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ENGINEERS DESIGN GUIDE
Cellular Beams
00
INTRODUCTION
02
ENGINEERS DESIGN GUIDE
Westok &
Cellular Beams
Westok pioneered the use of cellular beams in the early 1990s.
Westok worked with the Steel Construction Institute to test
cellular beam performance, and to produce design rules and
design software.

Since then, the SCI/Westok CELLBEAM AutoMate software
has been developed and improved, and remains by far the
UKs most used software for the design of cellular beams.
CELLBEAM AutoMate is the only cellular beam software
written and supported by the SCI.
Cellular beams have been used in over 25 countries. At the time
of publication manufacturing is carried out in the UK, Europe,
the USA, Africa, Australia, New Zealand and the United Arab
Emirates. Westok will gladly advise of contact details for each
part of the world.
Cellular beam use in the UK alone comfortably exceeds 25,000
tonnes per year at the time of publication. Worldwide annual
usage exceeds 50,000 tonnes.
In 2006 Westok introduced a new beam - USFB
TM
(Ultra Shallow Floor Beam) - see page 22.
Advisory
Engineering
Services
Free Design Service
Westok provides Engineers with free designs for all its beams.
To use this service contact one of Westoks regional Advisory
Engineers, or use the Design Enquiry Forms provided in this
brochure. Design Enquiry Forms can be found in this Guide
as follows:
Primary Floor Beams - pg 20
Secondary Floor Beams - pg 21
USFB
TM
s (Ultra Shallow Floor Beams) - pg 23
Roof Beams - pg 33
Copies of Design Enquiry Forms are also available on Westoks
website at www.westok.co.uk - these can be completed and
submitted to Westok online.
CPD Seminars
Westok Advisory Engineers
provide CPD seminars covering
all aspects of cellular beam and
USFB
TM
design and applications.
These can be held at Consultants
offces on request.
Design & Advisory Meetings
Regionally based Westok Advisory Engineers can attend
Engineers offces to help advise on the suitability of cellular
beams and USFB
TM
s in specifc projects, and provide designs
to the Project Engineer without cost or obligation.
To use any of Westoks Advisory Engineering Services
please contact:
ASD Westok Limited
Charles Roberts Offce Park
Charles Street, Horbury Junction
Wakefeld
West Yorkshire
WF4 5FH
Tel: 01924 264121
Fax: 01924 280030
Email: info@westok.co.uk
www.westok.co.uk
00
CONTENTS
04 - 09
47
46
44 - 45
03
28 - 43
24 - 27
pages Contents
Cellular
Beams
10 - 23
Car Park
Beams
Roof
Beams
Cellular
Columns
ENGINEERS DESIGN GUIDE
Sustainability
International
Markets
Floor
Beams
18 Fire Protection
19 Fire Engineering with Cellular Beams
20 Design Enquiry Form - Primary Floor Beam
21 Design Enquiry Form - Secondary Floor Beam
22 Ultra Shallow Floor Beams - USFB
TM
23 Design Enquiry Form - USFB
TM
37 Portalised Curved Cellular Beams
38 Achievable Radii
39 Reverse or S-Shaped Curves
40 Tapered Beams & Cantilevers
41 Tapered Cellular Beams
42 Cantilever Roof Members
43 Pitched Roofs Using Tapers
05 What is a Cellular Beam?
06 SCI Cellular Beam Software / USFB Software
& CellVibe Software
07 Using CELLBEAM AutoMate
08 Specifying Cellular Beams
09 Avoiding Inflls to Cells
11 Floor Beams / Asymmetric Beams /
Pre-Cambered Beams
12 Service Integration
13 Cell Size & Elongated Openings
14 Beam Depths
16 Column-Free Clear Span Floors
17 Floor Vibration / Natural Frequency /
Floor Response Factor
25 Floor Beams in Car Parks
29 Straight Roof Beams
30 Designing Straight Cellular Roof Beams
31 Section Properties for Cellular Roof Beams
32 Spine Beams
33 Design Enquiry Form - Roof Beam
34 Curved Beams
35 Curving Process / Economics / Span Range
36 Simply Supported Curves
45 Parallel Flanged Columns /
Tapered Columns

00 04
CELLULAR
BEAMS
Cellular
Beams
A cellular beam is the modern version of the
traditional castellated beam, but with a far
wider range of applications - for foor beams
in particular.
ENGINEERS DESIGN GUIDE
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00 05
CELLULAR
BEAMS
What is a Cellular Beam?
A Universal Beam or Universal Column is castellated which
results in a beam approximately 40-60% deeper than its
parent section - see Fig. 1. The exact fnished depth, cell
diameter and cell spacing are very fexible. A cellular beam has
up to two and a half times better section properties than its
parent section. Variations in how the parent sections are cut
allow the following beams to be manufactured:

Beams with
Elongated Openings


Pre-Cambered Beams

Curved Roof Beams

Tapered Beams
Fig. 1
Cellular beam profling Facing page: City Park, Hove
ENGINEERS DESIGN GUIDE
00 06
CELLULAR
BEAMS ENGINEERS DESIGN GUIDE
SCI Cellular Beam Software
CELLBEAM AutoMate is the only cellular beam software
written and maintained by the Steel Construction Institute.
It is available free of charge from Westok.

Westoks Advisory Engineers also use the same CELLBEAM
AutoMate software to design cellular beams. Westok has no
access to the source code of the program and SCIs decisions
are fnal on all aspects of the design rules employed within
CELLBEAM AutoMate.
SCI has embedded several layers of
Help Screens (see above) that detail
the areas of code and formulae used
in the software. There is a full
maintenance agreement in place
with SCI, so any questions arising
may ultimately be answered by SCI.
SCI also maintains a line by line
audit trail as part of its Quality
Assurance. Every change made to
the CELLBEAM AutoMate software
during or after its original writing
can therefore be traced back to
source.

USFB
TM
Software &
CellVibe Software
SCI and Westok have also released
software to aid in the design of
USFBs and to analyse the Response
Factor of foors using cellular beams
or USFBs. Please contact Westok for
further details.
Westok CELLBEAM AutoMate is the only cellular beam software written and maintained by the Steel Construction Institute.
ENGINEERS DESIGN GUIDE
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00 07
CELLULAR
BEAMS ENGINEERS DESIGN GUIDE
Using CELLBEAM AutoMate
Westok Design Suite - current at date of publication
As the name suggests, CELLBEAM AutoMate designs the
cellular beam automatically. The Project Engineer inputs loads,
spans and centres, deck type, restraints etc. and is then
asked for limits:
Is a maximum or precise fxed beam depth required?
Is a minimum cell diameter required?
Once answered, the software designs the optimum beam size
within those parameters. The Engineer can either accept the
beam offered, or may choose to further manipulate it.
Links to/from Other Software Packages
Westok is actively improving the ability of CELLBEAM
AutoMate to link directly with other relevant software
packages.
At date of publication CELLBEAM AutoMate can be directly
linked with CSC Building Designer and RAM Structural
System.
For up-to-date information on links to any software package
please consult Westok.
Free Design Service
Designs can be requested by phone, fax or e-mail, and can be
responded to by return if required. Multiple options for the
same beam can be offered should the Engineer wish, and all
designs are totally free of charge or any obligation.
Design Enquiry Forms can be found in this Guide as follows:
Primary Floor Beams - pg 20
Secondary Floor Beams - pg 21
USFBs (Ultra Shallow Floor Beams) - pg 23
Roof Beams - pg 33
Copies of Design Enquiry Forms are also available on Westoks
website at www.westok.co.uk - these can be completed and
submitted to Westok online.
Advisory Engineers
In addition to Westoks offce based design service, regional
Advisory Engineers are available throughout the UK, Northern
Ireland and the Republic of Ireland to attend design meetings
to offer advice on initial concepts or to assist with a full design
service package.
00 08
CELLULAR
BEAMS ENGINEERS DESIGN GUIDE
Specifying Cellular Beams
Given the fexibility of cellular beam geometry, a tabulated
specifcation on drawings is the best way of conveying
information to all interested parties.The table shown below is
not the only solution, but is one of the most commonly used
approaches:
Notation
The standard notation of an asymmetric cellular beam
(ACB) using the above example, is as follows:
a b c d e f g

732 x 191/229 x 90kg/m ACB. S355 (450 @ 650)

a 732 Depth in mm
b 191 Top tee fange width
c 229 Bottom tee fange width
d 90 Mass in kg/m
e S355 Steel grade
f 450 Cell diameter in mm
g 650 Cell pitch
The standard notation of a symmetrical cellular beam
(CUB) is as follows:
a b c d e f

1160 x 267 x 134kg/m CUB. S355 (800 @ 1000)
a 1160 Depth in mm
b 267 Flange Width
c 134 Mass in kg/m
d S355 Steel grade
e 800 Cell diameter in mm
f 1000 Cell pitch
Mark Section
Reference
Material Mass
kg/m
Grade Tee
Depths
mm
Cell Data Structural Fire Data
Diam Pitch Section Factor
(m-1)
Limiting Flange
Temp C
Limiting Web
Temp C
1 732 x 191/229 ACB 90 Top UB 457 x 191 x 67
Btm UB 610 x 229 x 113
90 S355
S355
327.5
404.6
450 650 126 617 650
Douglas Car Park, Isle of Man
Valley Park, Leeds
Cannon Court, Maidenhead
See page 18
ENGINEERS DESIGN GUIDE
00 09
CELLULAR
BEAMS ENGINEERS DESIGN GUIDE
Avoiding Inflls to Cells
If your design requires more inflling than suggested below
please consult Westok. Our Advisory Engineers will help you
minimise /eliminate inflling.
CELLBEAM AutoMate already helps minimise inflled cells, but
following the approach described below will provide a
practical and economical solution for all parties.
In a serviced foor the best approach is to optimise the cell
pitch so that no inflls are required for the beams on grid. This
fxes the cell layout for the intermediate beams. The example
shown in Fig. 2 is typical, limiting the inflls to only two half
cells in every other beam.
For primary beams care should be taken to adopt an effcient
cell pitch. In regular grids the primary cell data can be chosen
so that all incoming secondary beams land on a web-post,
thereby avoiding inflls.
Furthermore, Westok has developed new types of cellular
primary beams that do not require any inflling. Even in
irregular buildings, inflls can normally be limited to no more
than an average of one per beam. Please allow Westok to
advise.
CB1
CB2
CB2
CB1
CB1
Full web post Full web post
CB2
infll infll
Fig. 2
Newcastle Car Park Finsbury Pavement, London
FLOOR
BEAMS
12 to 20 metre clear span foors can
now be built at the same depth and cost
as short spans.
Floor
Beams
ENGINEERS DESIGN GUIDE
10
FOR WESTOKS FREE DESIGN SERVICE PLEASE USE THE FORMS ON PAGES 20 & 21
FLOOR
BEAMS
FOR WESTOKS FREE DESIGN SERVICE PLEASE USE THE FORMS ON PAGES 20 & 21
Cellular
Cellular
Cellular
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Floor Beams
Cellular beams are most commonly used as foor beams. This
enables one or all of the following to be achieved:
Long Clear Spans
Service Integration
Shallow Overall Floor Depths
The decision whether to use cellular foor beams can be easily
summarised:
* USFB
TM
is the new Westok Ultra Shallow Floor Beam, used to produce very
shallow overall foor zones with the concrete contained within the depth of the
steel beam. See page 22.
The optimum foor layout uses cellular foor beams as long-
spanning secondaries. The primary member could be cellular
or plain, depending on whether services are required in both
directions - See Fig. 3.

Fig. 3
Facing page: Sweet Street, Leeds - 18m clear span
ENGINEERS DESIGN GUIDE
Span Requirement
Services Requirement <9m <12m >12m
No services USFB
TM
*
Single service opening
Normal/heavy services
11
Asymmetric Beams
Many composite cellular
beams are designed
asymmetrically -
see Fig. 4. The top
and bottom tees are
profled from different
parent sections, thereby
optimising the distribution
of mass. This is particularly
benefcial in designs predominantly governed by defection
or vibration.
Fig. 4
Pre-Cambered Beams
Long span beams often require the specifcation of costly pre-
cambers. Cellular beams are easily pre-cambered as part of the
manufacturing process without additional cost - see Fig. 5.
Fig. 5
On request, and at no extra cost, Westok is able to offer far
tighter camber tolerances than required by the National
Structural Steelwork Specifcation (NSSS).
Please consult Westok for specifc project requirements.
Services
FLOOR
BEAMS
FOR WESTOKS FREE DESIGN SERVICE PLEASE USE THE FORMS ON PAGES 20 & 21
Circular Ducts or Rectangular Ducts?
If the circular openings in the cellular beam are insuffcient
for M&E requirements adjacent cells can be opened up to form
large, elongated openings. CELLBEAM AutoMate analyses such
elongated openings. Elongated openings near mid-span
seldom require stiffening, but elongations near supports are
more likely to require stiffening. CELLBEAM AutoMate takes
account of this requirement.
Whilst the choice of circular or rectangular ducting has little or
no impact on the cost of the cellular beam, it does have major
implications on the overall project cost and long-term
environmental cost:
circular ducting is up to three times more energy effcient
than rectangular ducting*
circular ducting is far cheaper than rectangular ducting
circular ducting is quieter than rectangular ducting
circular ducting is far easier to clean and requires
less frequent cleaning
no impact on the cost of the cellular beam
no impact on the depth of construction

* Source: Page 105 - Improving Ductwork. A time for tighter air distribution systems
ISBN 1 902177 10 4 European Commission Directorate General XVII for Energy
Contract No. XVII/4.1031/Z/96-147.
ENGINEERS DESIGN GUIDE
National Assembly for Wales, Merthyr Tydfl
Service Integration
Cellular foor beams are used for their ability to integrate
structure and services. This minimises overall construction
height.
Fischrestaurant, Ewald, Germany
Salford University
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Cannon Court, Maidenhead
12
FLOOR
BEAMS
FOR WESTOKS FREE DESIGN SERVICE PLEASE USE THE FORMS ON PAGES 20 & 21
ENGINEERS DESIGN GUIDE
13
City Park, Hove. Five elongations in each beam. Some required stiffening, others unstiffened.
Cell Size & Elongated Openings
The choice of cell diameter is very fexible. The only limit
within CELLBEAM AutoMate is that the cell diameter cannot
exceed 80% of the fnal beam depth.
Using CELLBEAM AutoMate, the Engineer inputs the
minimum diameter required for services (see Fig. 6), or
simply leaves it to the software to choose the optimum should
there be no specifc diameter required, eg. for lightly serviced
buildings or car parks (see Car Parks pages 24 to 27).
Fig. 6
When the design has been carried out to the required depth
and cell diameter, the Engineer has the option to open up cells
to provide wider openings for elongated ducts. The software
checks whether stiffening is required, and designs the
stiffeners - see Fig. 7.
Fig. 7
14
FLOOR
BEAMS
FOR WESTOKS FREE DESIGN SERVICE PLEASE USE THE FORMS ON PAGES 20 & 21
ENGINEERS DESIGN GUIDE
Beam Depths
There is no standard cellular foor beam. The Engineer inputs
the required limits of maximum depth and minimum cell
diameter, and CELLBEAM AutoMate designs the optimum beam
for the loading and layout.
In the absence of any limit imposed by the Engineer the
software designs for pure economy of steel. It is good practice
to allow CELLBEAM AutoMate to design the optimum beam for
pure economy, then re-run shallower options for comparison.
Wm Morrisons HQ, Bradford - all beams fxed to a depth of exactly 600mm.
Dolcis House, London - primary beams 620mm but secondaries were more
economical at less than 620mm.
15
FLOOR
BEAMS
FOR WESTOKS FREE DESIGN SERVICE PLEASE USE THE FORMS ON PAGES 20 & 21
ENGINEERS DESIGN GUIDE
Using CELLBEAM AutoMate, the Engineer has three options
to choose from for the depth of a cellular foor beam -
Fixed, Maximum or AutoMate.
Fixed Depth
By choosing the Fixed option in CELLBEAM AutoMate and
entering an exact fxed depth, the software designs the most
effcient beam at the exact depth input by the Engineer -
see Fig. 8.
Fig. 8
Maximum Depth
This option is likely to produce a lighter beam. By selecting the
Maximum option CELLBEAM AutoMate designs the optimum
beam that does not exceed the maximum depth input by the
Engineer - see Fig. 9.
Fig. 9
AutoMate Depth
In some cases the Engineer wants the lightest solution,
irrespective of depth. By selecting the AutoMate option,
CELLBEAM AutoMate simply chooses the lightest possible
beam - see Fig. 10.
Fig. 10
Sir John Rogerson Quay, Dublin - all secondary and primary beams exactly
520 mm deep.
Haymarket, Belfast - beams limited to a maximum depth of 540mm.
Secondaries slightly shallower than the primaries.
Sweet Street, Leeds - 18m span cellular beams, 750mm deep.
16
FLOOR
BEAMS
FOR WESTOKS FREE DESIGN SERVICE PLEASE USE THE FORMS ON PAGES 20 & 21
ENGINEERS DESIGN GUIDE
Construction Criteria Clear Span v Short Span
Depth Clear span is equal or shallower than short span - see Fig. 11
Speed With fewer columns and fewer foor beams to erect, clear span foors can be erected almost
twice as quickly as traditional short span frames - see Fig. 12
Foundations Clear span has fewer columns so fewer foundations, allowing the builder to get out of the ground
sooner. This is especially benefcial in poor or contaminated ground
Overall cost Equal
Flexibility of use Clear span offers greater fexibility and more options for current and future occupiers
Sustainability Clear span buildings will be future proof to changes of tenant/usage, avoiding resource-consuming
demolition and rebuild or refurbishment
Bishop Auckland Hospital
SERVICES
Short Span Clear Span Cellular
Depth
saving
Area completed after 15 pieces erected in a
short-span layout
Double the area completed after 15 pieces erected
using a clear-span layout
Even more importantly, the client is presented with a layout
of total fexibility for tenants not only on day one, but also for
future tenants in decades to come. The benefts to the client
of clear span, column-free construction are huge:
Fig. 12
Column-Free Clear Span Floors
It used to be believed that the more columns in a multi-storey
structure the cheaper the build cost. This was consigned to
history in the mid 1990s, when study after study and more
importantly, project after project, proved that clear span, column-
free construction produced almost identical initial build costs.
Fig. 11
SERVICES
17
FLOOR
BEAMS
FOR WESTOKS FREE DESIGN SERVICE PLEASE USE THE FORMS ON PAGES 20 & 21
ENGINEERS DESIGN GUIDE
Floor Vibration
When clear-span foors were in their infancy in the early to
mid-1990s, the initial view was that vibration would often be
the governing design criteria. This has since proved not to be
the case. Research and testing has confrmed that clear-span
foors can be of a far superior quality than short-spans.

Tests have shown that the vibration performance of composite
cellular beams far exceeded the predicted results. Westok has
pioneered the testing of long-span foors. Numerous projects
in the UK and France have been tested in collaboration with
the SCI, CTICM and City University. Amongst these tests was
Le Colisee II in Paris, with 470mm deep beams spanning 17.1m.
Natural Frequency
CELLBEAM AutoMate allows the Engineer to set an appropriate
minimum natural frequency in Hz for individual members as a
design parameter.
Floor Response Factor
However, the SCI Design Guide P354 states that natural
frequency is not the most reliable predictor of foor quality.
Frequency (the number of times the beam oscillates per second) is
imperceptible to humans. It is the amplitude that is actually
felt in the form of acceleration. It is possible for a foor with
an acceptable frequency well above 4Hz to produce an
unsatisfactory feel, whilst a foor designed below 4Hz can
produce an exceptionally high quality foor. The SCIs published
method in P354 for designing foor quality is to calculate the
Response Factor R, which is indirectly proportional to the
quality of the foor:
R 8 Suitable for a general offce foor
R 4 Highest quality offce foor
R 1 Suitable for hospital operating theatres











CellVibe Software
SCI has produced the CellVibe software for Westok. The
program calculates the Response Factor for any given foor
area using cellular beams or USFBs. Contact Westok to
receive CellVibe free of charge.
Royal Preston Hospital - 17m span foor beams, designed for a foor response
R = 1. Suitable for operating theatres.
Le Colisee, France - 17m span with only 470mm beam depth. One of several
foors tested for vibration.
Cannon Court, Maidenhead - 15m span, 530mm deep, carrying 100mm p/c units.
18
FLOOR
BEAMS
FOR WESTOKS FREE DESIGN SERVICE PLEASE USE THE FORMS ON PAGES 20 & 21
ENGINEERS DESIGN GUIDE
Fire Protection
Fire protection of cellular beams using passive materials
such as boards or cementicious sprays can be applied in the
same way as to a plain rolled section. For intumescents, the
ASFP (Association for Specialist Fire Protection) and the
SCI have worked together to establish a thorough system.
Westok cellular beams may be protected by any ASFP
accredited material using the structural failure temperatures
from the CELLBEAM AutoMate software. Alternatively,
ASFP members can refer to their own publications.
CELLBEAM AutoMate software calculates the critical
temperature for the web and bottom fange of the cellular
beam. By stating these critical temperatures on drawings
(see Fig. 13), the Engineer ensures maximum competition
for the fre protection package. Armed with this information,
any fre protection contractor or intumescent manufacturer
is quickly able to calculate their optimum product and correct
coating thickness.








St Vincent Street, Glasgow - conventional fre protection on cellular beams. Finsbury Pavement, London - intumescent protected cellular beams.
Fig. 13



CELLBEAM AutoMate asks the user for the Building Type,
then uses the appropriate fre load factors in its beam analysis
-
see Fig. 14.
The fre protection element within CELLBEAM AutoMate
is based on the numerous full-scale fre tests carried out on cel-
lular beams in the UK and France.
Fig. 14
19
FLOOR
BEAMS
FOR WESTOKS FREE DESIGN SERVICE PLEASE USE THE FORMS ON PAGES 20 & 21
ENGINEERS DESIGN GUIDE
Robin Hood Airport, Doncaster - the Project Engineer and Westok developed
a design for cellular beams and intumescent paint thickness, to minimise the
overall cost.
Wm Morrisons HQ, Bradford - for quality control the off-site fre protection company used contrasting paint colours to denote the different fre periods within the building.
Fire Engineering
with Cellular Beams
Various options exist to fre engineer structural frames which
use cellular beams.
Beam Optimisation for Intumescents
In extreme cases it may be benefcial to slightly increase
the steel section if this allows a signifcantly thinner coat of
intumescent to be used (see photo top right). It is likely that
this will only be viable in 120 minute fre ratings, and in very
lightweight beams with high section factors.
Unprotected Alternate Floor Beams
A relatively new but increasingly popular approach uses the
method described in SCI publication P288, in which up to
half the number of foor beams can be left unprotected, even
for buildings requiring a 120 minute fre period (see photo
centre right). Long span cellular beams are included in this
approach.
Unprotected Steel Frames
BS5950 Part 8 and DD9999 allow many steel frames
requiring 30 or 45 minutes to be totally designed without
fre protection.
For all of the above please consult Westok for advice
and designs.
Leeds Nuffeld Hospital - alternate foor beams were unprotected
PLEASE PHOTOCOPY THIS FORM & FAX YOUR ENQUIRY TO WESTOK: 01924 280030 20
PRIMARY
FLOOR BEAM
DESIGN ENQUIRY FORM
CONTACT DETAILS Company:
Address:
Name:
Email:
Tel:
Fax:
PROJECT DETAILS Project Title:
Beam Ref:
LAYOUT Layout Type:
Span:
Bay Centres:
Side 1
Non-Composite Composite
NOTES
INSITU CONCRETE Slab:
Deck Type:
Grade:
Weight:
Top Mesh:
Thickness:
Lightweight Normal
PC UNITS
Thickness: Mass:
mm
N/mm
2
mm kN/m
2
LOADING
Note: Exclude self-weight
of deck & slab
Live: kN/m
2
unfactored
Partitions: kN/m
2
unfactored
Ceiling & Services: kN/m
2
unfactored
Other: kN/m
2
unfactored
LIMITS
*unless otherwise instructed
4.0 Hz for offces &
3.0 Hz for car parks
mm
mm
Hz
mm
Maximum Beam Depth:
Minimum Cell Diameter:
* Natural Frequency:
Live Load Defection:
leave blank if no limit

DEFLECTION:
DEFLECTION DUE TO DEAD-LOAD SHOULD NOT
BE A CRITICAL FACTOR, AS CELLULAR BEAMS CAN
BE PRE-CAMBERED WITHOUT COST.
leave blank if no limit
leave blank if no limit
(please
tick as
appropriate)
Offce
Storage
Other
Building
Type:
m Bay Centres:
Side 2
Mid Span
Third Points
Quarter Points
Other (please specify in Notes area)
Secondary
Beam Centres:
m
m
Car Park
Education
21 PLEASE PHOTOCOPY THIS FORM & FAX YOUR ENQUIRY TO WESTOK: 01924 280030
SECONDARY
FLOOR BEAM
DESIGN ENQUIRY FORM
CONTACT DETAILS
PROJECT DETAILS
Company:
Address:
Name:
Email:
Tel :
Fax:
Project Title:
Beam Ref:
LAYOUT Layout Type:
Span:
Building
Type:
Non-Composite
(please
tick as
appropriate)
Composite NOTES
m Centres:
Offce
Storage
Car Park
Education
Other
INSITU CONCRETE Slab:
Deck Type:
Grade:
Weight:
m
Top Mesh:
Thickness:
Lightweight Normal
PC UNITS
Thickness: Mass:
mm
N/mm
2
mm kN/m
2
LOADING
Note: Exclude self-weight
of deck & slab
Live: kN/m
2
unfactored
Partitions: kN/m
2
unfactored
Ceiling & Services: kN/m
2
unfactored
Other: kN/m
2
unfactored
LIMITS
* unless otherwise instructed
4.0 Hz for offces &
3.0 Hz for car parks
mm
mm
Hz
mm
Maximum Beam Depth:
Minimum Cell Diameter:
* Natural Frequency:
Live Load Defection:
leave blank if no limit

DEFLECTION:
DEFLECTION DUE TO DEAD-LOAD SHOULD NOT
BE A CRITICAL FACTOR, AS CELLULAR BEAMS CAN
BE PRE-CAMBERED WITHOUT COST.
leave blank if no limit
leave blank if no limit
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22
FLOOR
BEAMS ENGINEERS DESIGN GUIDE
Ultra Shallow Floor Beams - USFB
TM
A tried and tested method of construction in the UK and
elsewhere is to combine the concrete slab within the depth of
the steel beam in order to create extremely shallow or slim
foor construction.
Westok USFB
TM
(Ultra Shallow Floor Beam) is the most fexible
and practical approach to this type of construction.
There is no standard beam size or depth. Each design is
carried out to achieve the exact depth required by the Engineer
or client. There is no incremental increase in beam depth. If a
depth of (say) 193mm is required, Westok Advisory Engineers
will design a beam to exactly 193mm etc.
USFB
TM
s comprise pronounced asymmetric cellular tees, to
provide a wide bearing for either pre-cast units (a minimum
75mm bearing is used in Westoks designs unless requested
otherwise) or a profled metal deck (minimum 50mm bearing
offered). Cells along the length of the beam allow the passage
of rebar to tie the slabs either side of the web - see Fig. 15.
Fig. 15
Rebar
A
n
y

d
e
p
t
h
Pre-cast
units
Metal
decking
75mm
min bearing
for PC units
50mm
min bearing
for metal decking
USFB
TM
s can be pre-cambered at no additional cost and
without impact on the already short lead time. The beams are
manufactured from ex-stock steel, ensuring that the supply of
steelwork does not compromise the critical path.
A separate USFB
TM
Design Guide and USFB
TM
AutoMate software
is available from Westok.
Bristol Paediatric Unit - beam depth 320mm, span 7.2m, load 7.5kN/m
2
+ heavy
point load.
FOR WESTOKS FREE DESIGN SERVICE PLEASE USE THE FORM ON THE OPPOSITE PAGE
23
CONTACT DETAILS Company:
Address:
Name:
Email:
Tel:
Fax:
PROJECT DETAILS Project Title:
Beam Ref:
LAYOUT Span:
Distance to adjacent beam LHS:
Distance to adjacent beam RHS:
m
m
m
INSITU CONCRETE Slab:
Deck Type:
Grade:
Weight:
Top Mesh:
Thickness:
Lightweight Normal
PC UNITS Thickness: Mass:
mm
N/mm
2
kN/m
2
LOADING
Note: Exclude self-weight
of deck & slab
Live: kN/m
2
unfactored
Partitions: kN/m
2
unfactored
Ceiling & Services: kN/m
2
unfactored
Other: kN/m
2
unfactored
NOTES
Structural
Topping
Thickness: Mass: kN/m
2
mm
mm
LIMITS
* unless otherwise
instructed
we will assume
min. 75mm Precast,
or
min. 50mm Insitu
ULTRA SHALLOW FLOOR BEAM
USFB
TM
mm
mm
mm
Hz
Maximum Depth D1:
Maximum Depth D2:
* Bearing Dimension X:
Min. Natural Frequency
leave blank if no limit
leave blank if no limit
mm Live Load Defection:
leave blank if no limit
EITHER
OR

DEFLECTION:
DEFLECTION DUE TO DEAD-LOAD SHOULD NOT
BE A CRITICAL FACTOR, AS USFB
TM
s CAN
BE PRE-CAMBERED WITHOUT COST.
ULTRA SHALLOW FLOOR BEAM - USFB
TM
D1 D2
X
DESIGN ENQUIRY FORM
PLEASE PHOTOCOPY THIS FORM & FAX YOUR ENQUIRY TO WESTOK: 01924 280030
24
CAR PARK
BEAMS
FOR WESTOKS FREE DESIGN SERVICE PLEASE USE THE FORMS ON PAGES 20 & 21
ENGINEERS DESIGN GUIDE
Above and beyond any aesthetic and safety
appeal, cellular car park beams are used for
their economy. At the date of publication
70% of the car parks constructed using
cellular beams were Design & Build contracts,
where the project contractor used cellular
beams as the most economical solution.
Car Park
Beams
25
CAR PARK
BEAMS
FOR WESTOKS FREE DESIGN SERVICE PLEASE USE THE FORMS ON PAGES 20 & 21
Facing page: Amersham Car Park
Fairhill Car Park, Ballymena
ENGINEERS DESIGN GUIDE
Milton Keynes Car Park
Floor Beams in Car Parks
Without doubt, one of the most advantageous uses of cellular
beams is within car park construction. At 16 metre spans under
car park loadings a cellular beam is an extremely effcient
structural member. In addition to its lighter weight a cellular
beam provides three signifcant benefts in car park
construction:
1. Pre-Cambers
Cellular beams can be pre-cambered at no cost during
production to offset a proportion of the dead-load defection.
Large cambers allow the natural drainage of surface water and
eliminate the need for additional screed.
2. Appearance & Personal Security
The large web openings provide a light and airy interior to
improve personal security, increasingly demanded by clients
for modern parking areas.
3. Smoke Ventilation
Health and safety regulations dictate the need to consider
the problems of smoke ventilation. The regular web openings
accelerate smoke dispersion compared to solid-web beams,
and can avoid the need to use a forced ventilation system.
Capitol Car Park, Douglas, Isle of Man
26
CAR PARK
BEAMS
FOR WESTOKS FREE DESIGN SERVICE PLEASE USE THE FORMS ON PAGES 20 & 21
Sainsburys, Clapham
Economy
Whilst the appearance of cellular beams is a persuasive factor,
the most common reason for using cellular car park beams is
economy. Steel itself has become the dominant material for
constructing multi-storey car parks, and cellular beams are used
in more steel-framed car parks than any other type of steel
beam.

At the date of publication well over half of the MSCPs built
using cellular beams have been Design & Build projects, where
either the main contractor or steelwork contractor chose to
use cellular beam construction because it produced the most
economical overall building.
ENGINEERS DESIGN GUIDE
Newcastle-upon-Tyne
Douglas, Isle of Man
Beam Depth
There are no standard beam depths for car parks. The table
opposite on page 27 shows the range of beam depths used in
the earliest 25 Westok cellular beam car parks. The depth is
not dictated by the cellular beam - the client and Engineer
determine the depth allowed, and using CELLBEAM AutoMate,
the Engineer can design the optimum cellular beam at that
exact depth.
27
CAR PARK
BEAMS
FOR WESTOKS FREE DESIGN SERVICE PLEASE USE THE FORMS ON PAGES 20 & 21
Inn of the Mountain Gods Hotel & Casino, New Mexico, USA - 28.3m clear span
Westok Cellular Beam Car Parks Depth Allowed
Oliver Road, Thurrock 474mm
Cambridge 475mm
Scotland Street, Sheffeld 500mm
Douglas, Isle of Man 525mm
Crowne Plaza, Dublin 525mm
Sunwin House, Bradford 536mm
Sainsburys, Clapham 580mm
Amersham 600mm
Ulster Hospital, Belfast 620mm
Buxton Pavilion 650mm
Crystal Peaks, Sheffeld 650mm
Sunderland Sunniside 650mm
Newcastle 1 & 2 691mm
Fairhill, Ballymena 693mm
St Andrews, Norwich 694mm
Telford College, Edinburgh 699mm
Buttercrane, Newry 700mm
King Street, Belfast 700mm
Prospect, Sunderland 700mm
Waitrose HQ, Barking 700mm
Cork 1 & 2 750mm
IKEA, Leeds 775mm
ASDA, Rawtenstall 820mm
ENGINEERS DESIGN GUIDE
P
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o

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t
e
s
y

C
M
C

S
t
e
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G
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o
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p
Blackpool Car Park, Cork
Layout
Whilst most car parks in the UK are designed with 16m
secondary beams, frame centres vary considerably. The choice
of beam centres has little or no impact on the economy of
cellular beams, which have been used at 3.6m, 4.8m and 7.2m
centres in car parks across the UK.
Longer Spans
Cellular car park beams are also very economical at spans
beyond the traditional 16m. The longest span supplied by
Westok for a UK car park is 28m. In the USA spans in excess of
20m are commonplace, and almost all use cellular beams.
Natural frequency for beams within car parks may be reduced
to as low as 3Hz for individual members. Research has shown
that longer span foors actually perform better for vibration
than short span foors - directly opposite to the conventional
wisdom of the mid-1990s.
28
ROOF
BEAMS
FOR WESTOKS FREE DESIGN SERVICE PLEASE USE THE FORM ON PAGE 33
Straight
Roof Beams
The cellular beam owes its existence to its
ancestor, the castellated beam of the 1970s
and 80s. Like castellated beams, the principle
beneft of a cellular beam is its ability to
span a long distance at a much lighter
weight than a plain I-beam.
ENGINEERS DESIGN GUIDE
29
ROOF
BEAMS
FOR WESTOKS FREE DESIGN SERVICE PLEASE USE THE FORM ON PAGE 33
Weight Saving - 40%
Plain UB
686 x 254 x 170kg/m
Inertia 170300cm
4
Cellular Beam
906 x 229 x 101kg/m
Inertia 171301cm
4
Facing page: Fulham Broadway Swimming Pool
ENGINEERS DESIGN GUIDE
Gala Bingo, Newcastle - 50m span - cellular beams were
used in preference to jumbo plain beams and plate girder
options. Cellular beams were chosen for economy and
lead-time.
























Extreme Lengths
Whilst any span can be achieved by splicing together two or
more beams, there is often a visual preference to avoid plated
splices. Cellular beams are commonly supplied in very long
lengths, with no impact on programme and at little or no
extra cost. Lengths up to 27m are commonplace. For longer
lengths please consult Westok as local transport restrictions
may apply.
RASE, Stoneleigh - 40m span - the project was originally designed using trusses
but was changed by the project steelwork contractor to cellular beams for their
cost saving benefts and to reduce lead-time.
Below: 37.5m beams delivered in a single length for Galpharm Stadium
Straight Roof Beams
Comparison with Plain Universal Beams
Traditional castellated beams were renowned for their econ-
omy as long span roof beams. Cellular beams possess all the
same attributes, but with far greater economy. The production
process considerably improves the section properties of the
parent beam used, thus saving enormous weight compared
to plain Universal Beams - see Fig. 16.
It should be noted that as steel prices increase, so the
economy of a cellular beam improves compared to plain
Universal Beams, due to the weight saving. For a full table
of comparisons with plain Universal Beams, see page 31.
Fig. 16
Comparison with Trusses
Beyond the range of portal-frame construction, cellular beams
are the ideal solution. A cost comparison between cellular
beams and trusses invariably favours cellular beams. Built-up
truss fabrication is more labour intensive and painting costs
are considerably higher.

ENGINEERS DESIGN GUIDE
30
ROOF
BEAMS ENGINEERS DESIGN GUIDE
Designing Straight Cellular
Roof Beams
Cellular roof beams are designed using CELLBEAM AutoMate.
The user inputs the loading and layout information, and
AutoMate chooses a suitable cellular beam size. The user has
the option to limit the beam depth should eaves height be an
issue. Unless it is essential to do so the user should not limit
depth, thereby allowing AutoMate to choose the lightest
solution - see Fig. 17.
Fig. 17
Cellular beams can be designed either simply-supported or as
portal frames. See pages 36-37 for a fuller explanation.
CELLBEAM AutoMate is capable of designing complex
cantilevers. Westok Advisory Engineers are available to offer
assistance.
Fulham Broadway Swimming Pool - 26m lengths delivered to site
Galpharm Stadium, Huddersfeld Town FC
Stamford Bridge, Chelsea FC
Audi, Newport - 25.5m lengths delivered nine days after order
FOR WESTOKS FREE DESIGN SERVICE PLEASE USE THE FORM ON PAGE 33
31
ROOF
BEAMS ENGINEERS DESIGN GUIDE
Section Properties for
Cellular Roof Beams
610 x 305 x 238 209500
610 x 305 x 179 153000
610 x 305 x 149 125900
610 x 229 x 140 111800
610 x 229 x 125 98610
610 x 229 x 113 87320
610 x 229 x 101 75780
533 x 210 x 122 76040
533 x 210 x 109 66820
533 x 210 x 101 61520
533 x 210 x 92 55230
533 x 210 x 82 47540
457 x 191 x 98 45730
457 x 191 x 89 41020
457 x 191 x 82 37050
457 x 191 x 74 33320
457 x 191 x 67 29380
457 x 152 x 82 36590
457 x 152 x 74 32670
457 x 152 x 67 28930
457 x 152 x 60 25500
457 x 152 x 52 21370
406 x 178 x 74 27310
406 x 178 x 67 24330
406 x 178 x 60 21600
406 x 178 x 54 18720
406 x 140 x 46 15690
406 x 140 x 39 12510
222718 915 x 229 x 125
171301 906 x 229 x 101
139273 804 x 210 x 101
125069 800 x 210 x 92
107646 796 x 210 x 82
107646 796 x 210 x 82
83924 689 x 191 x 82
83924 689 x 191 x 82
75521 686 x 191 x 74
65363 687 x 152 x 67
55511 615 x 178 x 67
49297 612 x 178 x 60
49297 612 x 178 x 60
42738 609 x 178 x 54
42738 609 x 178 x 54
35662 609 x 140 x 46
35662 609 x 140 x 46
44195 544 x 171 x 67
35662 609 x 140 x 46
35662 609 x 140 x 46
27435 532 x 171 x 45
22983 534 x 127 x 39
27435 532 x 171 x 45
27435 532 x 171 x 45
22983 534 x 127 x 39
22983 534 x 127 x 39
16515 462 x 127 x 37
14801 470 x 102 x 33
Standard UB
Section Size Ixx
1016 x 305 x 487 1020400
1016 x 305 x 438 908900
1016 x 305 x 393 806600
1016 x 305 x 349 722100
1016 x 305 x 314 643200
1016 x 305 x 272 552900
1016 x 305 x 249 480300
1016 x 305 x 222 406900
914 x 419 x 388 719600
914 x 419 x 343 625800
914 x 305 x 289 504200
914 x 305 x 253 436300
914 x 305 x 224 376400
914 x 305 x 201 325300
838 x 292 x 226 339700
838 x 292 x 194 279200
838 x 292 x 176 246000
762 x 267 x 197 240000
762 x 267 x 173 205300
762 x 267 x 147 168500
762 x 267 x 134 150700
686 x 254 x 170 170300
686 x 254 x 152 150400
686 x 254 x 140 136300
686 x 254 x 125 118000
Cellular Beam
Ixx Section Size
1684318 1398 x 419 x 388
1468573 1389 x 419 x 343
1085867 1490 x 305 x 249
915994 1480 x 305 x 222
915994 1480 x 305 x 222
737838 1364 x 305 x 201
737838 1364 x 305 x 201
554621 1257 x 292 x 176
486808 1149 x 267 x 173
486808 1149 x 267 x 173
737838 1364 x 305 x 201
629621 1263 x 292 x 194
554621 1257 x 292 x 176
486808 1149 x 267 x 173
382897 1141 x 267 x 147
342081 1137 x 267 x 134
342081 1137 x 267 x 134
342081 1137 x 267 x 134
342081 1137 x 267 x 134
342081 1137 x 267 x 134
222718 915 x 229 x 125
171301 906 x 229 x 101
171301 906 x 229 x 101
171301 906 x 229 x 101
171301 906 x 229 x 101
139273 805 x 210 x 101
125069 800 x 210 x 92
Cellular beam geometry is extremely fexible. Changing the
cell data alters the beam depth, resulting in a range of section
properties from a single parent section. For example:
Parent UB: 762x267x147kg/m

Cells 800mm diam @ 1000mm centres
Resulting Depth 1141mm
Ixx 382897cm
4
Cells 750mm diam @ 1125mm centres
Resulting Depth 1078mm
Ixx 337666cm
4
Therefore, Section Property Tables for this type of beam are of
very limited help to the Engineer. However, FOR INDICATION
PURPOSES ONLY, the table (right) can be used for preliminary
beam sizing. The example in Fig. 18 (which is highlighted in
the table, right) indicates the typical weight saving a cellular
beam displays over a standard Universal Beam. It should be
noted that as steel prices increase, so the economy of a cellular
beam improves compared to plain Universal Beams, due to the
weight saving.
Fig. 18
A full design must be carried out in CELLBEAM AutoMate
which performs all the necessary checks for secondary effects
as required by BS5950.
FOR WESTOKS FREE DESIGN SERVICE PLEASE USE THE FORM ON PAGE 33
Weight Saving - 40%
Standard UB
686 x 254 x 170kg/m
Inertia 170300cm
4
Cellular Beam
906 x 229 x 101kg/m
Inertia 171301cm
4
ENGINEERS DESIGN GUIDE
32
ROOF
BEAMS
FOR WESTOKS FREE DESIGN SERVICE PLEASE USE THE FORM ON PAGE 33
ENGINEERS DESIGN GUIDE
Spine Beams
Hit and miss spine beams are a common method of increasing
usable foor space in a single storey building.
Cellular beams effciently span three, four or even fve bays
between columns, creating vast open foor areas at minimum
cost. Cellular spine beams also eliminate expensive rafter/
spine dropped haunch arrangements - see Fig. 19.
Fig. 19
Cellular spine beams can be cambered for drainage,
free of charge.
Asymmetric sections maximise effciency where
subjected to lateral torsional buckling - see Fig. 20.
Fig. 20
ASDA, Hartlepool - typical connection of incoming rafter within the depth of a
cellular spine beam.
M3 Services, Winchester - cellular spine beams and curved cellular rafters.
Athlone Mail Distribution Centre - incoming rafters with an end-plate connection
on to the toes of the cellular spine beam.
Middlebrook Leisure Centre - 2.5m deep cellular spine beams, 42m span.
Simple connection into a cellular valley beam
Costly dropped haunch beneath a plain valley beam
Asymmetric cellular spine beam
33
CONTACT DETAILS Company:
Address:
Name:
Email:
Tel:
Fax:
PROJECT DETAILS Project Title:
Beam Ref:
LAYOUT NOTES
ROOF BEAM
DESIGN ENQUIRY FORM
PLEASE PHOTOCOPY THIS FORM & FAX YOUR ENQUIRY TO WESTOK: 01924 280030
Type:
Span:
Restraint:
Rafter
Centres:
Full
m
Spacing of Restraints:
Purlin pitch

Partial
OR Spine Beam
OR
m
LOADING Live: kN/m
2
unfactored
Cladding, Purlins & Services: kN/m
2
unfactored
Wind Uplift: kN/m
2
unfactored
Wind Down: kN/m
2
unfactored
LIMITS
mm Maximum Beam Depth:
Minimum Dead: kN/m
2
(used against wind uplift) unfactored
Other: kN/m
2
unfactored
leave blank if no limit
mm Minimum Cell Diameter:
leave blank if no limit
RADIUS
m Approx. Radius:
if applicable
NOTES
FOR TAPERS, CANTILEVERS, PORTAL FRAMES ETC.
THAT ARE NOT EASILY CATERED FOR BY THIS FORM,
PLEASE USE THE NOTES AREA PROVIDED TO DESCRIBE
YOUR REQUIREMENT. ALTERNATIVELY, CALL WESTOKS
ADVISORY ENGINEERS ON: 01924 264121
(Use notes if a fuller description necessary)
ROOF
BEAMS
FOR WESTOKS FREE DESIGN SERVICE PLEASE USE THE FORM ON PAGE 33
34
Curved Beams
Cellular beams are the perfect solution
for curved roof applications, combining a
considerable weight saving compared with
plain sections and a low-cost curving process.
ENGINEERS DESIGN GUIDE
ROOF
BEAMS
FOR WESTOKS FREE DESIGN SERVICE PLEASE USE THE FORM ON PAGE 33
35
Curving Process
Step 1
Two beams are split, the frst using a special top tee cut
(red) and the second using a special bottom tee cut (grey).
Step 2
A bottom tee is curved to the required radius.
Step 3
A top tee is curved and welded to the bottom tee. The
process is repeated using the remaining tees to create a
pair of curves.
Economics
Plain or Cellular Beams?
Cellular beams offer economies compared to plain universal
beams due to weight savings of up to 40% and the ease of
curving. The relative cost of plain and cellular beams depends
on many factors, but may be summarised as:
Please consult Westok for specifc advice
Span Range
The economic span range of curved cellular beams depends
on the loading and frame centres, but may be generalised as:






In summary, the greater the span, the greater the economy of
curved cellular beams compared to curved plain beams.
Tight
Radius
Medium
Radius
Large
Radius
Up to 16m span Plain Plain/Cellular Cellular
> 16m span Plain/Cellular Cellular Cellular
Glasgow Rangers FC Academy
ASDA, Tamworth
Facing page: Liverpool FC Academy
ENGINEERS DESIGN GUIDE
Roof Type <20m 20 - 40m >40m
Curved Portal
Curved Simply-supported
ROOF
BEAMS
FOR WESTOKS FREE DESIGN SERVICE PLEASE USE THE FORM ON PAGE 33
36
ENGINEERS DESIGN GUIDE
Cardiff Retail Park - simply supported spans up to 53m.
Simply Supported Curves
Most curved cellular beams are designed simply supported,
or with a relatively nominal degree of end fxity.
Compared to simply supported plain UBs huge economies are
achieved. Plain UBs are curved by specialist section bending
companies. This adds to both cost and lead-time. Cellular
beams are curved as part of the standard production process,
usually without cost or any impact on lead-time.
These economies become more pronounced as spans increase,
due to the high strength to weight ratio of cellular beams. Even
designed simply-supported, the span range of cellular beams
extends way beyond that of plain UBs. To date, spans of up to
55 metres have been built using curved cellular beams.
Liverpool FC Academy - simply supported spans of 44m.
Parkland Textiles, Nottingham - 36m span
ROOF
BEAMS
FOR WESTOKS FREE DESIGN SERVICE PLEASE USE THE FORM ON PAGE 33
37
ALDI, Runcorn - 42m span curved portal frame. A Design & Build project in which
this solution proved more economical than curved plain UBs.
ENGINEERS DESIGN GUIDE
Portalised Curved Cellular Beams
It is possible to reduce the steel weight or extend the span
range of cellular beams by designing them as part of a portal
frame. CELLBEAM AutoMate does not in itself carry out a frame
analysis, but used in conjunction with proprietry frame design
packages it is quite straightforward to produce an appropriate
portal cellular rafter design. Portalised cellular members must
be designed elastically.
Both straight or curved rafters may be included as frame
members. The design method is to model the overall frame
forces and moments, and introduce the cellular section within
the appropriate length of the frame members.
There are two options of designing the haunched ends of
such rafters. Whilst it is possible to weld a traditional tapered
haunch to the underside of the cellular beam, it is far more
common to fabricate a totally separate haunch, made from
plate - see top two photographs.
CELLBEAM AutoMate software caters for end fxity and axial
loads - see Fig. 21.
Full output graphics can be viewed on screen to allow
assessment of moment, shear and defected profles for the
member - see Fig. 22.
Fig. 21
Trafford Park, Manchester - curved cellular rafters with separate plated beam
haunches.
Leeds United FC Academy - 38m span curved rafters with nominal haunch.
A Design & Build project in which the 830mm deep cellular rafter proved to be
more economical than an 838 x 292 plain curved UB.
Fig. 22
38
ROOF
BEAMS
FOR WESTOKS FREE DESIGN SERVICE PLEASE USE THE FORM ON PAGE 33
ENGINEERS DESIGN GUIDE
Achievable Radii
Most cellular beams can be curved in house at little or no cost.
However, certain tight curves cannot, in which case Westok
works with a specialist section bending company. The table to
the right shows the approximate radii achievable for each type.
Type A
Curved in-house, therefore at minimum cost
Type B
Curved in collaboration with a section-bending company
The radius achievable in-house is not dependent on the overall
span, but on the length of the individual beams that form the
span. Therefore, a tighter radius can be achieved by introduc-
ing a splice as shown in Fig. 24 below. Splices at
1
/
3
points
allow an even tighter radius.
Fig. 24
Typical Beam
Depth
(mm)
Length
of Beam
(m)
Minimum
Radius
Type A (m)
Minimum
Radius
Type B (m)
450
10
12
14
16
20
30
40
50
15
15
15
15
650
14
16
18
20
50
60
80
95
20
20
20
20
850
14
16
18
20
60
75
90
110
30
30
30
30
1100
14
16
18
20
65
80
100
125
35
35
35
35
1350
16
18
20
22
95
115
140
170
45
45
45
45
This table is simplistic and conservative. Please consult Westok for
specifc advice.
Wellcome Foundation, Melksham - Type A curve
Wakefeld School - Type B curve
39
ROOF
BEAMS
FOR WESTOKS FREE DESIGN SERVICE PLEASE USE THE FORM ON PAGE 33
Reverse or
S-shaped Curves
An increasingly popular form of roof construction is the use
of S-shaped, or Reverse curves. Cellular beams are frequently
chosen to achieve such a roof shape. The S is formed by
joining together two single curves of equal or differing radii.
There are no restrictions regarding where the curve must
change direction, or the different radii that can be joined
together. The joint at the change of direction can be welded by
the project steelwork contractor, or in most cases the steelwork
contractor gives this additional scope of work to Westok.
Winchester M3 Motorway Services
Imperial Select Motor Dealership, Boksburg, South Africa
ENGINEERS DESIGN GUIDE
P
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Above and below: South Lakeland Leisure Centre, Carnforth
40
ROOF
BEAMS
FOR WESTOKS FREE DESIGN SERVICE PLEASE USE THE FORM ON PAGE 33
Tapered Beams
& Cantilevers
Cellular beams provide the most economical
method of producing tapered steel members.
ENGINEERS DESIGN GUIDE
41
FOR WESTOKS FREE DESIGN SERVICE PLEASE USE THE FORM ON PAGE 33
ROOF
BEAMS
Dunfermline Athletic FC - 21m cantilever with uniform cells
Harlequins RFC - bespoke cells
ENGINEERS DESIGN GUIDE
Tapered Cellular Beams
Cellular beams provide the most economical method of
producing tapered steel members - see Fig. 25.
Tapered beams can have cells of uniform size, cells of varying
size or no cells. This affects the relative cost - see Fig. 26.
Fig. 26
Minimum cost
Uniform diameter cells full length - provides the most
effcient design, combined with the minimum amount of
weld length.
Medium cost
Bespoke cells that vary in diameter - also minimises weld
length, but the design is likely to be slightly heavier.
Highest cost
No cells - by far the most expensive option. The beam is not
expanded so is heavier than a cellular taper. More critically,
it also requires a long length of weld. Apart from the cost of
the weld, there is also diffculty in maintaining straightness
due to the amount of heat input necessary.
Fig. 25
Step 1: Profle at angle of required taper
Step 2: Spin one tee 180 and re-weld
Above and facing page: Hull KC Stadium - 29m span cantilever with bespoke cells
15m
762 x 267 x 173kg/m
13m
457 x 191 x 74kg/m
42
ROOF
BEAMS
FOR WESTOKS FREE DESIGN SERVICE PLEASE USE THE FORM ON PAGE 33
Cantilever Roof Members
Cellular beams are frequently the preferred choice for
cantilevers. This is due to the production process, which
achieves the two key requirements for a cantilever:
great depth and therefore huge inertia at the support
minimum depth and therefore minimal weight at the tip
Long cantilevers are often designed using two or even three
different beam sizes to minimise the overall weight of the
rafter with huge beneft to project cost - see Fig. 27.
Fig. 27
Project: Carlisle Utd FC
CELLBEAM AutoMate allows Engineers to design tapered
cantilevers, (see Fig. 28) but most Engineers ask Westoks
Advisory Engineers to design them due to the additional
complexity of manipulating the section geometry. The design
service is free of charge.
Fig. 28 Cantilever design using CELLBEAM AutoMate.
Burton Albion FC - 16m cantilever
Rushden & Diamonds FC
Dunfermline FC - 21m cantilever
ENGINEERS DESIGN GUIDE
Westok & Stadia
Barnsley FC
Bradford City FC
Bristol City FC
Burton Albion FC
Cardiff City FC
Carlisle Utd FC
Celtic FC
Chelsea FC
Cheltenham Town FC
Chester City FC
Doncaster Racecourse
Doncaster Rovers FC
Dundee FC
Dunfermline Athletic FC
East Fife FC
Exeter RUFC
Forest Green Rovers FC
Grantham Town FC
Harlequins RFC
Hibernian FC
Huddersfeld Town FC
Hull City FC
Ipswich Town FC
Kidderminster Harriers FC
Kilmarnock FC
Livingstone FC
Macclesfeld Town FC
Montrose FC
Newcastle Falcons RFC
Newmarket Racecourse
Northampton Town FC
Oxford United FC
Partick Thistle FC
Reading FC
Ross County FC
Rushden & Diamonds FC
Shrewsbury Town FC
St Mirren FC
Walsall FC
Warrington Wolves RLFC
Watford FC
Worcester RFC
Wycombe Wanderers FC
43
ROOF
BEAMS
FOR WESTOKS FREE DESIGN SERVICE PLEASE USE THE FORM ON PAGE 33
A tapered beam minimises
the height to the underside
of the eaves
The deepest point of a
tapered rafter is at mid-span
where the maximum inertia
is required
Centennial Park, Elstree - 36m clear span. 500mm at eaves, 750mm at apex.
Pitched Roofs Using Tapers
A basic portal frame is likely to produce the cheapest cost shed
up to spans of about 25 metres. However, there are often cases
where the haunched portal frame is not appropriate to the
needs of a client. These are likely to be:

where column widths need to be minimised
where eaves height is critical, eg. planning issues
or expensive cladding
where a more aesthetically pleasing appearance
is required
extreme spans beyond the range of portal frames
In such cases a tapered cellular beam is often the optimum
solution - see Fig. 29. As with cantilevers, tapered single storey
roof beams are usually designed by Westok for the Project
Engineer. The design service is totally free of charge or
obligation.
Fig. 29
Kingston Park, Newcastle - 38m clear span. 550mm at eaves, 935mm at apex.
ENGINEERS DESIGN GUIDE
IFB Zeebrugge, Belgium - 53m clear span. 1200mm at eaves, 1500mm at apex.
Fig. 30 Double taper design with CELLBEAM AutoMate.
44
COLUMNS
Cellular Columns
As building height increases, cellular columns
become increasingly economical compared to
other solutions.
ENGINEERS DESIGN GUIDE
45
COLUMNS
Parallel Flanged Columns
As building height increases, cellular columns become
increasingly economical compared to other solutions.
High-bay columns in todays super sheds are a particularly
suitable application, where the increased inertia of a cellular
beam will minimise the defections in the tall columns.
Cellular columns are most effcient in cases where axial loads
are small, such as gable columns, portal legs, wind-posts and
valley columns.

CELLBEAM AutoMate is capable of designing cellular columns
but most Engineers prefer to use the services of Westoks
Advisory Engineers to carry out such designs completely
free of charge.
Tapered Columns
The initial reason to use any form of tapered column is likely
to be one of aesthetics. However, once it is decided that a
tapered column is appropriate, a cellular taper will be the
most economical solution.
There are no restrictions on the shape of taper.
Cell diameters can be uniform or can vary in proportion
with the degree of taper.
Parkland Textiles, Nottingham
Facing page: Ideal Hardware, Chessington
ENGINEERS DESIGN GUIDE
Churchill Court, Trafford Park
Porsche Showroom, Liverpool
Holmes Place, Merton
ENGINEERS DESIGN GUIDE
46
Sustainability
Westok is fortunate and delighted that cellular beams help to
create buildings that use less steel and minimize the lifetime
costs and environmental burdens associated with construction.
Reduced use of Raw Steel

Cellular beams use 25 - 50% less steel than plain beams

25 - 50% lighter loads to transport


Minimum Lifetime Costs / Environmental Burden
The most important factor by far in the longevity of multi-
storey buildings is maximizing the fexibility of layout for
future tenants. Cellular foor beams produce column-free,
long span foors at the same overall cost as the short spans
of the 1980s. Todays clear span structures will not have to
be demolished due to lack of fexibility.
Furthermore, cellular beams allow the adoption of circular
ducting without increasing the overall depth of construction.
Circular ducting is up to three times more energy effcient than
rectangular ducting. (See page 12).
SUSTAINABILITY
ENGINEERS DESIGN GUIDE
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International
Markets
Cellular beam use in the UK alone comfortably exceeds 25,000
tonnes per year, at the time of publication. Worldwide annual
usage exceeds 50,000 tonnes.
Cellular beams have been used in over 25 countries. At the time
of publication manufacturing is carried out in the UK, Europe,
the USA, Africa, Australia, New Zealand and the United Arab
Emirates. Westok will gladly advise of contact details for each
part of the world.
Best Buy, Colma, California USA
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Marizburg College, South Africa
Matrade, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Fischrestaurant, Ewald, Germany
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INTERNATIONAL
MARKETS
ASD Westok Limited, Charles Roberts Offce Park, Charles Street, Horbury Junction, Wakefeld, West Yorkshire WF4 5FH
Tel: 01924 264121 Fax: 01924 280030 Email: info@westok.co.uk
www.westok.co.uk
ASDWestok.PartoftheASDmetalservicesgroup.
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