COMPUTER FUNDAMENTAL

Q.1 1. What is a Computer? Computer system is defined as information processing machine use to do arithmetic and logical operation with capacity to store data temporarily and or permanently. A computer can store, process, and retrieve data as and when desired.

2. Difference between RAM and ROM? Ram:- Random access memory . It is volatile memory. Semi conductor memory. It is read and write memory Rom:- Read only memory .It is non volatile memory. It only reads. It is semi conductor memory. 3. Define hardware and software? Software:- A set of instruction/programme which run the computer, hardware and processing copy and coordinate the activity. Hardware:- Physically having equipment which constitute the computer component. 5. Application of IT indicate the name only? Application of IT:6. Explain speed and bandwidth? Speed:Bandwidth:- The data transfer capacity of a network. It is measured in bits per second. 7.What is anatomy of computer ? Computer system is defined as an informational processing machine use to do Arithmetic and Logical operation with capacity to store data temporarily and or permanently. Most computer system has accentually four important components:

Main menu

Primary memory

Input ALU unit

Output

Control

1. Input device 2. Central processing unit

3. Output device

4. Secondary storage device 1 inputsare required for giving the instruction to the primary memory. Equipments which carry out this operation are called input devices. Q.4 eg: mouse, light pen, keyboard, punched card reader, optical character reader,optical bar code scanner, optical mark reader,digitizer. 2. CPU is the heart of computer that perform the user instructions. 3. output devices are means of interpretation and communication between human and computer system. Q.4 eg: LCD monitor, laser printer,plotter 4. secondary storage device is a hard disc which storage the output from the ALU unit. Q.7 change binary no. 0101 0101:- 5 Change decimal no.60 60:- 111100 Q.8 explain with example bit, byte, nibbles? Bit:- small unit of measuring data. Eg:89 bit Byte:Eg: 8 bit or 2 nibble Nibbles:Eg: 4 bit Q.10 full forms: Eprom:-erasable programmable read only memory. Start comp. OMR:- OPTICAL MARK READER. MICR:- magnetic ink character reader. All cheqe book LED:- light emitting diode. o.s:- operating system. Lcd:- liquid crystal device Dos:- disc operating system.

Gui:- graphical user interface.icons Wi-fi:- wireless fidelity. Wan:- wide area network. Pots:- plain old telephone service. Isdn:- integrated service digital network Dsl:- digital subscribers line connection. Lan:- local area network. Vlsi:- very large scale integration Vsat:- very small aperture terminals Cam:- computer aided manufacturing Cad:- computer aided design engineers Q.11 Name the network components ? Network components:- a) Repeaters: amplify the signals b) Bridges: are used to segment the network c) Router: provide you path how your data will go to one network to another. d) Gate way: connectivity link between two networks that uses dissimilar. e) Switches: booting programme which initial starting by using frameware which recide in prom non volatile. Q.12 Functions of 1) Recycle bin icon use in window programme operating system? 2) Internet explorer icon use in window programme o.s.? 3) My document icon use in window programme o.s.? 4) My briefcase icon use in window programme o.s.? 5) Outlook express icon use in window programme o.s.?

Q.13 Explain the booting of computer. Indicate the device where this programme is store? Booting of computer:The device where this programme is stored:- prom(programmable read only memory) in hardisc. 14. Difference between internet and intranet Internet:-is a WAN. Used worldwide. Network of networks. Intranet:- is a LAN which is being used in a building. Q.2 True and False 1. laptop computer is analog computer. (f)digital 2. super computers have multiple processors. (t) 3. selectedtext for making bold use the keyboard short shift+ ctrl+ b. (t) 4. margins and gutters are one and the same in word. (f) 5. new images can be added to the clipart gallery. (t) 6. styles are stores with the work sheets themselves. (t) 7. you cannot hide rows and columns with the help of mouse in excel. (f) 8. handoutare paper copies of all or some of the slices to be given to the audience. (t) 9. access is a relational database. (t) 10. a database is a table in access. (f) Q.3 1. What is ISP? Name five types of internet connection ? ISP: internet service provider. Five types of internet connection: A) B) C) D) E) F) DIAL UP CONNECTION ISDN DSL CABLE MODEM LEASED LINES FRAME POLICY G) Optical fiber

2. Explain the advantages of leased line for internet ? Advantages of leased line:a) It gives higher speed. b) It gives large amount of consistent and continuous bandwidth. c) It can share with a network of many users even with the good speed. 3. http://www.yahoo.com/index.html Indicate in above a) url b)domain name c) web page. URL (universal resource locator):- http://www.yahoo.com/index.html DOMAIN NAME:- yahoo.com WEB PAGE:- index.html 4. Write a short note on proxy server ? Proxy server:- A Proxy (proxy server) is a server that acts as mediator between the client (the computer of a user) and server (the computer on the other ends of network connection on which the information requested by the user appears for example web server site.) When clients request data from an Internet resource,traffic goes from your web browser/application first through the proxy before it reachs the requested sources and back through the proxy. Then the proxy will transmit the data (information) to you.

5.Write the names of seven layers of OSI . routers and bridges are used on which layers of OSI? Seven layers of OSI(open source interface):-physical layer, data layer, network layer, Transport layer, sesser layer , presentation Layer, application layer. Routers and Bridges are used on network layer and data link layer respectively. 6. What is cryptography? How encryptography and decryptography can be use by using key In cryptography? Cryptography:- the science of encrypting and decrypting plain text message is Cryptography.

A message that human can read is called plain text or clear text. The process of disguising a message take it unreadable by human is called encryption and the resulting message is called cipher text. The reverse process called discryption, take and encrypted message/cipher text and restore it to the original plain text. q.4 1. What is a VPN? Virtual private network can reduce the security risk and provide a more efficient use of internet connection. A group of 2 or more computer system that communicate privately over a public network (internet). A vpn create a feel of a private network by running over a shared network. Using a technique lnown as tunnelling, a vpn stimulate leasing line all other point to point connection across the public routed network. Data in a vpn tunnel remains private bcz. It is incrypted. 2. What are the benefits of a vpn? Benefits 1 create a secure private connection for sharing information, application and resources to and from anywhere in the world. 2.cost less than other secure network connection. 3.add remote user quickly while reducing remote access equipments. 4.increase productivity while enabling new data to sharing possibilities. 3. Why to use vpn’s? Use 1 to create a secure communication connection across the internet. 2 secure intranet (site to site) access corporate office to corporate office. 3 secure remote access. 4 secure extranet access. 4. Basic vpn concepts indicate the name. Vpn concepts Components . Privacy . Authentication . Integrity . Tunnelling. 5.VPN protocols? Vpn protocols:1 PPTP – POINT TO POINT TUNNELING PROTOCOL 2 IETF – IP SECURITY DEVELOPMENT

3 L TO TP – LAYER TO TUNNELING PROTOCOL 4 L TO F – LAYER TO FORWARDING 6. Vpns are created using? Vpns are created by using:1 software (within the os) eg: ms xp, vista 2 routers/switches 3 firewall – is a software and hardware combination which provide protection for server 4 dedicated vpn hardware

Q.5 1. What are different technologies used for Internet Connectivity? Technologies used for Internet Connectivity:- dial up connection, isdn, dsl, cable modem, leased lines, frame relay. 2. Explain the following for their disadvantage for Internet Connection? Leased line connection:- a) It is expensive. b) At a distance between client and ISP is larger cost of a client is larger. c) More installation. d) Hardware require CSU and DSU. Frame relay:- when u used a leased line, u need to pay for full amount of bandwidth at a all time even when you are not using it, In frame relay you need to install a lease line between client site and ISP but unable to pay only for the bandwidth you use. Here you need not pay to telephone company and telephone line but ISP charges are minimise as you are not paying for the time when you are not accessing the internet.

3. How web server works? Web server:- Web pages you are reading, found its way into your Browser on your computer screen. This process largely depend on Web

site byy either clicking on a hyperlink that bring them that side or lAying the site URL directly into the address bar of a business.

Q.6 1. What is e commerce ? E-commerce is an integration of communication service, data management and security mechanisms that allow organisation to exchange information about the sell of goods and services. 2. Give the application of e-commerce? Application of e - commerce :Communication service:- it supports of transfer of information from the buyer to the seller electronically. Data management:- is the exchange and storing of data in a uniform format to facilitate easy exchange of information. Security mechanism:- authenticate the source of information and guarantee the integrity and privacy of information. 3. Compare traditional and e-commerce. E – commerce Mostly realize on a network of computer system, the internet. Traditional commerce Involves person to person contact and some time orders are accepted through telephone or post. Involve TV, radio, news paper, banner shows and convention method for advertisement. Verification method-person to person contact between the consumer and the supplier help to verify the standard identification item such as driving licence or passport. Tradition commerce ordering the product is done either in person or through telephone, fax or postal service. Payment process are in physical

Also used the conventional method but basically realized on the web. It does not involve physical proximity among the bus entity and thus identify must be verified digitally.

Ordering is done through online form for E-mail.

Payment process are electronically

cash, credit card and other form of electronic payment tools that can be used online – offline forms of money such as draft and cash are also used in e – commerce. Occurs only after the verification of the consumer and payment details. The selling place may be in virtual existence as the business may not stock any product and directly ask the supplier to fulfil the order. This is a 24 hours service not depend on any people and work on company records information and place order anywhere in the world.

form of money such as cash, cheque, credit card (the person has to be present to sign the authorized sig. Debit cards and drafts.

Order fulfilment occurs clearly, immediately unless it involves shipment of product. Location to sell- requires a physical location to carry out the business.

Customer service- may not be from as there may be problem due to working hours constraint and supplier not being able to reach all locate the consumer.

4. Electronic commerce categories? Four Electronic commerce categories:a) b) c) d) Business to business Business to consumer Consumer to consumer Consumer to business

5 What are the advantages of e commerce? Advantages of e commerce:a) Instant world wide avaibility. b) Streamline buyer to seller relationship

c) Reduce paperwork error, common time and overhead cost. d) Improve market and product analysis. e) New business opportunities. Q.7 1. Explain:-a) simplex b) half duplex c) full duplex?

specified direction. An example from everyday life is doorbell the signal can go only from the button to the chime. Two other examples are television and radio broadcasting.

Simplex:- Simplex transmission allows data to travel only in a single, pre

Half duplex:- In half duplex transmission messages can move in either direction , but only one way at a time. The press to talk radio phones used in police cars employ the half-duplex standard; only one person can talk at a time. Often the line between a desktop workstation and a remote CPU conforms to the half duplex patterns as well. If another computer is transmitting to a workstation, the operator cannot send new messages until the other computer finishes its message to acknowledge an interruption. Full duplex:- Full duplex transmission works like traffic on a busy two way street the flow moves in two directions at the same time. Full-duplexing is ideal for hardware units that need to pass large amounts of data between each other as in mainframe-to-mainframe communications. Full duplex transmision is a two way transmission

2. Differentiate communication media. Explain the media suitable for wideband width application for networking? Communication media:1. Coaxil cable. 2. Twisted pair cable 3. Fibre optics 4. Wireless 5. Satellite system 6. Microwave system Fibre optics is suitable for wideband width application for networking. 3. Write a short note on ER diagrams? ENTITY RELATIONSHIP MODEL:- To design a data base it is necessary to have a complete understanding of a entity relationship model.ER diagram represent the following three elements:a) Entities b) Relationship c) Attributes

A) Entities:- An entity is an object with the distinct set of properties i.e. easily identify entities are building blocks of a data base. B) Relationship:- it is a crucial part of the design of a data base. It used to establish connection between a pair of logical related entity. It is an association

between entity. Separate entity can have a relationship. C) Attributes:- An attribute is a property of an entity that differentiate it from other entity and provide information about the entity. An attribute type is property of an entity type. 4. What is a firewall? Firewall:- A system designed to prevent unauthorized access to or from a private network. Firewalls can be implemented in both hardware and software, or a combination of both. Firewalls are frequently used to prevent unauthorized Internet users from accessing private networks connected to the Internet, especially intranets. All messages entering or leaving the intranet pass through the firewall, which examines each message and blocks those that do not meet the specified security criteria. 5. Give the names of RDBMS softwares of different suppliers. RDBMS SOFTWARES:- a) Microsoft SQL (structural query language) version 7,8,9 b) oracle 8.0 8p server from oracle corporation. c) Sybase sql server from Sybase corporation. d) informis server from informic software. Q.8 1. What is Wi-Fi ? Wi-Fi:- A wireless network uses radio waves, just like cell phones, televisions and radios do. In fact, communication across a wireless network is a lot like two-way radio communication. Here's what happens:
1. A computer's wireless adapter translates data into a radio signal and transmits it using an antenna. 2. A wireless router receives the signal and decodes it. The router sends the information to the Internet using a physical, wired Ethernet connection. The process also works in reverse, with the router receiving information from the Internet, translating it into a radio signal and sending it to the computer's wireless adapter. The radios used for WiFi communication are very similar to the radios used for walkie-talkies, cell phones and other devices. They can transmit and receive radio waves, and they can convert 1s and 0s into radio waves and convert the radio waves back into 1s and 0s

2. What is the advantage and disadvantage of Wi-Fi network ? 3. Write a short note on computer viruses.

COMPUTER VIRUSES:- It is destructive computer programme that alter the stored file or system comfiguration and copy itself on the extended disc or other computers. Viruses cause problem by altering file and configuration or by doing exponentially which intrupt the data flow. In simple word computer virus program is a piece of self replicating code attach to some other piece of code (this code can be harmless). Viruses required an action of some sort of program to activate them. Hence they attach themselves to executable file. Viruses cannot run independently rather required host programme to activate them. Type:- resident, variend, Trojan horse, worms etc. 4. Write down the names of few antivirus software used in your laptop computer ? Antivirus software:-norten, kespersky, semantic, avast. 5. Write a notes on Cyber Crime ? CYBERCRIME:- the use of computer to carry out any conventional criminal act, such as fraud, is called cybercrime and is a growing menace. 6. What is a computer hacking ? COMPUTER HACKING:- hacking can be the basis for a distributed denial of service attack, in which a hacker hides malicious code on the pcs of many unsuspecting victims.or a hacker is someone who uses a computer and network or Internet commection to intrude into another computer or system to perform an illegal act. This may amount to simple trespassing or acts that corrupt, destroy, or change data. Methods:- sniffing, social engineering, spoofing 7. Define topologies for computer ? Topology:- Arrangement of computer in the networking concept. 1. Star topology:-It has multiple network nodes connected to a host node. The nodes in the network are linked to each other through the host node and can communicate only via the host node. 2. Ring topology:- A circular or ring network, in which each node has two communicating subordinates but there is no master node for controlling other nodes. A node receives data from one of its two adjacent nodes. The only decision a node has to take is whether the data is for its own use. If it is addressed to it, it utilizes it. Otherwise, it merely passes it to the next node. 3. completely connected network:- It has a separate physical link for connecting each node to any other node. Hence, each node has a direct link, called point-to-point link, with all other nodes in the network. The control is distributed with each node deciding its communication priorities.

4. Multi access bus network:- In which all nodes share a single transmission medium. That is, all nodes are attached to the same communication line. When a node wants to send a message to another node, it appends destination address to the message and checks whether communication line is free. As soon as line becomes free, it broadcasts the message on the line. As the message travels on the line, each node checks whether the message is addressed to it. The message is picked up by addressee node that sends an acknowledgement to source node and frees the line. 5. Hybrid network:- is a combination of two or more different network topologies. Exact configuration of a network depends on needs and structure of the organization. 8. What is a Protocol ? Set of rules and regulationsA protocol is a system of rules that define
how something is to be done. In computer terminology, a protocol is usually an agreed-upon or standardized method for transmitting data and/or establishing communications between different devices.

9. Define:- repeaters, hub, switches, bridge, routers, gateway and their uses. HUB:- it is a signal distributer. Hubs are device used to connect nodes one another forexample when you use a star topology they also called concentrator. They are intelligent LAN concentrator. Types of hub:A) Passive hub b) Active hub c) Hybrid hub

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