[48] George Valentin Bibescu, Romanian aviation pioneer, Grand Master of Romanian Grand Lodge from 1911 to 1916.[9] Henry Harrison Bingham, Union Army officer during the American Civil War. Chartiers Lodge #297, Canonsburg, Pennsylvania.[18] Hiram Bingham III, American explorer, discovered the ruins of Machu Picchu. Hiram Lodge No. 1, Connecticut[49] Francis Bischof, Queensland Australia Police Commissioner from 1958-1969.[50] Hugo L. Black, US Associate Justice (19371971),[38] Birmingham Temple Lodge No. 836, Birmingham, AL John Blair, US Associate Justice (178996), and Grand Master of Virginia from 1778 to 1784.[38] Mel Blanc, American voice actor.[51] Samuel Blatchford, US Associate Justice (18821893)[38] Moses Bloom, Iowa politician.[52] Dimitrie Bolintineanu, Romainan poet, politician, 1848 revolutionary.[9] Simn Bolvar, Leader of South American independence. (Initiated: Cdiz, Spain)[24] Founding brother of Lodge Order and Liberty No. 2, Peru, 1824[24] Cezar Bolliac, Radical Romanian political figure, amateur archaeologist, journalist and Romantic poet.[9] Shadrach Bond, first Governor of Illinois.[53] Andrs Bonifacio, Leader during Philippine Revolution from Spain. Taliba Lodge No. 165 under Gran Oriente Espaol (Spanish Grand Lodge).[54]

158

List of Freemasons Omar Bongo, President of Gabon.[55] Robert Borden, Prime Minister of Canada St. Andrew's Lodge No. 1, Halifax, Nova Scotia[56] Gutzon Borglum, American sculpture, raised in Howard Lodge No. 35.[57] Lincoln Borglum, Son of Gutzon Borglum, completed the Mount Rushmore project, raised in Battle River Lodge No. 92.[57] Ernest Borgnine, Actor, Abingdon Lodge No. 48;[58] however another source indicates Melrose Lodge No. 63, California[59] James Boswell, Scottish writer, raised in Canongate Kilwinning Lodge at Edinburgh, 1759[18] Mackenzie Bowell, Prime Minister of Canada from 1894-1896[24] James Bowie, Frontiersman, Inventor of the Bowie knife. L'Humble Chaumiere Lodge No. 19 Opelousas, Louisiana.[60] William D. Boyce, founder of the Boy Scouts of America[61] Charles Bradlaugh, 19th century Atheist and Republican MP, Grand Lodge des Philadelphes, London[62] Omar N. Bradley, US General. West Point Lodge No. 877, New York[24] Sir Donald Bradman, Australian Cricketer.[63] Johannes Brahms, Composer.[64] Sir Christoffel Brand, first Speaker of the Legislative Assembly of the Cape Colony[65]

159

Joseph Brant, Principal Chief of the Six Nations Indians. Initiated in Lodge No. 417, 1776. First Master of Lodge No. 11, Mohawk Village (near Brantford) in 1798.[2] Dimitrie Brtianu, Prime Minister of Romania (1881).[9] Ion C. Brtianu, Romanian politician, three-time Prime Minister of Romania.[9] David Brearley, Signer of the U.S. Constitution on behalf of New Jersey, the first Grand Master of Masons for the State of New Jersey.[66] Anders Behring Breivik, arrested for 2011 Norway attacks.[67] Was a member of Lodge St. Olaus T.D. Tre Siler No. 8 in Oslo.[68] Formally excluded (expelled) from Freemasonry in 2011.[69] Walter Breuning. World's oldest man at the time of his death of natural causes on April 14, 2011, aged 114 years, six months, twenty-five days. Member of Great Falls Lodge No. 118, Great Falls Montana for over 85 years.[70]
[71] [72]

Sir Israel Brodie KBE, Chief Rabbi of Great Britain and the Commonwealth 1948-1965.[73] Henry Brougham, Scottish abolitionist and founder of Edinburgh Review. Raised in Fortrose Lodge, Stornway, Scotland[18] James Bruce, Scottish explorer. Canongate Kilwinning Lodge[18] Samuel von Brukenthal, Baron of the Holy Roman Empire.[9] William Jennings Bryan, American politician, United States Congressman, U. S. Secretary of State and presidential candidate. Lincoln Lodge No. 19, Lincoln, Nebraska.[74] James Buchanan, U.S. President,[24] Lodge No. 43, Lancaster, Pennsylvania Frank Buckles, last living American veteran of World War I.[75] Charles Buls, mayor of Brussels[17] Luther Burbank, US horticulturist, botanist, agricultural science pioneer. Santa Rosa Lodge No. 57,[18] Arleigh Burke, US Admiral[30] Supreme Temple Architect (Honored in 1997)[76] Robert Burnaby, English explorer and businessman. First Past Master of Victoria Lodge No. 1085, District Grand Master (English) of British Columbia.[77] Conrad Burns, US Senator from Montana[3] Robert Burns, National poet of Scotland. St. David's Lodge No. 174, Tarbolton.[78] Harold H. Burton, US Associate Justice (19451958)[38] Arthur Leopold Busch, naval architect. Member of Peconic Lodge No. 349 Greenport, New York. Cyriel Buysse, Flemish nationalist writer[17]

List of Freemasons Harry F. Byrd, Governor of Virginia, United States Senator from Virginia. Hiram Lodge No. 21, Winchester, Virginia.[79] Richard E. Byrd, US Admiral. Initiated in Federal Lodge No. 1 and founded First Antarctic Lodge No. 777 in 1935[18] James F. Byrnes, US Associate Justice (19411942)[38] Stanislav Biniki (18721942), Serbian composer, conductor, and pedagogue.[80]

160

C
Alessandro Cagliostro, Sicilian charlatan and occultist[81] Plutarco Elas Calles, President of Mexico[82] Malcolm Campbell, English motor-racer[18] Manuel Camus, Philippine Senator. October 12, 1898, Zetland in the East Lodge No 508 Singapore, under the jurisdiction of the M. W. Grand Lodge of England.[83] Gheorghe Grigore Cantacuzino Prime Minister of Romania.[9] Eddie Cantor. Entertainer, raised in Munn Lodge No 190, New York City[18] Emmanuel Carasso. Ottoman lawyer and politician, Grand Master of the Italian-rite Macedonia Risorta in Salonica.[84] Carol II King of Romania (193040).[9] Jos Miguel Carrera, Chilean General and President.[85] St. John's Lodge No. 1, New York[86] Kit Carson, American Adventurer. Montezuma Lodge No. 109, Sante Fe, New Mexico[24] Giacomo Casanova, Venetian adventurer, "lodge of the Duke of Clermont", Paris, 1750[87] Paul Foster Case, Founder of the Los Angeles occult school, the Builders of the Adytum, Fairport Lodge No. 476, Fairport, New York[88] Lewis Cass, US Politician and diplomat. American Union Lodge No.1, Marietta, Ohio. First Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Michigan[89] [90] Marc Chagall, Russian artist. initiated in 1912[91] Thomas Chalmers, Lodge St. Vigean, 1800[91] Joshua Chamberlain, Commander of US forces on Little Round Top during the American Civil War battle of Gettysburg, and governor of Maine. United Lodge #8, Brunswick, Maine[92] Nicolas Chamfort, French writer, Loge des Neuf Soeurs, Paris[24] Walter Chrysler Founder of Chrysler Corporation.[3] Winston Churchill, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Studholme Alliance Lodge No. 1591, Rosemary Lodge No. 2851. (Note: The Churchill Society claims he resigned from his Lodges in 1912.)[93] Andr Citroen, French engineer and motor-car manufacturer, Lodge La Philosophie, Paris[91] John H. Clarke, US Associate Justice (19161922)[38] Thomas C. Clark, US Associate Justice (19491967)[38] Mark Wayne Clark, US Army General, Mystic Tie Lodge No. 398, Indianapolis[91] William Clark, Explorer, Lewis and Clark expedition. Saint Louis Lodge No. 111.[94] Henry Clay Speaker of the. U.S. House of Representatives and Grand Master of Kentucky.[3] Moses Cleaveland founded the city of Cleaveland, Ohio, Worshipful Master of Moriah Lodge in 1791[91] DeWitt Clinton, Governor of New York State, Grand Master of NY during the Morgan Affair, The Holland Lodge No. 8, New York, New York, 1790[95] Tyrus Cobb, baseball star. Royston Lodge No. 426, Detroit[91] William F. Cody, a.k.a. Buffalo Bill, raised in Platte Valley Lodge No. 15, Nebraska[96]

George Cohan, Broadway star, raised in Pacific Lodge No. 233, New York City[96] Harry Cohn, Pacific Lodge No. 233, New York[59] Ernest E. Cole, Commissioner of Education of the State of New York, (19401942)[97]

List of Freemasons Nat King Cole pianist and ballad singer.[3] Thomas Cole, English-born American artist, founder of Hudson River School. Amity Lodge No. 5, Zanesville, Ohio.[98] Samuel Colt manufacturer of Colt revolvers[96] mile Combes, French Prime Minister[99] [100] [101] Spencer Compton, 7th Marquess of Northampton, Pro Grand Master, United Grand Lodge of England, 2001-2009[102] [103] Charlie Conacher, Canadian ice hockey player. Initiated in North Gate Lodge No. 591, Pickering, Ontario, in 1935.[2] Marquis de Condorcet, French mathematician and philosopher, Lodges de Neuf Soeurs[96] Leroy Cooper, U.S. astronaut, member of Carbondale Lodge No. 82, Colorado[96] Harry H. Corbett actor- star of Steptoe and Son[104] Jess Conrad entertainer, Member of Chelsea Lodge No. 3098[105] Charles de Coster, Belgian author[17] Edith Cowan, First woman elected to Australian Parliament, Member of St Cuthberts Lodge Perth Australia (Le Droit Humain).[106] Francesco Crispi, Prime Minister of Italy[107] (possibly expelled in 1894?)[108] Miron Cristea Patriarch of the Romanian Orthodox Church (192539), Prime Minister of Romania (193839).[9] Davy Crockett, 19th-century American folk hero, frontiersman, soldier and politician[96] Aleister Crowley, English occultist, Anglo-Saxon Lodge No. 343, Paris (GLdF), 1904[109] Abraham Curry, founding father of Carson City, Nevada. Masonic Lodge No. 1, Carson City.[110] William Cushing, US Associate Justice (17891810),[38] St. Andrews Lodge, Boston Alexander John Cuza Romanian Domnitor of the Danubian Principalities, 1859-66.[9]

161

D
Erasmus Darwin, English physician, philosopher, poet, grandfather of Charles Darwin. Member of Canongate Kilwinning Lodge No. 2, Edinburgh, Scotland.[111] Eugne Goblet d'Alviella, Vice-chancellor of the Universit Libre de Bruxelles and Belgian senator.[17] Jim Davidson. British comedian, Former Master, Chelsea Lodge, England (resigned), Founding Master of British Forces Foundation (Lodge) No. 9725[112] [113] William Richardson Davie, American politician and Grand Master of North Carolina from 1792-1798.[114] Carol Davila Romanian Physician.[9] William Crosby Dawson, U.S. Judge and Politician, San Marino Lodge No. 34, F.&A.M, Greensboro, GA. Grand Master of Masons in Georgia from 1843 until his death in Greensboro on May 6, 1856.[115] William Ralph "Dixie" Dean, Everton and England footballer 19251937; initiated in Randle Holme Lodge, No. 3261, Birkenhead, Cheshire on 18 February 1931.[116] Roger De Courcey, ventriloquist - Member of Chelsea Lodge No. 3098[105] Ovide Decroly, Belgian educationalist. initiated in Lodge Les Amis Philanthropes No. 2, Brussels in 1902[96] Cecil B. DeMille Movie Director, member of Prince of Orange Lodge No. 16, New York City[96] Sleyman Demirel, 9th President of the Republic of Turkey. Bilgi Lodge No.015, Ankara. Grand Lodge of Turkey.[117] Jack Dempsey, heavyweight boxing champion in 1919, Kenwood Lodge No. 800, Chicago[96] Frdric Desmons, Protestant priest who persuaded the Grand Orient de France to remove the term of the Great Architect of the Universe from their Constitution[118] Willis Van Devanter, U.S. Associate Justice (19111937)[38] Thomas Dewey, 47th Governor of New York (19021971)[119] Blaise Diagne, Senegalese political leader[120]

List of Freemasons Porfirio Daz, President of Mexico[121] Denver S. Dickerson, Governor of Nevada[122] John George Diefenbaker, Prime Minister of Canada, Wakaw Lodge No. 166, Wakaw, SK[123] Everett Dirksen U.S. Congressman and Minority Leader of the U.S. Senate.[3] Henry Dodge U.S. Senator from Wisconsin.[3] Bob Dole, U.S. politician[30] Russell Lodge No. 177, Kansas[24] Ed Doolan U.S. Radio Presenter[124] James Doolittle, U.S. General.[30] Tommy Douglas, Canadian politician, Weyburn Lodge No. 20, Weyburn, SK[125] William O. Douglas, U.S. Associate Justice (19391975)[38] Jim Douglas, Governor of Vermont[126] Sir Arthur Conan Doyle British physician and author, creator of Sherlock Holmes.[3] Edwin Drake, U.S. oil industry pioneer, Oil Creek Lodge No. 3, Titusville, Pennsylvania[96] Richard Dreyfuss, U.S. actor, made a Mason at Sight by the Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of the District of Columbia.[127] Jean Henri Dunant founder of the Red Cross and shared the first Nobel Prize[128] Herbert Dunnico, UK Politician and Master of the New Welcome Lodge[129] Joseph Duveen, 1st Baron Duveen, UK art dealer, Royal Colonial Institute Lodge No. 3556[128] Jovan Dui (18711943), Serbian poet, writer and diplomat.[130]

162

E
Hubert Eaton, American chemist, Euclid Lodge, No. 58, Great Falls, Montana[128] John David Eaton, President of the Canadian based T. Eaton Company. Assiniboine, No. 114, G.R.M., Winnipeg.[2] Edinburgh, Duke of, see entry below for Prince Philip Edward VII, King of Great Britain[113] Edward VIII, King of Great Britain[113] Prince Edward, Duke of Kent (Prince Edward George Nicholas Paul Patrick), member of the British Royal Family, Grand Master of the United Grand Lodge of England, member of various lodges including Grand Master's Lodge No 1 and Royal Alpha Lodge No 16 (both English Constitution).[131] Gustave Eiffel, Designer and architect of the Eiffel Tower.[132] Duke Ellington, Musician, Social Lodge No. 1, Washington, D.C., Prince Hall Affiliation[128] Oliver Ellsworth, Chief Justice of the United States (17961800)[38] John Elway Hall of Fame Quarterback for Denver Broncos (19831998), South Denver- Lodge No. 93, Denver, CO[133] Sam Ervin, US Senator.[30] Bob Etheridge, Member of Congress (D - NC), Bakersville Lodge No. 357, North Carolina[134] [134] [135]

List of Freemasons

163

F
Eberhard Faber, founder of the Faber Pencil Company. Chancellor Walworth No. 271, New York.[128] Douglas Fairbanks, movie star. Member of Beverly Hills Lodge No. 528[128] Ettore Ferrari, Italian sculptor. Grand Master of the Grande Oriente d'Italia.[136] Ignaz Aurelius Fessler, Hungarian ecclesiastic and writer. Member of Lodge Pythagoras of the Blazing Star in Berlin.[137] Johann Gottlieb Fichte, German philosopher. Member of Lodge Pythagoras of the Blazing Star in Berlin.[137] Stephen J. Field, US Associate Justice (18631897)[38] W. C. Fields, American comedian, E. Coppee Mitchell Lodge No. 605, Philadelphia[128] Abram Fitkin, American businessman and philanthropist (18781933), Altair Lodge No. 601, Brooklyn[138] Charles Finney, American preacher, evangelist and author (17921875). Meridian Sun Lodge No. 32 in Warren, New York. Finney asked for dismissal and was discharged.[139] Hamilton Fish IV, US Politician[140] Geoffrey Fisher, the 99th Archbishop of Canterbury and head of the worldwide Anglican Communion.[24] [113] Sir Alexander Fleming, Scottish biologist and pharmacologist. London Scottish Rifles Lodge No. 2310.[141] Sanford Fleming, Canadian engineer and inventor. St. Andrew's No. 16, Toronto, Ontario.[2] Dr. Walter Fleming, co-founder of the Shriners.[142]

William J. Florence, co-founder of the Shriners.[143] Benjamin Franklin, American inventor and statesman. St. John's Lodge, Philadelphia, February 1731[144]

G
Clark Gable, Actor, Beverly Hills Lodge No. 528, California[59] Isabelle Gatti de Gamond, pioneering Belgian secular educationalist and Socialist activist[17] James A. Garfield, U.S. President. Magnolia Lodge No. 20, Columbus Lodge No. 30, and Garrettsville Lodge No. 246, Ohio[24] [145] Frank Gillmore, Actor and President of Actor's Equity[146] Giuseppe Garibaldi, Italian general.[147] Licio Gelli, Italian politician. Worshipful master of Propaganda Due - Expelled in 1981 (some say 1976) by the Grand Orient of Italy.[148] George IV, King of Great Britain, UGLE[113] George VI, King of Great Britain, UGLE[113] Ion Ghica, twice Prime Minister of Romania, four-time President of the Romanian Academy.[9] Sir W S Gilbert, one half of 'Gilbert and Sullivan'.[149] King C. Gillette, American businessman[150] Nicholas Gilman, delegate to the Continental Congress, signer of the U.S. Constitution, member of the United States House of Representatives and the United States Senate. St. John's Lodge No. 1, Portsmouth, New Hampshire[151] James Glasgow, Who was the first North Carolina Secretary of State from 1777 to 1798.[152] He was an early officer of the Grand Lodge of North Carolina[153] but was ultimately expelled from Freemasonry due to the scandal known as the Glasgow Land Fraud.[154] John H. Glenn, Jr., Astronaut and US Senator[30] Concord Lodge No.688 Concord, Ohio[24] Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, German philosopher and Poet. Lodge Amelie, Weimar.[155] Octavian Goga, Prime Minister of Romania (193738).[9] Alexandru G. Golescu, Prime Minister of Romania (1870).[9] E. Urner Goodman, co-founder of the Boy Scouts' Order of the Arrow[156]

List of Freemasons Ron Greenwood, England national football team manager 1977-1982; initiated in Lodge of Proven Fellowship, London in 1956[116] Henri Grgoire, Roman Catholic priest, Constitutional bishop of Blois and French revolutionary leader.[55] D. W. Griffith, Film director, St. Cecile Lodge No. 568, New York[59] Virgil I. Grissom, American astronaut. Mitchell Lodge No. 228, Mitchell, Indiana.[157] Milan Grol (18761952), Serbian literary critic, politician and the last president of the Yugoslav Democratic Party, which was banned by the communist regime of Josip Broz Tito in 1946.[158]

164

H
Habibullah Khan Emir of Afghanistan, 1901-1919. Initiated in India, 1906.[159] Manly Palmer Hall, Esoteric author. Raised 1954/11/22 into Jewel Lodge No. 374, San Francisco[160] Prince Hall, Founder of Prince Hall Freemasonry. Lionel Hampton, American jazz musician, member of Prince Hall in New York.[161] Mark Hatfield, U.S. Senator, raised November 8, 1943 in Pacific Lodge No. 50, Salem, Oregon[162] John Hancock, American revolutionary, merchant and statesman.[163] Winfield Scott Hancock, U.S. General. Charity Lodge #190, Norristown, Pennsylvania Warren G. Harding, U.S. President. Marion Lodge No. 70, Ohio[24]

Oliver Hardy, Actor, Solomon Lodge No. 20, Florida[59] John M. Harlan, US Associate Supreme Court Justice.[38] Colonel John Harrelson, First Chancellor of NCSU, Raised 28 August 1909 into William G. Hill Lodge No. 218, Raleigh, NC. Member of NCSU Chapter of Square and Compass.[164] [165] [166] Joseph Hewes, Signer of the American Declaration of Independence.[167] James Hoban, Architect of the White House, first Master of Federal Lodge No. 1, District of Columbia[168] Thomas M. Holt, industrialist, Governor of North Carolina[169] J. Edgar Hoover, First Director of the FBI.[30] Grand Cross. Federal Lodge No. 1, Washington, D.C. Frank Reed Horton, 1918; Royal Arch/York Rite, 1919; Scottish Rite. Founder of Alpha Phi Omega.[170] Tim Horton, Canadian ice hockey player. Initiated in Kroy Lodge No. 676, Toronto, Ontario, in 1962.[2] Harry Houdini, Escape artist.[171] William Howley, the 90th Archbishop of Canterbury, and head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. Royal York Lodge, Bristol, England.[172] [173] [174] Richard Morris Hunt, American architect, designed the base of the Statue of Liberty. Edward John Hutchins (18091876), a Liberal MP in the UK Parliament M[175] Timothy Hutton, Actor, Herder Lodge No. 698, Borough of Queens, New York[176] Camille Huysmans, Mayor of Antwerp and Prime Minister of Belgium.[17]

I
Burl Ives, American actor and singer,[30] Magnolia (now Magnolia-La Cumbre) Lodge No. 242, California Henry Irving, noted British actor of the Victorian era[177]

J
Nat Jackley English comic actor.[178] Andrew Jackson, U.S. President. Harmony Lodge No. 1[24] Jesse Jackson, US Civil Rights leader and Politician, Harmony Lodge No. 88, Chicago, Illinois (PHA)[179] Robert H. Jackson, U.S. Supreme Court Associate Justice (19411954)[38] John Jay, Chief Justice of the United States (17891795)[38] Andrew Johnson, U.S. President. Greenville Lodge No. 119, Tennessee[24]

List of Freemasons Lyndon B. Johnson, U.S. President. Johnson City Lodge No. 561, Texas (EA degree only)[180] Al Jolson, Actor, St. Cecile Lodge No. 568, New York[59] John Paul Jones, Naval hero during the American Revolution, St. Bernards Lodge No. 122, Kirkudbright, Scotland[24] Benito Jurez, President of Mexico. Rito Nacional Mexicano de la Logia Independiente, No. 02 Slobodan Jovanovi (18691958), Serbian jurists, historians, sociologists and president of the Yugoslav government in exile, in London, during World War II.[181]

165

K
David Kalakaua, King of Hawaii, 1874-91. Lodge Le Progress de l'Oceanie No. 124[24] Alexander Keith, Canadian politician and brewmaster, former Grand Master of Nova Scotia[182] Kent, Duke of, see entry above for Prince Edward, Duke of Kent John J. Kennedy, U.S. and Confederate Army officer, ended Regulator-Moderator War. Marshall Lodge No. 22, Grand Lodge of Texas. Rudyard Kipling, UK author and poet, Hope and Perseverance Lodge No. 782. E.C., Lahore, India; founding member, The Builders of the Silent Cities Lodge No. 12, Saint-Omer, France,[183] Roger Kitter, actor - Member of Chelsea Lodge No. 3098[105] Adolph Knigge, German author[184] Mark Koltko-Rivera, American scientific author in field of psychology. Winter Park Lodge #239 (Florida).[185] Mihail Koglniceanu Prime Minister of Romania (186365), Liberal statesman, lawyer, historian and publicist.[9] Otto Kruger, Actor, St. Cecile Lodge No. 568, New York[59] Vuk Karadi (17871864), Serbian linguist and major reformer of the Serbian language.[186]

L
Marquis de Lafayette, French military officer who served as a general in the American Revolutionary War and a leader of the Garde Nationale during the French Revolution.[187] Burt Lahr,[59] Pacific Lodge No. 33, New York Joseph Lamar, US Associate Justice (18881893), Webb Lodge No. 166 F.& A.M., Augusta, Georgia[38] Frank S. Land, member of the Ivanhoe Lodge #446 on June 29, 1912 in Kansas City. He was the founder of DeMolay International.[188] Cornelis Jacobus Langenhoven (18731932), Afrikaans writer and member of South African parliament.[189] [190] Jos P. Laurel, President of the Japanese-Sponsored Republic of the Philippines during World War II, from 1943 to 1945. Batangas Lodge No. 383 under the Gran Oriente Espanol, (renamed Batangas Lodge No. 35 under the Grand Lodge of the Philippines).[191] Daniel Leavitt, inventor, manufacturer. Member of Chicopee, Massachusetts Lodge[192] Scott Leavitt, United States Congressman from Montana. Member of Delta Lodge 128, Great Falls, Montana[193] Thomas Leavitt, diplomat, politician, businessman, Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada. Member of Albion Lodge No. 52, Saint John, New Brunswick[194] Henry Lee III, Governor of Virginia, United States Congressman from Virginia, father of Confederate General Robert E. Lee. Hiram Lodge No. 59, Westmoreland County, Virginia[195] Richard Henry Lee, president of the Continental Congress, United States Senator from Virginia. Hiram Lodge No. 59, Westmoreland County, Virginia.[196] William Legge, 7th Earl of Dartmouth, British peer and conservative politician. Grand superintendent of the Royal Arch, Staffordshire.[197] William Hesketh Lever, 1st Viscount Leverhulme(1851-1925), British peer, Founder of Lever Brothers. In 1902 he was first initiate to a lodge bearing his name, William Hesketh Lever Lodge No. 2916, he later formed

List of Freemasons Leverhulme Lodge 4438.[198] He was a founder of the Phoenix Lodge 3236 whilst an M.P in 1907[199] and a founder of St. Hilary Lodge No. 3591 founded 4th May 1912, then Past Pro-Grand Warden (P.P.G.W) and Immediate Past Master (I.P.M).[200] He was appointed Senior Grand Warden of the Grand Lodge of Mark Master Masons of England in 1919 and co-founded a number of lodges including the Mersey Lodge 5434.[201] He was Provincial Senior Grand Warden of the Provincial Grand Lodge of Cheshire.[202] Leopold I, King of Belgium[17] Meriwether Lewis, Explorer, Lewis and Clark expedition. Door to Virtue Lodge No. 44, Albemarle County, Virginia.[94] Frank Licht, Politician. Governor of Rhode Island (19691973)[203] Benjamin Lincoln, Major General in the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War. Member, Rising Sun Lodge, Massachusetts.[204] Charles Lindbergh, US Aviator and chairman of the America First Committee, Keystone Lodge No. 243, St. Louis, Mo.[205] Claude Joseph Rouget de Lisle, composer of La Marseillaise[206] Pascal Lissouba, president of the Republic of the Congo, 1992-1997.[55] Franz Liszt, Composer. Lodge zur Einigkeit, Frankurt.[132] Harold Lloyd, silent film comedian and Imperial Potentate of the Shriners of North America, 1949-50.[207]

166

Graciano Lpez Jaena, Filipino writer and journalist in the Philippine Revolution. Worshipful Master at Logia Povernir No. 2.[208] Trent Lott, Former majority leader of the US Senate[209] Louis Philippe II, Duke of Orlans, Grand Master of the Grand Orient de France during the French Revolution[210] Roger Lumley, 11th Earl of Scarbrough Grand Master of the UGLE from 1951 to 1967[211] Juan Luna, Filipino painter and a political activist of the Philippine Revolution during the 19th century. Raised in Paris, France, under the auspices of Lodge Solidaridad 53.[212]

M
Apolinario Mabini, First prime minister, 1899. September 1892 at Logia Balagtas 149 under the Grand Oriente Espanol.[213] General Douglas MacArthur, US General during World War II,[30] Manila Lodge No. 1, 1936, Philippines[24] Sir John A. Macdonald, first Prime Minister of the Dominion of Canada (18671873 and 18781891). Began the creation of rail service across Canada. St. John's Lodge No. 758, Kingston, Ontario. Honourary Past Grand Senior Warden.[2] John Bayne Maclean, Canadian founder of Maclean's Magazine and President of Maclean's Publishing Co. Ionic Lodge No. 25, Toronto, ON.[2] Robert Macoy, US publisher and organizer of Eastern Star[214] Titu Maiorescu, Romanian literary critic and politician, Prime Minister of Romania (191314).[9] John Marshall, Chief Justice of the United States (18011835), Grand Master of Virginia from 1793-1795[38] Joseph Martin (17401808), Virginia militia general, explorer and Indian agent[215] Thomas S. Martin, United States Senator from Virginia. Scottsville Lodge No. 4, Scottsville, Virginia[216] Thurgood Marshall, U.S. Supreme Court Associate Justice (19671991), Coal Creek Lodge No. 88, Tulsa, Oklahoma PHA[24] Harpo Marx, US film comedian[217] Francis Mason, American missionary and zoologist[218] Samuel Liddell MacGregor Mathers, Co-founder of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn. Raised: 1878, Lodge of Hengest No. 195, Bournemouth, UK - Demitted (resigned): 1882.[219] James Mawdsley (18481902), English trade unionist[220]

List of Freemasons Louis B. Mayer, Director, St. Cecile Lodge No. 568, New York[59] Giuseppe Mazzini, Italian Revolutionary, Grand Master of the Grande Oriente d'Italia[136] John S. McCain, Jr. (19111981), US admiral, made Mason at Sight, Grand Lodge of the District of Columbia, 1975, enrolled St. John's Lodge No. 11[221] John S. McCain, Sr. (18841945), US admiral, Carrollton Lodge No. 36[222] Henry Joy McCracken, Member of the Society of the United Irishmen[223] William McKinley, U.S. President. Hiram Lodge No. 21, Virginia. Demitted to become a charter member of Eagle Lodge No. 431, later renamed William McKinley Lodge, Ohio[24] Samuel McLaughlin, Founder and President of the McLaughlin Carriage Co. which later became General Motors of Canada. Cedar Lodge No. 270, Oshawa, Ontario. Grand Steward in 1945, 75 year member in the Craft. Royal Arch, Knight Templar, President of Oshawa Shrine Club.[2] John McLean, US Associate Justice (18291861)[38] Ned Ray McWherter, Governor of Tennessee (19871995).[224] Sebastio de Melo, Marquis of Pombal, 18th century Portuguese statesman[225] [226] Juan lvarez Mendizbal, Spanish minister of the Treasury, Taller Sublime, Cdiz[227] Sir Robert Menzies, 12th Prime Minister of Australia, Austral Temple Lodge No. 110, VC[228] Joe Mercer, England national football team manager 1974; initiated in Rivacre Lodge, No. 5805, Ellesmere Port, Cheshire in 1941[116] Kweisi Mfume, President NAACP, Mount Olive Lodge No. 25, Baltimore, Maryland (Prince Hall).[229] George Middleton, Third Master of African Lodge #459 (Prince Hall)[230] J. B. Milam (18841949), Principal Chief of the Cherokee Nation, 32 degree Mason[231] Sherman Minton, US Associate Justice (19491956)[38] Ion Minulescu, Romanian poet, novelist, short story writer, journalist, literary critic and playwright.[9] John Molson, Founder of Molson Breweries. St. Paul's Lodge, No. 374 UGLE, Montreal. Past Provincial Grand Master.[2] Bob Monkhouse, English comedian and television presenter, Chelsea Lodge No.3098.[232] [233] James Monroe, U.S. President, Williamsburg Lodge No. 6, Williamsburg, Virginia.[234] [235] Jacque-tienne Montgolfier, co-inventor of the Hot air balloon, 1745 - 1799. Initiated 1784, Loge des Neuf Soeurs, Paris[236] Joseph-Michel Montgolfier, co-inventor of the Hot air balloon, 1740 - 1810. Initiated 1806, Loge des Neuf Soeurs, Paris[236] William H. Moody, US Associate Justice (19061910)[38] Robert Moray, Scottish philosopher, Edinburgh [Lodge] 1641.[25] John Hunt Morgan, General for the Confederate States of America, Daviess Lodge #22, Lexington, Kentucky[237] Robert Morris, Poet Laureate of Freemasonry and founder of the Order of the Eastern Star[3] Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Composer. Zur Wohlttigkeit (Charity) Lodge, Austria. Composed several pieces of Masonic ritual music, the first at age 11.[238] Leopold Mozart, Father of Amadeus, Zur Wohlttigkeit Lodge, Austria.[239] Audie Murphy, the most decorated United States soldier of World War II,[30] North Hollywood Lodge No. 542, California[59] ivojin Mii (18551921), Serbian Field Marshal.[240] Stevan Mokranjac (18561914), Serbian composer and music educator.[241]

167

List of Freemasons

168

N
James Naismith, Canadian-born American sports educator who invented the game of basketball.[2] [242] Ernesto Nathan, Italian politician and mayor of Rome, grand master of the Grande Oriente d'Italia[243] Thomas Nelson, Jr., Governor of Virginia, signer of the United States Declaration of Independence. Williamsburg Lodge No. 6, Williamsburg, Virginia[244] Samuel Nelson, US Associate Justice (18451872)[38] Kenneth Noye, British criminal, Hammersmith Lodge[245] Sam Nunn, US Senator.[30]

O
Daniel O'Connell Irish political figure,Lodge No. 189, Dublin, in 1797[246] Bernardo O'Higgins South American revolutionary leader and first Chilean head of state as Captain General[247] Shaquille O'Neal American professional basketball player, and entertainer. Made a Mason at Sight in Widow's Son Lodge No. 28 PHA, Boston, Massachusetts.[248] Camilo Osas, President of the Senate of the Philippines.[249] Sir William Dillon Otter, Canadian General. Initiated in Ionic Lodge, No. 25, Toronto in February 1869[250] Dositej Obradovi (17421811), Serbian author, philosopher, linguist, polyglot and the first minister of education of Serbia.[251]

P
Brad Paisley, American country music artist, Southern Jurisdiction, Scottish Rite.[252] John Page, Governor of Virginia, Botetourt Lodge No. 7, Gloucester, Virginia[253] Alexandru Paleologu Romanian essayist, literary critic, diplomat and politician.[9] Rafael Palma, Filipino politician, writer, and educator. Fourth President of the University of the Philippines. Bagong Buhay Lodge No. 291 (renumbered No. 16) July 14, 1908. Affiliated with Sinukuan Lodge No. 16 and in 1920 became Grand Master, the unified Grand Lodge of the Philippine Islands.[254] Arnold Palmer, Professional Golfer,[30] Loyalhanna Lodge No. 275, Latrobe, Pennsylvania Quintin Paredes, Filipino lawyer, politician, and statesman. Raised November 29, 1913 at Sinukuan Lodge No. 16 and became its Worshipful Master in 1920. Grand Master 1922[255] Fess Parker, Actor, Mount Olive Lodge No. 506, California[59] Richard Parsons, 1st Earl of Rosse, First recorded Grand Master of Ireland and founder of the Dublin Hellfire club[256] William Paterson, US Associate Justice (17931806)[38] and 2nd governor of New Jersey Edward George Nicholas Paul Patrick, Prince Edward, Duke of Kent, Grand Master, United Grand Lodge of England[257] Charles Willson Peale, esteemed American artist and portrait painter.[258] Norman Vincent Peale,[30] Midwood Lodge No. 1062, Brooklyn, New York Edmund Pendleton, delegate to the Continental Congress, member of Virginia House of Burgesses, Virginia Supreme Court justice, and statesman. Member of Fairfax Lodge No. 43, Culpeper, Virginia[259] John Penn, proprietary governor of Pennsylvania, member of first lodge of Philadelphia.[260] James Cash Penney Founder of J. C. Penney department stores. Wasatch Lodge No. 1 in Salt Lake City, Utah.[261] Matthew Calbraith Perry, Commodore, US Navy, The Holland Lodge No. 8, New York, New York, 1819[26]

John J. Pershing, Commander, American Expeditionary Force, World War I, Lincoln Lodge No.19, Lincoln, Nebraska.[262] Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, husband of Queen Elizabeth II, Navy Lodge No 2612, London.[263]

List of Freemasons John Henry Lawrence Phillips, Bishop of Portsmouth,1960-1975: Provincial Grand Master Hampshire & Isle of Wight, 1975-1979[264] George Pickett, Confederate general at Gettysburg[265] Albert Pike, Confederate general, re-wrote rituals for Scottish Rite (Southern Jurisdiction), author of Morals and Dogma, Western Star Lodge No. 2, Little Rock, Arkansas. Sovereign Grand Commander AASR, Southern Jurisdiction.[266] Marcelo H. del Pilar, Filipino writer, reformer, journalist, and revolutionary leader of the Philippine Revolution. Considered as the "Father of Philippine Masonry". Initiated in Spain in 1889[267] Bronson Pinchot, Actor, Harford Lodge No. 445, Pennsylvania[268] John Pintard, founder of the New York Historical Society, The Holland Lodge No. 8, New York, New York[26] Scottie Pippen, Retired Chicago Bulls small forward #33 (19872004),[269] Augustus Le Plongeon, French Archaeologist. First to survey and excavate at Chitchen Itza.[270] Joel Roberts Poinsett, U.S. statesman, diplomat, physician and botanist.[86] James K. Polk, U.S. President. Initiated June 5, 1820, Columbia Lodge No. 31, Tennessee[24] William Polk, Officer of the North Carolina line during the American War for Independence and Fifth Grand Master of North Carolina. Charter Master, Phalanx Lodge No. 31 Charlotte[271] [272] [273] Mariano Ponce, Filipino physician Initiated in Madrid and became Secretary of Logia Revoluccion and Logia Solidaridad 53. He also became a 33 A&AR mason under the auspices of the Gran Oriente Espaol.[274] Eugne Edine Pottier, French composer of the Internationale[275] William Preston, Author of Illustrations of Masonry.[276] Reynato Puno, Chief Justice of the Philippines, Grand Master of Masons, active member of Hiram Lodge No. 88, and the Grand Lodge of the Philippines[277] [278] [279] Alexander Pushkin, Russian poet. Lodge Ovid, Kischinev, 1821[24] Mihajlo Pupin a.k.a. Michael I. Pupin (18581935), Serbian and American physicist and physical chemist.[280] Rufus Putnam, Surveyor, General in the U.S. Revolutionary War. Elected first Grand Master of Masons in Ohio.[281]

169

Q
Manuel L. Quezon, First president of the Commonwealth of the Philippines under U.S. occupation rule in the early period of the 20th century. Raised March 17, 1908 at Sinukuan Lodge No. 272 (renamed Sinukuan Lodge No. 16). First Filipino Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of the Philippine Islands that was established in 1917.[282]

R
Ion Heliade Rdulescu Romanian academic, poet, essayist, memoirist, short story writer, newspaper editor and politician.[9] A. Philip Randolph, Joppa Lodge No. 55, NYC[283] Thomas Stamford Raffles, Raised July 5, 1813, Lodge De Vriendschap, Sourabaya[284] Nick Rahall (b. 1949), US representative from West Virginia[285] Sir Alf Ramsey, Manager of England World Cup winning football team, 1966; initiated into Waltham Abbey Lodge No. 2750 5 October 1953[116] Stanley F. Reed, US Associate Justice (19381957)[38] George Reid, 4th Prime Minister of Australia, Lodge Centennial No. 169, UGL of New South Wales[228] Ed Rendell, Governor of Pennsylvania[286] Theodor Reuss, German occultist and head of O.T.O., Pilger Loge #238 (UGLE) 1878, and excluded from Freemasonry in 1880.[287]

List of Freemasons Paul Revere, American Revolutionary hero, St. Andrew's Lodge, Boston, Massachusetts; Grand Master of Massachusetts 1794-97.[24] Don Revie, England football team manager 1974-1977; initiated 1965 in Leodiensis Lodge, No 4029[116] Isabelo de los Reyes, Filipino politician and labor activist in.[288] Michael Richards, American Actor[30] [30] Rafael del Riego, Spanish general and liberal politician[289] Charles Owen Leaver Riley, Anglican Archbishop, Grand Master of District Grand Lodge of Western Australia 1904-17, 1920-29.[290] Ringling Brothers (all seven of them), American circus promoters[291] Jose Rizal, Polymath and National Hero of the Philippines, Logia Solidaridad 53 Madrid, Spain; made honorary Worshipful Master of Nilad Lodge No. 144 in 1892[292] Will Rogers American political commontator and satirist, Claremore Lodge No. 53, OK[24] Roy Rogers, American actor, Hollywood Lodge No. 355, California[24] [293] Theodore Roosevelt, U.S. President. Matinecock Lodge No. 806, Oyster Bay, New York[24] Franklin Delano Roosevelt, U.S. President. Holland Lodge No. 8, New York[24] Flicien Rops Belgian artist[17] Edmundo Ros, Musician. Sprig of Acacia Lodge, Javea, Spain[294] Constantin Daniel Rosenthal Romanian painter and 1848 revolutionary.[9] C. A. Rosetti Romanian literary and political leader, participant in the Wallachian Revolution of 1848.[9] Nathan Mayer Rothschild, Financier, Initiated Oct. 24, 1802: Emulation Lodge No. 12, London[24] James Mayer Rothschild, Financier, Initiated Oct. 24, 1802: Emulation Lodge No. 12, London[24] Archibald Hamilton Rowan, member of the Society of the United Irishmen[223] Manuel Roxas, was the first president of the independent Republic of the Philippines.[295] Alecu Russo Romanian writer, literary critic and publicist.[9] John Rutledge, Chief Justice of the United States (1795), Associate Justice (17891791)[38] William Byron Rumford, California legislator, Most Worshipful Prince Hall Grand Lodge, Berkeley, California[296]

170

S
Mihail Sadoveanu Romanian Novelist, short story writer, journalist and political figure, Grand Master from 1932.[9] Prxedes Mateo Sagasta, (18251903) Prime Minister of Spain[297] Leverett Saltonstall, Governor of Massachusetts, United States Senator from Massachusetts. Member, Fraternity Lodge, Newton, Massachusetts.[298] Frans Sammut, (19452011) Maltese author and intellectual Jose de San Martin, Argentine hero from the Spanish Revolution[299] Augusto Csar Sandino Central American revolutionary and founder of the Nicaraguan Sandinistas[300] Antonio Lpez de Santa Anna, (Santa Ana) Mexican general and President[6] Artur Santos, Portuguese politician, Mayor of Ourem during the Fatima apparitions[301] Lope K. Santos, Tagalog language writer from the Philippines. first Woshipful Master of Magat Lodge No. 68 in Bayombong, Nueva Vizcaya.[302] Denis Sassou Nguesso, general and the president of the Republic of the Congo.[55] Philipp Gotthard of Schaffgotsch, Prince-Bishop of Breslau[303] Friedrich Schiller, German poet, philosopher, historian, and playwright, Rudolstadt Lodge, Berlin[24] Richard Seddon, Longest serving Prime Minister of New Zealand (18931906), Grand Master of New Zealand (18981900)[304] [305]

List of Freemasons Peter Sellers, actor, comedian, star of The Goon Show and The Pink Panther movie series, Chelsea Lodge No 3098, UGLE[233] Sir Ernest Shackleton, UK explorer[306] Heath Shuler, United States Congressman for North Carolina, Oconee Lodge 427.[307] [308] [309] Jean Sibelius, Composer, Suomi Lodge No. 1, Helsinki, Finland, 1922.[310] Wrote several pieces of interest to Masons including "Praising Hymn" and the "Ode to Fraternity." Sampson Simson, Lawyer and philanthropist[311] Richard Bernard "Red" Skelton, American comedian, Vincennes Lodge No. 1, Vincennes, Indiana[24] [30] James Sloan, co-founder of the Orange Order[312] Joseph Smith, Jr., Founder of the Latter Day Saint movement, Nauvoo Lodge, Illinois[313] Joseph Smith, Sr., Mormon leader, Ontario Lodge No. 23 of Canandaigua, New York, 1818[314] Hyrum Smith, Mormon leader, Mount Moriah Lodge No. 112, Palmyra, New York[314] John Philip Sousa, Composer,[30] Hiram Lodge No. 10, Washington, D.C.[30] Sir Bernard Spilsbury, British forensic scientist.[113] Frederick Stanley, 16th Earl of Derby, British politician[315] Goswin de Stassart, Belgian statesman[17] Jock Stein, football manager of teams including Celtic F.C. and Scotland.[316] Stanisaw Stempowski, Grand Master of the National Grand Lodge of Poland (19261928)[317] Charles Mortram Sternberg, Canadian paleontologist,Civil Service Lodge No. 148 Ottawa, Ont.[318] Potter Stewart, US Associate Justice (19581981)[38] W. Clement Stone, Businessman, philanthropist and self-help book author (19022002)[319] William Leete Stone, Sr., Journalist and historian. Author of works regarding Freemasonry and its opponents.[320] Joseph Story, US Associate Justice (18111845)[38] Philipp von Stosch, occultist, antiquarian and English spy.[321] William Stukeley, English archaeologist and antiquarian. Lodge at Salutation Tavern, London.[322] Alexandru Sturdza, Russian publicist and diplomat of Romanian origin.[9] Dimitrie Sturdza, four-time Prime Minister of Romania, president of the Romanian Academy (18821884).[9] Sir Arthur Sullivan, Sullivan of 'Gilbert and Sullivan',[149] and was also Grand Organist of the UGLE in 1887.[323] William A. Sutherland, California State Assemblyman (19101914)[324] Noah H. Swayne, US Associate Justice (18621881)[38] John Swett, Founder of the California public school system, Phoenix Lodge No. 144, San Francisco, CA.[325] Stevan Sremac (18551906), Serbian realist and comedy writer.[326]

171

T
Alphonso Taft, U.S. Attorney General and Secretary of War. Kilwinning Lodge No. 356, Ohio William Howard Taft, U.S. President. Made a Mason at Sight inside Kilwinning Lodge No. 356, Ohio, February 18, 1909 Kilwinning Lodge No. 356, Ohio[38] [24] Mehmed Talat, Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire. Initiated into Macedonia Risorta Lodge, Thessaloniki,1903. First Grand Master of Ottoman Grand Orient (19091910)[117] [327] John Louis Taylor, First Chief Justice of North Carolina and Sixth and Tenth Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of North Carolina.[328] Waller Taylor, first United States Senator from Indiana, Vincennes Lodge No. 1, Vincennes, Indiana[329] Christian Tell, Romanian politician, 1848 revolutionary, Mayor of Bucharest.[9] Dave Thomas, Founder of Wendy's, raised as a Master Mason in Sol. D. Bayless Lodge No. 359 Fort Wayne, Indiana. Although he joined Scottish Rite in the Northern Masonic Jurisdiction, he received the 33rd degree in 1995 from the Southern Jurisdiction.[330]

List of Freemasons Strom Thurmond, US Senator from South Carolina and segregationist candidate for the United States presidency in 1948[331] John Tipton, American politician[332] Nicolae Titulescu, Romanian diplomat, government minister, President of the League of Nations.[9] Thomas Todd, US Associate Justice (18071826)[38] Robert Trimble, US Associate Justice (18261828). Union #16 in Paris, Kentucky[38] Harry S Truman, U.S. President, Belton Lodge No. 450, Belton, Missouri. Grand Master of Missouri, 1940-1941[333] Mark Twain, American author. Polar Star Lodge No. 79, A.F.& A.M., St. Louis, Missouri. (Suspended for non-payment of dues and later reinstated April 24, 1867. Demitted October 1867, but recorded as having visited Carson City Lodge U.D. in February and March 1868.)[334] Richard Tyson, American actor[335]

172

V
Alexandru Vaida-Voevod three-time Prime Minister of Romania.[9] Pierre-Thodore Verhaegen, Founder of the Belgian Liberal Party[17] Frederick M. Vinson, Chief Justice of the United States (19461953)[38] Swami Vivekanada, Hindu Spiritual Leader[336] Traian Vuia Romainan inventor and early aviation pioneer.[9] ore Vajfert (18501937), Serbian industrialist of German descent, Governor of the National Bank of Serbia and later Yugoslavia.[337]

W
Elijah Wadsworth, Major General of Ohio Militia War of 1812. Master of the Erie Lodge (later Western Star Lodge No. 21) in Ohio, 1813.[338] Arthur Edward Waite, writer on occult and esoteric matters, and Freemasonry[339] Rick Wakeman, musician - Member of Chelsea Lodge No. 3098[105] John Ward, 1st Viscount Dudley and Ward, British peer and politician. Grand Master, Grand Lodge of England[340] Harry M. Warner, Film producer and co-founder of Warner Bros.,[59] Mount Olive Lodge No. 506, California Jack L. Warner, Film producer and co-founder of Warner Bros.,[59] Mount Olive Lodge No. 506, California Samuel L. Warner, Film producer and co-founder of Warner Bros.,[59] Mount Olive Lodge No. 506, California Sir Charles Warren, English archaeologist. Surveyor of Herod's Temple. Royal Lodge of Friendship No. 278, Gibraltar.[341] Earl Warren, Chief Justice of the United States (19531969), Grand Master of California 1935 to 1936[38] Joseph Warren, American physician and major general during the American Revolutionary War, joined the Lodge of Saint Andrew in Boston, later serving as Grand Master of Masons in Massachusetts.[342] George Washington General, Politician, and First President of the United States. Initiated in Fredericksburg VA, Past Master of Alexandria Lodge No. 22, Virginia.[343] John Wayne, American actor, Marion McDaniel Lodge No. 56, Arizona[344] Thomas Smith Webb, New England Lodge No. 4, Worthington, Ohio, author of Freemasons Monitor or Illustrations of Masonry, sometimes called the "Founding Father of the York or American Rite" for his efforts to promote that masonic body.[345] [346] Adam Weishaupt, founder of the Illuminati[184] Philip Wharton, 1st Duke of Wharton, English politician, atheist and member of the Hellfire club[347] Oscar Wilde, Irish playwright, novelist, and poet, Apollo University Lodge No. 357, Oxford (UGLE)[348]

List of Freemasons John Wilkes, English politician and journalist[349] William IV, King of Great Britain, UGLE[113] James Wilson (Orangeman), co-founder of the Orange Order[312] Frederick Thomas Wimble, Australian politician and founding editor of the Cairns Post.[350] Jeff Winter, English football referee[351] Levi Woodbury, US Associate Justice (18451851)[38] William B. Woods, US Associate Justice (18811887)[38] Steve Wozniak Co-founder Apple Computers, Charity Lodge No. 362, Campbell, California[24] Christopher Wren, English architect, Master of Lodge Original, No. 1, now the Lodge of Antiquity No. 2,[352] "adopted" May 18, 1691[353] William Wyler, Film director and producer, Loyalty Lodge No. 529, California[59] Ed Wynn,[59] Lodge No. 9, Pennsylvania

173

Y
John Yarker - English occultist - 1 Lodge of Integrity Lodge No. 189 (later 163) Manchester, October 25, 1854, affiliated with Fidelity Lodge No. 623 April 27, 1855 - Expelled from the Ancient and Accepted Rite and demitted (from all regular Freemasonry), 1862[354] Denton T. "Cy" Young - Baseball player - raised February 29, 1904 in Mystic Tie Lodge No. 194, Dennison, Ohio[355]

Z
Duiliu Zamfirescu Romanian novelist, poet, short story writer, lawyer, nationalist politician, journalist, diplomat and memoirist.[9] Darryl F. Zanuck, Mt. Olive Lodge No. 506, California[59] Adolph Zukor, Film producer, Centennial Lodge No. 763, New York[59]

References
[1] "Filipino Famous Mason - Jose Abad Santos" (http:/ / www. glphils. org/ famous-masons/ fabadsantos. htm). Most Worshipful Grand Lodge of the Philippines. . Retrieved 2010-01-12. [2] "Famous Canadian Freemasons" (http:/ / www. mastermason. com/ eureka283/ canadianmasons. htm). . Retrieved 2008-01-04. [3] Edward L. King. "Famous Masons A-L" (http:/ / www. masonicinfo. com/ famous1. htm). Masonicinfo.com. . Retrieved 2010-01-12. [4] "Famous Filipino Mason - Nicanor Abelardo" (http:/ / www. glphils. org/ famous-masons/ fnabelardo. htm). Most Worshipful Grand Lodge of the Philippines. 1934-03-21. . Retrieved 2010-01-12. [5] "Famous Filipino Mason - Bishop G. Aglipay" (http:/ / www. glphils. org/ famous-masons/ faglipay. htm). Most Worshipful Grand Lodge of the Philippines. . Retrieved 2010-01-12. [6] Pages 202-203 The Freemasons: A History of the World's Most Powerful Secret Society (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=ISMObxdcmfsC), by Jasper Ridley [7] "Famous Freemasons Masonic Presidents" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20080802020302/ http:/ / www. calodges. org/ no406/ FAMASONS. HTM). Calodges.org. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. calodges. org/ no406/ FAMASONS. HTM) on August 2, 2008. . Retrieved 2010-01-12. [8] "Mrs. Elizabeth Aldworth" (http:/ / freemasonry. bcy. ca/ biography/ aldworth_e/ aldworth_e. html). Biography/Aldworth. Grand Lodge of British Columbia and Yukon A.F. & A.M.. 2002-02-25. . Retrieved 2007-04-25. "upon secretly observing the first two degrees of a lodge at labour in her father's home, she was discovered and, after discussion, initiated in the Entered Apprentice and Fellowcraft Degree. A champion of Freemasonry" [9] Stoica, Stan (coordinator). Dicionar de Istorie a Romniei, p. 153-5. Bucharest: Editura Merona, 2007. [10] "Facts About Masonry" (http:/ / www. 875fm. com/ html/ AboutMasonry. html). 875fm.com. . [11] "Africa's Freemasons: A strange inheritance" (http:/ / mondediplo. com/ 1997/ 09/ masons). Le Monde diplomatique (English Edition). September 1997. . Retrieved 2010-01-12. [12] "Known Freemasons" (http:/ / www. masonicphilatelicclub. org. uk/ page7. html). Masonic Philatelic Club. . Retrieved 2010-01-12. [13] "Anderson, James (1680?1739)". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 18851900.

List of Freemasons
[14] John Hamill and Robert Gilert (Eds.), Freemasonry, A Celebration Of The Craft p. 226 (J.G. Press, 1998) [15] (http:/ / freemasonry. bcy. ca/ fiction/ williams. html) [16] (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=6voJOw4V0KoC& pg=PA304& dq=emile+ combes+ freemason& sig=ggcTqPG053LmGfTn9JRpzBLaRPU#v=onepage& q& f=false) [17] Famous Belgian freemasons (http:/ / www. mason. be/ en/ celeb. htm), Grand Orient of Belgium [18] "Gettysburg" (http:/ / www. bessel. org/ gettysbg. htm). Bessel.org. . Retrieved 2010-01-12. [19] "Filipino Famous Mason - Galicano Apacible" (http:/ / www. glphils. org/ famous-masons/ fgapacible. htm). Most Worshipful Grand Lodge of the Philippines. 1949-03-02. . Retrieved 2010-01-12. [20] Our Ministers - Rabbi Dr Raymond Apple AO RFD (http:/ / www. greatsynagogue. org. au/ Community/ OurMinisters. aspx), Great Synagogue (Sydney). Retrieved 5 April 2010. [21] "Atlas Pythagoras Lodge website" (http:/ / atlaspythagoras. com/ famous. aspx). Atlaspythagoras.com. . Retrieved 2010-01-12. [22] Denslow, William R.; Truman, Harry S. (2004). 10,000 Famous Freemasons from A to J (http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=ZvBjhJr9Ev0C& pg=PA29& lpg=PA29& dq=john+ armstrong+ 10,000+ famous+ freemasons#v=onepage& q& f=false). Kessenger Publishing LLC. ISBN1417975792. . Retrieved 2010-08-06. [23] "Masoniclibrary.com" (http:/ / www. nymasoniclibrary. org/ events/ ESMSpring07-Solomon1MinuteBook. pdf) (PDF). . Retrieved 2010-01-12. [24] Grand Lodge of British Columbia & Yukon's "La Loge des Neufs Soeurs" page (http:/ / freemasonry. bcy. ca/ texts/ nine. html) [25] Rose, Gerry (November 29, 1993). "The Venetian Takeover of England and Its Creation of Freemasonry" (http:/ / american_almanac. tripod. com/ venfreem. htm). The American Almanac. . [Conference Address by Gerald Rose, Schiller Institute Conference, September, 1993 Lay summary]The New Federalist (September 5, 1993). [26] Bicentenial Commemorative Volume of Holland Lodge No. 8, Published by the Lodge, New York, 1988 [27] Hamill, John and, Gilbert, R. A., Freemasonry: A Celebration of the Craft, Page 226. Paul & Company, 1992, ISBN 0-9516355-2-2 [28] "Freemasonry in Turkey - Address given to Palestine Lodge 189 by Kaya Pasakay, Former Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Turkey" (http:/ / www. palestinelodge189. com/ 2009/ 05/ freemasonry-in-turkey-ataturk-turkeys-george-washington. html). Palestinelodge189.com. . Retrieved 2010-01-12. [29] "List of famous Masons compiled by Abbey Lodge, Abingdon, UK" (http:/ / abbey. lodge. org. uk/ famous-masons. htm). Abbey.lodge.org.uk. . Retrieved 2010-01-12. [30] "AASR hall of fame" (http:/ / www. srmason-sj. org/ web/ temple-files/ hall-of-honor/ hallofhonor. html). Srmason-sj.org. . Retrieved 2010-01-12. [31] "Johann Christian Bach" (http:/ / freemasonry. bcy. ca/ biography/ bach_jc/ bach_jc. html). Grand Lodge of British Columbia and Yukon. 2001-03-19. . Retrieved 2010-01-12. [32] About us (http:/ / www. freemasonrytoday. com/ public/ about-us. php) page from Freemasonry Today [33] Brown, J. Howard (1958). History of Concord Lodge, no. 58, Ancient, Free, and Accepted Masons, Tarbora, North Carolina, 1811-1958 (http:/ / digital. lib. ecu. edu/ historyfiction/ fullview. aspx?id=brh& bcsi_scan_1DF2A11425D5D62D=MZB69F/ UxprlnAAts4sHY8PkTywZAAAAkl09Og==& bcsi_scan_filename=fullview. aspx). Greenville, North Carolina: Eastern North Carolina Digital Library. p.8. . [34] Smith, Claiborne T., Jr. (1979). Powell, William S.. ed. Dictionary of North Carolina Biography. 1. (A-C). Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA: University of North Carolina Press. pp.9293. ISBN080781329X. [35] "Officers of the GRAND LODGE A.F. & A. M. of NORTH CAROLINA [1787 TO 1887 First One Hundred Years]" (http:/ / www. grandlodge-nc. org/ Archive/ gline1. htm). Raleigh, North Carolina: Grand Lodge of North Carolina. . Retrieved 2/3/2011. [36] Murray, Elizabeth Reid (1983). Wake [Capital County of North Carolina]. 1. Raleigh, NC: Capital County Publishing Company. p.239. [37] Bakunin and the Italians, T. R.Ravindranathan,, McGill-Queen's University Press, 1988 [38] Paul M. Bessel's Supreme Court page (http:/ / bessel. org/ sctfmy. htm) [39] Francis Stillman Barnard - Masonic bio on the website of the Grand Lodge BC&Y (http:/ / freemasonry. bcy. ca/ biography/ lieutenant-governors/ barnard_f. html) [40] Neamu, Gelu. A fost sau nu Simion Brnuiu un francmason (Simion Brnuiu franc-maon). In: Inorogul. Caiete masonice. Bucureti, 2001, p.121-146. [41] 1863-1923 (http:/ / www. gle. org/ ingles/ i_historia. php#III), Brief History of the Spanish Masonry [42] "Frdric Auguste Bartholdi" (http:/ / freemasonry. bcy. ca/ biography/ bartholdi_f/ bartholdi_f. html). Grand Lodge of British Columbia and Yukon. 1904-10-04. . Retrieved 2010-01-12. [43] Chevalier D'Eon De Beaumont, Masonic bio on the website of the Grand Lodge of BC&Y (http:/ / freemasonry. bcy. ca/ biography/ deon_c/ deon_c. html) [44] Grand Lodge of Delaware website (http:/ / www. masonsindelaware. org/ origins. htm) [45] "Exsequi Lodge History: Famous Freemasons" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20071030170815/ http:/ / www. exsequi. org. za/ famouse-freemasons. asp). Web.archive.org. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. exsequi. org. za/ famouse-freemasons. asp) on 2007-10-30. . Retrieved 2010-01-12. [46] "Irving Berlin" (http:/ / freemasonry. bcy. ca/ biography/ berlin_i/ berlin_i. html). Grand Lodge of British Columbia and Yukon. . Retrieved 2010-01-12. [47] Berlusconi: The power of personality (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 1/ hi/ world/ europe/ 1298864. stm), BBC, 14 May 2001

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[48] Dvila del Valle. Oscar G., Presencia del ideario masnico en el proyecto revolucionario antillano de Ramn Emeterio Betances (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20071011055647/ http:/ / triplov. com/ carbonaria/ antilhas/ valle_01. htm), available at the Grande Loja Carbonria do Brasil's website, triplov.com (http:/ / www. triplov. com/ carbonaria/ ) [49] Hiram Lodge website (http:/ / www. hiram1. org/ index. php?option=com_content& view=article& id=43:lodge-history& catid=13:lodge-history& Itemid=27) [50] "Bischof, Francis Erich (Frank) (1904 - 1979), [[Australian Dictionary of Biography (http:/ / www. adb. online. anu. edu. au/ biogs/ A130221b. htm)]"]. . [51] Freemasonry.bcy.ca (http:/ / www. freemasonry. bcy. ca/ biography/ blanc_m/ blanc_m. html) [52] In Memoriam (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=8mLOAAAAMAAJ& lpg=RA3-PA387& ots=C_9LvvYy0P& dq=+ "Moses Bloom" + 1893& pg=RA3-PA387#v=onepage& q=+ "Moses Bloom" + 1893& f=false), in the "Transactions of the Supreme Council of the 33d and last Degree for the Southern Jurisdiction of the United States of America", Scottish Rite (Masonic order), House of the Temple, 1893. [53] ""The History of Illinois Freemasonry". Accessed September 25, 2007" (http:/ / www. ilmason. org/ history. html). Ilmason.org. . Retrieved 2010-01-12. [54] "Andres Bonifacio Lodge No. 199" (http:/ / www. abl199. org/ ). Abl199.org. 1973-10-26. . Retrieved 2010-01-12. [55] Wauthier, Claude. Africa's Freemasons - A strange inheritance (http:/ / mondediplo. com/ 1997/ 09/ masons), Le Monde Diplomatique, September 1997. Retrieved 15 August 2008. [56] "Borden at GL of BC" (http:/ / www. freemasonry. bcy. ca/ biography/ prime_ministers/ borden_r/ borden_r. html). . [57] John Hamill and Robert Gilert (Eds.), Freemasonry, A Celebration Of The Craft p. 227 (J.G. Press, 1998) [58] John Hamill and Robert Gilert (Eds.), Freemasonry, A Celebration Of The Craft p. 228 (J.G. Press, 1998) [59] Royal Arch Mason Magazine, Spring, 1981, p. 271 [60] "Welcome to the George Washington National Masonic Memorial" (http:/ / www. gwmemorial. org/ texas. php). Gwmemorial.org. . Retrieved 2010-01-12. [61] Petterchak, Janice A. (2003). Lone Scout: W. D. Boyce and American Boy Scouting (http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=AVAV4tsPtPAC). Rochester, Illinois: Legacy Press. ISBN0-9653198-7-3. . Retrieved 2011-03-01. 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[66] "In the Index of the Regius Manuscript: Section VII, Anglo-Saxon Masonry and the Constitution"] [67] Norway Killing Suspect's Postings Offer Clues to Personality (http:/ / www. sfgate. com/ cgi-bin/ article. cgi?f=/ g/ a/ 2011/ 07/ 23/ bloomberg1376-LOT1Y50YHQ0X01-5IP6J74K6O8TL44JN3A8HEOBR0. DTL), Bloomberg (from the San Francisco Chronicle) [68] "Frimurer Anders Behring" (http:/ / www. tv2. no/ nyheter/ prosjekt/ frimurer/ losjer/ soilene/ medlem/ 80189). Tv2.no. . Retrieved 24 July 2011. [69] The Norwegian Order of Freemasons expressing compassion and care (http:/ / www. frimurer. no/ ordenen/ 15-aktuelt/ 1192-the-norwegian-order-of-freemasons-expressing-compassion-and-care) [70] "Worlds Oldest Man is a Brother" (http:/ / www. freemason. org/ newsEvents/ article. htm;jsessionid=E33DC5A2E976FAE64887599773D65283. node2?id=10076). Masons of California. . Retrieved 4/15/2011. [71] "Oldest Man In North America is also Oldest Shriner" (http:/ / www. yaarabshrine. net/ node/ 375). Atlanta, Georgia: YAARAB Shrine of Atlanta. . Retrieved 4/15/2011. [72] "World's Oldest Man Dies in U.S. at Age of 114" (http:/ / www. foxnews. com/ us/ 2011/ 04/ 14/ worlds-oldest-man-dies-age-114/ ). New York City, New York: Fox News. 2011-04-14. . Retrieved 4/15/2011. [73] Beresiner, Yasha (October 2006). "Rabbi and Mason" (http:/ / www. mqmagazine. co. uk/ issue-19/ p-07. php). Masonic Quarterly (19): 7. . Retrieved 2011-09-08. [74] Denslow, William R.; Truman, Harry S. (2004). 10,000 Famous Freemasons from A to J (http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=ZvBjhJr9Ev0C& pg=PA148& lpg=PA148& dq=william+ jennings+ bryan+ 10,000+ famous+ freemasons#v=onepage& q& f=false). Kessenger Publishing LLC. ISBN1417975792. . Retrieved 2010-08-06. [75] Cotner, Robert (2011-03-04). "Osiris Noble Frank Buckles, Eldest Shriner, Dies in West Virginia" (http:/ / www. bejapotentate. com/ images/ shrinelinesmarch. pdf). Shrinelines. . [76] AASR-SJ's "Hall of Honor" page (http:/ / www. srmason-sj. org/ web/ temple-files/ hall-of-honor/ hallofhonor. html) [77] *Reid, Robie L. Historical Notes and Biographical Sketches 1848 - 1935 " Bio of Robert Burnaby (http:/ / freemasonry. bcy. ca/ grand_masters/ burnaby_r/ burnaby_r. html)" at Grand Lodge BC & Yukon website [78] "Robert Burns, Auld Lang Syne" (http:/ / www. masonmusic. org/ burns. html). Masonmusic.org. . Retrieved 2010-01-12. [79] Denslow, William R.; Truman, Harry S. (2004). 10,000 Famous Freemasons from A to J (http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=ZvBjhJr9Ev0C& pg=PA165& lpg=PA165& dq=harry+ f. + byrd+ 10,000+ famous+ freemasons#v=onepage& q& f=false). Kessenger Publishing LLC. ISBN1417975792. . Retrieved 2010-08-06.

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[80] rgls.org (http:/ / www. rgls. org/ en/ about-us/ famous-serbian-masons/ 192-stanislav-binicki. html) [81] "Alessandro Cagliostro" (http:/ / freemasonry. bcy. ca/ biography/ esoterica/ cagliostro_a/ cagliostro_a. html). Grand Lodge of British Columbia and Yukon. 2001-05-13. . Retrieved 2010-01-12. [82] Denslow, William R. 10,000 Famous Freemasons (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=dmPato81X9sC& pg=PA171& dq=plutarco+ calles+ freemason& sig=NsSB9-6KQUn50HmpBT8eh9nx3No) p. 171 (2004 Kessinger Publishing)ISBN 1-4179-7578-4 [83] "Famous Filipino Mason - Manuel Camus" (http:/ / www. glphils. org/ famous-masons/ fmcamus. htm). Most Worshipful Grand Lodge of the Philippines. 1949-12-22. . Retrieved 2010-01-12. [84] Marc David Baer, The Dnme: Jewish converts, Muslim revolutionaries, and secular Turks, p. 94 full text (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=ncg4sMAxalgC& pg=PT119) [85] Carrera, Jos Miguel (http:/ / www. britannica. com/ hispanic_heritage/ article-9020492), Encyclopedia Britannica, Guide to Hispanic Heritage [86] "Poinsett - A revolutionary diplomat" (http:/ / www. freemasons-freemasonry. com/ zeldis16. html). Freemasons-freemasonry.com. . Retrieved 2010-01-12. [87] Childs, J. Rives. Gicaomo Casanova. New York: Paragon House, 1988. [88] "Paul Foster Case" (http:/ / freemasonry. bcy. ca/ biography/ esoterica/ case_p/ case_p. html). Grand Lodge of British Columbia and Yukon. . Retrieved 2010-01-12. [89] Michiganmasonsfoundation.org (http:/ / www. michiganmasonsfoundation. org/ index. taf?_function=Lewis Cass Society) [90] Conover, Jefferson S. (1896). Freemasonry in Michigan. Coldwater, Michigan: The Conover Engraving and Printing Company. pp.113122. [91] John Hamill and Robert Gilert (Eds.), Freemasonry, A Celebration Of The Craft p. 229 (J.G. Press, 1998) [92] Plummer, Charles W.. "General and Brother Joshua L. Chamberlain" (http:/ / www. masonicworld. com/ education/ files/ may05/ general_and_brother_joshua_l. htm). MasonicWorld.com. . Retrieved 2007-07-16. [93] "Letters" (http:/ / www. churchill-society-london. org. uk/ lttrs. fmasons. hall. html). The Churchill Society. . Retrieved 2007-07-16. [94] "Pa Freemason May 03 - Treasures of the Temple" (http:/ / www. pagrandlodge. org/ freemason/ 0503/ tot. html). Pagrandlodge.org. . Retrieved 2010-01-12. [95] Bicentennial Commemorative Volume of Holland Lodge No. 8, Published by the Lodge, New York, 1988 [96] John Hamill and Robert Gilert (Eds.), Freemasonry, A Celebration Of The Craft p. 230 (J.G. Press, 1998) [97] Cole, Ernest E., at "The Political Graveyard," politicalgraveyard.com (http:/ / politicalgraveyard. com/ bio/ cole. html) [98] Denslow, William R.; Truman, Harry S. (2004). 10,000 Famous Freemasons from A to J (http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=ZvBjhJr9Ev0C& pg=PA235& lpg=PA235& dq=thomas+ cole+ 10,000+ famous+ freemasons#v=onepage& q& f=false). Kessenger Publishing LLC. ISBN1417975792. . Retrieved 2010-08-06. [99] Masonic references in the works of Charles Williams (http:/ / freemasonry. bcy. ca/ fiction/ williams. html) Grand Lodge of British Columbia and Yukon 2007 [100] Burke, Peter The New Cambridge Modern History (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=6voJOw4V0KoC& pg=PA304& dq=emile+ combes+ freemason& sig=ggcTqPG053LmGfTn9JRpzBLaRPU) p. 304 (1979 Cambridge University) [101] Meades, Jonathan (2005-10-09). "Bigots united" (http:/ / books. guardian. co. uk/ reviews/ history/ 0,,1587972,00. html). London: Books.guardian.co.uk. . Retrieved 2010-01-12. [102] UGLE (http:/ / www. grandlodge-england. org/ ugle/ whos-who. htm) Accessed 13 Jun 07 [103] "Freemasonry for Dummies Blogspot" (http:/ / freemasonsfordummies. blogspot. com/ 2008/ 09/ ugles-pro-gm-lord-northampton-to-step. html). . Retrieved 19 May 2010. [104] "Freemason Film Celebrities" (http:/ / seastwood. com/ Eastwood/ freemasonmovie. asp). Seastwood.com. 1923-08-21. . Retrieved 2010-01-12. [105] Chelsea-lodge.org.uk (http:/ / www. chelsea-lodge. org. uk/ Officers05. htm) [106] Rob Tillett, Digital Online Technology Pty Ltd (2005-04-07). "South Australian Freemasonry page" (http:/ / freemasonrysaust. org. au/ freemason. html). Freemasonrysaust.org.au. . Retrieved 2010-01-12. [107] "Francesco Crispi" (http:/ / freemasonry. bcy. ca/ biography/ crispi_f/ crispi_f. html). Grand Lodge of British Columbia and Yukon. . Retrieved 2010-01-12. [108] Crispi to be Expelled by Freemasons (http:/ / query. nytimes. com/ gst/ abstract. html?res=9406EED91531E033A25753C1A9669D94659ED7CF), New York Times, October 10, 1894, Page 2 [109] Aleister Crowley: freemason! (http:/ / freemasonry. bcy. ca/ aqc/ crowley. html), Martin Starr, Grand Lodge of British Columbia and Yukon (http:/ / freemasonry. bcy. ca/ ) [110] Marshall, Sandra (September 29, 2010). "Abraham Curry" (http:/ / www. onlinenevada. org/ abraham_curry). Online Nevada Encyclopedia. . Retrieved November 5, 2010. [111] Denslow, William R.; Truman, Harry S. (2004). 10,000 Famous Freemasons from A to J (http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=ZvBjhJr9Ev0C& pg=PA285& lpg=PA285& dq=erasmus+ darwin). Kessenger Publishing LLC. p.285. ISBN1417975792. . Retrieved 2010-08-06. [112] "Our "Black Sheep"" (http:/ / www. masonicinfo. com/ blksheep. htm). Masonicinfo.com. 2006-11-17. . Retrieved 2010-01-12. 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[114] "Past Grand Lodge Elective Officers" (http:/ / www. grandlodge-nc. org/ Archive/ gline1. htm). Grand Lodge of North Carolina. . Retrieved 2011-01-14. [115] "Historical Marker placed by Grand Lodge of Georgia" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20080403205316/ http:/ / www. cviog. uga. edu/ Projects/ gainfo/ gahistmarkers/ williamdawsonhistmarker. htm). Cviog.uga.edu. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. cviog. uga. edu/ Projects/ gainfo/ gahistmarkers/ williamdawsonhistmarker. htm) on April 3, 2008. . Retrieved 2010-01-12. [116] "The Beautiful Game" (http:/ / www. freemasonrytoday. com/ 53/ p13. php) by Patrick Kidd and Matthew Scanlan, published in "Freemasonry Today," Issue 53, Summer 2010 [117] "The Hystory Of Freemasonry In Turkey" (http:/ / www. freemasons-freemasonry. com/ layiktez. html). Freemasons-freemasonry.com. . Retrieved 2010-01-12. [118] "Address to the 2002 California Masonic Symposium" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20070927194900/ http:/ / www. calodges. org/ no406/ FRANC-OR. HTM). Calodges.org. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. calodges. org/ no406/ FRANC-OR. HTM) on September 27, 2007. . Retrieved 2010-01-12. [119] Time Magazine, Letters (http:/ / www. time. com/ time/ magazine/ article/ 0,9171,762444,00. html?iid=chix-sphere), Monday, Aug. 21, 1939 [120] "Blaise Diagne, dput" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20070617222113/ http:/ / www. au-senegal. com/ decouvrir/ blaisediagne. htm). Web.archive.org. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. au-senegal. com/ decouvrir/ blaisediagne. htm) on 2007-06-17. . Retrieved 2010-01-12. [121] Mexican Masonry - Politics & Religion (http:/ / www. yorkrite. com/ gcmx/ os1999. html) Oscar J. Salinas [122] Denslow, William R.; Truman, Harry S. (2004). 10,000 Famous Freemasons from A to J (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=ZvBjhJr9Ev0C& pg=PA314& dq=Denver+ Dickerson). Kessenger Publishing LLC. p.314. ISBN1417975792. . Retrieved 2010-08-06. [123] Referenced at the U.S. National Masonic Memorial, Alexandira, Virginia. [124] Freemasonry Today (http:/ / www. freemasonrytoday. com/ 08/ p09. php) Issue 8, Spring 1999 [125] Freemasonry.bcy.ca (http:/ / www. freemasonry. bcy. ca/ textfiles/ famous. html) Grand Lodge of British Columbia and Yukon [126] "James H. Douglas, Governor of Vermont" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20070622023442/ http:/ / www. vtfreemasons. org/ inaction/ douglas. htm). Vermont Masonry in Action. Grand Lodge of Vermont. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. vtfreemasons. org/ inaction/ douglas. htm) on 2007-06-22. . Retrieved 2007-07-16. [127] freemasonsfordummies.blogspot.com (http:/ / freemasonsfordummies. blogspot. com/ 2011/ 06/ washington-dcs-universal-brotherhood. html) [128] John Hamill and Robert Gilert (Eds.), Freemasonry, A Celebration Of The Craft p. 231 (J.G. Press, 1998) [129] Freemasonry and the Labour Party in London: Some Approaches (http:/ / www. freemasons-freemasonry. com/ prescott08. html), Andrew Prescott, 2002 [130] rgls.org (http:/ / www. rgls. org/ en/ about-us/ famous-serbian-masons/ 131-jovan-ducic. html) [131] See his biographical entry at the UGLE website (http:/ / www. ugle. org. uk/ about-ugle/ whos-who/ ) for details. [132] "A few famous freemasons" (http:/ / freemasonry. bcy. ca/ textfiles/ famous. html). Grand Lodge of British Columbia and Yukon. . Retrieved 2010-01-12. [133] Bio of John Elway, hosted on Knightstemplar.org (http:/ / www. knightstemplar. org/ articles/ 1007/ elway. pdf), the website of the Grand Encampment of the Knights Templar, York Rite [134] Google Books (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?ei=fb8XTJWCK4S8M-ewxMEL& ct=result& id=8W8kAQAAIAAJ& dq="Bob+ Etheridge"+ masonic& q=+ masonic#search_anchor) [135] Grandlodge-nc.org (http:/ / www. grandlodge-nc. org/ nc-mason/ archives/ 2006/ NCM 131-2. pdf) [136] Entry Giuseppe Mazzini in Volume III K - P (http:/ / www. phoenixmasonry. org/ 10,000_famous_freemasons/ Volume_3_K_to_P. htm), 10,000 Famous Freemasons, By William R. Denslow], 1957, Macoy Publishing & Masonic Supply Co., Inc. [137] Albert G. Mackey, ed (October 1872 to September 1873). "Fichte as a Freemason" (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=Ip5bF1xtRB0C& pg=PA430). Mackey's National Freemason: 430. ISBN9780766157170. . [138] Scottish Rite (Masonic order). Supreme Council for the Southern Jurisdiction, "Gives $1,000,000 to Crippled Children", The New Age Magazine 36 (Supreme Council, 33, Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry of the Southern Jurisdiction, U.S.A., 1928):56. [139] The Memoirs of Charles G. Finney, The Complete Restored Text, Garth Rosell and Richard Dupuis, eds, Zondervan Publishing House, Grand Rapids, MI (1989). Page 629. [140] Lawrence Kestenbaum. "Freemasons, politicians, New York, E-F" (http:/ / politicalgraveyard. com/ geo/ NY/ masons. E-F. html). The Political Graveyard. . Retrieved 2010-01-12. [141] Morris, Robert (Summer 2000). "Alexander Fleming, Mason And Discoverer of Penicillin" (http:/ / www. srmason-sj. org/ web/ journal-files/ Issues/ mar02/ morris. htm). The Scottish Rite Journal. Scottish Rite S.J. USA. . Retrieved 2007-07-16. [142] [Annual] Reports, December, 1904. Mecca Temple, New York, N.Y.. [143] George Thornburgh (2003). Freemasonry When, Where, and How?. Kessinger Publishing. p.146. [144] Steven Defoe's website masonicdictionary.com (http:/ / www. masonicdictionary. com/ franklin. html) [145] "Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania's presidents pages" (http:/ / www. pagrandlodge. org/ mlam/ presidents/ index. html). Pagrandlodge.org. 1937-10-30. . Retrieved 2010-01-12.

177

List of Freemasons
[146] (http:/ / books. google. co. uk/ books?id=ZvBjhJr9Ev0C& pg=RA1-PA114& lpg=RA1-PA114& dq=frank+ gillmore& source=bl& ots=CpobQjf3B_& sig=EUaED3-PvK8n-ZepsKVMDenDYNE& hl=en& ei=reOcTZvlCsuw8QO_rdTbBg& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=9& ved=0CEgQ6AEwCDgU#v=onepage& q=frank gillmore& f=false) William R. Denslow and Harry S. Truman 10,000 Famous Freemasons from A to J Part One (1957) pg 114 Google Books [147] Garibaldi the mason (http:/ / freemasonry. bcy. ca/ biography/ garibaldi_g/ garibaldi. html) Translated from Giuseppe Garibaldi Massone by the Grand Orient of Italy [148] 5. What was the P2 Lodge? (http:/ / freemasonry. bcy. ca/ anti-masonry/ anti-masonry01. html#p2), Anti-masonry Frequently Asked Questions, Grand Lodge of British Columbia and Yukon (http:/ / freemasonry. bcy. ca/ ) [149] Beresiner, Yasha. "Musical Masons" (http:/ / www. mqmagazine. co. uk/ issue-8/ p-06. php). MQ Magazine, Issue 8 (January 2004). Retrieved 18 July 2007. [150] "A Few Famous Freemasons" (http:/ / srjarchives. tripod. com/ 1998-09/ LEAZER. HTM). Srjarchives.tripod.com. . Retrieved 2010-01-12. [151] Denslow, William R.; Truman, Harry S. (2004). 10,000 Famous Freemasons from A to J (http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=ZvBjhJr9Ev0C& pg=RA1-PA114& lpg=RA1-PA114& dq=nicholas+ gilman+ 10,000+ famous+ freemasons#v=onepage& q& f=false). Kessenger Publishing LLC. ISBN1417975792. . Retrieved 2010-08-06. [152] Eure, Thad (1948). Biennial Reports of the Secretary of State of North Carolina (http:/ / digital. ncdcr. gov/ cdm4/ document. php?CISOROOT=/ p249901coll22& CISOPTR=34597& CISOSHOW=34587). Raleigh, North Carolina: North Carolina Department of State. . Retrieved 9/20/2011. [153] Grand Lodge of North Carolina (July/20/2010). "Officer of the Grand Lodge A.F. & A. M. of North Carolina" (http:/ / www. grandlodge-nc. org/ Archive/ gline1. htm). . Retrieved 9/20/2011. [154] Davidson, Theodore F. (1889) (Google eBook). Cases Argued and Determined in the Surpeme Court of North Carolina (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=2sADAAAAYAAJ). Josephus Daniels, State Printer and Binder. p.476. . Retrieved 20 Sept 2011. [155] "Johann Wolfgang von Goethe" (http:/ / freemasonry. bcy. ca/ biography/ goethe_j/ goethe_j. html). Grand Lodge of British Columbia and Yukon. 2001-03-19. . Retrieved 2010-01-12. [156] dragonkeypress.com (http:/ / www. dragonkeypress. com/ articles/ article_2004_10_25_5337. html) Sources disagree as to whether he was or wasn't: a member listserv.tcu.edu (http:/ / listserv. tcu. edu/ cgi-bin/ wa. exe?A2=ind0010& L=scouts-l& P=94161) [157] "Americas Astronauts FDCs" (http:/ / www. phoenixmasonry. org/ masonicmuseum/ americas_astronauts_fdcs. htm). Phoenixmasonry.org. . Retrieved 2010-01-12. [158] rgls.org (http:/ / www. rgls. org/ en/ about-us/ famous-serbian-masons/ 133-milan-grol. html) [159] Ewans, Martin (2002). Afghanistan. Harper Perennial. p.114. ISBN0060505087. [160] Denslow, William R. (1958). 10,000 Famous Freemasons, vol. ii. [Trenton, Missouri. : Missouri Lodge of Research / Educational Bureau, Royal Arch Mason Magazine]. p.165. [161] Cox, Joseph (2002). Great Black Men of Masonry. iUniverse. p.176. ISBN0595227295. [162] Oregon Masonic News, Vol XXIX No. 1, September 2011, p. 11; see also Denslow, William & Truman, Harry, 10,000 Famous Freemasons from K to Z, Volume 3, p. 398 [163] "What Are the Facts About National Treasure? - Beliefnet.com" (http:/ / www. beliefnet. com/ Entertainment/ Movies/ 2004/ 12/ Just-What-Are-The-Facts-About-National-Treasure. aspx?p=2). Beliefnet.com<!. . Retrieved 2010-01-12. [164] Roll Card filed at NC Grand Lodge [165] "A long-lost bell goes home" (http:/ / www. newsobserver. com/ 2008/ 11/ 19/ 50492_a-long-lost-bell-goes-home. html). News and Observer. 2008-11-19. . Retrieved 2010-06-03. [166] "1923 Agromeck-Square and Compass" (http:/ / www. archive. org/ stream/ agromeck1923nort#page/ 298/ mode/ 1up). NCSU. 1923. . Retrieved 2010-06-03. [167] List of signers of the Declaration of Independence who were Masons (http:/ / freemasonry. bcy. ca/ anti-masonry/ anti-masonry05. html#usa) on the Grand Lodge of BC&Y website [168] June 1, 2010 (http:/ / www. federallodge. org/ History/ Hoban. aspx) [169] Denslow, William R.; Truman, Harry S. (2004). 10,000 Famous Freemasons from A to J (http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=ZvBjhJr9Ev0C& pg=RA1-PA247& lpg=RA1-PA247& dq=thomas+ m. + holt+ 10,000+ famous+ freemasons#v=onepage& q& f=false). Kessenger Publishing LLC. ISBN1417975792. . Retrieved 2010-08-06. [170] Frankreedhorton.org (http:/ / www. frankreedhorton. org/ ) [171] "Masonic Magicians" (http:/ / mill-valley. freemasonry. biz/ masonic-magicians. htm). Mill-valley.freemasonry.biz. . Retrieved 2010-01-12. [172] Freemasonry in Bristol, Powell & Littlejohn, privately published. [173] See also the Freemasons' Review, June 1844 edition - Howley's masonry was a well known contemporary fact. [174] See also the Freemasons' Quarterly Review, first quarter, 1835 - a survey of the Archbishop's masonic career. [175] Masonic Province of South Wales: Eastern Division website "Worthy Mason of yesteryear: Edward John Hutchins Provincial Grand Master of South Wales (1848-56)" by Peter M Davies (http:/ / www. province. org. uk/ Temp/ feat_ejhutchins. htm) [176] Amy Lotven (17 March 2005). "Masons Seek New Members As Elder Brothers Pass On" (http:/ / www. zwire. com/ site/ index. cfm?newsid=14168660& BRD=2731& PAG=461& dept_id=574908& rfi=8). Queens Chronicle Newspaper. . Retrieved 20 May 2010. [177] Theirvingsociety.org.uk (http:/ / www. theirvingsociety. org. uk/ brother_irving. htm) Prescott, Andrew Brother Irving: Sir Henry Irving and Freemasonry The Irving Society website

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[178] Famous British Freemasons (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20070510084204/ http:/ / www. ugle. org. uk/ masonry/ famous-masons. htm), United Grand Lodge of England [179] {{cite web|url=http:/ / freemasonry. bcy. ca/ prince_hall/ famous. html [180] Pagrandlodge.org (http:/ / www. pagrandlodge. org/ mlam/ presidents/ index. html) [181] rgls.org (http:/ / www. rgls. org/ en/ about-us/ famous-serbian-masons/ 136-slobodan-jovanovic. html) [182] R.W.Bro. Vic Lewis. "Grand Lodge of Nova Scotia A.F. & A.M" (http:/ / www. grandlodgens. org/ glns/ meml/ keith. php). Grandlodgens.org. . Retrieved 2010-01-12. [183] "Rudyard Kipling" (http:/ / freemasonry. bcy. ca/ biography/ kipling_r/ kipling_r. html). Grand Lodge of British Columbia and Yukon. . Retrieved 2010-01-12. [184] "A Bavarian Illuminati primer" (http:/ / freemasonry. bcy. ca/ texts/ illuminati. html). Grand Lodge of British Columbia and Yukon. . Retrieved 2010-01-12. [185] Scottishrite.org (http:/ / www. scottishrite. org/ ee. php?/ journal/ pastarticles/ grateful_stunned_inspired/ ) Mark E. Koltko-Rivera, 32 (2007, JulyAugust) Grateful, stunned, inspired, The Scottish Rite Journal, vol. 115, no. 4, pp. 18-19 (link is to on-line edition); his Blue Lodge status is mentioned in the author note. [186] rgls.org (http:/ / www. rgls. org/ en/ about-us/ famous-serbian-masons/ 140-vuk-karadzic. html) [187] Lafayette page at GL BC&Y (http:/ / www. freemasonry. bcy. ca/ biography/ lafayette_g/ lafayette_g. html) [188] Google Books (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=D-cCeOEXGyoC& pg=PA50& lpg=PA50& dq=Columbia+ National+ Bank+ Frank+ Land& source=web& ots=thrj_5NGaV& sig=pFMableur7vPGFQTf35w4qKVzZ8& hl=en& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=9& ct=result) Frank S. Land entry in 10,000 Famous Freemasons [189] Cooper, A. A. 1986. The Freemasons of South Africa. p178. Cape Town: Human & Rousseau [190] Grand Lodge of South Africa (http:/ / www. grandlodge. co. za/ 170799. html) [191] "Famous Filipino Mason - Jose Laurel" (http:/ / www. glphils. org/ famous-masons/ fjlaurel. htm). Most Worshipful Grand Lodge of the Philippines. . Retrieved 2010-01-12. [192] Nickerson, Sereno Dwight; Titus, Charles H. (1875). The New England Freemason (http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=oyE4AAAAMAAJ& pg=PA519& dq="daniel+ leavitt"+ chicopee& q="daniel leavitt" chicopee). Frank Wood. ISBN1157390323. . Retrieved 2010-08-04. [193] Denslow, William R; Truman, Harry S (2004-09). 10,000 Famous Freemasons from K to Z, William R. Denslow and Harry S. Truman, Kessinger Publishing's Rare Reprints, 2004 ISBN 978-1-4179-7579-2 (http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=D-cCeOEXGyoC& pg=PA66& lpg=PA66& dq="scott+ leavitt"+ elk+ rapids& q="scott leavitt" elk rapids). Books.google.com. ISBN9781417975792. . Retrieved 2010-01-12. [194] Stillson, Henry Leonard; Hughan, William James (1891). History of the Ancient and Honorable Fraternity of Free and Accepted Masons (http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=EwdKAAAAMAAJ& pg=PA486& lpg=PA486& dq="thomas+ leavitt"+ st. + john+ new+ brunswick& q="thomas leavitt" st. john new brunswick). The Fraternity Publishing Company. ISBN9780766126619. . Retrieved 2010-08-04. [195] Denslow, William R.; Truman, Harry S. (2004). 10,000 Famous Freemasons from K to Z (http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=D-cCeOEXGyoC& pg=PA69& lpg=PA69& dq="henry+ lee"+ 10,000+ famous+ masons#v=onepage& q& f=false). Kessenger Publishing LLC. ISBN1417975792. . Retrieved 2010-08-06. [196] Denslow, William R.; Truman, Harry S. (2004). 10,000 Famous Freemasons from K to Z (http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=D-cCeOEXGyoC& pg=PA69& lpg=PA69& dq="patrick+ henry"+ 10,000+ famous+ freemasons#v=onepage& q& f=false). Kessenger Publishing LLC. ISBN1417975792. . Retrieved 2010-08-06. [197] Denslow, William R.; Truman, Harry S. (2004). 10,000 Famous Freemasons from K to Z (http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=ZvBjhJr9Ev0C& pg=PA285& lpg=PA285& dq=william+ legge+ earl+ 10,000+ famous+ freemasons#v=onepage& q& f=false). Kessenger Publishing LLC. ISBN1417975792. . Retrieved 2010-08-06. [198] "Lady Lever Art Gallery, Masonic Lodge Apron" (http:/ / www. liverpoolmuseums. org. uk/ ladylever/ collections/ masonicapron. asp). Liverpool Museum. 2011. . Retrieved July 7, 2011. [199] "About Phoenix Lodge 3236" (http:/ / www. phoenix3236. org. uk/ lilleyellis/ founders. html). Phoenix Lodge 3236. . Retrieved July 8, 2011. [200] "About St Hilary Lodge" (http:/ / www. st-hilary-3591. masonic-lodge. org. uk/ ?pageId=31303236gd522fe7f29b46a0f8ee3332f6694641c). St Hilary Lodge. . Retrieved July 8, 2011. [201] "Mersey Lodge 5434" (http:/ / merseylodge5434. org). Mersey Lodge 5434. . Retrieved July 7, 2011. [202] HAMILL, John. "Oxford Journals, Humanities, Journal of the History of Collections, Volume4, Issue2" (http:/ / jhc. oxfordjournals. org/ content/ 4/ 2/ 285. abstract). Oxford Press. pp. Pp. 285295. . Retrieved July 8, 2011. [203] Lawrence Kestenbaum. "Freemasons in Rhode Island" (http:/ / politicalgraveyard. com/ geo/ RI/ masons. html). The Political Graveyard. . Retrieved 2010-01-12. [204] Denslow, William R.; Truman, Harry S. (2004). 10,000 Famous Freemasons from K to Z (http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=D-cCeOEXGyoC& pg=PA86& lpg=PA86& dq=benjamin+ lincoln+ 10,000+ famous+ freemasons#v=onepage& q& f=false). Kessenger Publishing LLC. ISBN1417975792. . Retrieved 2010-08-06. [205] "Scottish Rite Journal" (http:/ / www. srmason-sj. org/ web/ journal-files/ Issues/ oct02/ field. htm). Srmason-sj.org. . Retrieved 2010-01-12. [206] Rouget de Lisle (http:/ / freemasonry. bcy. ca/ biography/ delisle_r/ delisle_r. html), Grand Lodge of British Columbia

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[207] "Harold LLoyd" (http:/ / haroldlloyd. com/ news/ bio. asp) "In 1949, Harolds face graced the cover of TIME Magazine as the Imperial Potentate of the Ancient Arabic Order of the Nobles of the Mystic Shrine, their highest-ranking position. He devoted an entire year to visiting 130 temples across the country giving speeches for over 700,000 Shriners. The last twenty years of his life he worked tirelessly for the twenty-two Shriner Hospitals for Children and in the 1960s, he was named President and Chairman of the Board. [208] "Famous Filipino Mason - Graciano Lopez Jaena" (http:/ / www. glphils. org/ famous-masons/ flopez. htm). Most Worshipful Grand Lodge of the Philippines. . Retrieved 2010-01-12. [209] "Ill. Trent Lott, 33, Grand Cross" (http:/ / www. srmason-sj. org/ council/ journal/ aug99/ Tribe. html). Srmason-sj.org. . Retrieved 2010-01-12. [210] "Orelans, Duke of", Letter O (http:/ / www. phoenixmasonry. org/ mackeys_encyclopedia/ o. htm), Encyclopedia of Freemasonry and its kindres sciences, by Albert C. Mackey M. D. [211] Obituary: Lawrence Roger Lumley, 11th Earl of Scarbrough, K. G., P. C., G. C. S. I., G. C. I. E., G. C. V. O., 27 July 1896-29 June 1969", Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Vol. 32, No. 3 (1969) p. 687 [212] "Famous Filipino Masons - Juan Luna" (http:/ / www. glphils. org/ famous-masons/ fjluna. htm). Most Worshipful Grand Lodge of the Philippines. . Retrieved 2010-01-12. [213] "Famous Filipino Masons - Apolinario Mabini" (http:/ / www. glphils. org/ famous-masons/ fmabini. htm). Most Worshipful Grand Lodge of the Philippines. 1903-05-13. . Retrieved 2010-01-12. [214] history of Macoy Masonic Publishing house (http:/ / www. macoy. com/ about. html) [215] The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography (http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=ItIRAAAAYAAJ& pg=PA347& lpg=PA347& dq="A+ Biographical+ Sketch+ of+ General+ Joseph+ Martin"#v=onepage& q="A Biographical Sketch of General Joseph Martin"& f=false). Virginia Historical Society. 1901. . Retrieved 2010-08-05. "A Biographical Sketch of General Joseph Martin" [216] Denslow, William R.; Truman, Harry S. (2004). 10,000 Famous Freemasons from K to Z (http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=D-cCeOEXGyoC& pg=PA145& lpg=PA145& dq="thomas+ s. + martin"+ 10,000+ famous+ masons#v=onepage& q& f=false). Kessenger Publishing LLC. ISBN1417975792. . Retrieved 2010-08-10. [217] "mastermason.com" (http:/ / www. mastermason. com/ wilmettepark/ wellknownmasons. html). mastermason.com. . Retrieved 2010-01-12. [218] Mabberley, D. J. (1985) William Theobald (1829-1908): Unwitting Reformer of Botanical Nomenclature? Taxon 34(1):152-156. [219] Bio article from the Grand Lodge BC&Y website (http:/ / freemasonry. bcy. ca/ biography/ esoterica/ mathers_m/ mathers_m. html) [220] Bythell, Duncan (May 2006). "Mawdsley, James (18481902)" (http:/ / www. oxforddnb. com/ view/ article/ 34951). Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford University Press). doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/34951. . Retrieved 17 August 2010 [221] Voice of Freemasonry, Volume 24, Number 2, 2007, Pg 9 (http:/ / www. dcgrandlodge. org/ wp-content/ pdf/ Voice2007-2. pdf) DC Lodge newsletter [222] 10,000 Famous Freemasons from K to Z Part Two By William R. Denslow, Contributor Harry S. Truman (available via google book search) [223] "History" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20070415084345/ http:/ / www. irish-freemasons. org/ gl_history. htm). Web.archive.org. 2007-04-15. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. irish-freemasons. org/ gl_history. htm) on 2007-04-15. . Retrieved 2010-01-12. [224] Ullrich, Dieter C. "Ned Ray McWherter (1930- )." Special Collections and Archive. Paul Meek Library. University of Tennessee at Martin. 3 Apr. 2000. (http:/ / www. utm. edu/ departments/ acadpro/ library/ departments/ special_collections/ wc_hist/ nrmcwhrt. htm) [225] "Portugal People" (http:/ / www. portugal-info. net/ people/ politicians. htm). Portugal-info.net. . Retrieved 2010-01-12. [226] Note 3 (http:/ / www. gle. org/ ingles/ i_historia. php#n3), Brief History of the Spanish Masonry, Grand Lodge of Spain] [227] Biography of Mendizbal (http:/ / www. fuenterrebollo. com/ Masoneria/ mendizabal. html) (in Spanish) [228] "Freemasons NSW & ACT" (http:/ / www. uglnsw. freemasonry. org. au/ ). Uglnsw.freemasonry.org.au. . Retrieved 2010-01-12. [229] "Famous Prince Hall Freemasons, Grand Lodge BC&Y website" (http:/ / freemasonry. bcy. ca/ prince_hall/ famous. html). Grand Lodge of British Columbia and Yukon. 2003-05-16. . Retrieved 2010-01-12. [230] "Prince Hall Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania" (http:/ / www. princehall-pa. org/ GrandLodge/ glhist. htm). Princehall-pa.org. . Retrieved 2010-01-12. [231] Foreman, Grant. Jesse Bartley Milam. (http:/ / digital. library. okstate. edu/ Chronicles/ v027/ v027p236. pdf) Chronicles of Oklahoma.'.' Retrieved 23 June 2009. [232] George Day Cedar Lodge. "Famous Freemasons from around the world" (http:/ / www. durham. net/ ~cedar/ famous. html). Durham.net. . Retrieved 2010-01-12. [233] "MQ magazine on-line" (http:/ / www. mqmagazine. co. uk/ issue-11/ p-20. php). Mqmagazine.co.uk. 1903-05-01. . Retrieved 2010-01-12. [234] "Masonic US Presidents" (http:/ / www. pagrandlodge. org/ mlam/ presidents/ monroe. html). Pagrandlodge.org. . Retrieved 2010-01-12. [235] Freemasonry Today. "Freemasonry Today on-line" (http:/ / freemasonrytoday. com/ 46/ p11. php). Freemasonrytoday.com. . Retrieved 2010-01-12. [236] "Jacques and Joseph Montgolfier" (http:/ / www. freemasonry. bcy. ca/ biography/ montgolfier_j/ montgolfier_j. html). Grand Lodge of British Columbia and Yukon. 2002-01-28. . Retrieved 2010-01-12. [237] Smith, Dwight L. Goodly Heritage (Grand Lodge of Indiana, 1968) pg.124 [238] Mozart (http:/ / www. freemasonry. bcy. ca/ biography/ mozart_a/ mozart_a. html) bio Article at the Grand Lodge BC&Y website [239] New Jersey Freemason.net (http:/ / www. njfreemason. net/ Wolfgang Amedeus Mozart. htm) [240] ]http:/ / www. rgls. org/ en/ about-us/ famous-serbian-masons/ 141-zivojin-misic. html rgls.org] [241] rgls.org (http:/ / www. rgls. org/ en/ about-us/ famous-serbian-masons/ 137-stevan-mokranjac. html)

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[242] "James Naismith" (http:/ / freemasonry. bcy. ca/ biography/ naismith_j/ naismith_j. html). Grand Lodge of British Columbia and Yukon. . Retrieved 2011-05-22. [243] Ernesto Nathan (http:/ / www. 1911encyclopedia. org/ Ernesto_Nathan), 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica [244] Denslow, William R.; Truman, Harry S. (2004). 10,000 Famous Freemasons from K to Z (http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=D-cCeOEXGyoC& pg=PA260& lpg=PA260& dq=thomas+ nelson+ jr. + 10,000+ famous+ masons#v=onepage& q& f=false). Kessenger Publishing LLC. ISBN1417975792. . Retrieved 2010-08-10. [245] Noye's tangled web of corruption (http:/ / news. independent. co. uk/ uk/ this_britain/ article281727. ece), Independent on Sunday, 14 April 2000 [246] John Hamill and Robert Gilert (Eds.), Freemasonry, A Celebration Of The Craft (J.G. Press, 1998), p. 239 [247] O'Higgins, Bernardo (http:/ / www. britannica. com/ hispanic_heritage/ article-9056854), Encyclopedia Britannica, Guide to Hispanic Heritage [248] Hodapp, Christopher; Freemasons for dummies blog; June 12, 2011 (http:/ / freemasonsfordummies. blogspot. com/ 2011/ 06/ brother-shaquille-oneal. html) [249] "Famous Filipino Mason - Sen. Camilo Osias" (http:/ / www. glphils. org/ famous-masons/ fcosias. htm). Most Worshipful Grand Lodge of the Philippines. 1976-05-20. . Retrieved 2010-01-12. [250] William Dillon Otter (http:/ / sites. google. com/ site/ ionic025/ notable-members/ otter) [251] rgls.org (http:/ / www. rgls. org/ en/ about-us/ famous-serbian-masons/ 35-dositej-obradovic. html) [252] "Scottish Rite Goes a Little Country" (http:/ / www. scottishrite. org/ ee. php?/ scottishrite/ internal/ scottish_rite_goes_a_little_country/ ). Scottishrite.org. 2006-10-28. . Retrieved 2010-01-12. [253] Denslow, William R.; Truman, Harry S. (2004). 10,000 Famous Freemasons from K to Z (http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=D-cCeOEXGyoC& pg=PA302& lpg=PA302& dq="john+ page"+ famous+ freemasons#v=onepage& q& f=false). Kessenger Publishing LLC. ISBN1417975792. . Retrieved 2010-08-06. [254] "Famous Filipino Mason - Rafael Palma" (http:/ / www. glphils. org/ famous-masons/ frpalma. htm). Most Worshipful Grand Lodge of the Philippines. . Retrieved 2010-01-12. [255] "Famous Filipino Mason - Quintin Paredes" (http:/ / www. glphils. org/ famous-masons/ fqparedes. htm). Most Worshipful Grand Lodge of the Philippines. 1973-01-30. . Retrieved 2010-01-12. [256] "Richard Parsons 1st Earl of Rosse" (http:/ / freemasonry. bcy. ca/ biography/ parsons_r/ parsons_r. html). Grand Lodge of British Columbia and Yukon. 2004-04-23. . Retrieved 2010-01-12. [257] Ugle.org.uk (http:/ / www. ugle. org. uk/ about-ugle/ whos-who/ ) [258] Denslow, William R.; Truman, Harry S. (2004). 10,000 Famous Freemasons from K to Z (http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=D-cCeOEXGyoC& pg=PA321& lpg=PA321& dq=charles+ willson+ peale+ 10,000+ famous+ freemasons#v=onepage& q& f=false). Kessenger Publishing LLC. ISBN1417975792. . Retrieved 2010-08-06. [259] Denslow, William R.; Truman, Harry S. (2004). 10,000 Famous Freemasons from K to Z (http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=D-cCeOEXGyoC& pg=PA325& lpg=PA325& dq=edmund+ pendleton+ 10,000+ famous+ freemasons#v=onepage& q& f=false). Kessenger Publishing LLC. ISBN1417975792. . Retrieved 2010-08-06. [260] Denslow, William R.; Truman, Harry S. (2004). 10,000 Famous Freemasons from K to Z (http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=D-cCeOEXGyoC& pg=PA326& lpg=PA326& dq=john+ penn+ 10,000+ famous+ freemasons#v=onepage& q& f=false). Kessenger Publishing LLC. ISBN1417975792. . Retrieved 2010-08-06. [261] "Wasatch Lodge webpage" (http:/ / www. wasatchlodge. org/ publish/ notable-brothers/ ). Wasatchlodge.org. 2008-06-20. . Retrieved 2010-01-12. [262] Hamill, John et al.. Freemasonry: A Celebration of the Craft. JG Press 1998. ISBN 1-57215-267-2 [263] Royalinsight.gov.uk (http:/ / www. royalinsight. gov. uk/ output/ page5641. asp?MRF=DE& keywords=& page=9& region=& submitted=true) [264] The Times Saturday 16th Nov 1985 Issue 62,297 Page 10 Col G [265] Edward L. King. "Famous Freemasons M-Z" (http:/ / www. masonicinfo. com/ famous2. htm#P). Masonicinfo.com. . Retrieved 2010-01-12. [266] "PA GL" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20070323212013/ http:/ / www. pagrandlodge. org/ district37/ 672/ WL672-FamousMasons. html). Web.archive.org. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. pagrandlodge. org/ district37/ 672/ WL672-FamousMasons. html) on 2007-03-23. . Retrieved 2010-01-12. [267] "Famous Filipino Mason - Marcelo H Del Pilar" (http:/ / www. glphils. org/ famous-masons/ fmhdelpilar. htm). Most Worshipful Grand Lodge of the Philippines. . Retrieved 2010-01-12. 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[305] Mr. Seddon as Most Worshipful Grand Master of the Masonic Lodge of New Zealand (http:/ / www. nzetc. org/ tm/ scholarly/ DruSedd-fig-DruSedd_P019a. html) photograph [306] "Sir Ernest Shackleton" (http:/ / freemasonry. bcy. ca/ biography/ shackleton_e/ shackleton_e. html). Grand Lodge of British Columbia and Yukon. . Retrieved 2010-01-12. [307] The North Carolina Mason, Volume 133, Number 3, 2008. [308] "Congressman Heath Shuler to be raised!" (http:/ / wnctrestleboard. blogspot. com/ 2008/ 04/ congressman-heath-shuler-to-be-raised. html). Wnctrestleboard.blogspot.com. 2008-04-08. . Retrieved 2010-01-12. [309] The Working Tools Masonic Magazine (http:/ / twtmag. ning. com/ group/ northcarolinamasons/ forum/ topic/ show?id=1698387:Topic:29708) March 30, 2008 [310] "Jean Sibelius" (http:/ / freemasonry. bcy. ca/ biography/ sibelius_j/ sibelius_j. html). Grand Lodge of British Columbia and Yukon. . Retrieved 2010-01-12. [311] Baynard, Samuel Harrison (2003-06). 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Military history of African Americans Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=455644348 Contributors: 14thArmored, ABF, AEF1918, Absolon, Adolphus79, Aldis90, AmeriCan, Americanhistorygal, Anaraug, Arjayay, Arkhamite, Ash4230, AwkwardCupcakes, BWCNY, Bahamut0013, Balloonman, BaronLarf, Becky Sayles, Bedford, Bencherlite, Berean Hunter, Binksternet, Biruitorul, Bleh999, Bobo192, Bovineboy2008, Buffalo71, Bunnyhop11, CORNELIUSSEON, CWY2190, Canley, Canuck85, Carlanna, Chainclaw, Civil Engineer III, Colipon, Colonies Chris, Consequentially, Crazydjman, Crxssi, D-Rock, D6, DBaba, Darwinek, Deville, DocWatson42, Dodgerblue777, Doktorschley, Dooky, Dooyar, Dream Focus, Dubliner56, Durova, ERcheck, Easter Monkey, Edgar181, Encyclopedist, Epbr123, Es-won, Evans1982, Falcon8765, Fconaway, Flauto Dolce, F, Giraffedata, Goldsztajn, Ground Zero, H-stt, Harrisonlatour, Haus, Henri1958, Hereforhomework2, Hmains, Imladros, Immunize, JHunterJ, Jake Wartenberg, Jengod, Jinif, Jnothman, JohnFlaherty, JohnnyReb1977, Jorge Stolfi, Jpbrenna, Jsonitsac, Jwillbur, Katalaveno, Kbdank71, Kchishol1970, Kelly Martin, Khatru2, Kimse, Kresock, Kross, Kudjo71, Kuru, Loopus, Markdraper, Maurath, Mephistophelian, MikeLynch, Mr.NorCal55, MrWeeble, NeoNerd, Neutrality, NewEnglandYankee, Nicola Romani, Nicsa, Nightenbelle, Nobru07, North Shoreman, Notuncurious, Nposs, Ospalh, Otto4711, OwenBlacker, PaulGS, Photouploaded, Piano non troppo, Pigman, Polylerus, Puddhe, Purplebackpack89, Qxz, Rampartpress, Rds865, Red Harvest, Redddogg, RightCowLeftCoast, Rjwilmsi, Rmcbride5, Rmhermen, Roleplayer, Sadads, Sandstein, Sardanaphalus, Satori Son, Savefrance, Schmiteye, Scott Mingus, Searcher 1990, Severino, Sf46, Shanes, Shimgray, SiberioS, Signaleer, SimonP, Sluzzelin, Snowolf, SteveChervitzTrutane, Superm401, Tfine80, Theoprakt, Tintazul, Trfasulo, TurboManiacal, TutterMouse, Ulbrichdj, Vary, WJBscribe, Wbfergus, Welsh, Whiskey in the Jar, WikiLaurent, Woohookitty, Ww2censor, Xnuala, Xtreambar, Xufanc, Yahel Guhan, Zhang Guo Lao, 266 anonymous edits Colonial history of the United States Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=455095622 Contributors: 172, 4twenty42o, 5 albert square, ABF, Aaron north, Abdalla A, Adam sk, Adamsan, Addshore, AdjustShift, Adudney, Aff123a, Ahoerstemeier, Aitias, Akerans, Akhenaton06, Alandavidson, Alansohn, Ale jrb, Alex S, Alexander110, AlexiusHoratius, Algormortis, AlphaEta, Altairisfar, An Siarach, Andonic, AndrewNJ, Andrewbock, Andrewstriano, Andy120290, Anetode, Angusmclellan, Anonymous Dissident, ApolloCreed, AppleNick, Appraiser, Aranea Mortem, Arbitrarily0, ArielGold, Artoonie, Atif.t2, Austin512, Aymatth2, Barneca, Barrylb, Bastin, Bbc1568, Bdgangsta, Beland, Bentogoa, Bettia, BilCat, Bill Thayer, Birion, Bkonrad, Blake-, Bleaney, Bluemoose, Bluflores, Blurpeace, Bo, Bobby122, Bobo192, BostonMA, BradMajors, Brandon, Brian the Editor, Brianga, Brianski, BrownHairedGirl, Bubba73, Bunchofgrapes, Businessmouse, CORNELIUSSEON, CSWarren, CWenger, CWii, CactusWriter, CalumH93, Can't sleep, clown will eat me, CanadianPenguin, Capricorn42, Captain Thor, Captain-tucker, Carmichael95, Catgut, Catmoongirl, Cecilhelden, Centrx, Ceranthor, Charles Matthews, CharlesMartel, CharlotteWebb, Chibiabos, Chris Roy, Chris the speller, Chrisjj, Chumchum7, Chuunen Baka, Civil Engineer III, Ckatz, Cliff smith, ClovisPt, Cmichael, Cobi, Colin MacLaurin, Colnce, Colonies Chris, Commander Keane, CommonsDelinker, Computerjoe, Confiteordeo, Cp111, Cuchullain, D, DARTH SIDIOUS 2, DCI2026, DHN, DJBullfish, Dac04, Danger, DanielCD, DanteAgusta, DarkAudit, Darren23, Database, Dawson, December21st2012Freak, Decumanus, Deepstratagem, Delicious carbuncle, Delirium, DeltaQuad, Dentren, Deor, DerHexer, Derek Ross, Dfinley3, Diego Grez, DigbyDalton, Discospinster, Dividing, Djflem, Dlohcierekim's sock, Dnalrom123, Doc glasgow, Doncram, Dougofborg, Dr.John S, DrJackDempsey, Drfryer, Driley59, Dtcdthingy, Duroy, Dynzmoar, EECavazos, ERcheck, ESilverSki, ESkog, Eastcote, Edgar181, Edward Z. 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John Murray, 4th Earl of Dunmore Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=453349637 Contributors: 19thPharaoh, Adam sk, Anglius, Beetstra, Ben Ben, Bkonrad, Bkwillwm, Bob Burkhardt, BradMajors, Cactus.man, Canute, CapitalR, Cladogrammatic, Cuckooman4, D6, Date delinker, David Trochos, Deb, Delldot, Dinosaur puppy, Discospinster, Docu, Etineskid, Ezhiki, Fat pig73, Fram, Funnybunny, GatorOne, GcSwRhIc, Giorgio, Hmains, Jengod, John K, Jredmond, Kevin Myers, Kittybrewster, Koavf, Leutha, Lord Cornwallis, Lord Emsworth, LouI, Mbr7975, Mr Gronk, Neddyseagoon, Neogeneralshrapnel, Neutrality, Nono64, Ohconfucius, Oxymoron83, Philip Trueman, Pipey1, Pyrospirit, RainbowOfLight, Rich Farmbrough, RickK, Rjwilmsi, Rmhermen, RogDel, Ryuhaku, Seamus45, Sfahey, Simhedges, Steinsky, Stevenmitchell, Tim!, Tryde, Ulric1313, Unobadboy664, Urban, Vanky, Vaoverland, VirginiaProp, Welsh, YellowPig, 102 anonymous edits United States Colored Troops Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=455678101 Contributors: 2help, 8th Ohio Volunteers, A Werewolf, Ark30inf, Ben Ben, Bevo74, BillFlis, Bob103051, Bobo192, Bonzibuddy3227, Bovineboy2008, CanisRufus, Darwinek, Daysleeper47, Dennette, DocWatson42, Dori, Dubyavee, Durova, Dwalls, Eoghanacht, Excirial, Ezeu, Freechild, FrickFrack, Gilliam, Giraffedata, Grim Reaper, GwydionM, Hlj, Hotspur23, Itai, J.delanoy, Javert, Jengod, Jerilynlee, Jpbrenna, Jrcrin001, Jwillbur, KAVEBEAR, Kathode, Kbdank71, Khatru2, Kumioko, LOL, Malik Shabazz, Mandarax, Maurath, Maurreen, MaxVeers, Mb1000, Mcraejs, Mehlauge, Melesse, Mgpthoc, Michael Hardy, MisfitToys, Mitchumch, Mr MR Masssa, North Shoreman, Nova3820, Number 57, Parkwells, Peter Reilly, Piledhigheranddeeper, Postdlf, Rbadandozan, Reach Out to the Truth, RedWolf, RickK, Scott Mingus, Shoemaker's Holiday, Smallbones, Smkolins, Somerandomguy22, TGC55, THB, The Red, The27thMaine, Thecurran, Themfromspace, Tothebarricades.tk, Trfasulo, Ugen64, UltimaRatio, Vaoverland, Vardion, Wbfergus, Wik, WikiLaurent, Wwoods, Xezbeth, 63 anonymous edits Free people of color Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=450108692 Contributors: 99DBSIMLR, Alansohn, Altaar, Apeloverage, Bran254, Burgher, CJLL Wright, Calvin 1998, Cdtew, Cgingold, Cptnono, Dale Arnett, Danger, Dfenseur, Eabradfo, Emerson7, Filceolaire, Freechild, Geo8rge, Grant65, Henrygb, Hmains, Iknownothing, Issyl0, Jdgwynn, Jeanne boleyn, M.thoriyan, Maximus Rex, Michael Hardy, Open2universe, Parkwells, Pyrospirit, Regulov, SMcCandlish, Samantha.o.c, Shimgray, Stewart king, Superslum, Tabletop, TomasBat, Totorotroll, TubularWorld, Woohookitty, 48 anonymous edits Colony of Virginia Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=455447783 Contributors: ABF, Aamo215, Acjelen, Aillema, AjaxSmack, Alansohn, Ale jrb, Alexf, AlexiusHoratius, Alperen, Alxndr, Amish 01, Anonymous101, Anonymous56789, Anthony, Aodhdubh, Arakunem, Arcfrk, ArmchairVexillologistDonLives!, Attilios, Bachrach44, Bazonka, Bcorr, Big iron, Bigbutbertha, Bigelow, Bigmacproductions, Bkonrad, Bkwillwm, Blanchardb, Blehfu, Bobo192, Boccobrock, Bongwarrior, Brainbark, Bratsche, Brryangeline, Burntsauce, Calmer Waters, Can't sleep, clown will eat me, Cannaya, Capricorn42, Catgut, Chamal N, Closedmouth, CommonsDelinker, Corriebertus, Courcelles, Cowmaster5002, D6, DDima, DLinth, Dale Arnett, Dannycas, Dantheman531, December21st2012Freak, Decumanus, Deeahbz, DerHexer, Diego Grez, Dina, Discospinster, Dlohcierekim, Docu, Dsl002, Dycedarg, Elipongo, Enauspeaker, Enviroboy, Excirial, FF2010, Factdoc, Faithlessthewonderboy, Farosdaughter, FastLizard4, Felix Folio Secundus, Firsfron, Fishhead64, Fluffernutter, Frosted14, Fumitol, Future Perfect at Sunrise, Geologyguy, George The Dragon, Gilliam, Good Olfactory, Gotyear, Gwernol, HansMair, Happysailor, Hidirty, Hmains, Hubertfarnsworth, Husond, Hydrogen Iodide, Illnab1024, Iohannes Animosus, Iridescent, Issyl0, Ixfd64, J00rB4s3, JW1805, Jahnx, Jamc2, JamesAM, Japanese Searobin, Jasminejunior123, JayJasper, Jazdude64, Jengod, Jimharlow99, Jj137, Jrcla2, Jtdirl, Junglecat, Jusdafax, K95, Kfodom, Kildruf, Kmusser, KnowledgeOfSelf, Kntrabssi, Kumioko, LAX, LedgendGamer, Lee S. Svoboda, Legoktm, Limideen, Little Mountain 5, LittleOldMe old, Look2See1, Lord GaleVII, Lowellian, Lucas Duke, MC10, Magicpiano, ManosFate, Martial75, Mayfly may fly, Mdtljt, Michaelbusch, Microcell, Mike Rosoft, Mikeo, Mjcool8973, Moonraker, Morgan Riley, Moshe Constantine Hassan Al-Silverburg, Mosquitopsu, Mschel, Musical Linguist, N5iln, NKSCF, NeilN, NekoDaemon, Nepenthes, Neutrality, NewEnglandYankee, Nihiltres, Nirakka, Nsaa, Nunh-huh, OberRanks, Omicronpersei8, Oneiros, Onorem, Oxymoron83, Patrickneil, Pattyman406, Pfly, Pharaoh of the Wizards, Philip Trueman, Piano non troppo, Piledhigheranddeeper, Pinethicket, Pingveno, Pmanderson, Polemyx, Postdlf, Puffin, RIchmondAtty, RJaguar3, RandomAct, Reinthal, Rjensen, Rmhermen, Roadrunner, Rokfaith, Rsrikanth05, S, Sabertiger, Sageofwisdom, Salvio giuliano, Sammy Houston, Sampi, Sarah1607, Scarian, Selmo, Shauni, Slakr, Slon02, Spitt78, SunCreator, Sunquanliangxiuhao, Supertask, Swid, Tedickey, Teles, Template namespace initialisation script, Terrasidius, The Thing That Should Not Be, Thehelpfulone, Thingg, Thomas Larsen, Tide rolls, Til Eulenspiegel, TimBentley, Tiptoety, Tony1, TransUtopian, Trevor MacInnis, Vancouver Outlaw, Vaoverland, VasilievVV, Venske, Versus22, VirginiaProp, Vivio Testarossa, VoodooIsland, Vrenator, Vsmith, W.E.Ward.III, Waggers, Wales, Wikipelli, WildCowboy, Wolfdude74, Wyatt915, Yamamoto Ichiro, Youtubesurfer, Zfeinmel, Zidonuke, Zscout370, 663 anonymous edits History of the Caribbean Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=452665821 Contributors: Afv2006, Ainadu, Aitias, Altaar, Antandrus, Arthena, BACbKA, BD2412, Betacommand, Bettia, Bill Thayer, Bobinator9904, Bobo192, Brianski, CJLL Wright, Can't sleep, clown will eat me, Canid, Cathalwoods, Chairboy, Chris j wood, Colibri37, Cool Blue, Corriebertus, Courcelles, Cryptic, Cuajonpr, D6, David Kernow, Dlebouc, Domino theory, Doviende, Dylanlip, Elcobbola, Epbr123, Esemono, FastLizard4, Fastifex, Fiercemiri, Fredbauder, Gamestersb, Grstain, Guettarda, Gunnar Hendrich, Hede2000, Hmains, Jaberwocky6669, Jasmith, Jderden777, JeltLuthor, Jensonmorton, Joelr31, John Hill, Johntex, Jorgenev, Joy82, Junes, Karukera, Kewp, Kintetsubuffalo, Koyaanis Qatsi, Lady ace, Luk, MONGO, Matt Yeager, Mattisse, Mayumashu, Midorik, MikeK157, Monfornot, NekoDaemon, NellieBly, Nick, Northfield, Ohnoitsjamie, Olleicua, Orourkea, Oxymoron83, PeterWD, Philip Trueman, Phlebas, Phoenix2, Pinethicket, Piotrus, Poppy, RadioKirk, Reedy, Rellis1067, Rich Farmbrough, Rjwilmsi, RogerK, Roke, Rosser1954, Rror, SandyGeorgia, Sicar, Sjc, So God created Manchester, Sowelilitokiemu, Sputnikcccp, Styath, Thue, Trusilver, Tutmosis, Twalls, Vgmaster, Viriditas, Whitejay251, Wikiklrsc, Wllmevans, Woohookitty, Xaxafrad, Yar, Zleitzen, Zvar, 148 anonymous edits Banwari Trace Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=439194316 Contributors: Bearcat, Guettarda, Hmains, Joelr31, Kuru, Moe Epsilon, Sprinkler21, Twalls, Uyvsdi, Voiceofplanet, 9 anonymous edits 5th millennium BC Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=449111507 Contributors: A. 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Wolterding, Barek, Bender235, Billy Hathorn, CJLL Wright, CanisRufus, Cgingold, Commander Keane, Confederate till Death, Countedx58, Cptnono, CrookedAsterisk, Dollarback, Elassint, Emerson7, Eric Douglas Statzer, Everyking, Futurebird, Geo8rge, Gkhan, Hadal, Hayden4258, JaGa, Jdgwynn, Jeeny, Jim.henderson, Joshua1995, Mateo SA, Parkwells, Pearle, Superslum, Swpb, Titus III, WhisperToMe, WikiDao, Woohookitty, X!, 29 anonymous edits History of the United States (17891849) Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=454318394 Contributors: 172, 88mt, ABarnes94, Abdalla A, Acahilla63, Alex S, Algont, Andrewlp1991, Animum, Antodav2007, ArtstarMan, Astronautics, Azuris, Bear475, Beland, Bettymnz4, Beyond My Ken, Bhentze, Bill Thayer, Billy Hathorn, Bkonrad, Bobblewik, Bonus Onus, Bubbabuns99, CART fan, Cafzal, Cantus, CasualObserver'48, Chris the speller, Civil Engineer III, CommonsDelinker, Crystallina, D-Rock, DLJessup, Dangar126, DocWatson42, Docu, Domthedude001, Duroy, EPM, Elitemperor, Endlessnameless, Erik Zachte, Excirial, Favonian, Fraggle81, Fratrep, Fredde 99, Garing, Gary King, Gobonobo, Gomm, Gr8opinionater, Griot, Gromlakh, Gwillhickers, Hipxc0re, Hmains, J04n, Jedonnelley, Jeneme, Jengod, Joek1010, Jojhutton, Juan Ponderas, KPalicz, Karch, Kevin Myers, Kivar2, KyrinLarson97, La goutte de pluie, Lahiru k, Laudaka, Levineps, M2545, Magicandmedicine, Makeemlighter, Martianlostinspace, Martinl, Materialscientist, Maurreen, Mav, Michael Hardy, Midnightdreary, Mistakefinder, Mister XY, Moni3, Mrwojo, N6T9qP73k0, Nakon, NameIsRon, Naraht, Nat Krause, Neutrality, NorCalHistory, North Shoreman, Omicronpersei8, Pearle, Peregrine981, Persian Poet Gal, Poroubalous, Postdlf, Pseudomonas, R'n'B, Recognizance, RevRagnarok, Rich Farmbrough, Rjensen, Rjwilmsi, Robinhw, Roke, Rorschach, Rougher07, Ryuhaku, SEWilco, SMcCandlish, Sardanaphalus, ScottSteiner, Seaphoto, Shauni, Shizam, Sjorford, Some Wiki Editor, Sopher99, Spacepotato, Squeeze me, Susvolans, Szu, T@nn, Template namespace initialisation script, Tempodivalse, The Evil Spartan, TheAMmollusc, Tim706, TimBentley, Tom, Tommy2010, Tomwsulcer, Tony1, Tpbradbury, Traxs7, UberScienceNerd, Velella, WBardwin, Wayward, Wikipelli, Will Beback, Woohookitty, Xmts, 229 anonymous edits Freedom's Journal Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=455183806 Contributors: Cbustapeck, Celestialvoyage, Colonies Chris, Coolcat68976897, DDennisM, Download, Emerson7, FitzColinGerald, Futurebird, Gaga0862, Kumioko, Lquilter, M2545, Mazeartist, Nobunaga24, Pol098, Tenebrae, Tide rolls, Tsx12ry, Woohookitty, Zeimusu, Zemestoon, 11 anonymous edits List of African-American firsts Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=455238347 Contributors: .K, 37Celcius, Aarontw, AbbyKelleyite, Absolon, Adam sk, Adornstudios, Afroghost, After Midnight, Alansohn, AlexiusHoratius, AlphaEta, Amchow78, Amyehughes, Andrewlp1991, Andrewpmk, Animedude360, Appraiser, ArielGold, Armyrifle9, Auntof6, Awbeal, Awbolden, BAMJ6, BadBlackMan, Bbltype, Bdbooker88, BelloWello, Bender235, Biji san, Bjrbbhaw81, Bongwarrior, BoomerAB, Bry9000, Bulldog123, CBGrizzell, CMBJ, CRob318, CSWarren, Calabraxthis, Captain-tucker, Carlossfsu, CarolynETaylor, Cashlen, Catherine Huebscher, Ccson, Cfaw, Cflm001, Chexandy89, ChildofMidnight, Chris Light, Cirt, Colonies Chris, Cooldani95, Courcelles, CranstonShenir, Crazypaco, Crescentcitylit, Crisis, Crxssi, Cuppysfriend, Cwmhiraeth, CyclopsScott, Cyfal, DD2K, DFS, DFS454, DVdm, Dahveed323, Dale Arnett, DangApricot, Dansmitty2, Danteferno, Dayv, Dendano, DevorahLeah, Dimadick, Dismas, DjiegerFT, Dlfreem, Docu, Dodgerblue777, Dooyar, Dott.Piergiorgio, Doug Johnson, Drbreznjev, Drewerd, Drilnoth, Dtgwu2005, Durno11, Duuude007, ERcheck, Ed Poor, Editor2020, Ekhaya2000, Elgreggo11, Elizium23, Elonka, Emerson7, Equilibrial, Eric it's CalebVanDaele, Ericejenkins, Fang Aili, FarrShadow, Fat&Happy, Favonian, Firsfron, First Light, Fisherjs, Folksong, FrameWave20, Fui in terra aliena, Futurebird, Gamble973, Gang14, Gareth E Kegg, Gilliam, GirasoleDE, GoTeamVenture, Gobonobo, GoingBatty, Ground Zero, Group29, H3SS, HSN5020, HexaChord, Hi4red, Hmrox, Homeboy, Homer saves presidents, Iamwisesun, Igbo, Igoldste, J.delanoy, JGKlein, Ja 62, Jackfork, Jaldridge86, JamesAM, JayHenry, Jdanbeard, Jevansen, Jlwm8609, JohnCD, JonJewart, Jrboi, Jrvjrv, Jtharrod 92, JukeboxJones88, Jules7484, JustAGal, Jwillbur, Kaycee14, Keith Ellis, Kelltaylor777777, Ketone, Khatru2, Kidlittle, King Gemini, Kingsun1864, Knulclunk, Kznf, LAX, LadyofShalott, Laminswann, Legis, Leutha,

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Contributors: Arthena, Besselpaulm, BlackDated, Blueboar, BrownHairedGirl, Canute, Clariosophic, CutOffTies, Daderot, Dale Arnett, DuncanHill, Durno11, Dvyost, Exxoskeleton, Fingers-of-Pyrex, Fram, Grye, Henrygb, Hugo999, Imacomp, JASpencer, Jack1956, Kel.jackson, Leemuhammad, Leutha, Lexicon, Ligulem, MSJapan, Maengpong, Matthewrobinson, Maustrauser, Maxim, Myland, Phanttom, PhilD86, Piano non troppo, Pietre-stones, Rhobite, SarekOfVulcan, SchuminWeb, Shinerunner, Smmurphy, Smooth0707, Stijn Calle, Tanizaki, Tellyaddict, Temporary resident, Tom harrison, Toussaint, Vidkun, Waterhouse5, WazzaMan, WegianWarrior, Xavexgoem, Yosesphdaviyd, Zef, 61 anonymous edits Chief of the Carib Territory Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=438677235 Contributors: Mbakkel2, Postdlf, Uyvsdi List of Freemasons Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=455251296 Contributors: 1717ad, A. 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Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors

188

Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors


Image:332ndFighterBriefing1945.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:332ndFighterBriefing1945.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Image:Crispus Attucks.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Crispus_Attucks.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Original uploader was w:en:User:MavMav at en.wikipedia Later version(s) were uploaded by w:en:User:Superm401Superm401 at en.wikipedia. Image:Battle erie.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Battle_erie.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Image:Usct4th.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Usct4th.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Image:Buffalo soldiers1.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Buffalo_soldiers1.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Chr. Barthelmess Image:BuffaloSoldiers-SpanAmWar.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:BuffaloSoldiers-SpanAmWar.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Original uploader was Bobak at en.wikipedia Image:Four 366th Infantry officers.gif Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Four_366th_Infantry_officers.gif License: Public Domain Contributors: United States Department of War Image:369th 15th New York.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:369th_15th_New_York.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: By an unknown photographer Image:Nimitz and miller.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Nimitz_and_miller.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Official U.S. Navy photograph, Office of Public Relations, Review Section File:Tuskegee airman2.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Tuskegee_airman2.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Toni Frissell, official photographer of the United States Women's Army Corps Image:Tuskegee airmen 2.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Tuskegee_airmen_2.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Frissell, Toni, 1907-1988, photographer. Original uploader was Jake Wartenberg at en.wikipedia Image:12th AD Soldier 1945.gif Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:12th_AD_Soldier_1945.gif License: Public Domain Contributors: User:W. B. Wilson Image:Gulfwarroom.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Gulfwarroom.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: U.S. Government File:Mission San Juan Capistrano.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Mission_San_Juan_Capistrano.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0 Contributors: Original uploader was Lordkinbote at en.wikipedia Image:Nouvelle-France map-en.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Nouvelle-France_map-en.svg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0,2.5,2.0,1.0 Contributors: Pinpin File:New Netherlands Seal Vector.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:New_Netherlands_Seal_Vector.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Original artist unknown; Photograph by UpstateNYer; Vectorized by ZooFari Image:Castelloplan.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Castelloplan.jpg License: unknown Contributors: John Wolcott Adams (18741925) and w:Isaac Newton Phelps-StokesI.N. Phelps Stokes (18671944) Image:Kartskiss ver Nya Sverige.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Kartskiss_ver_Nya_Sverige.png License: Public Domain Contributors: Image:Wpdms king james grants.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Wpdms_king_james_grants.png License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Image:SavannahColony.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:SavannahColony.JPG License: Public Domain Contributors: Original uploader was GhostPirate at en.wikipedia Image:WashingtonFIwar.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:WashingtonFIwar.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Image:Benjamin Franklin - Join or Die.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Benjamin_Franklin_-_Join_or_Die.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Benjamin Franklin Image:NorthAmerica1762-83.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:NorthAmerica1762-83.png License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: Jon Platek Image:GROWTH1850.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:GROWTH1850.JPG License: Public domain Contributors: Rjensen Image:Saltbox side elevation.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Saltbox_side_elevation.png License: unknown Contributors: Image:Massachusetts Hall, Harvard University.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Massachusetts_Hall,_Harvard_University.JPG License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Daderot. File:Patrick Henry Rothermel.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Patrick_Henry_Rothermel.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: w:Peter F. RothermelPeter F. Rothermel (18171895) File:House of Burgesses in the Capitol Williamsburg James City County Virginia by Frances Benjamin Johnston.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:House_of_Burgesses_in_the_Capitol_Williamsburg_James_City_County_Virginia_by_Frances_Benjamin_Johnston.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: File:Buffalo soldiers1.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Buffalo_soldiers1.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Chr. Barthelmess File:Buffalo Soldier 9th Cav Denver.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Buffalo_Soldier_9th_Cav_Denver.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: File:Liberators of Cuba.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Liberators_of_Cuba.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Original uploader was Signaleer at en.wikipedia File:BuffaloSoldierMuseumHoustonTX.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:BuffaloSoldierMuseumHoustonTX.JPG License: Public Domain Contributors: WhisperToMe File:Mark Matthews Cavalry Unit.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Mark_Matthews_Cavalry_Unit.jpg License: unknown Contributors: not known File:SC120314.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:SC120314.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: File:Bfu-soldr-front.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bfu-soldr-front.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Original uploader was Signaleer at en.wikipedia File:BuffaloSolderOfElPaso.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:BuffaloSolderOfElPaso.JPG License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Contributors: self Original uploader was Ancheta Wis at en.wikipedia file:4thEarlOfDunmore.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:4thEarlOfDunmore.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: File:22nd US Colored Troops banner.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:22nd_US_Colored_Troops_banner.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: File:DutchGapb.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:DutchGapb.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: File:Sgt Major Christian Fleetwood - American Civil War Medal of Honor recipient.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Sgt_Major_Christian_Fleetwood_-_American_Civil_War_Medal_of_Honor_recipient.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: File:WilliamCarney.jpeg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:WilliamCarney.jpeg License: Public Domain Contributors: Original uploader was Hephaestos at en.wikipedia File:William Reed.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:William_Reed.JPG License: Public Domain Contributors: unbekannt File:4th United States Colored Infantry.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:4th_United_States_Colored_Infantry.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: From the collections of the Library of Congress File:Flag of Virginia.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Virginia.svg License: Public domain Contributors: File:VirginiaColonyArmsRetouch.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:VirginiaColonyArmsRetouch.png License: Public Domain Contributors: Printer: William Hunter, Williamsburg, Virginia File:Colonial VA.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Colonial_VA.png License: Public Domain Contributors: File:virginiacolony.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Virginiacolony.png License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5 Contributors: File:VaFrontier2.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:VaFrontier2.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Til Eulenspiegel (talk) File:Wpdms virginia company plymouth council.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Wpdms_virginia_company_plymouth_council.png License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: en:User:Decumanus

Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors


File:Generall Historie of Virginia.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Generall_Historie_of_Virginia.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: John Smith File:Virginia 1612 map.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Virginia_1612_map.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: File:Sylvester Jordain - Discovery of the Barmudas.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Sylvester_Jordain_-_Discovery_of_the_Barmudas.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Aodhdubh File:Trinidad Ralph Abercromby.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Trinidad_Ralph_Abercromby.JPG License: Public Domain Contributors: Rosser1954 Roger Griffith File:Tobago Ralph Abercromby.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Tobago_Ralph_Abercromby.JPG License: Public Domain Contributors: Rosser1954 Roger Griffith File:Carte antilles 1843.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Carte_antilles_1843.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Alexandre Vuillemin (reproduit par histoirepostale.net) Image:Cucuteni map.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Cucuteni_map.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: spezifischer Fotograf/Zeichner : Juergen E. Walkowitz Image:Washington (3).jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Washington_(3).jpg License: unknown Contributors: Image:JohnAdams 2nd US President.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:JohnAdams_2nd_US_President.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Wars Image:Hamilton small.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Hamilton_small.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Image:ThomasJefferson.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:ThomasJefferson.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Image:USA Territorial Growth 1810.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:USA_Territorial_Growth_1810.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: File:Tecumseh ante Harrison crop.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Tecumseh_ante_Harrison_crop.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Beyond My Ken Image:Andrew jackson head.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Andrew_jackson_head.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Image:Cottonfieldpanorama-edited.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Cottonfieldpanorama-edited.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Original uploader was Zanimum at en.wikipedia. Later version(s) were uploaded by Madden, Minesweeper at en.wikipedia. File:General Jackson Slaying the Many Headed Monster crop.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:General_Jackson_Slaying_the_Many_Headed_Monster_crop.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: N.Y. : Printed & publd. by H.R. Robinson, 1836; cropped by Beyond My Ken (talk) 07:04, 16 June 2010 (UTC) Image:Growth of Denominations in America 1780 to 1860.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Growth_of_Denominations_in_America_1780_to_1860.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Conrad Zbikowski File:Frederick Douglas NYHS c1866.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Frederick_Douglas_NYHS_c1866.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: not listed Image:Lucretiamott2 crop.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Lucretiamott2_crop.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Beyond My Ken Image:ElizabethCadyStanton.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:ElizabethCadyStanton.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Original uploader was Zoe at en.wikipedia Later version(s) were uploaded by Minesweeper at en.wikipedia. Image:Boston Manufacturing Company.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Boston_Manufacturing_Company.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Image:PercentOfUSPopInEachState.gif Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:PercentOfUSPopInEachState.gif License: Public Domain Contributors: Szu Image:US Territories 1850.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:US_Territories_1850.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Image:USA population distribution 1790.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:USA_population_distribution_1790.png License: Public Domain Contributors: Allen Johnson Image:USA population distribution 1800.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:USA_population_distribution_1800.png License: Public Domain Contributors: Allen Johnson Image:USA population distribution 1820.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:USA_population_distribution_1820.png License: Public Domain Contributors: Allen Johnson Image:wikisource-logo.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Wikisource-logo.svg License: logo Contributors: Nicholas Moreau File:Freedom's Journal 23 March 1827 vol. 1 no. 3.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Freedom's_Journal_23_March_1827_vol._1_no._3.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: en:John Russwurm, editor, Freedom's Journal File:Cicatrices de flagellation sur un esclave.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Cicatrices_de_flagellation_sur_un_esclave.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Unknown. Part of the Blakeslee Collection, apparently collected by John Taylor of Hartford, Connecticut, USA File:Baptism in Buffalo Bayou.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Baptism_in_Buffalo_Bayou.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: University of Houston Digital Library File:EmancipationProclamationPage1.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:EmancipationProclamationPage1.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Abraham Lincoln File:1943 Colored Waiting Room Sign.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:1943_Colored_Waiting_Room_Sign.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Esther Bubley File:369th 15th New York.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:369th_15th_New_York.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: By an unknown photographer File:Red Hand Division.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Red_Hand_Division.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0,2.5,2.0,1.0 Contributors: Chevalier Henri Goybet arrire petit fils de Mariano File:Blacksoldiersfrance.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Blacksoldiersfrance.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: US Army Signal Corps File:Martin Luther King - March on Washington.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Martin_Luther_King_-_March_on_Washington.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Unknown? File:Lyndon Johnson signing Civil Rights Act, July 2, 1964.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Lyndon_Johnson_signing_Civil_Rights_Act,_July_2,_1964.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Cecil Stoughton, White House Press Office (WHPO) File:Official portrait of Barack Obama.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Official_portrait_of_Barack_Obama.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Contributors: Pete Souza, The Obama-Biden Transition Project Image:Prince Hall grave.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Prince_Hall_grave.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Original uploader was Swampyank at en.wikipedia

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