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VISCOUS FLUID: INCONSISTENCIES AND THE CORRECT SOLUTION.

Alex Zinoviev

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia.

Email:alex.zinoviev@mecheng.adelaide.edu.au.

1 INTRODUCTION

The ability to predict the amplitude of a sound wave radiated by a solid object in a fluid flow is

one of the most significant goals in aeroacoustics. Lighthill

1

made an important step in achieving

this goal in 1952, when he developed a theory, which determines that sound radiated by turbulent

flow in a fluid without solid boundaries has quadrupole characteristics. Shortly afterwards, Curle

2

extended Lighthills theory to a flow where immoveable solid objects are present. According to

Curle, a sound wave radiated by a flow in the presence of a solid object is the sum of the

Lighthills quadrupole sound and an acoustic wave generated by the distribution of dipole

acoustic sources over the surface of the object. Curle also showed that the strength of the dipole

sources is proportional to the total force per unit area on the surface. Curles equation can be

simplified for an acoustically small object, for which the amplitude of the radiated sound wave is

proportional to the total force acting upon the flow from the object.

Many practical approaches to the sound radiation problem are based on an equation derived by

Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings

3

. This equation is more general than Curles equation and

describes flow around a solid object, which moves at an arbitrary speed. Unlike Curles equation,

Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings (FWH) equation contains a monopole term, which depends on

the velocity of the object with respect to a stationary observer. At the same time, the main

conlusion of Curle about the dipole characteristics of the radiated sound remains unchanged in

the Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings theory, and for an immoveable object the FWH equation

reduces to Curles equation.

However, despite being widely accepted, the Curle Ffowcs Williams Hawkings theory has

never been reliably verified by experiments. Earlier attempts

4,5

showed discrepancies of a few dB

between experimental data and theoretical predictions, which was attributed to imperfectness in

carrying out the experiments. On the other hand, two recent experiments

6,7

demonstrated that

experimental dependence of the total radiated sound power on the flow speed has a different

slope compared with the dependence predicted by Curles equation. Differences in slopes were

Acoustics 2002 - Innovation in Acoustics and Vibration

Annual Conference of the Australian Acoustical Society

13-15 November 2002, Adelaide, Australia

ISBN 0-909882-19-3 2002 AAS 364

observed for various sets of experimental parameters, thus making it unlikely that the discrepancy

was simply a lack of experimental accuracy.

To explain the observed discrepancy, the author and his co-author carried out a detailed analysis

of Curles equation

8

. The analysis showed that in Curles calculations the contribution of the

discontinuity of hydrodynamic stresses on the rigid surface to the radiated sound has been

erroneously omitted. By taking this discontinuity into proper consideration, an alternative

equation was obtained, which differs from Curles equation in two important aspects. First, the

strength of the dipole sources on the surface on the object depends on the acoustic component of

pressure rather than on the total pressure. Second, contrary to Curles equation, the obtained

equation contains a monopole term, for which the strength is determined by the relative motion

of the object and the fluid.

To demonstrate the difference between the two equations, they were applied to two well-known

problems of sound scattering and radiation by a rigid sphere. It was shown that Curles equation

gives predictions, which are in disagreement with results known from the literature, whereas

predictions given by the obtained equation coincide with the known results.

In the present work a detailed reconsideration is given to the more general FWH equation. It is

shown, that the algorithm used for obtaining this equation, in fact leads to an equation, which

coincides with the equation derived by in reference

8

. Difference between the obtained equations

and the FWH equation is demonstrated by an example of a thin plate vibrating in its own plane in

a fluid. New methodologies of active noise control, which can be based on the obtained equation,

are briefly discussed.

Acoustics 2002 - Innovation in Acoustics and Vibration

ISBN 0-909882-19-3 2002 AAS 365

2 DERIVATION OF AN EQUATION FOR THE RADIATED SOUND AMPLITUDE

To obtain an equation for the amplitude of a sound

wave, radiated from a moving body in a fluid flow,

an analytical approach is utilised here, which is

analogous to the approach used by Ffowcs

Williams and Hawkings

3

. A fixed volume of fluid,

V, enclosed by a surface, , is considered (see

Figure 1). The volume V is divided into regions 1

and 2 by a closed surface of discontinuity, S,

moving into region 2 with velocity, v. The velocity

of the fluid is represented by u. The outward

normal from V is l, and normal to S directed from

region 1 to region 2 is n. The subscripts 1 and 2

refer to the two regions, and an overbar implies

that the variable is regarded as a generalised

function valid throughout V.

If denotes the fluid density, the mass conservation law for the volume V can be formulated as

follows:

( ) ( ) ( )

2 1

,

i i i i i i i i

V S S

dV u l d u v n dS u v n dS

t

+ 1 1

] ]

(1)

1, 2, 3. i

By means of the divergence theorem, the integral over the closed surface can be represented as

a volume integral over V, and equation (1) takes the following form:

( ) ( ) ( )

2 1

.

i i i i i i i

V S S

i

u dV u v n dS u v n dS

t x

_

+ 1 1

] ]

,

(2)

It is necessary to emphasize that, for obtaining equation (2), no assumptions have been made

about the composition of the momentum field u. Generally, however, this field can be separated

into a potential, ( )

pot

u , and a solenoidal, ( )

sol

u , components which can each be represented

respectively as

( ) ( ) , ,

pot sol

u u A (3)

where and A are the scalar and vector potentials respectively.

Potential and solenoidal fields can be also understood using the concept of streamlines

9

. These

are lines such that the tangent to a streamline in any point gives the direction of the velocity at

this point. According to equations (3), curl of the potential component is zero and, therefore, its

integral over a closed contour is zero as well. Consequently, the streamlines for the potential

component cannot be closed and must have the beginning and the end at acoustic sources or in

infinity. Conversely, for the solenoidal component the divergence is zero, the integral over a

Figure 1.

S

n

V

l

1 2

v

Acoustics 2002 - Innovation in Acoustics and Vibration

ISBN 0-909882-19-3 2002 AAS 366

closed contour is not zero and, consequently, the streamlines for the solenoidal component are

closed lines.

As the solenoidal component is a curl of a vector, its flux through the closed surface S is zero.

Consequently, equation (2) is ambiguous with respect to the field u; it is valid not only for the

total field u, but also for the potential component of the field, ( )

pot

u . This ambiguity becomes

important at the next step of derivation.

The authors of reference

3

concluded that expressions under the integral in equation (2) can be

made equal for every point of volume V, leading to the following equation:

( ) ( ) ( )

( )

( )

2 1

,

i i i i i i

i

u u v u v l S

t x

+ 1 1

] ]

(4)

where

( )

( )

s

S r r is a three-dimensional delta-function, and

s

r is a radius vector of a point

belonging to the surface S. However, it can be proven that equation (4) is valid only for the

potential component, ( )

pot

u , and cannot include the solenoidal component, ( )

sol

u . On the one

hand, the solenoidal component, the second term in the left-hand part of equation (2), which is

the divergence of the vector ( )

sol

u , is zero at every point of the volume V. On the other hand,

the expression in the right-hand part is zero under the integral only and may differ from zero at

different points of the surface S. Therefore, equation (4) should be, in fact, written as

( ) ( ) ( )

( )

( )

2 1

,

pot pot

i i i i i i

i

u u v u v l S

t x

1 1

+

] ]

(5)

If region 1 is an absolutely rigid body, the following boundary conditions are satisfied

3

:

1 1

0 ,

pot sol

i i i i

u l u l 1 1

] ]

(6)

[ ] [ ]

0 0

1 1

, , p p (7)

2

,

pot sol

i i i i i

u u l v l 1 +

]

(8)

where

0

and

0

p are the fluid density and pressure in the state of equilibrium. With the use of

equations (6), (7) and (8), equation (5) takes the following form:

( ) [ ] ( )

( )

2

0

2 1 2

.

sol

i i i i

i

u u v l S

t x

1 + + 1

] ]

(9)

Let the analysis be restricted to a linear approximation, for which fluctuations of density and

velocity are small. In this case the following conditions are satisfied:

0 0

, << (10)

0 0

, ,

pot sol

c c << << u u (11)

where

0

c is the sound speed in the fluid. Taking account of equations (10) and (11) and dropping

the index 2, equation (9) is reduced to the following equation:

( )

( )

0

,

pot

i i i

i

u u l S

t x

+

(12)

Acoustics 2002 - Innovation in Acoustics and Vibration

ISBN 0-909882-19-3 2002 AAS 367

which is a generalised equation of continuity.

An equation, representing the momentum conservation law, for the case under consideration

takes the following form:

( )

( )

( ) ( )

( )

2 1

,

i i j ij

V

j

ij i j j ij i j j j

S

u u u p dV

t x

p u u v p u u v l dS

_

+ +

,

+ + 1 1

] ]

(13)

, 1, 2, 3, i j

where a compressive stress tensor,

ij

p , is determined by

9

:

2

,

3

j

i k

ij ij ij

j i k

u

u u

p p

x x x

_

+ +

,

(14)

and is the viscosity of the fluid.

By means of an argument analogous to the argument used in the derivation of equation (12), it

can be proven that equation (13) must include only the potential component of the tensor

ij

p , if

equation (13) is written for every point of volume V. Thus, neglecting the nonlinear terms in the

right-hand part, equation (13) can be reduced to the following:

( ) ( )

[ ] [ ] ( )

( )

2 1

.

i i j ij j

j

u u u p p p l S

t x

+ +

(15)

With the use of equation (7), equation (15) takes the following form:

( )

( )

( )

( )

0

,

i i j ij i

j

u u u p p p l S

t x

+ +

(16)

which represents a generalised momentum equation.

Excluding

i

u from equations (12) and (16), one can obtain the following inhomogeneous wave

equation:

( )

( )

( )

( )

2

2 2

2

0 0 2 2

,

ij pot

i i i

i i j i

T

c pl S u l S

t x x x x t

_

+

,

(17)

where

ij

T is Lighthills stress tensor, determined by

2

0

,

ij i j ij ij

T u u p c + (18)

and and p are understood as perturbations of the density and the pressure from the state of

equilibrium. The solution of equation (17) can be written as the following integral equation:

( )

[ ]

( ) ( )

2

2

0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0

4 ,

pot

ij

i

i i

V S S

i j i

T

u p

c dV l dS l dS

x x x t

1 1

] ]

+

r r r

r r r r r r

(19)

where r is the observation point, r

0

is the source point, and the quantities in square brackets are

taken at retarded times,

0 0

t c r r . Equation (19) represents the contribution of the present

paper.

Acoustics 2002 - Innovation in Acoustics and Vibration

ISBN 0-909882-19-3 2002 AAS 368

3 COMPARISON OF THE OBTAINED EQUATION WITH FFOWCS WILLIAMS

AND HAWKINGS EQUATION

Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings (FWH) equation in its integral form without nonlinear terms

takes the following form

10

:

( ) ( )

[ ]

( )

2

2

0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0

4 .

ij ij

i

i i

V S S

i j i

T p

v

c dV l dS l dS

x x x t

1 1

] ]

+

r r r

r r r r r r

(20)

Comparison of the obtained equation (19) and the FWH equation (20) shows, that both equations

include identical volume integrals, which determine Lighthills quadrupole sound generated by

turbulence in the volume V. At the same time the second and the third terms in the right-hand

parts of both equations differ. The third term, which determines sound generated by a layer of

monopoles on the surface S, is discussed in detail in reference

8

. However, it may be noted briefly

that equation (20) cannot describe a simple reflection of sound from an immoveable object. The

incident sound wave would have a non-zero normal component on the surface S, which, due to

boundary conditions on an immoveable surface, must be cancelled by the velocity in the reflected

wave. On the one hand, this situation is described perfectly by equation (19), where the strength

of the monopole sources is proportional to the normal velocity in the scattered wave, which is

equal to the normal velocity in the incident wave with opposite sign. On the other hand, in the

FWH equation (20) the third term vanishes at the immoveable surface, and there will be no

monopole sources at all.

An example

8

demonstrates, that without the monopole term it is not possible to determine

correctly the amplitude of the reflected sound. Consider a situation where the solid object is a

sphere of radius, R , the volume containing turbulence is small, and its distance from the sphere

is large in comparison with the acoustic wavelength. In these circumstances, the sound radiated

by the quadrupole sources can be considered as a plane wave near the sphere, and the problem

under consideration reduces to the problem of a plane wave scattering. It is well-known

9

, that a

monopole component will be present in the sound field scattered by the sphere. Obviously,

equation (20) cannot describe the monopole component, as the lowest multipole in this equation

is the dipole. On the contrary, for the reasons mentioned above, the third term in equation (19),

which describes the monopole component, is different from zero.

The second term in equations (19) and (20) determines the amplitude of sound radiated by a layer

of dipoles on the surface S. However, the strength of the dipole sources differs in both equations.

In the FWH equation (20) the strength is determined by the compressive stress tensor in its

general form as defined in equation (14), while in the obtained equation (19) only the acoustic

pressure is essential.

The difference between the dipole terms in both equations can be demonstrated by the following

example. Let the surface S be the surface of a thin rigid plate, vibrating in its own plane in a

viscous fluid. If all plate dimensions are much smaller than the acoustic wavelength, the surface

integral in the FWH equation (20) can be simplified, so that the dipole sound amplitude will be

proportional to the total force acting upon the fluid from the object. Due to the viscosity of the

fluid there will be force acting upon the plate in the direction parallel to the plate. Therefore,

Acoustics 2002 - Innovation in Acoustics and Vibration

ISBN 0-909882-19-3 2002 AAS 369

according to the Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings theory, such a plate will be a source of dipole

radiation with the dipole moment parallel to the plate.

On the contrary, according to the obtained equation (19), there will be no radiation from the

surface of the plate, because such motion of the plate cannot cause pressure fluctuations

9

. Solving

the boundary value problem directly can prove the absence of the acoustic radiation from such a

plate. Indeed, in the absence of external pressure and velocity fields the radiated sound field must

satisfy the condition of zero normal velocity on the surface of the plate that, in turn, leads to the

absence of sound radiation from the plate.

It is to be noted, that the volume of the fluid, surrounding the plate, will still radiate sound waves.

These sound waves, however, are caused by the diffusion of vorticity to the fluid

9

and described

by Lighthills quadrupole term rather than by the surface integrals in equations (19) and (20).

It is also important to note that the FWH equation (20) and the obtained equation (19) can give

identical results in some cases. However, this coincidence can be shown to be purely accidental.

For example, a known formula for the amplitude of sound radiated by a transversely oscillating

sphere in a viscous fluid can be obtained on the basis of the Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings

equation

11

. At the same time it can be shown that the obtained equation results in the same

formula. Analysis shows that the predictions of both formulas coincide only due to the spherical

symmetry of the object and, therefore, the coincidence is fortuitous.

The obtained equation (19) also can be compared with the equation derived in reference

8

. Such

comparison shows that both equations coincide, although they have been derived for a moving

and immoveable object respectively. This can be explained by the fact that, at least in the linear

approximation, only the normal component of the velocity of the radiated acoustic wave is

included directly into the equations, while the velocity of the object is taken into account in the

boundary conditions.

4 IMPLICATIONS OF THE OBTAINED EQUATION FOR NOISE CONTROL

The Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings equation includes two terms related to the sound generation

by a surface, but control of noise generation can be based only on one of them, which is

proportional to the stress tensor. Therefore, the FWH equation allows only one strategy in noise

control, namely, to minimise the force acting upon the surface from the flow. This also makes a

study of the flow structure near the surface unimportant for the purpose of noise control.

Conversely, the obtained equation (19) has two terms determining sound radiation by a surface

even for an immoveable object. This leads to a possibility to minimise aerodynamic noise

radiation by developing strategies, which would utilise mutual cancellation of both terms in far

field. In addition, knowledge of the velocity field near the radiating surface becomes significant

for effective noise control.

Acoustics 2002 - Innovation in Acoustics and Vibration

ISBN 0-909882-19-3 2002 AAS 370

5 CONCLUSIONS

In the present paper an equation has been derived, which determines the amplitude of the sound

wave generated by a moving rigid object in a fluid flow. The argument used in the derivation is

analogous to the argument used in the derivation of the Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings (FWH)

equation. It is shown that if the velocity and pressure fields in the fluid are represented as a sum

of potential and solenoidal parts, the obtained equation includes only the potential parts of the

fields.

The difference between the obtained equation and the FWH equation is demonstrated by the

example of sound radiation by a thin plate vibrating in its own plane in a viscous fluid. It is

shown that the FWH equation leads to the prediction of dipole radiation with the dipole moment

parallel to the plate, while the obtained equation predicts the absence of such radiation, which can

be also proven by direct solution of the boundary value problem.

Implications of the obtained equation for active noise control are discussed. It is shown that the

equation allows new strategies of noise control, based on mutual cancellation of dipole and

monopole terms in the far field.

REFERENCES

1. M.J.Lighthill, 1952, On sound generated aerodynamically, Proc. Roy. Soc. A, 211, 564

586.

2. N.Curle, 1955, The influence of solid boundaries upon aerodynamic sound, Proc. Roy. Soc. A

231, 505 514.

3. J.E.Ffowcs Williams and D.L. Hawkings, 1969, Sound generation by turbulence and surfaces

in arbitrary motion, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. (London) Ser. A, 264, 321 342.

4. P.J.F. Clark and H.S.Ribner, 1969, Direct Correlation of Fluctuating Lift with Radiated

Sound for an Airfoil in Turbulent Flow, J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 46, 802 805.

5. H.H.Heller and S.E.Widnall, 1970, Sound Radiation from Rigid Flow Spoilers Correlated

with Fluctuating Forces, J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 47, 924 936.

6. D.A.Bies, J.M.Pickles and D.J.J.Leclercq, 1997, Aerodynamic noise generation by a

stationary body in a turbulent air stream, Journal of Sound and Vibration, 204, 631 643.

7. D.J.J.Leclercq and M.K.Symes, 2002, Dense compact rigid object in a turbulent flow:

Application of Curle's theory, 8th AIAA/CEAS Aeroacoustics Conference, 17-19 June 2002,

Breckenridge CO, USA.

8. A.Zinoviev and D.A.Bies, On acoustic radiation by a rigid object in a fluid flow, submitted to

Journal of Sound and Vibrations.

9. L.D.Landau and E.M.Lifshitz, 1959, Fluid Mechanics. Volume 6 of Course of Theoretical

Physics, Oxford: Pergamon Press.

10. M.S.Howe, 1998, Acoustics of fluid-structure interactions, Cambridge University Press.

11. A.D.Pierce, 1989, Acoustics: An Introduction to Its Physical Principles and Applications,

New York: Acoustical Society of America.

Acoustics 2002 - Innovation in Acoustics and Vibration

ISBN 0-909882-19-3 2002 AAS 371

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