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PVC Compounds and Processing
Description: The PVC global market size in 2000 was around 25,400 kt. Pipes and fittings constitute the largest volume application at 36% of the marketplace with profiles at 13%. Thus, PVC is one of the most widely used plastics in the world. This overview covers the basics of PVC formulation and processing, while extending the information to include the latest developments in materials and technology. This makes the report accessible and useful to all levels of industry. PVC is of low thermal stability and high melt viscosity. Therefore, it is combined with a number of additives to vary properties to suit different end-use applications. PVC formulation is key to processing success. This review looks at the different additive types available, their uses and new developments. The main groups of additives are: heat stabilisers, plasticisers, impact modifiers, process aids, lubricants, fillers, flame retardants, pigments, blowing agents, biocides, viscosity modifiers, antistatic agents, antioxidants, UV absorbers, antifogging agents and bonding agents. Formulation changes are being driven by legislation banning heavy metals and possible health risks from additives such as phthalate plasticisers. PVC compounding methods are considered here. There are many different ways of processing PVC: extrusion, calendering, injection moulding, extrusion/stretch blow moulding, spreading/coating, rotational moulding, dip moulding and slush moulding. The technology is covered in this report. Fabrication and treatment of PVC are also reviewed, for example surface modification to enhance biocompatibility and reduce plasticiser migration. The PVC industry has been under intense scrutiny in recent years due to health and environmental safety concerns. The industry has responded proactively to these pressures by reviewing practice and undertaking research into ways of reducing all types of risk. Sustainability issues have also been addressed and many different recycling projects have been set up. Legislation is driving this work forward with EU Directives on such issues as disposal of end-of-life vehicles. Over 400 references from recent literature are cited in the review, which is accompanied by abstracts from the Rapra Polymer Library database, to facilitate further reading. A subject index and a company index are included.


1 Introduction 1.1 Polyvinyl Chloride 1.2 PVC Compounds 1.3 History 2 PVC Industry 2.1 PVC Resin 2.1.1 Vinyl Chloride Manufacture 2.1.2 Homopolymers 2.2 Copolymers and Terpolymers 2.3 Chlorinated PVC (CPVC) 2.4 PVC Resin Characterisation 2.4.1 Molecular Weight

3 Bulk Powder Properties 2.3.6 Processing Techniques 2.1 Phthalate Alternatives 4.1 Phthalates 3.4 Epoxidised Soya Bean Oil (ESBO) 3.1 Incineration 3.2 Plasticisers 3.1 Introduction 4.4.2 Polymeric Plasticisers 4.2 Particle Size 2.5 Key Additives Plasticisers 4.1 Lead Based Stabilisers 3.2 Landfill Solid Stabilisers 4.5 Property Modifiers Waste Management 3.3 Global Market by Application 3 Health and Environmental Aspects of PVC 3.4 Multifunctional Additives 4.7.7. Formulations and Applications 4.3 Heat Stabilisers 3.3 Bisphenol A/Alkylphenols 3.2 Heat Stabilisers 4.2 PVC Compounders 2.5.3 Recycling 4 Additives.2.2.1 PVC Resin Producers Organotin Stabilisers 3.4.2 Adipates 3.7 Industry Outline 2.1 VCM and PVC Production Process Aids . Other Fillers 4.7.6 Lubricants Other Additives for PVC-P 4.8 Flame Retardants (FR) and Smoke Suppressants (SS) 4.14.4 Modifiers for Semi-Rigid and Plasticised Applications 4.1.1 Antistatic Agents Calcium Carbonate 4.7.2 Melt Compounding 5.3 Liquid PVC Blending .2 Crosslinked PVC 4.7.7 Fillers 4.1 PVC-U Compounds and Testing 4.5.9 Pigments 4.10 Biocides 4.1 Compounding 5.2 Viscosity Modifiers 4.11 Blowing Agents 4.13.2 Wood Fillers/Fibres/Flour Composites 4.3 Medical and Food Contact Use 4.6 Nanocomposites 4.12 Antioxidants and Light Stabilisers 4.14 Formulations 4.4 Membranes 5 Compounding and Processing Technology 5.4 Conductive and Magnetic Fillers 4.3 Heat Distortion Temperature Modification 4.13.3 Antifogging Agents 4.5.3 Glass Beads/Glass Fibre 4.4 Bonding Agents Dry Blend Mixing Impact Modifiers 4.

2 Processing Order by Fax .1 Gelation 5. Dublin Moulding Processes for Plastisols and Pastes 6 Fabrication and Treatment 6.Mechanical Recycling Guinness Centre. Ireland. Taylors Lane.researchandmarkets.1.1 Thermoforming Surface Modification Processes 6.3 Coatings 6.using the form below Order by Post . Adhesion 7 PVC and Sustainable Development 7. .5 Orientation 5.6 Calendering 5.1 PVC Rich Waste .3 Injection Moulding 5.3 Incineration/Energy Recovery 8 Conclusions Ordering: Order Online .print the order form below and send to Research and Markets. Extrusion Blow Moulding 5.http://www.1 Waste Management 7.2.2 Extrusion 5.2 PVC Feedstock Recycling 7.

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