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t r n h o t o




cc
























b lao ng - thng binh v x hi
Tng cc dy ngh
D n gio dc k thut v dy ngh (VTEP)








Gio trnh



























H Ni - 2005

M un: cung cp in
M s: CIE 01 19 00
Ngh sa cha thit b
in cng nghip
Trnh Lnh ngh





(Chn mt hnh minh ho biu tng cho m un/ mn hc)
Logo
2

(Mt sau trang ba)






























M tI liu:

M quc t ISBN:...
Tuyn b bn quyn:

Ti liu ny thuc loi sch gio trnh
Cho nn cc ngun thng tin c th c
php dng nguyn bn hoc trch dng
cho cc mc ch v o to v tham
kho.
Mi mc ch khc c lch lc hoc
s dng vi mc ch kinh doanh thiu lnh
mnh s b nghim cm.
Tng Cc Dy ngh s lm mi cch
bo v bn quyn ca mnh.

Tng Cc Dy Ngh cm n v hoan
nghnh cc thng tin gip cho vic tu sa
v hon thin tt hn ti liu ny.






a ch lin h:
D n gio dc k thut v ngh nghip
Tiu Ban Pht trin Chng trnh Hc liu
................................................................

3

Li ta
(Vi nt gii thiu xut x ca chng trnh v ti liu)

Ti liu ny l mt trong cc kt qu ca D n GDKT-DN ...

(Tm tt ni dung ca D n)







(Vi nt gii thiu qu trnh Hnh thnh ti liu v cc thnh phn tham gia)









(Li cm n cc c quan lin quan, cc n v v c nhn tham gia )



(Gii thiu ti liu v thc trng)


TI liu ny c thit k theo tng m un/ mn hc thuc h thng m un/mn hc
ca mt chng trnh, o to hon chnh
ngh .. cp trnh ..
v c dng lm Gio trnh cho hc vin trong cc kho o to, cng c th c s dng
cho o to ngn hn hoc cho cc cng nhn k thut, cc nh qun l v ngi s dng nhn
lc tham kho.
y l ti liu th nghim s c hon chnh tr thnh gio trnh chnh thc trong
h thng dy ngh.

H Ni, ngy ... thng. nm.....
Gim c D n quc gia

4





Mc lc
Trang
1 Li Ta ............................................................................................................... 3
2 Mc lc ........................................................................................................ ...... 4
3 Gii thiu mn hc ....................................................................................... ...... 5
4 S quan h theo trnh t hc ngh .......................................................... ...... 7
5 Cc Hnh thc hc tp chnh trong mn hc.................................................. ...... 8
6 Yu cu v nh gi hon thnh mn hc................................................ .... ..... 8
7 Bi 1: Khi qut v h thng cung cp in .................................................. 10
8 Bi 2: Xc nh nhu cu in...................................... ......................................... 31
9 Bi 3: Chn phng n cung cp in ..................................... . ....................... 53
10 Bi 4: Trm bin p ................................................................................... ....... 69
11 Bi 5: Chng st v ni t ................................................................................ 113
12 Bi 6: Chiu sng cng nghip ................................................................ .......... 161
13
Bi 7: Nng cao h s cng sut cos ............................................................
180
13 Bi tp nng cao................................................................................... ....... ..... 205
14 Ph lc ..................................................................... . .......................... ....... ..... 191
15 Ti liu tham kho ..................................................................................... . ...... 206
16 Cc ch vit tt

5



Gii thiu mn hc

V tr, ngha, vai tr mn hc :
Trong cng cuc xy dng ch ngha x hi nc ta, cng nghip in lc gi vai tr
rt quan trng. Khi xy dng mt nh my, mt khu vc kinh t, mt thnh ph v.vtrc
tin chng ta phi xy dng h thng cung cp in cp in nng cho cc my mc, cc
nh my, x nghip v cho nhu cu sinh hot ca con ngi.
H thng cung cp in hiu theo ngha rng l mt h thng bao gm cc khu sn
xut, truyn ti v phn phi in nng. Nh vy, h thng in bao gm cc nh my pht
in c th c coi l h thng cung cp in ca quc gia. Nhng h thng nh vy c
nghin cu cc gio trnh Nh my in", H thng in",v .v H thng cung cp in
c trnh by trong gio trnh ny c hiu theo ngha hp hn. l h thng truyn ti v
phn phi in nng, lm nhim v cung cp in nng cho mt khu vc nht nh, ngun ca
n thng ly t h thng in quc gia v thng s dng cp in p t trung bnh tr
xung.
Gio trnh ny bao gm 7 bi.
Ngoi ni dung cp trong cc bi cn c thm phn ph lc. Ph lc ny bao gm cc
s liu tra cu. Chng ta bit rng tin hnh thit k, cung cp in cn phi tra cu rt
nhiu s liu. Nhng v khun kh c hn ca cun sch, phn ny ch trnh by nhng s liu
tra cu cn thit nht, dng thit k nhng h thng cung cp in thng thng, phn
ny s rt c ch v thun tin cho ngi s dng gio trnh ny.
M un ny c hc sau khi hc vin hc xong cc mn hc An ton lao ng, K
thut in, o lng in, V in, Kh c in, Vt liu in, Thit b in gia dng.

Mc tiu ca mn hc:
Sau khi hon tt m-un ny, hc vin c nng lc:
- Chn c phng n cung cp in cho mt phn xng
- Tnh chn dy dn, b tr h thng chiu sng ph hp vi iu kin lm vic, mc
ch s dng.
- Tnh chn c chng st v ni t.
Mc tiu thc hin ca mn hc:
Hc xong mn hc ny, hc vin c nng lc:
- Chn phng n, lp t c ng dy cung cp in cho mt phn xng ph hp
yu cu cung cp in theo Tiu chun Vit Nam.
- Tnh chn c dy dn, b tr h thng chiu sng ph hp vi iu kin lm vic,
mc ch s dng theo qui nh k thut in.
- Tnh chn c ni t v chng st cho ng dy ti in v cc cng trnh ph hp
iu kin lm vic, theo Tiu chun Vit Nam.
6


Ni dung chnh ca mn hc:
thc hin mc tiu m-un, ni dung bao gm:
- Trnh by cc khi nim chung v cc nh my in, cc phng php sn xut in
nng.
- Khi qut v mng in p, trm bin p, cc ng dy truyn ti v phn phi in
nng.
- Chn s lng, cng sut v u dy vn hnh trm bin p.
- Phng php thit k h thng chiu sng t yu cu, cht lng.
- Bin php nng cao h s cng sut cos.
- Tnh chn chng st v ni t.
M un ny bao gm 7 bi hc sau:
Bi 1: Khi qut v h thng cung cp in
Bi 2: Xc nh nhu cu in
Bi 3: Chn Phng n cung cp in
Bi 4: Trm bin p
Bi 5: Chng st v ni t
Bi 6: Chiu sng cng nghip
Bi 7: Nng cao h s cng sut cos

7

S quan h theo trnh t hc ngh

























Ghi ch:
M-un cung cp in phi hc sau khi hon thnh cc mn hc An ton lao ng, K thut in, o lng in, V in, Kh c in,
Vt liu in, Thit b in gia dng.
M-un cung cp in l mt m un chuyn ngnh c bn v bt buc. Mi hc vin phi hc v t kt qu chp nhn c i vi cc
bi kim tra nh gi v thi kt thc nh t ra trong chng trnh o to.
Mt m-un b tr
Chnh tr - 01
PHP LUT - 02
TH CHT - 03
Q. phNG - 04
TIN HC - 05
ANH VN - 06
kh c In - 14
vt liu In -13
k thut In - 08
k thut ngui -
12
v kt c kh- 10

t-h trang b In 1 -
22
In t ng dng -
23
k-thut cm bin -
24
k thut s - 25
trang b In 1 -
21
q -dy my In -18
cung cp In 1 -
19
my In -17
trang b n 2 - 26
Plc c bn -27
Thc tp sn sut
U VO
Cc mn hc chung
o lng In 1 -
16
v In - 11
thit b In gd -
15
In t c bn - 09
kt lp t In -
20
8

Nhng hc vin qua kim tra v thi m khng t phi thu xp cho hc li nhng phn cha t ngay v phi t im chun mi c php
hc tip cc m un tip theo.
Hc vin, khi chuyn trng, chuyn ngnh.nu hc mt c s o to khc ri th phi xut trnh giy chng nhn; Trong mt s
trng hp c th vn phi qua st hch li.
9

Cc Hnh thc hc tp chnh trong mn hc

Hot ng hc trn lp:
- Cc khi nim chung v cc nh my in, cc phng php sn xut in
nng.
- Khi qut v mng in p, trm bin p, cc ng dy truyn ti v phn phi
in nng.
- Chn s lng, cng sut v u dy vn hnh trm bin p.
- Phng php thit k h thng chiu sng t yu cu, cht lng.
- Bin php nng cao h s cng sut cos.
- Tnh chn chng st v ni t.

Hot ng thc hnh ti xng in:
- u my bin p Hnh thnh cc t ni dy my bin p nh: Y/Y-12, Y/V-11.
o kim cc thng s c bn ca my bin p.
- u dy vn hnh song song my bin p. o kim cc thng s c bn ca my
bin p.
- Thc hnh trn m Hnh vic lp t ng dy truyn ti, phn phi ngm, phn
phi trn khng.
- o in tr tip t, in tr cch in ca thit b.
- Tnh ton chng st cho mt trm bin p c th, mt cng trnh c th, nh c
th m gio vin yu cu.
- Tnh chn dy dn, b tr h thng chiu sng ph hp vi iu kin lm vic,
mc ch s dng theo qui nh k thut in.
- Lp rp mch, kho st v o kim cc thng s theo yu cu.

Hot ng tham quan thc t:
Tham quan v cc h thng cung cp in ti trng, ti mt doanh nghip a ph-
ng.

10

Yu cu v nh gi hon thnh mn hc
- BI kim tra 1: 45 pht: Kim tra trng tm cc ni dung sau:
- Kh nng sn xut, truyn tI, phn phi nng lng In nc ta.
- Xc nh c ph tI tnh ton
- Tnh ton c mt s ph tI c bit.

- BI kim tra 2: 45 pht: Kim tra trng tm cc ni dung sau:
- Chn phng n cung cp in.
- Chn v tr, s lng v cng sut trm.

- BI kim tra 3: 45 pht: Kim tra trng tm ni dung:
- Cng dng ca chng st v ni t.
- Tnh ton c chng st v ni t.

- BI kim tra 4: 45 pht: Kim tra trng tm cc ni dung
- Tnh ton chiu sng cng nghip.
- Chn cc thit b, kh c in trong mng chiu sng.
- Cc bin php nng cao h s cng sut.

- BI kim tra 5 (Thc hnh): 90 pht. Tin hnh thng xuyn trong cc bui thc
hnh. Ni dung trng tm nh gi l:
- u my bin p Hnh thnh cc t ni dy my bin p nh: Y/Y-12,
Y/V-11. o kim cc thng s c bn ca my bin p.
- u dy vn hnh song song my bin p. o kim cc thng s c bn ca
my bin p.
- Thc hnh trn m Hnh vic lp t ng dy truyn ti, phn phi ngm,
phn phi trn khng.
- o in tr tip t, in tr cch in ca thit b.
- Tnh ton chng st cho mt trm bin p c th, mt cng trnh c th, nh
c th m gio vin yu cu.
- Tnh chn dy dn, b tr h thng chiu sng ph hp vi iu kin lm vic,
mc ch s dng theo qui nh k thut in.
- Lp rp mch, kho st v o kim cc thng s theo yu cu.

- BI Kim tra 6 (kt thc m-un): (90 - 120) pht. Gm 2 phn:

- L thuyt: Ni dung tng hp cc trng tm ca tng bi hc. Tin hnh
bng Hnh thc kim tra vit hoc trc nghim.

- Thc hnh: C th tin hnh 1 trong 2 kiu sau y:
Gio vin a ra mt mch in tng hp v h thng cung cp in
ang c sai li. Hc vin kho st v thc hin:
o Nu hin trng ca m hnh, ch ra cc ch sai li.
o Sa cha, lp rp, o kim li cc thng s ca mch.
o Vit bo co v quy trnh thc hin.
11

Gio vin a ra mt s mch in c nhng yu cu c th. Hc
vin thc hin:
o Lp rp mch, kho st, o kim cc thng s theo yu cu.
o Vit bo co v quy trnh thc hin.
12


Bi 1
Khi qut v h thng cung cp in
M bi : CIE 01 19 01

Gii thiu bi hc.
Ngy nay, nn kinh t nc ta ang pht trin mnh m, i sng nhn dn cng
c nng cao nhanh chng, nhu cu in nng trong cc lnh vc cng nghip, nng
nghip, dch v v sinh hot tng trng khng ngng. Mt lc lng ng o cn b k
thut trong v ngoi ngnh in lc ang tham gia thit k, lp t cc cng trnh in.
Ngi thit k phi c s hiu bit nht nh v x hi, mi trng, v cc i tng
cp in, v tip th. Cng trnh thit k d tha s gy lng ph t ai, nguyn liu, lm
ng vn u t. Cng trnh thit k sai (hoc do thiu hiu bit, hoc do li nhun) s
gy ra hu qu khn lng: gy s c mt in, gy chy n lm thit hi n tnh mng
v ti sn ca nhn dn.
i vi nhng ngi cng tc trong ngnh in th mng kin thc v lnh vc ny
l khng th thiu. N l tin cho vic tip thu, thc hin cc bi tip theo.

Mc tiu thc hin:
Hc xong bi ny, hc vin c nng lc:
Nhn thc chnh xc v sn xut, truyn ti v phn phi in nng t phc v
cho vic tip thu tt nhng bi hc tip theo.

Ni dung chnh:
thc hin mc tiu bi hc, ni dung bao gm:
1.1 Ngun nng lng t nhin v c im ca nng lng in.
1.2 Cc dng ngun in.
1.3 Mng li in.
1.4 H tiu th.
1.5 Nhng yu cu v ni dung ch yu khi thit k h thng cung cp in.
1.6 Mt vi nt v tnh Hnh nng lng Vit Nam trong giai on hin nay v
trin vng,

Cc Hnh thc hc tp:
Hnh thc nghe ging trn lp c tho lun
Hnh thc t hc v n tp
Hnh thc thc hnh ti xng trng
Hot ng I: nghe ging trn lp c tho lun
13

Khi qut v h thng cung cp in
1.1. Ngun nng lng t nhin v c im ca nng lng in.
Ngy nay, ngi ta to ra ngy cng nhiu ca ci vt cht cho x hi. Trong s
ca ci vt cht y c nhiu dng nng lng c to ra.
Nng lng c bp ca ngi v vt cng l mt ngun nng lng c t xa xa
ca x hi loi ngi. S pht trin mnh m v lin tc nhng hot ng ca con ngi
trn qu t i hi ngy cng nhiu nng lng ly t cc ngun trong thin nhin.
Thin nhin xung quanh ta rt giu, ngun nng lng in cng rt di do. Than
, du kh, ngun nc ca cc dng sng v bin c, ngun pht nhit lng v cng
phong ph ca mt tri v trong lng t, cc lung kh chuyn ng, gi v.v... l
nhng ngun nng lng rt tt v qu gi i vi con ngi.
Nng lng in (in nng) hin nay l mt dng nng lng rt ph bin, sn
lng hng nm trn th gii ngy cng tng v chim hng nghn t kWh. S d in
nng c thng dng nh vy v n c nhiu u im nh: d dng chuyn thnh cc
nng lng khc (c, ho, nhit v.v...), d chuyn ti i xa, hiu sut li cao.
Trong qu trnh sn xut v phn phi, in nng c mt s c im chnh nh sau:
Khc vi hu ht cc loi sn phm, in nng sn xut ra ni chung khng tch
tr c (tr mt vi trng hp c bit vi cng sut rt nh ngi ta dng pin v c quy
lm b phn tch tr). Ti mi thi im, ta phi m bo cn bng gia in nng c
sn xut ra vi in nng tiu th k c nhng tn tht do truyn ti.
c im ny cn qun trit khng nhng trong nhim v quy hoch, thit k h
thng cung cp in, nhm gi vng cht lng in nng th hin gi tr in p v tn
s.
Cc qu trnh v in xy ra rt nhanh, v d sng in t lan truyn trong dy dn
vi tc rt ln xp x tc nh sng 300.000 km/sec, qu trnh sng st lan truyn,
qu trnh qu , ngn mch xy ra rt nhanh (trong vng nh hn 1/10 giy).
c im ny i hi phi s dng thit b t ng trong vn hnh, trong iu h
thng cung cp in. Bao gm cc khu bo v, iu chnh v iu khin, tc ng trong
trng thi bnh thng v s c, nhm m bo h thng cung cp in lm vic tin cy v
kinh t.
c im th ba l: cng nghip in lc c lin quan cht ch n hu ht cc
ngnh kinh t quc dn (khai thc m, c kh, dn dng, cng nghip nh...). l mt
trong nhng ng lc tng nng sut lao ng, to nn s pht trin nhp nhng trong cu
trc kinh t.
Qun trit c im ny s xy dng c nhng quyt nh hp l trong mc
in kh ha i vi cc ngnh kinh t cc vng lnh th khc nhau; mc xy dng
14

ngun in, mng li truyn ti phn phi, nhm p ng s pht trin cn i, trnh
c nhng thit hi kinh t quc dn do phi hn ch nhu cu ca h dng in.
in nng c sn xut ch yu di dng in xoay chiu vi tn s 60Hz (ti M
v Canada) hay 50Hz (ti Vit Nam v cc nc khc).
H thng in bao gm ba khu: ngun in, truyn ti in v tiu th in.
+ Ngun in l cc nh my in (nhit in, thy in, in nguyn t v.v) v
cc trm pht in (izen, in gi, in mt tri v.v)
+ Tiu th in bao gm tt c cc i tng s dng in nng trong cc lnh vc
kinh t v i sng: cng nghip, nng nghip, lm nghip, giao thng vn ti, thng
mi, dch v, phc v sinh hot...
+ truyn ti in t ngun pht n cc h tiu th ngi ta s dng li in.
Li in bao gm ng dy ti in v trm bin p.
Li in nc ta hin c nhiu cp in p: 0,4kV; 6kV; 10kV; 22kV; 35kV;
110kV; 220kV v 500kV. Mt s chuyn gia cho rng, trong tng li li in Vit
Nam ch nn tn ti nm cp in p: 0,4kV; 22kV; 110kV; 220kV v 500kV.
C nhiu cch phn loi li in:
- Cn c vo tr s in p, chia ra:
- Li siu cao p: 500kV.
- Li cao p: 220kV; 110kV.
- Li trung p: 35kV; 22kV; 10kV; 6kV.
- Li h p: 0,4kV.
- Cn c vo nhim v, chia ra:
- Li cung cp: 110kV; 220kV; 500kV.
- Li phn phi: 0,4kV; 6kV; 10kV; 22kV; 35kV.
- Cn c vo phm vi cp in, chia ra:
- Li khu vc.
- Li a phng.
- Cn c vo s pha, chia ra:
- Li mt pha.
- Li hai pha.
- Li ba pha.
- Cn c vo i tng cp in, chia ra:
- Li cng nghip.
- Li nng nghip.
- Li th.

15

* H thng in hin i:
H thng in ngy nay l mt mng li lin kt phc tp (Hnh 1.1) v c th chia
ra lm 4 phn:
- Nh my in.
- Mng truyn tI truyn tI ph.
- Mng phn phi.
- Ph ti in.

























1.2. Cc dng ngun in:
C rt nhiu phng php bin i in nng t cc dng nng lng khc nh nhit
nng, thu nng, nng lng ht nhn... v vy c nhiu kiu ngun pht in khc nhau:
nh my nhit in, thu in, in nguyn t, trm in gi, in izen...
Hnh 1.1: S nguyn l cc thnh phn ca h thng
16

Hin nay, nh my nhit in v thu in vn l nhng ngun in chnh sn xut
ra in trn th gii d cho s pht trin ca nh my in nguyn t ngy cng tng.
1.2.1. Nh my nhit in (NMN):
Bao gm:
Nh my nhit in ngng hi: L nh my nhit in m vic thi nhit ca mi
cht lm vic (hi nc) c thc hin qua bnh ngng.
Nh my nhit in rt hi: ng thi sn xut in nng v nhit in. V nguyn
l hot ng ging nh nh my nhit in ngng hi, song y lng hi rt ra ng
k t mt s tng ca tuc bin cp cho cc ph ti nhit cng nghip v sinh hot. Do
hiu sut chung ca nh my tng ln.
nh my nhit in s bin i nng lng c thc hin theo nguyn l:

Nhit nng C nng in nng.

Nh my nhit in c nhng c im sau:
- Thng c xy dng gn ngun nhin liu v ngun nc.
- Tnh linh hot trong vn hnh km, khi ng v tng ph ti chm.
- Hiu sut thp (q = 30 40%)
- Khi lng nhin liu s dng ln, khi thi v nhim mi trng.
1.2.2. Nh my thy in (NMT):
Nguyn l ca nh my thy in l s dng nng lng dng nc lm quay
trc tuc bin thy lc chy my pht in. y, qu trnh bin i nng lng l:

Thy nng C nng in nng.

Cng sut ca nh my thy in ph thuc vo hai yu t chnh l lu lng dng
nc Q qua cc tuc bin v chiu cao ct nc H, l:

P = 9,81QH MW
hay chnh xc hn: P = 9,81 QHq.

Trong : Q: lu lng nc (m
3
/sec)
H: chiu cao ct nc (m)
q: hiu sut tuc bin
Nh my thy in c nhng c im sau:
- Xy dng gn ngun nc nn thng xa ph ti.
17

- Vn u t xy lp ban u ln, ch yu thuc v cc cng trnh nh p
chn, h cha . . .
- Thi gian xy dng ko di.
- Chi ph sn xut in nng thp.
- Thi gian khi ng my ngn.
- Hiu sut cao (q = 80 90%).
- Tui th cao.

1.2.3. Nh my in nguyn t (NMNT)
Nh my in nguyn t cng tng t nh nh my nhit in v phng din bin
i nng lng: Tc l nhit nng do phn hy ht nhn s bin thnh c nng v t c
nng s bin thnh in nng.
nh my in nguyn t, nhit nng thu c khng phi bng cch t chy cc
nhin liu hu c m thu c trong qu trnh ph v lin kt ht nhn nguyn t ca cc
cht Urani-235 hay Plutoni-239... trong l phn ng. Do nu nh NMN dng l hi
th NMNT dng l phn ng v nhng my sinh hi c bit.





















(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)
(9)
(10)
Hnh 1.2: S nguyn l nh my in nguyn t
loi l phn ng nc p lc

1. Cu trc bo v. 5. My bm. 9. Bm cp.
2. Bnh phn ng. 6. Ni hi. 10. Nc ngng.
3. L phn ng. 7. ng hi. 11. My pht in.
4. Thanh iu khin. 8. Tuc bin. 12. Thp ngng.


(1)
(2)
(4)
(7)
(11)
(12)
(10)
(8)
(6)
(5)
(9)
(3)
18










u im ca NMNT:
Ch cn mt lng kh b vt cht phng x c th p ng c yu cu ca
nh my.
Mt nh my c cng sut 100MW, mt ngy thng tiu th khng nhiu hn
1kg cht phng x.
Cng sut mt t My pht in-tuc bin ca nh my in nguyn t s t n
500, 800, 1200 v thm ch n 1500MW.
Nh my in nguyn t c nhng c im sau:
- C th xy dng trung tm ph ti.
- Vn u t xy lp ban u ln v thi gian xy dng ko di.
- Chi ph sn xut in nng thp nn thng lm vic y th ph ti.
- Thi gian s dng cng sut cc i ln khong 7000gi/nm hay cao hn.

1.2.4. Nh my in dng sc gi (ng c gi pht in)
Ngi ta li dng sc gi quay h thng cnh qut t i din vi chiu gi. H
thng cnh qut c truyn qua b bin i tc lm quay my pht in, sn xut
ra in nng. in nng sn xut ra c tch tr nh cc bnh c quy.
ng c gi pht in c kh khn trong iu chnh tn s do vn tc gi lun lun
thay i. ng c gi pht in thng c hiu sut thp, cng sut t nh do ch
dng nhng vng hi o, nhng ni xa xi khng c li in a n hoc nhng
ni tht cn thit nh cc n hi ng.

1.2.5. Nh my in dng nng lng bc x mt tri
Thng c dng nh nh my nhit in, y l hi c thay bng h thng knh
hi t thu nhn nhit lng bc x mt tri to hi nc quay tuc bin.
Nh my in dng nng lng bc x mt tri c nhng c im sau:
- S dng ngun nng lng khng cn kit
19

- Chi ph pht in thp v c bit hiu qu cc vng m vic ko cc li
in quc gia qu t.
- tin cy vn hnh cao.
- Chi ph bo tr t.
- Khng gy nhim mi trng.

1.2.6. Nh my nng lng a nhit:
Nh my nng lng a nhit s dng sc nng ca lng t gia nhit lm nc
bc hi. HI nc vi p sut cao lm quay tuc bin hi nc. Tuc bin ny ko mt my
pht in, t nng lng a nhit bin thnh nng lng in. C hai loi nh my
nng lng a nhit: loi chu k kp (hnh1.4) v loi phun hi (hnh1.5). Nc nng a
nhit c nhit vo khong 350
0
F v p sut khong 16.000psi.
20






































Hnh 1.4: S nguyn l nh my ia nhit
Loi chu k kp

1. Hi. 9. Bnh trao i nhit.
2. Tuc bin. 10. Nc ngm ngui.
3. My pht. 11. Ngm nng.
4. Hi. 12. Bm .
5. Bnh ngng. 13. Nc ln.
6. Khng kh. 14. Vng a nhit.
7. Nc. 15. Nc xung.
8. Khng kh v hI nc

Hnh 1.5: S nguyn l nh my ia nhit
Loi phun hi
1. Hi. 8. Khng kh v hi nc.
2. Tuc bin. 9. Cp nhit.
3. My pht. 10. Nc thi.
4. Hi. 11. Nc ngm.
5. Nc. 12. Nc ln.
6. Khng kh. 13. Vng a nhit.
7. Thp lm lnh. 14. Nc xung.


21



1.3. Mng li in.
1.3.1. Mng truyn ti v truyn ti ph:
Mc ch ca mng truyn ti trn khng l truyn ti nng lng t cc nh my
pht cc ni khc nhau n mng phn phi. Mng phn phi l ni cui cng cung cp
in nng cho cc h tiu th. Cc ng dy truyn ti cng ni kt cc h thng in
ln cn. iu ny khng nhng cho php iu phi kinh t nng lng gia cc vng
trong qu trnh vn hnh bnh thng m cn cho php chuyn ti nng lng gia cc
vng trong iu kin s c.
Mng truyn ti c in p dy trn 60kV v c tiu chun ha l 69kV, 115kV,
138kV, 161kV, 230kV, 345kV, 500kV v 765kV (tiu chun ASNI). in p truyn ti
trn 230 kV thng c coi l siu cao p.
1.3.2. Mng phn phi:
Mng phn phi l phn kt ni cc trm phn phi vi cc h tiu th. Cc ng
dy phn phi s cp thng cp in p t (4 34,5)kV v cung cp in cho mt
vng a l c xc nh trc. Mt vI ph tI cng nghip nh c cung cp trc tip
bng ng dy cp s cp.
Mng phn phi th cp gim in p s dng cho cc h ph tI dn dng v
kinh doanh. Dy v cp in khng c vt qu vi trm mt chiu di, sau cung
cp nng lng cho cc h tiu th ring bit. Mng phn phi th cp cung cp cho hu
ht cc h tiu th mc 240/120V ba pha 4 dy, 400/240V ba pha 4 dy, hay 480/277V
ba pha 4 dy. Ngy nay, nng lng cung cp cho h tiu th in Hnh c cung cp t
my bin p, gim in p cung cp xung 400/240V s dng ba pha 4 dy.

1.4. H tiu th in (h dng in):
H tiu th in hay cn gi l h dng in, ph ti in. Trong h thng nng
lng th ph tI in rt a dng v c phn thnh nhiu loi di cc kha cnh xem
xt khc nhau.
1.4.1. Theo ngnh ngh: Ph ti c phn lm 2 loi:
Ph ti cng nghip.
Ph ti kinh doanh v dn dng.
1.4.2. Theo ch lm vic: Ph ti c phn lm 3 loi:
Ph ti lm vic di hn.
Ph ti lm vic ngn hn.
Ph ti lm vic ngn hn lp li.
22

1.4.3. Theo yu cu lin tc cung cp in: Ph ti c phn lm 3 loi:
- Ph ti loi 1 (h loi 1):
L nhng h rt quan trng khng c mt in, nu xy ra mt in s gy
hu qu nghim trng, c th:
+ Lm nh hng trc tip n chnh tr, an ninh quc phng, mt trt t x
hi: l sn bay, hi cng, khu qun s, khu ngoi giao, cc i s qun, nh ga, bn xe,
trc giao thng chnh trong thnh ph v.v
+ Lm thit hi ln v kinh t: l khu cng nghip, khu ch xut, du kh,
luyn kim, nh my c kh ln, trm bm nng nghip ln v.vNhng h ny ng vai
tr quan trng trong nn kinh t quc dn hoc c gi tr xut khu cao em li nhiu
ngoi t cho t nc.
+ Gy hu qu nghim trng v tnh mng con ngi.
H loi 1 phI c cung cp in vi tin cy cao, yu cu c ngun d
phng. Tc l h loi 1 phi c cp in t nht l t hai ngun c lp.
Thi gian mt in cho php h loi 1 bng vi thi gian ng ngun d
phng vi cc thit b t ng.
- Ph ti loi 2 (h loi 2):
L nhng h tng t nh h loi 1, nhng hu qu do mt in gy ra khng
nghim trng bng nh h loi 1.
H loi 2 bao gm: cc x nghip ch to hng tiu dng (nh xe p, vng bi,
bnh ko, nha, chi tr em v.v) v thng mi, dch v (khch sn, siu th,
trung tm thng mi ln v.v.)
H loi ny nu ngng cung cp in ch dn n nhng thit hi v kinh t do
ngng tr sn xut, h hng sn phm, lng ph sc lao ng.
Phng n cung cp in cho h lai 2 c th c hoc khng c ngun d phng.
Ngun d phng c hay khng l kt qu ca bi ton so snh gia vn u t phI tng
thm v gi tr thit hi v kinh t do ngng cung cp in.
- Ph ti loi 3 (h loi 3):
L nhng h khng quan trng, l h nh sng sinh hot th v nng thn.
Thi gian mt in cho bng thi gian sa cha thay th thit b, nhng thng
khng qu mt ngy m.
Phng n cung cp in cho h loi 3 c th dng mt ngun.
Cn nh l cch phn loi h dng in nh trn ch l tm thi, ch thch hp vi
giai on nn kinh t ca nc ta cn thp km. Khi kinh t pht trin n mc no th
tt c cc h dng in s l loi mt, c cp in lin tc.

23

1.5. Nhng yu cu v ni dung ch yu khi thit k h thng cung cp in.
Cc phng n pht trin ngun v li in lun i i vi s pht trin lin tc ca
ph ti. Mt phng n c coi l hp l phI tha mn cc yu cu k thut ra,
li va thp v vn u t v chi ph vn hnh. Thng thng tn ti mu thun gia cc
ch tiu kinh t v k thut, cho nn tnh ton ch mi l cn c quan trng ch cha phI
quyt nh cui cng. la chn phng n cung cp in cn phI cn nhc nhiu mt
khc nhau nh: ng li, tc v qui m pht trin kinh t, kh nng huy ng vn,
tnh Hnh cung cp thit b vt t, trnh qun l thi cng v vn hnh.
1.5.1. Cc ch tiu k thut ca phng n cung cp in:
Cc ch tiu k thut ca mt phng n cung cp in bao gm:
a. tin cy cung cp in:
l mc m bo lin tc cung cp in ty thuc vo tnh cht h dng in ta
nu trn.
lin tc cung cp in tnh bng thi gian mt in trung bnh nm cho mt h
tiu th v cc ch tiu khc, t gi tr hp l chp nhn c cho c pha ngi s dng
in v ngnh in.
tin cy cung cp in cng cao th kh nng mt in cng thp v ngc li.
b. Cht lng in nng:
Cht lng in c th hin hai ch tiu: tn s f v in p U
Mt phng n cp in c cht lng tt l phng n m bo tr s tn s v in
p nm trong gii hn cho php. C quan Trung tm iu Quc gia chu trch nhim
iu chnh tn s chung cho h thng in. Vic m bo cho in p ti mi im nt
trn li trung p v h p nm trong phm vi cho php l nhim v ca k s thit k v
vn hnh li cung cp in.
Theo tiu chun Vit Nam:
+ lch tn s cho php Af
cp
= 0,5Hz.
+ lch in p cho php: - 10% v + 5%.
c. Tnh n gin trong lp t, vn hnh v bo tr.
d. Tnh linh hot.
Tnh linh hot th hin kh nng m rng, pht trin trong tng lai v ph hp
vi s thay i nhanh chng ca cng ngh.
e. An ton in.
An ton l vn quan trng, thm ch phI t ln hng u khi thit k, lp t,
vn hnh cng trnh in. An ton cho ngi vn hnh, an ton cho thit b, cng trnh
in, an ton cho mi ngi dn, an ton cho cc cng trnh dn dng ln cn.
24

Ngi thit k v vn hnh cng trnh in phi nghim chnh tun th trit cc
qui nh, ni qui an ton. V d nh khong cch an ton t dy dn ti mt t, khong
cch an ton gia cng trnh in v cng trnh dn dng v.v
f. Tnh t ng ha cao.
V cc qu trnh c in din ra trong h thng in xy ra trong thi gian rt ngn,
nn vic a ra cc quyt nh v thao tc cn thit m bo an ninh v ch vn
hnh n nh ca li in cn c s tr gip ca cc h thng gim st v t ng ha
cao.
1.5.2. Cc ch tiu kinh t ca phng n cung cp in:
Tnh kinh t ca mt phng n cung cp in th hin qua hai ch tiu: tng vn
u t ban u v chi ph vn hnh hng nm. Trong hai ch tiu ny, vn u t ban u
c b ra trong thi gian ngn trong khi chi ph vn hnh hng nm th phn b trong
nhiu nm.
a. Tng vn u t ban u V:
Vic xc nh tng vn u t ban u V hu nh da hon ton vo cc c lng.
Cc d liu trong qu qu kh cng nh d liu hin ti ch gip tng cng tin cy,
nng cao chnh xc n mc c th v lun c s thay i ca gi c v s tin b
trong cng ngh.
Tng vn u t ban u bao gm cc chi ph nh sau:
- Chi ph mua mi thit b v chi ph xy dng trc tip: V
1

- Chi ph tn kho cho cc thit b v vt t c s dng cho xy dng mi: V
2

- Chi ph xy dng gin tip V
3
, bao gm chi ph cho lao ng gin tip, chi ph cho
gim st cng trnh, chi ph bo him, chi ph v thu v cc chi ph khc nh tin vn
chuyn, tin th nghim, th nghim, tin mua t ai, n b hoa mu, tin kho st thit
k, tin lp t, nghim thu.
V = V
1
+ V
2
+ V
3
()
b. Chi ph vn hnh hng nm:
Chi ph vn hnh hng nm bao gm cc khon tin phi chi ph trong qu trnh vn
hnh cng trnh in: Tin lng cn b qun l, cn b k thut, cng nhn vn hnh,
tin bo dng nh k, tin sa cha, trung tu, i tu, tin th nghim, th nghim, tin
tn tht in nng trn cng trnh in.
Thng th hai khon kinh ph ny lun mu thun nhau, nu vn u t ln th ph
tn vn hnh nh v ngc li. V d: nu chn tit din dy dn nh th tin mua t I
nhng tin tn tht in nng li tng ln do in tr dy ln hn; Nu mua thit b in
lai tt th t tin nhng gim c ph tn vn hnh do t phi sa cha, bo dng...
Phng n cp in ti u l phng n tng ha hai i lng trn, l phng n
c chi ph tnh ton hng nm nh nht.
25

Cch tnh chi ph hng nm nh sau:
Z = (a
vh
+ a
tc
).K + c.AA min
Trong :
a
vh
: l h s vn hnh
+ Vi DK (ng dy trn khng) cc cp in p u ly a
vh
= 0,04.
+ Vi cp v trm bin p: a
vh
= 0,1.
a
tc
: l h s thu hi vn u t tiu chun.
a
tc
=
1
T
tc

Vi:
T
tc
: l thi hn tiu chun thu hi vn nh mc.
Vi li cung cp in: T
tc
= 5 nm a
tc
= 0,2
K: l vn u t.
AA: Tn tht in nng mt nm.
c: Gi tin tn tht in nng (/kWh)

1.6. Mt vi nt v tnh Hnh nng lng Vit Nam trong giai on hin nay v
trin vng.
Theo s liu thng tin ngun in vo thng 01/2000, tng cng sut lp t ca cc
nh my in ca nc ta l 5710MW, cng sut kh dng hn 5382MW, trong thy
in chim 54%; nhit in chim 22%; izen v tuc bin kh 24%. Tng sn lng ca
cc nh my in nm 1999 l 23,738 t kWh, trong thy in chim 58,7%; nhit
in chim 22,7%; izen v tuc bin kh 18,6%.
T trng tiu th in trong nm 1999 nh sau:
- in cng nghip: 38,7%
- in nng nghip: 3,0%
- in sinh hot: 51,1%
- in khc: 7,2%
Nm 1999, tiu th in thng phm ton quc t gn 19,6 t kWh, in sn
xut t hn 23,7 t kWh. D kin nhu cu tiu th in ca nm 2000 khong 26 t
kWh.
n nay li in quc gia bao gm li min Bc (in Hnh l li H Ni), li
min Nam (in Hnh l li TP.H Ch Minh), li min Trung. Cc li ny lin kt vi
nhau bng cc tuyn dy in p 230kV v 500kV. Hin nay li quc gia pht trin
n tt c cc tnh thnh trong c nc.
26

Nm 2007: tng sn lng ca cc nh my in n thng 3/2007 l 12,612 t
kWh, trong :
- in cng nghip - xy dng: 48,82%
- in sinh hot, qun l, tiu dng, dn c: 41,57%


27

* Gii thiu mt s s thc t ca nh my nhit in cn th:
1. S v tr cc t my:

28

2. S nhit chnh ca t my in 33 MW:
29

a. Cc b phn v chc nng trong s nguyn l:
- L hi:
L thit b cha nc v hi nc trng thi bo ha, cng l ni tip nhn nhit
lng chuyn ha nc thnh hi bo ha v tip tc thnh hi qu nhit.
* Cu to gm:
- 5200 ng dn hi v nc.
- 1 bao hi v nc.
- 1 bao nc.
- 1 b qu nhit.
- 6 b t.
- Cc ng gp.
* Hot ng:
Nhin liu du FO c t chy vi khng kh ly t b xng gi quay v t nng
cc ng dn nc. Khi nhit trong l t n 1200
0
C th nc p sut cao s chuyn
thnh hi bo ha. Hi bo ha s theo h thng ng gp v ng dn hi i vo b qu
nhit to thnh hi qu nhit (483
0
C, 60at) lm quay tuc bin.
- Bn du FO:
Lu tr du FO l nhin liu t my.
- Hai bm du en:
C nhim v bm du en FO vo b gia nhit du en.
- B gia nhit du en:
Gia nhit du FO t nhit khong 100
0
C, to iu kin cho lng du chy nhm
tng hiu sut chu trnh.
- Qut gi:
Ht khng kh t mi trng v cung cp lng oxy v cn thit cho qu trnh chy.
- B t:
Lm tn sng lng du a vo bung t, ng thi mi la cho qu trnh t.
- B qu nhit:
Chuyn lng hi bo ha thnh hi qu nhit trc khi dn n tuc bin.
- Bnh ngng t:
Lm ngng t hi nc sau khi qua tuc bin tr v trng thi lng bm v l hi.
Mi trng gii nhit cho bnh ngng l nc sng c 2 bm tun hon bm ln v thi
ra sng Hu Giang.
- Cc bnh gia nhit:
30

S dng cc ng trch hi t tuc bin ly lm ngun nhit v gia nhit nc
trc khi a vo l hi.
- Bnh kh kh:
L ni x l nc trc khi a vo bm nhm loi b nhng tm cht trong ng
ng.
- B to chn khng:
Gia nhit v ht kh nhm to p sut m trong qu trnh khi ng.
- Tuc bin:
* Cu to:
Tuc bin ca t my S4 do tp on Hitachi sn xut vi cc thng s:
- Cng sut nh mc 33 MW.
- Tc quay: 3000 vng/pht.
- Tuc bin gm 17 tng cnh.
- Thng s hi nc vo tuc bin: t = 480
0
C, P = 60at.
- Thng s hi nc ra tuc bin: t = 40
0
C, P = 700mmHg.
- C 5 ng trch hi.
* Hot ng:
Nng lng t khi hi nc qu nhit s c chuyn thnh ng nng lm quay
tuc bin v ko Rotor my pht. Hiu sut ca qu trnh chuyn i khong 30%.
- My pht:
Nhn cng c hc t tuc bin truyn qua pht in nng.
* Cc thng s chnh:
- Loi my pht in ng b.
- Kch thch bng in DC.
- in p thit k: 13,2 kV.
- in p lm vic: 12,6 kV.
- Dng in nh mc: 1786 A.
- H s cng sut nh mc: 0,85.
b. Nguyn l hot ng:
Nguyn liu du FO c 2 bm du en bm ln b gia nhit du en,
nng p sut du ln v tng nhit khong 100
0
C ( nhm tng hiu sut chy ca du)
sau du c phun vo bung t di dng sng m nh van tit lu. Lng gi sau
31

khi c lm nng bi b xng gi quay c cho vo bung t. Hn hp du v gi s
chy ht v cp nhit cho l hi v b qu nhit.
Hi bo ha sau khi ra khi bao hi s c cho qua b qu nhit tr thnh
hi qu nhit, sau c dn n tuc bin vi T = 483
0
C v P = 60at lm quay tuc bin
ko my pht S4, to ra in nng. Lng hi ra khi tuc bin theo mt ng dn hi
chnh v 5 ng trch hi: Hi trong ng dn hi chnh c p sut 700mmHg, 40
0
C qua
bnh ngng t ha lng lng hi ny. Lng nc ngng t ny s c 2 bm nc
ngng t bm v cc ng ng n cc bnh gia nhit 1 v 2. Do nhit ca n s
tng thm vi
0
C.
Sau tip tc n bnh kh kh cha Na
2
HPO
4
, kh N
2
H
4
gii phng
lung kh khng ngng, chng b r st cc ng ng. Sau cc lng nc ny c 2
bm nc cp nng p sut ln khong 90at v ln lt qua 2 bnh gia nhit s 4 v 5 ct
vo l hi nhit 220
0
C p sut ln hn 60at.
Bnh ngng t c lm mt bng nc sng c bm bi 2 bm nc tun
hon c cng sut 1200 tn/h.
32


3. S DIAGRAM.CON.DEVICES - GAS TUC BIN:
33

Nguyn l:
Hn hp du v khng kh chy trong bung t ta ra khi kh c nng lng ln
lm quay Tuc bin ko my pht.
Gas Turbin c u im khi ng nhanh, tng gim cng sut d dng nhng chi
ph in nng cao do gi thnh nhin liu t.
Cc thnh phn chnh ca GT:
izen: My izen dng ko my nn v tuc bin trong qu trnh khi ng.
My nn: Nn khng kh ly t mi trng ln p sut cao (10 at) a vo bung
t nhm t hiu sut chy cao. Cng sut my nn chim khong 65% cng sut t dng
ca t my. Lu lng gi vo l 150 tn/gi. Bn trong my nn c 17 tng cnh.
B t: : L ni nhin liu chy sinh ra khi kh c nng lng ln lm quay tuc
bin.
Tuc bin c 3 tng cnh dng ko my pht
My pht: Pht in ln h thng.
* Khi ng gas - tuc bin
- izen chy xng nng trong 2 pht vi tc 890 v/ph.
- Sau 2 pht izen tng tc. Khi tc ca n khong 2300 v/ph th n c kt
trc ko my nn v tuc bin lm cho chng tng tc theo.
- Khi tuc bin t khong 1000 v/ph th ng kch t cho my pht. B phn nh
la hot ng khi tc tuc bin l 1100 v/ph.
- Khi t tc 3400 v/ph b ly hp thy lc s tch izen ra khi h thng. N s
chy cm chng khong 5 pht lm ngui ri ngng hot ng.
Tuc bin s tng tc n tc 5115 v/ph v c nh nh h thng t ng. Lc
ny my pht (MF) sn sng ha li.
- Thi gian t lc bt u khi ng n khi ha vo li khong 14 pht.
* Qu trnh dng my GT
- Nhn nt (Stop) trn mn Hnh my tnh, h thng t ng s t ng gim cng
sut thc P, iu hnh vin phi iu chnh gim cng sut Q bng tay.
Khi P = 2MW, iu chnh Q = 0.
- Lc P < 0 rle cng sut ngc 32 s tc ng ngt my pht ra khi h thng.
- Khi cn 46 % tc nh mc th ngt kch t cho my pht khi tc cn 40 %
tc nh mc th bm du ngng bm. Tuc bin s chy theo qun tnh n khi ngng
hn. iu hnh vin kim tra cc thng s cn thit. Qu trnh xung my kt thc.
34

Hot ng ii: t hc v n tp
- Ti liu tham kho cho bi ny:
- Nguyn Xun Ph, Nguyn Cng Hin, Nguyn Bi Khu: Cung cp in,
NXB Khoa hc v K thut, H Ni, 1998.
- Nguyn Cng Hin, ng Ngc Dinh, Nguyn Hu Khi, Phan ng Khi,
Nguyn Thnh: Cung cp in, NXB i hc v Trung hc Chuyn nghip, H
Ni, 1984.
- Cung cp in, V Trung hc Chuyn nghip v Dy ngh, NXB Gio dc, H
Ni, 2005.
- Quyn Huy nh: Cung cp in, Trng i hc S phm K thut TP. H Ch
Minh, 2006.
- Trn Bch, Phan ng Khi, Ng Hng Quang: H thng cung cp in,
i hc Bch khoa H Ni, 1978.
- Trnh Hng Thm, o Quang Thch, o Kim Hoa: Nh my in v
Trm bin p, NXB Khoa hc v K thut, H Ni, 1996.
- Cung cp in cho x nghip cng nghip, NXB Khoa hc v K thut, H Ni,
1974.
- Tr li cc cu hi sau:
?????
35



Bi 2
Xc nh nhu cu in
M bi : CIE 01 19 02

Gii thiu :
Xc nh ph ti in l nhim v u tin khi thit k h thng cung cp in. Nhu
cu in chng nhng xc nh theo ph ti thc t m cn phi k n kh nng pht trin
trong tng lai. Xc nh nhu cu in c vai tr rt quan trng, v vy y l mng kin
thc yu cu bt buc. N l tin cho vic thit k cung cp in.
Mc tiu thc hin:
Hc xong bi ny, hc vin c nng lc:
Xc nh c nhu cu v in, t chn c phng n cung cp in thch hp.
Ni dung chnh:
thc hin mc tiu bi hc, ni dung bao gm:
2.1 t vn .
2.2 th ph ti in.
2.3 Nhng nh ngha c bn v cc k hiu.
2.4 Xc nh ph ti tnh ton.
2.5 Phng php tnh mt s ph ti c bit.
Cc Hnh thc hc tp:
Hnh thc nghe ging trn lp c tho lun
Hnh thc t hc v n tp
Hnh thc thc hnh ti xng trng

Hot ng I: nghe ging trn lp c tho lun

Xc nh nhu cu in
2.1. t vn :
Khi thit k cung cp in cho mt h ph ti, nhim v u tin l xc nh nhu cu
in ca h ph ti . Ty theo qui m ca ph ti m nhu cu in phi c xc nh
theo ph ti thc t hoc phi d kin n kh nng pht trin ph ti trong tng lai t 5
nm n 10 nm hoc lu hn na. Nh vy, xc nh nhu cu in chnh l gii bi ton
v d bo ph ti ngn hn hoc di hn.
D bo ph ti ngn hn tc l xc nh ph ti ca cng trnh ngay sau khi cng trinh
i vo hot ng, i vo vn hnh. Ph ti thng c gi l ph ti tnh ton. Ph ti
tnh ton c s dng chn cc thit b in nh: my bin p, dy dn, cc thit b
ng ct, bo v ..., tnh cc tn tht cng sut, tn tht in p chn cc thit b b...
Nh vy, ph ti tnh ton l mt s liu quan trng thit k cung cp in.
Cc phng php xc nh ph ti tnh ton c th chia lm hai nhm chnh:
36

2.1.1. Nhm th nht:
y l nhm cc phng php s dng cc h s tnh ton da trn kinh nghim thit
k v vn hnh. c im ca cc phng php ny l tnh ton thun tin nhng ch cho
kt qu gn ng.
Cc phng php chnh ca nhm ny l:
- Phng php h s nhu cu.
- Phng php sut tiu hao in nng trn mt n v sn phm.
- Phng php sut ph ti trn n v din tch sn xut.
2.1.2. Nhm th hai:
y l nhm cc phng php da trn c s l thuyt xc sut v thng k. c
im ca phng php ny l c k n nh hng ca nhiu yu t, do cho kt qu
chnh xc hn nhng tnh ton phc tp hn.
Cc phng php chnh ca nhm ny l:
- Phng php cng sut trung bnh v h s Hnh dng ca th ph ti.
- Phng php cng sut trung bnh v phng sai ca ph ti.
- Phng php s thit b hiu qu.
Trong thc t, ty theo qui m v c im cng trnh, ty theo giai on thit k l
s b hay k thut thi cng m chn phng php xc nh ph ti tnh ton thch hp.

2.2. th ph ti.
2.2.1. nh ngha:
th ph ti l quan h ca cng sut ph ti theo thi gian v c trng cho nhu
cu in ca tng thit b.
2.2.2. Phn loi:
Theo loi cng sut, th ph ti gm c:
- th ph ti cng sut tc dng: P = f(t)
- th ph ti cng sut phn khng: Q = g(t)
- th ph ti cng sut biu kin: S = h(t)
Theo dng th, th ph ti gm c:
- th ph ti thc t: y l dng th phn nh qui lut thay i thc t ca
cng sut theo thi gian (Hnh 2.1)
- th ph ti nc thang: y l dng th qui i t th thc t v dng nc
thang (Hnh 2.2)
37



















Theo thi gian kho st, th ph ti gm c:
- th ph ti hng ngy: y l dng th ph ti c xy dng vi thi
gian kho st l 24 gi. Nghin cu th ph ti hng ngy c th bit c
tnh trng lm vic ca cc thit b. T , c th nh ra qui trnh vn hnh hp
l nht nhm t c th ph ti tng i bng phng.
- th ph ti hng thng: y l dng th ph ti c xy dng theo ph
ti trung bnh hng thng (Hnh 2.3).

































Hnh 2.2: th ph ti hng ngy
dng nc thang

24 t(gi) 24 t(gi)
P (kW) P (kW)
Hnh 2.3: th ph ti hng thng

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 t (thng)
P (kW)








38

- th ph ti hng nm: y l dng th ph ti c xy dng cn c
vo th ph ti in Hnh ca mt ngy ma ng v mt ngy ma h (Hnh
2.4).















Gi s ma h gm n
1
ngy v ma ng gm n
2
ngy. th Hnh 2.4a, mc P
2
tn
ti trong khong thi gian t
2
+ t
/
2
; cn th Hnh 2.4b, mc P
2
tn ti trong khong thi
gian t
//
2
.
Vy trong mt nm, mc ph ti P
2
tn ti trong khong thi gian l:
T
2
= (t
2
+ t
/
2
).n
2
+ t
//
2
.n
1

Tng t, trong mt nm, mc ph ti P
1
tn ti trong khong thi gian l:
T
1
= (t
1
+ t
/
1
).n
2

Trong : n
1
, n
2
ln lt l s ngy ma h v ma ng trong mt nm.
th ph ti hng nm tin li trong vic d bo nhu cu v in nng trong nm v
v hiu qu kinh t trong cung cp in.

2.2.3. Cc c trng ca th ph ti:
Cc c trng ca th ph tI c th hin qua cc h s v cc i lng nh sau:
a. Cng sut cc i P
max
: l gi tr cng sut cc i trong khong thi gian kho
st.
b. Cng sut trung bnh P
tb
: l c trng tnh c bn ca ph tI trong khong thi
gian kho st.
P
tb
=
A
T

T

Trong : A
T
l in nng tiu th trong khong thi gian kho st T
P (kW) P (kW) P (kW)
Hnh 2.4: th ph ti hng nm
a. th ph ti in hnh ca mt ngy ma ng.
b. th ph ti in hnh ca mt ngy ma h.
c. th ph ti hng nm.
P
1

P
2

T
1
T
2
8760 (gi) 24 (gi) 24 (gi) 0 0 0
t
2

t'
2

t
2

a. b. c.
(2.1)
39

c. Cng sut cc tiu P
min
: l gi tr cng sut cc tiu trong khong thi gian kho
st.
d. in nng tiu th A
T
: th hin qua phn din tch gii hn bi ng cong th
ph ti v cc h trc ta .

max
1
.
.
P T
t P
A
n
i
i i
T

=
= (2.2)

Trong : P
i
: l cng sut trong khong thi gian kho st th i.
t
i
: l gi tr thi gian ca on kho st th i.
T: l thi gian kho st.
P
max
: l cng sut cc i trong khong thi gian kho st.
e. H s in kn ph ti k
k
: l t s gia cng sut trung bnh v cng sut cc
i.
k
k
=
P
tb

P
max


i vi th ph ti hng ngy, k
k
c xc nh theo biu thc:
k
k
=
A
24

24.P
max


Thng k
k
< 1. Vi k
k
= 1 th th ph ti c dng bng phng.
f. H s Hnh dng ca th ph ti k
hd
: l c trng khng ng u ca th
ph tI theo thi gian.
K
hd
=
P
tbbp

> 1
P
tb

Trong : P
tbbp
: l cng sut trung bnh bnh phng.
P
tb
: l cng sut trung bnh.
K
hd
= 1 khi ph ti khng i theo thi gian.
Trong iu kin vn hnh thun tin, thng xc nh K
hd
theo ch s o ca ng
h in nng tc dng (phn khng)

p
n
i
pi
hd
A
A
n k

=
A
=
1
2
) (
. (2.6)
Trong : n: l s phn on thi gian (bng nhau) phn chia th ph ti
trong thi gian T.
AA
pi
: l in nng tiu th trong thi gian
n
T
T = A theo ch s ca cng t.
A
p
: l in nng tiu th trong thi gian T theo ch s ca cng t.
(2.3)
(2.4)
(2.5)
40

g. Thi gian s dng cng sut cc i: l khong thi gian l thuyt m khi s
dng cng sut P
max
khng i th trong khong thi gian ny lng in nng A bng ng
lng in nng tiu th thc t.









Nu thi gian t
1
cng ko di hn thi gian t
2
th T
max
cng ln.
Trng hp t
1
= T th T
max
= T
T
max
ph thuc vo tnh cht ca ph tI, qui trnh ca cc x nghip cng nghip v
c th tham kho t cc s tay thit k cung cp in.

max max
1
max
.
P
A
P
t P
T
T
n
i
i i
= =

=
(2.7)

h. Tm quan trng ca th ph ti:
th ph ti l s liu ban u rt quan trng trong thit k cung cp in. NgoI
cc s liu v i lng tnh c t th ph tI nu phn trn, th ph ti hng ngy
cn cung cp mt s thng tin nh:
- S ca lm vic trong ngy.
- Tnh cht ca ph ti: ph tI cng nghip, ph tI dn dng,
- Tnh hp l trong vic tiu th in ca ph tI nhm ra bin php gim chi ph
tin in cho sn xut,

2.3. Nhng nh ngha c bn v cc k hiu:
- Thit b dng in: hay cn gi l thit b tiu th, l nhng thit b tiu th in
nng nh ng c in, l in, n in ...
- H tiu th: l tp hp cc thit b in ca phn xng hay ca x nghip hoc
ca khu vc.
- Ph ti in l mt i lng c trng cho cng sut tiu th ca cc thit b hoc
cc h tiu th in nng.
2.3.1. Cng sut nh mc (P
m
):
Cng sut nh mc l cng sut ca cc thit b in thng c nh ch to ghi sn
trong l lch my hoc trn nhn hiu my, c biu din bng cng sut tc dng P (i
P
A
P
max

P
min

T
max

t
1
t
2

t
T
Hnh 2.5: th ph ti hai
41

vi ng c, l in tr, bng n) hoc biu din bng cng sut biu kin S (i vi
my bin p hn, l in cm ng). Cng sut nh mc c tnh vi thi gian lm vic
lu di.
i vi ng c, cng sut nh mc ghi trn nhn my chnh l cng sut c trn
trc ng c.
+ i vi mt pha: P
m
= U
m
.I
m
.cos
m
(2.8)
+ i vi ba pha: P
m
=U
m
.I
m
.cos
m
(2.9)
2.3.2. Cng sut t (P

):
L cng sut u vo ca ng c







Lu : ng v mt cung cp in, ta quan tm n loi cng sut ny.

P

=
P
m

q

Trong : P

: Cng sut t ca ng c, kW
P
m
: Cng sut nh mc ca ng c, kW
q
c
: Hiu sut nh mc ca ng c.
V hiu sut nh mc ca ng c tng i cao (i vi ng c khng ng b r
to lng sc, q
c
= 0,8 0,95) nn cho tnh ton c n gin, ngi ta thng cho php
b qua hiu sut, lc ny ly P

~ P
m
.
a. i vi thit b chiu sng:
Cng sut t l cng sut tng ng vi s ghi trn hay bu n, cng sut ny
bng vi cng sut c tiu th bi n khi in p mng in l nh mc.
b. i vi cc thit b in lm vic ch ngn hn lp li nh cu trc, my
hn...: Khi tnh ton ph ti in ca chng, ta phi quy i v cng sut nh mc ch
lm vic di hn, tc l quy i v ch lm vic c h s tip in c% = 100%.
C th:
+ i vi ng c:
P

= P'
m
= P
m
(2.11)
Trong : P'
m
: l cng sut nh mc quy v ch lm vic di hn.
P
m
; (m: cc tham s nh mc cho trong l lch my
+ i vi my bin p ca l in:
P


P
m

(2.10)
42

P

= S
m
.cos
m
(2.12)
Trong :
S
m
: Cng sut biu kin nh mc ca my bin p, ghi trong l lch my.
cos
m
: h s cng sut, ghi trong l lch my.
+ i vi my bin p hn: P

= S
m
.cos
m
(2.13)
2.3.3. Ph ti trung bnh (P
tb
):
L mt c trng tnh ca ph ti trong mt khong thi gian kho st, c xc nh
bng biu thc:
p
tb
=
t
A
P
(2.14)
q
tb
=
t
A
Q
(2.15)
Trong : A
P
; A
Q
: L in nng tc dng v phn khng trong khong thi gian kho
st (kWh; kVArh)
t: L thi gian kho st (h).
Thi gian kho st l 1 ca lm vic, mt thng hay mt nm.
Ph ti trung bnh ca mt nhm thit b:
P
tb
=

=
n
i
i
p
1
(2.16)
Q
tb
=

=
n
i
i
q
1
(2.17)
Tng cng sut trung bnh ca cc thit b cho ta cn c nh gi mc s dng
thit b v l s liu quan trng xc nh ph tI tnh ton. Thng ph tI trung bnh
c xc nh ng vi thi gian kho st l mt ca lm vic, mt thng hoc mt nm.
2.3.4. Ph ti cc i:
Ph ti cc i chia lm hai nhm:
a. Ph ti cc i di hn (P
max
):
L ph ti trung bnh ln nht tnh trong khong thi gian tng i ngn. tnh
ton li in v my bin p theo pht nng, ta thng ly bng ph ti trung bnh ln
nht trong thi gian 5, 10 pht, 30 pht hay 60 pht (thng thng nht ly trong thi gian
30 pht, lc k hiu P30, Q30, S30) i khi ngi ta dng ph ti cc i xc nh nh
trn lm ph ti tnh ton.
Ngi ta dng ph ti cc i tnh tn tht cng sut ln nht v chn cc thit
b in, chn dy dn v dy cp theo mt dng in kinh t.
b. Ph ti cc i ngn hn hay cn gi l Ph ti nh nhn (P
n
):
L ph ti cc i xut hin trong khong thi gian 1 2 giy.
Ph ti nh nhn c dng kim tra dao ng in p, kim tra iu kin t khi
ng ca ng c, chn dy chy cu ch v tnh dng khi ng ca r le bo v .v.v...
43

Ph ti nh nhn thng xy ra khi ng c khi ng. Chng ta khng ch quan tm
n tr s ca ph ti nh nhn m cn quan tm n tn s xut hin ca n. Bi v s ln
xut hin ca ph ti nh nhn cng tng th cng nh hng ti s lm vic bnh thng
ca cc thit b dng in khc trong cng mt mng in.

2.3.5. Ph ti tnh ton (P
tt
)
Ph ti tnh ton l ph ti gi thit khng i lu di ca cc phn t trong h thng
cung cp in (my bin p, ng dy...) tng ng vi ph ti thc t bin i theo
iu kin tc dng nhit nng n nht.
Ni mt cch khc, ph ti tnh ton cng lm nng dy dn ln ti nhit bng
nhit ln nht do ph ti thc t gy ra.
Do vy, v phng din pht nng, nu ta chn cc thit b in theo ph ti tnh ton
th c th m bo an ton cho cc thit b trong mi trng thi vn hnh.
Quan h gia ph ti tnh ton v cc ph ti khc c nu trong bt ng thc sau:
P
tb
s P
tt
s P
max

2.3.6. H s s dng k
sd
:
H s s dng (k
sd
) l t s gia ph ti tc dng trung bnh vi cng sut nh mc
ca thit b.
i vi mt thit b: k
sd
=
dm
tb
P
P
(2.18)
i vi nhm c n thit b: k
sd
=
dm
tb
P
P
=

1
1
n
i
dmi
n
i
tbi
P
P
=
=
(2.19)
H s s dng c trng cho ch lm vic ca ph tI theo cng sut v thi gian
v l s liu xc nh ph tI tnh ton.
2.3.7. H s ng in k

:
H s ng in (k

) ca thit b l t s gia thi gian ng in trong chu trnh vi


ton b thi gian ca chu trnh (t
ct
).
Thi gian ng in (t

) gm thi gian lm vic mang ti (t


lv
) v thi gian chy khng
ti (t
kt
), nh vy:

k

=
t
lv
+ t
kt

t
ct


H s ng in ca mt nhm thit b c xc nh theo biu thc:

=
=
=
n
1 i
dmi
n
1 i
dmi di
P
.P k
k
d
(2.21)
(2.20)
44

H s ng in ph thuc vo qui trnh cng ngh.
2.3.8. H s ph ti k
pt
(cn gi l h s mang ti):
H s ph ti (k
pt
) l t s gia cng sut thc t vi cng sut nh mc.
k
pt
=
dm
thucte
P
P
~
dm
tb
P
P
(2.22)
Mt khc:

d
sd
ct dm
ct tb
d dm d dm
d tb
dm
tb
k
k
t P
t P
t P
A
t P
t P
P
P
= = = = =
.
.
. .
.
k
pt
(2.23)
Trong :
in nng A = P
tb
.t

= P
tb
.t
ct
(2.24)
H s ph ti cng sut tc dng ca nhm thit b l t s ca h s s dng K
sd
vi
h s ng in k

.

k
pt
=
k
sd

k



2.3.9. H s cc i k
max
:
H s cc i (k
max
) l t s gia ph ti tnh ton vi ph ti trung bnh trong khong
thi gian ang xt.
k
max
=
tb
tt
P
P
(2.26)
H s cc i thng tnh vi ca lm vic c ph ti ln nht, n ph thuc vo nhiu
h s v cc yu t khc c trng cho ch lm vic ca thit b, gi tr k
max
cng c th
tra trong s tay.
2.3.10. H s nhu cu, k
nc
:
H s nhu cu (k
nc
) l t s gia ph ti tnh ton vi cng sut nh mc.
k
nc
=
dm
tt
P
P
=
dm
tb
tb
tt
P
P
P
P
.
= k
max
.k
sd
(2.27)

Trong thc t h s nhu cu do kinh nghim vn hnh m tng kt li.
2.3.11. S thit b hiu qu n
hq
:
a. nh ngha:
S thit b hiu qu l s thit b gi thit c cng cng sut v ch lm vic to
nn ph tI tnh ton bng vi ph ti tnh ton ca nhm thit b thc t (gm n thit b c
ch lm vic v cng sut khc nhau).
Tnh ton n
hq
l cng vic quan trng trong thit k cung cp in: chn dy dn, thit
b bo v.
b. Cch xc nh n
hq
:
- Khi trong nhm c s thit b n s 5:
(2.25)
45

n
hq
=
( )

1
2
2
1
n
i
dmi
n
i
dmi
P
P
=
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
(2.28)
Trong : n: l s thit b c trong nhm.
P
mi
: l cng sut nh mc ca thit b th i (kW)
Nu cc thit b tiu th ca nhm u c cng sut nh mc nh nhau th:
n
hq
=
( )
2
2
.
.
dm
dm
P n
P n
= n (2.29)
- Khi s thit b n > 5 th vic tnh theo cng thc trn gp nhiu kh khn, v vy
trong thc t ngi ta tm n
hq
theo ng cong cho trc.
Trnh t tnh ton theo cc bc nh sau:
Bc 1: Xc nh tng s thit b trong nhm (n) v tng cng sut P

ca n thit b
ny:
P

=
n
i
d
P
1
mi
(2.30)
Bc 2: Xc nh thit b cng sut ln nht trong nhm (P
max
):
Bc 3: Xc nh s thit b c cng sut khng nh hn mt na cng sut ca
thit b c cng sut ln nht trong nhm .
Bc 4: Xc nh tn tht cng sut ca n
1
thit b.
P
1
=

=
1
1
mi
n
i
d
P (2.31)
Bc 5: Xc nh n
*
=
n
n
1
; P
*
=
P
P
1
(2.32)
Trong : n: l s thit b trong nhm
n
1
: l s thit b c cng sut khng nh hn mt na cng sut
ca thit b c cng sut ln nht trong nhm .
P; P
1
: l cng sut ng vi n v n
1
thit b.
Bc 6: Tra bng 2.1 hoc ng cong (Hnh 2.1) tm n
hq*
Bc 7: Xc nh s thit b hiu qu: n
hq
= n
hq*
.n (2.33)

46

Bng 2.1: Bng tra n
hq*
theo n
*
v P
*

n
*
=
n
n
1

P
*
=

1
P
P

0,1 0,15 0,20 0,25 0,30 0,35 0,40 0,45 0,50 0,55 0,60 0,65 0,70 0,75 0,80 0,85 0,90 0,95 1,0
0,02 0,71 0,51 0,36 0,26 0,19 0,14 0,11 0,09 0,07 0,06 0,05 0,01 0,04 0,03 0,03 0,03 0,02 0,02 0,02
0,03 0,81 0,64 0,48 0,36 0,27 0,21 0,16 0,13 0,11 0,09 0,08 0,07 0,06 0,05 0,04 0,04 0,04 0,03 0,03
0,04 0,86 0,72 0,57 0,44 0,34 0,27 0,22 0,18 0,15 0,12 0,10 0,09 0,08 0,07 0,06 0,05 0,05 0,04 0,04
0,05 0,90 0,79 0,64 0,51 0,41 0,33 0,26 0,22 0,18 0,15 0,13 0,11 0,10 0,08 0,07 0,07 0,06 0,05 0,05
0,06 0,92 0,83 0,70 0,58 0,47 0,38 0,31 0,26 0,21 0,18 0,15 0,13 0,12 0,10 0,09 0,08 0,07 0,06 0,06
0,08 0,94 0,89 0,79 0,68 0,57 0,48 0,40 0,33 0,28 0,24 0,20 0,17 0,15 0,13 0,12 0,11 0,09 0,08 0,08
0,10 0,95 0,92 0,85 0,76 0,66 0,56 0,47 0,40 0,34 0,29 0,25 0,22 0,19 0,17 0,15 0,13 0,12 0,10 0,09
0,15 0,95 0,93 0,88 0,80 0,72 0,67 0,56 0,48 0,42 0,37 0,32 0,28 0,25 0,23 0,20 0,17 0,16 0,14
0,20 0,95 0,93 0,89 0,83 0,76 0,69 0,64 0,54 0,47 0,42 0,37 0,33 0,29 0,26 0,23 0,21 0,19
0,25 0,95 0,93 0,90 0,85 0,78 0,71 0,61 0,57 0,51 0,45 0,41 0,36 0,32 0,29 0,26 0,24
0,30 0,95 0,94 0,90 0,86 0,80 0,73 0,66 0,60 0,53 0,48 0,43 0,39 0,35 0,32 0,29
0,35 0,95 0,94 0,91 0,86 0,81 0,74 0,68 0,62 0,56 0,50 0,45 0,41 0,37 0,33
0,40 0,95 0,93 0,91 0,86 0,81 0,75 0,69 0,63 0,57 0,52 0,47 0,42 0,38
0,45 0,95 0,93 0,91 0,87 0,81 0,76 0,70 0,64 0,58 0,52 0,47 0,43
0,5 0,95 0,94 0,91 0,87 0,82 0,76 0,70 0,64 0,58 0,53 0,48
0,55 0,95 0,94 0,91 0,87 0,82 0,75 0,69 0,63 0,57 0,52
0,60 0,95 0,94 0,91 0,87 0,81 0,75 0,69 0,63 0,57
0,65 0,95 0,94 0,91 0,86 0,81 0,74 0,68 0,62
0,70 0,95 0,94 0,90 0,86 0,80 0,73 0,66
47

0,75 0,95 0,93 0,90 0,85 0,78 0,71
0,80 0,95 0,94 0,89 0,83 0,76
0,85 0,95 0,93 0,88 0,80
0,90 0,95 0,92 0,85
1,00 0,95
48














2.4. Xc nh ph ti tnh ton:
2.4.1. Khi nim:
Ph ti tnh ton ca mt nhm thit b in, ca mt phn xng ... l ph ti s dng
thit k cung cp in cho nhm thit b in , ph ti tnh ton cn dng la chn my
bin p, dy dn v cc thit b ng ct. iu c ngha l h thng cung cp in c xc
nh theo cng sut tnh ton ny.

2.4.2. Cc phng php tnh ph ti tnh ton:
a. Xc nh ph ti tnh ton theo cng sut t v h s nhu cu:
Cng thc tnh:
P
tt
= k
nc
.

1
n
i
di
P
=
(2.34)
Q
tt
= P
tt
.tg (2.35)

S
tt
=
2 2
tt tt
Q P +

=
P
tt

cos

Mt cch gn ng c th ly: P

~ P
m
do :
P
tt
= k
nc
.

1
n
i
dmi
P
=

Vi:
k
nc
: h s nhu cu, tra s tay
P
i
: cng sut t ca thit b th i (kW)
P
mi
: cng sut nh mc ca thit b th i (kW)
P
tt
: cng sut tc dng tnh ton ca nhm thit b (kW)
Hnh 2.1: Quan h n
hq*
theo n
*
v P
*
???

(2.36)
(2.37)
49

Q
tt
: cng sut phn khng tnh ton ca nhm thit b (kVAr)
S
tt
: cng sut biu kin (ton phn) tnh ton ca nhm thit b (kVA)
n: s thit b trong nhm.
Nu h s cng sut ca cc thit b trong nhm khng ging nhau th ta phi tnh h s
cng sut trung bnh (cos
tb
) theo cng thc sau:

cos
tb
=
P
1
cos
1
+ P
2
cos
2
+ .. + P
n
cos
n

P
1
+ P
2
+ .. + P
n

Phng php ny tnh ton n gin, thun tin nhng cho kt qu km chnh xc do h
s nhu cu l s liu cho trc khng ph thuc vo ch vn hnh v s thit b trong
nhm.
b. Xc nh ph ti tnh ton theo sut ph ti trn mt n v din tch sn xut:
Cng thc tnh: P
tt
= p
0
.F
Trong :
p
0
l sut ph ti trn 1m
2
din tch sn xut (kW/m
2

F l din tch sn xut.
Gi tr p
0
c th tra trong cc s tay, phng php ny ch cho gi tr gn ng cho nn
thng c dng trong thit k s b. N dng tnh ph ti cc phn xng c mt
phn b u: gia cng c kh, dt, sn xut t, vng bi.
c. Xc nh ph ti tnh ton theo sut tiu hao in nng trn n v sn phm:
Cng thc tnh:
P
tt
=
Mw
0

T
max

Trong :
M: s n v sn phm c sn xut ra trong mt nm (sn lng)
w
0
: sut tiu hao in nng cho mt n v sn phm (kWh/n v sn phm)
T
max
: thi gian s dng cng sut ln nht ca ph ti (gi/nm)
Phng php ny thng c s dng cho cc thit b in c th ph ti bin i nh
qut gi, bm nc, my nn kh, thit b in phn.

V d: Xc nh ph ti tnh ton ca mt nhm my nn kh, bit rng:
- Nhm my trong mt nm sn xut c 312.10
6
m
3
kh nn.
- in nng tiu th cho 10
3
m
3
kh nn l w
0
= 1000 kWh/10
3
m
3
.
- Thi gian s dng cng sut ln nht T
max
= 7000h/nm.

Li gii
p dng cng thc (P
tt
= P
0
F) ta c:


P
tt
= Mw
0
= 312.10
6
.10
2
= 4475 kWh
(2.39)
(2.38)
50

T
max
10
3
.7.10
3


51

d. Xc nh ph ti tnh ton theo h s cc i v ph ti trung bnh:
Khi khng c s liu cn thit p dng cc phng php n gin gn ng nh (2.40)
trn hoc khi cn nng cao chnh xc ca ph ti tnh ton th chng ta nn dng phng
php tnh theo h s cc i.
Cng thc tnh: P
tt
= k
max
.

=
n
i 1
dm sd
.P k (2.40)
Trong : P
m
: cng sut nh mc ca ph ti
k
max
: h s cc i
k
sd
: h s s dng
Phng php ny cho kt qu tng i chnh xc v khi xc nh thit b hiu qu n
hq

chng ta xt ti mt lot cc yu t quan trng nh: nh hng ca s lng thit b trong
nhm, s thit b c cng sut ln nht, s khc nhau v ch lm vic...
Khi xc nh ph ti theo phng php ny trong mt s trng hp c th dng cng
thc sau:
- Trng hp n s 3 v n
hq
< 4, ph ti tnh ton c tnh theo:

=
=
n
i
dmi tt
P P
1
(2.41)

=
=
n
i
dmi tt
Q Q
1
(2.42)
Cn i vi thit b in lm vic ch ngn hn lp li th:

875 , 0
dm dm
tt
S
S
c
= (2.43)
- Trng hp n > 3 v n
hq
< 4, ph ti tnh ton c tnh theo:

=
=
n
i
dmi pti tt
P k P
1
(2.44)
Trong :
k
pti
: h s ph ti ca tng my, nu khng c s liu chnh xc c th ly:
k
pt
= 0,9 vi thit b lm vic ch di hn
k
pt
= 0,75 vi thit b lm vic ch ngn hn lp li.
P
mi
: l cng sut nh mc ca thit b th i.
- Trng hp n
hq
> 300, k
sd
< 0.5 th:
H s cc i k
max
s ly ng vi n
hq
= 300

- Trng hp nhq > 300, ksd > 0.5 th:

=
=
n
i
dmi tt
P k P
1
max
05 , 1 (2.45)
- i vi nhm thit b c th bng phng nh: my bm, qut, my nn kh th
h s cc i c th ly bng 1, v lc :
52

P
tt
= P
tb

Q
tt
= Q
tb

V d: Hy xc nh ph ti tnh ton ca phn xng c kh c cc my sau:
Tn my S lng P
m
(kW)
cos
My tin T630 4 10 0,7
My tin C620 5 7 0,6
My tin T616 4 4,5 0,65
My khoan ng 5 2,8 0,55
My khoan bn 20 1,0 0,6

H s s dng chung cho cc my trong phn xng k
sd
=0,1

Li gii
Bc 1: Xc nh h s thit b hiu qu n
hq
.

Theo s liu cho tnh c:
n = 38; n
i
= 9; 23 , 0
38
9
*
= = n
P = 127; P
i
=75; 59 , 0
127
75
*
= = P
Tra bng s cho c: n
hq*
= 0,56.

Nh vy n
hq
= n
hq*
.n = 0,56.38 = 21,2

Bc 2: Xc nh ph ti tnh ton
p dng cng thc:

=
=
n
i
dmi sd tt
P k k P
1
max

Thay n
hq
=21,2 v k
sd
= 0,1, sau tra bng tm c k
max
= 1,82.

Vy: P
tt
= 1,82.0,1.127= 23,1kW

H s cng sut trung bnh:
61 , 0
127
7 , 77
cos .
cos
1
1
= = =

=
=
n
i
i
n
i
i i
tb
P
P


Cng sut phn khng v cng sut biu kin:

53

Q
tt
= P
tt
.tg
tb
= 23,1.1,3 = 30 kVAr

S
tt
=












S
tt
=
P
tt

= 38,1kVA
cos
tb


2.5. Xc nh cng sut tnh ton cc cp trong mng in:
Nguyn tc chung l cng sut tnh ton mt cp in p bng cng sut tnh ton cp
c in p thp hn cng vi tn tht cng sut qua ng dy hay thit b lin kt gia hai
cp. Vic xc nh cng sut tnh ton trong mng in c tnh t thit b dng in ngc
v ngun.

T: Bin p phn xng (x nghip)
MDB: T phn phi chnh.
DB: T phn phi ph.
1: Cc thit b dng in.
2: Cng sut tnh ton ca nhm my.
3: Cng sut tnh ton ca nhnh t phn
phi chnh.
4: Cng sut tnh ton ca t phn phi
chnh.
5: Cng sut tnh ton pha h p ca bin
p phn xng.
6: Cng sut tnh ton pha cao p ca bin
p phn xng.




Hnh 2.6: S nguyn l cung
cp in
DB1 DB2
MDB
6 22kV
0.4kV
T
5
4
3 3
2 2
1 1

n thit b n thit b
54

- Cng sut tnh ton ti im 1 (P
tt1
, Q
tt1
) chnh l cng sut tnh ton ca tng thit b
trong nhm thit b ni vi t ng lc DB. Cng sut tnh ton ny c s dng chn dy
dn, cp ni t t ng lc n thit b v kh c bo v, iu khin thit b in.
- Cng sut tnh ton ti im 2 chnh l cng sut tnh ton ca nhm thit b, c th
xc nh bi cc phng php nu mc 2.4. Cng sut tnh ton ny c s dng la
chn my ct chnh cho t ng lc.
- Cng sut tnh ton ti im 3 (P
tt3
, Q
tt3
) c xc nh nh sau:
P
tt3
= P
tt2
+ AP
23
(2.46)
Q
tt3
= Q
tt2
+ AQ
23
(2.47)
Trong :
+ AP
23
l tn tht cng sut tc dng trn tuyn dy 23.
+ AQ
23
l tn tht cng sut phn khng trn tuyn dy 23.
Cng sut P
23
, Q
23
c s dng la chn cp hay dy dn ni t t MDB n t
DB.
- Cng sut tnh ton ti im 4 (P
tt4
, Q
tt4
) c xc nh nh sau:
P
tt4
= k
t

=
n
i
i
tt
P
1
3

(2.48)
Q
tt4
= k
t

=
n
i
i
tt
Q
1
3
(2.49)
Trong :
n: l s nhm thit b hay s nhnh ra ca t phn phi chnh
k
t
: l h s ng thi ca cc t ng lc (cc nhm my)

i
n
P
3
: l cng sut tnh ton tc dng ca nhnh th i ca t MDB.


i
n
Q
3
: l cng sut tnh ton phn khng ca nhnh th i ca t MDB.

Cng sut P
tt4
, Q
tt4
c s dng la chn thit b ng ct, bo v chnh cho t MDB.
- Cng sut tnh ton ti im 5 (P
tt5
, Q
tt5
) c xc nh nh sau:
P
tt5
= P
tt4
+ AP
45
(2.50)
Q
tt5
= Q
tt4
+ AQ
45
(2.51)
Trong :
+ AP
45
l tn tht cng sut tc dng trn tuyn dy 45.
+ AQ
45
l tn tht cng sut phn khng trn tuyn dy 45.
Cng sut P
tt5
, Q
tt5
c s dng la chn dy v cp ni t thanh gp h p ca trm
bin p phn xng n t MDB v chn thit b ng ct, bo v cho tuyn dy ny.
- Cng sut tnh ton ti im 6 (P
tt6
, Q
tt6
) c xc nh nh sau:
P
tt6
= P
tt5
+ AP
T
(2.52)
Q
tt6
= Q
tt5
+ AQ
T
(2.53)
55

Trong : AP
T
, AQ
T
ln lt l tn tht cng sut tc dng v cng sut phn khng
trong trm bin p phn xng (x nghip).
Cng sut P
tt6
, Q
tt6
c s dng la chn dung lng my bin p phn xng.
2.6. Xc nh tm ph ti:
Tm ph ti in l v tr m khi t my bin p, t phn phi in s m bo tn tht
cng sut v tn tht in nng l b nht. Do , xc nh tm ph ti ca nhm my nhm
bit c v tr t t ng lc, xc nh tm ph ti ca phn xng bit v tr t trm bin
p phn xng, t phn phi chnh.
Tuy nhin, cng cn phI cn c vo mt bng thc t ca phn xng dch chuyn v
tr t my bin p v cc t sao cho hp l, thun tin trong lp t, vn hnh, quan st,
khng gy cn tr li i.
Cng thc xc nh tm ph ti:

=
=
=
n
i
i
n
i
i i
P
x P
X
1
1
.
;

=
=
=
n
i
i
n
i
i i
P
y P
Y
1
1
.
(2.54)
ngha ca cc thng s trong biu thc (2.54) thay i ty thuc vo xc nh tm ph
ti ca nhm my hay ca phn xng.
Cc thng s
Tm ph ti
ca nhm my
Tm ph ti
ca phn xng
(X; Y): Ta tm ph ti Ca nhm my Ca phn xng
P
i
: Cng sut nh mc Ca thit b th i Ca nhm thit b th i
(x
i
; y
i
: Ta Ca thit b th i Ca nhm thit b th i

2.7. Phng php tnh mt s ph ti c bit.
2.7.1. Phng php tnh ph ti tnh ton cho thit b in mt pha:
Ph ti mt pha c th c in p dy (ni vo hai dy pha) hoc c th l in p pha
(ni vo mt dy pha v mt dy trung tnh). thit k c mng in cung cp ba pha ta
coi nh c mt ph ti ba pha tng ng m dng in ca n bng dng in pha mang
ti ln nht khi c mt pha ni vo.
- Khi ni cc ph ti mt pha vo in p pha th cng sut nh mc ph ti ba pha
tng ng s l:
P
mt
= 3P
mphmax
(2.55)

Trong : P
mphmax
: l ph ti nh mc ca pha mng ti ln nht.
- Khi ni cc ph ti mt pha vo in p dy nu c mt ph ti th:
P
mt
= 3 P
m
(2.56)
Vi P
m
l cng sut nh mc ca ph ti mt pha.
56

- Khi va c thit b mt pha ni vo in p pha li c thit b mt pha ni vo in p
dy th ta phi qui i cc thit b mt pha ni vo in p dy tr thnh thit b mt pha tng
ng ni vo in p pha. Cc h s qui i cho trong bng 2.1.
Ph ti tnh ton mt pha bng tng ph ti ca thit b mt pha ni vo in p pha v
ph ti qui i ca thit b ni vo in p dy, sau tnh ph ti ba pha bng 3 ln ph ti
ca pha c dng ph ti ln nht:
P
mt
= 3P
mphmax
(2.57)
C th:
- Cng sut nh mc qui i v pha A:
P
pha(a)
= P
ab
.p(ab)a + P
ac
p(ac)a + P
ao

Q
pha(a)
= Q
ab
.q(ab)a + Q
ac
q(ac)a + Q
ao

- Cng sut nh mc qui i v pha B:
P
pha(b)
= P
ba
.p(ba)b + P
bc
p(bc)b + P
bo

Q
pha(b)
= Q
ba
.q(ba)b + Q
bc
q(bc)b + Q
bo

- Cng sut nh mc qui i v pha c:
P
pha(c)
= P
ca
.p(ca)c + P
cb
p(cb)c + P
co

Q
pha(c)
= Q
ba
.q(ba)c + Q
cb
q(cb)c + Q
co

- Cng sut nh mc ca pha mang ti cc i:
P
pha(max)
= max|P
pha(a)
, P
pha(b)
, P
pha(c)
|
Q
pha(max)
= max|Q
pha(a)
, Q
pha(b)
, Q
pha(c)
|
- Cng sut nh mc ba pha:
P
3pha
= 3P
pha(max)
+ P
tb3pha

Q
3pha
= 3Q
pha(max)
+ Q
tb3pha

Trong :
P
3pha
, Q
3pha
ln lt l cng sut nh mc tc dng v phn khng ca thit
b mt pha qui i v pha A.
P
ab
, Q
ab
ln lt l cng sut nh mc tc dng v phn khng ca thit
b mt pha s dng in p dy ab.
P
ac
, Q
ac
ln lt l cng sut nh mc tc dng v phn khng ca thit
b mt pha s dng in p dy ac.
P
pha(max)
, Q
pha(max)
ln lt l cng sut nh mc tc dng v phn khng ca
pha mang tI cc i.
P
3pha
, Q
3pha
ln lt l cng sut nh mc tc dng v phn khng ca thit
b qui i v ba pha.
Bng 2.1: H s qui i ph ti mt pha ni vo in p dy thnh ph ti mt pha ni vo
in p pha ca mng in
H s qui i
H s cng sut ca ph ti
0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.65 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0
57

p(ab)a, p(bc)b, p(ac)c 1.4 1.17 1 0.89 0.84 0.80 0.72 0.64 0.5
p(ab)b, p(bc)c, p(ac)a - 0.4
-
0.17
0 0.11 0.16 0.20 0.28 0.36 0.5
q(ab)a, q(bc)b, q(ac)c 1.26 0.86 0.58 0.38 0.30 0.22 0.09 - 0.05 - 0.29
q(ab)b, q(bc)c, q(ac)a 2.45 1014 1.16 0.96 0.88 0.80 0.67 0.53 0.29
V d: Mt mng in c thit b mt pha ni vo in p dy U
ab
, U
ac
v in p pha U
ao
.
Hy qui i v ph ti pha A.
Gii:
Ph ti tc dng pha A:
P
pha(a)
= P
ab
.p(ab)a + P
ac
p(ac)a + P
ao

Ph ti phn khng pha A:
Q.
pha(a)
= Q
ab
.q(ab)a + Q
ac
q(ac)a + Q
ao

Trong : P
ab
, P
ac
, Q
ab
, Q
ac
: tng cng sut tc dng v phn khng ca cc thit b mt
pha ni vo in p dy U
ab
, U
ac
.
P
ao
, Q
ao
: tng cng sut tc dng v phn khng ca cc thit b mt pha ni vo
in p pha U
a0
.
p(ab)a, p(ac)a, q(ab), q(ac)a: Cc h s qui i cho bng 2.1
2.7.2. Tnh ph ti nh nhn
* Ph ti nh nhn (P
n
): L ph ti cc i xut hin trong khong thi gian t 1 2
giy. Chng ta xc nh ph ti nh nhn kim tra dao ng in p, kim tra iu kin t
khi ng ca ng c, chn dy chy cu ch v tnh dng khi ng ca r le bo v .v.v...
Chng ta khng ch quan tm n tr s ca ph ti nh nhn m cn quan tm n tn s
xut hin ca n. Bi v s ln xut hin ca ph ti nh nhn cng tng th cng nh hng
ti s lm vic bnh thng ca cc thit b dng in khc trong cng mt mng in.
Trong mng in dng in xut hin khi ng c khi ng, l h quang hoc my hn
lm vic.
- i vi mt my, dng in nh nhn chnh bng dng m my ca my :
I
n
= I
mm
= k
mm
.I
m
(2.58)
Vi k
mm
l bi s m my ca ng c
Khi khng c s liu chnh xc c th ly k
mm
nh sau:
+ i vi ng c mt chiu: k
mm
= 2,5
+ i vi ng c rto lng sc: k
mm
= 5 7
+ i vi l in h quang v my bin p hn: k
mm
> 3
- i vi mt nhm my, dng in nh nhn xut hin khi my c dng in m my
ln nht trong nhm m my, cn cc my khc lm vic bnh thng. Cng thc tnh ton
nh sau:
I
n
= I
mm(max)
+ (I
tt
k
sd
.I
m(max)
) (2.59)
58

Trong : I
mm(max)
: l dng in m my ln nht trong cc dng m my ca cc ng
c trong nhm.
I
tt
: l dng in tnh ton ca nhm my.
I
m(max)
: l dng in nh mc ca ng c c dng m my ln nht.
V d: Tnh dng in nh nhn ca ng dy cung cp in cho mt cn trc. S liu
ph ti cho bng sau:
ng c
P
m

(kW)
c% cos
I
m

(A)
k
mm

Nng hng 12 15 0,76 27.5 5.5
Xe con 4 15 0,72
Xe ln 8 15 0,75

Bit in p nh mc ca mng in l U = 380/220V, h s s dng k
sd
= 0,1
Gii:
Trong nhm my, ng c nng hng c dng m my ln nht
I
mm
= k
mm
.I
m
= 5,5.27,5 = 151A
Ph ti tnh ton ca nhm ng c quay qui i v ch lm vic dI hn (c = 100%).
kW P P
dmi
i
dm tt
3 , 9 15 . 0 ) 8 4 12 ( .
3
1
= + + = =

=
c
kVar tg P Q
dmi
i
dm tt
2 , 8 88 , 0 . 15 . 0 . 8 1 . 15 . 0 . 4 85 , 0 . 15 . 0 . 12 . . (
3
1
= + + = =

=
c
Nh vy: kVA S
tt
4 , 12 2 , 6 3 , 9
2 2
= + =
Dng in tnh ton ca nhm my:
I
tt
=
S
tt

=
12,4
= 18,8A
3 .U
m
3 .0,38
Dng in nh mc ca ng c nng hng qui i v c = 100%:
I
m(max)
= 27,5. 15 , 0 = 10,6A
Dng in nh nhn ca ng dy cung cp cho cn trc:
I
n
= 151 + (18,8 0,1.10,6) = 168,8A

Hot ng ii: t hc v n tp
- Ti liu tham kho cho bi ny:
- Nguyn Xun Ph, Nguyn Cng Hin, Nguyn Bi Khu: Cung cp in,
NXB Khoa hc v K thut, H Ni, 1998.
- Cung cp in, D n JICA-HIC, Ban iu khin in, 2003.
59

- Nguyn Cng Hin, ng Ngc Dinh, Nguyn Hu Khi, Phan ng Khi,
Nguyn Thnh: Cung cp in - NXB i hc v Trung hc Chuyn nghip, H
Ni, 1984.
- Quyn Huy nh: Cung cp in, Trng i hc S phm K thut TP H Ch
Minh 2006.
- Cung cp in cho x nghip cng nghip, NXB Khoa hc v K thut, H Ni,
1974.
- Cung cp in, V Trung hc Chuyn nghip v Dy ngh, NXB Gio dc, H Ni,
2005.


- Lm bi tp sau:
BT 2. 1. Xc nh ph ti tnh ton ca phn xng cho bng di y:
TT Tn thit b S lng
P
m

(kW)
c% cos
1 My ca di 2 2.5 100 0.65
2 My khoan bn 1 1.3 100 0.62
3 My mI th 2 2.3 100 0.66
4 My xc 1 2.8 100 0.7
5 My bo ngang 1 4.5 100 0.68
6 My khoan ng 2 4.5 100 0.7
7 My bin p hn 3 30 25 0.64

Vi k
sd
= 0.16; k
mm
= 5 v U
m
= 380/220V


60


bI 3
Chn Phng n cung cp in
M bi : CIE 01 19 03

Gii thiu :
Vic la chn phng n cung cp in bao gm nhng vn : Chn cp in p, chn
ngun in, chn s ni dy v chn phng thc vn hnh. Nu chng ta xc nh ng
n v hp l cc vn ny s nh hng trc tip ti vic vn hnh, khai thc v hiu qu
ca h thng cung cp in.
Ni dng bi ny s gip chng ta chn c mt phng n cung cp hp l: m bo
cht lng in nng, m bo tin cy cung cp in, tnh lin tc cung cp in theo yu
cu ph ti; Thun tin trong vn hnh, lp rp, sa cha.

Mc tiu thc hin:
Hc xong bi ny, hc vin c nng lc:
Chn c phng n cung cp in ph hp vi tnh Hnh thc t.

Ni dung chnh:
thc hin mc tiu bi hc, ni dung bao gm:
3.1 Khi qut.
3.2 Chn in p nh mc ca mng in.
3.3 S mng in p cao.
3.4 S mng in p thp.
3.5 Kt cu ca mng in.
3.5.1 ng dy trn khng.
3.5.2 ng dy cp.

Cc Hnh thc hc tp:
Hnh thc nghe ging trn lp c tho lun
Hnh thc t hc v tho lun nhm
Hnh thc hc thc hnh ti xng trng

Hot ng I: nghe ging trn lp c tho lun

Chn Phng n cung cp in
3.1. Khi qut.
Vic la chn phng n cung cp in bao gm nhng vn sau:
- Chn cp in p.
- Chn ngun in.
- Chn s ni dy.
- Chn phng thc vn hnh.
61

Nu chng ta xc nh ng n v hp l cc vn nu trn s nh hng trc tip ti
vic vn hnh, khai thc v hiu qu ca h thng cung cp in.
Mt phng n cung cp c coi l hp l nu tha mn cc yu cu c bn sau:
- m bo cht lng in nng.
- m bo tin cy cung cp in, tnh lin tc cung cp in theo yu cu ph ti.
- Thun tin trong vn hnh, lp rp, sa cha.
- C ch tiu kinh t - k thut hp l.
3.2. Chn cp in p nh mc ca mng in.
Chn cp in p cho mng in l mt trong nhng vn c bn khi thit k cung cp
in, n nh hng trc tip n s cung cp in, vic la chn cc thit b in, tn tht
cng sut, tn tht in nng cng nh chi ph vn hnh...
nh hng cho vic chn cp in p chng ta c th tham kho cc cng thc sau:
U = 4,43. P l 16 + (3.1)
Hoc:
U = 3 S + 0,5P (3.2)
Trong :
U: l in p mng in (kV)
l: l chiu di ng dy (km)
P, S: l cng sut truyn ti (kW, kVA)
Chng ta cng c th tham kho bng (3-1) chn cp in p thch hp khi bit cng
sut truyn ti v khong cch n h tiu th in.

Bng 3-1: Gi tr gn ng v cng sut truyn ti v khong cch truyn ti ca cc
mng c cp in p khc nhau
Cp in p ca
mng (kV)
Loi ng dy
Cng sut truyn ti
(kW)
Khong cch
(km)
0,22
Trn khng
< 50 < 0,15
Cp
< 100 < 0,2
0,38
Trn khng
< 100 < 0,25
Cp
< 175 < 0,35
6
Trn khng
< 2000 5 10
Cp
< 3000 < 8
10
Cp
< 3000 8 15
Cp
< 5000 < 10
35 Trn khng
2000 10.000 20 50
110 Trn khng
10.000 50.000 50 150
220 Trn khng
100.000 150.000 200 300

3.3. S ni dy ca mng in p cao.
62

Khi chn s ni dy ca mng in chng ta phi cn c vo cc yu cu c bn ca
mng in, tnh cht ca h dng in, trnh vn hnh, thao tc ca cng nhn v vn u
t. Vic la chn s ni dy phi da trn c s tnh ton so snh kinh t k thut. Ni
chung s ni dy c mt s dng c bn.
3.3.1. S Hnh tia (Hnh nhi qut):








c im:
- C s ni dy r rng, mi h dng in c cung cp t mt ng dy ring bit
nn chng t nh hng ln nhau, tin cy cung cp in tng i cao, d thc hin cc bin
php bo v v t ng ho, d vn hnh bo qun.
- Vn u t ln, v vy s ny thng dng cho h loi 1 v 2.
3.3.2. S phn nhnh:







s ny c mt trc ng dy chnh, cc ph ti u c ly ra t trc ny, n c
u khuyt im ngc li vi s Hnh tia. Do s phn nhnh thng dng cho ph ti
loi II v III.
Trong thc t ngi ta thng kt hp hai s c bn trn thnh s hn hp, ngoi ra
nng cao tin cy ngi ta cn t cc mch d phng chung hoc ring.
3.3.3. S dn su:
Trong nhng nm gn y nh ch to c nhng thit b c cht lng tt, trnh vn
hnh c nng cao nn trong nhiu trng hp ngi ta a in p cao (35kV tr ln) vo
su trong x nghip n tn cc trm bin p phn xng. S cung cp in nh vy gi l
s dn su.
* u im:
- Do trc tip a in p cao vo trm bin p phn xng nn gim c s lng trm
phn phi, do gim c s lng cc thit b v s s n gin hn.
ngun
1
2
n
Hnh 3.1: S hnh tia
ngun
1 2 n
Hnh 3.2: S phn nhnh
63

- a in p cao vo gn ph ti nn gim c tn tht in p, in nng, nng cao
nng lc truyn ti ca mng in.
* Khuyt im:
- V mt ng dy r vo nhiu trm nn tin cy cung cp in khng cao.
- Khi ng dy dn su c in p 110kV 220kV th din tch t ca x nghip b
chim ch rt ln, v th khng th a ng dy vo gn trung tm ph ti c.
Chnh v nhng nhc im nh vy nn s ny thng dng cho cc x nghip c ph
ti ln, din tch rng v ng dy i trong x nghip khng nh hng vic xy dng cc
cng trnh khc cng nh giao thng trong x nghip.
* mt s s thc t ca nh my nhit in cn th:


64

65


66

3.4. S ni dy ca mng in p thp.
S ni dy mng in p thp l mng in phn xng, bao gm mng ng lc v
mng chiu sng vi cp in p thng l 380V/220V hoc 220V/127V. y l s mng
in p thp kiu Hnh tia cp cho ph ti phn tn v tp trung.
3.4.1. S mng ng lc:
S ni dy ca mng ng lc c hai dng c bn l mng Hnh tia v mng phn
nhnh.
a. S mng Hnh tia:















Hnh 3.3a l s Hnh tia dng cung cp in cho cc ph ti phn tn. T thanh ci
ca trm bin p c cc ng dy dn n cc t phn phi ng lc, t t phn phi ng
lc c cc ng dy dn n ph ti. Loi s ny c tin cy tng i cao, dng trong
cc phn xng c thit b phn tn trn din rng: phn xng gia cng c kh, lp rp, dt
si...
Hnh 3.3b l s Hnh tia dng cung cp in cho cc ph ti tp trung c cng sut
tng i ln nh cc trm bm, l nung, trm kh nn... trong s ny thanh ci ca trm
bin p c cc ng dy cung cp in trc tip cho ph ti.
b. S mng phn nhnh:








Hnh 3.3: S hnh tia
a. Cung cp in cho ph ti phn tn
b. Cung cp in cho ph ti tp trung
1. Thanh ci trm bin p phn xng.
2. Thanh ci t phn phi ng lc
1
2
2
c c c c
(a) (b)
(a) (b)
Hnh 3.4: S phn nhnh
67




Hnh 3.4a l s phn nhnh thng dng trong cc phn xng khng quan trng.
Hnh 3.4b l s my bin p - thanh ci. My bin p cung cp in cho cc thanh ci
t dc theo phn xng, t cc thanh ci c cc ng dn n cc t phn phi ng lc
hoc n cc ph ti tp trung khc. S ny thng dng trong cc phn xng c ph ti
phn b u v phn b trn din tch rng.
3.4.2. S mng chiu sng:
Mng in chiu sng trong x nghip c th chia lm hai loi: Mng chiu sng lm vic
v mng chiu sng s c.
a. Mng chiu sng lm vic:
L mng cung cp nh sng lm vic bnh thng, bao gm chiu sng chung v chiu
sng cc b.
- Mng chiu sng chung l mng chiu sng m bo cho ton phn xng c ri
nh nhau. in p ca mng chiu sng chung thng l 220V.
- Mng chiu sng cc b l h thng chiu sng ring cho nhng ni cn c ri cao
nh cc chi tit gia cng trn my cng c, lp rp, kim tra cht lng sn phm... in p
cp cho cc n chiu sng cc b thng l 12V, 36V.
b. Mng chiu sng s c:
L mng cung cp nh sng lc xy ra s c khi mng in chiu sng lm vic b mt
in. H thng chiu sng s c phi m bo nh sng cho cng nhn s tn ra khi ni
nguy him hoc tin hnh thao tc x l s c. Ngun cung cp cho mng s c phi ly t
ngun d phng, l ngun ly t trm bin p khc a ti hoc trong trng hp cn thit
phi ly t bnh c quy t sn t trc.

3.5. Kt cu ca mng in.
3.5.1. Kt cu ca mng in trn khng.
Theo cp in p nh mc v phm vi s dng, ngi ta phn ng dy ra lm ba cp
nh sau:
Cp I: ng dy c U
m
= 35 220kV.
Cp II: ng dy c U
m
= 1 20kV.
Cp III: ng dy c U
m
s 1kV.
Nhng b phn c bn ca ng dy trn khng l: dy dn, ct, x, s cch in, t
chng rung.
68




















a. Dy dn:
C hai yu cu c bn sau:
- Dn in tt:
p ng yu cu ny dy dn thng lm bng ng, nhm, nhm li thp v thp.
Dy ng l loi dy dn rt tt, song l kim loi qu him nn ch c dng nhng
ni quan trng, nhng ni mi trng c cht n mn kim loi.
Hin nay ph bin nht vn l dy nhm tuy dn in ch bng 70% ca ng nhng
nh v r hn ng nhiu. Dy nhm khng bn lm v c hc nn nhng ni c khong
vt v sc cng ln ngi ta dng dy nhm li thp tng bn c cho dy dn.
Dy thp bn nhng dn in km nn thng dng mng in nng thn hoc nhng
ni khng quan trng. mng in ngoi tri thng dng dy trn, cn trong nh tng
tnh an ton ngi ta dng dy dn c bc cch in.
C mt s loi dy dn ph bin sau:
A16; A25; A35; A50; A70; A95; A120; A150; A185
AC10; AC16; AC25; AC35; AC50; AC70; AC95; AC120; AC150; AC185
ACO240; ACO300; ACY120; M35...
Trong :
+ Ch ci u ch loi dy dn:
A: dy nhm.
AC: dy nhm li thp.
ACO: dy nhm li thp tng cng phn nhm.
Hnh 3.5: ng dy dn in trn khng
69

ACY: dy nhm li thp tng cng phn thp.
M: dy ng.
+ Ch s ch tit din dy dn (mm
2
)
Mt s loi dy dn ch c ch s (Php) hoc tn mt s loi ng vt qu him (M).
- Bn:
Dy dn mc trn cao phi vt khong cch ln t ct ny sang ct khc, do phi c
bn cn thit. tng cng bn ngi ta ch to dy dn c nhiu si bn li vi nhau,
hoc v nhm li thp.
b. Ct in:
Ngi ta chia ct in ra lm ba loi chnh:
- Ct g, tre.
- Ct b tng ct thp.
- Ct st thp.
Khong cch gia cc dy dn b tr trn ct c quy nh nh sau:
Loi in p Khong cch dy dn
U
m
s 1kV D
tb
= 0,4 0,6 m
U
m
= 6 10kV D
tb
= 0,8 1,2 m
U
m
= 35kV
D
tb
= 1 4 m
U
m
= 110 220kV D
tb
= 4 6 m
c. X ngang:
X ngang dng s cch in v to khong cch gia cc dy dn. Vt liu lm x
thng ging nh vt liu lm ct.
d. S cch in:
S cch in l b phn quan trng cch in gia ng dy v b phn khng dn
in. S phi c tnh nng cch in cao, chu c in p ca ng dy lc lm vic bnh
thng cng nh lc qu in p, ngoi ra phi bn, chu c lc ko. S phi chu c
s bin i ca kh hu, khng b nt n khi nhit thay i...
3.5.2. Kt cu ca mng cp.
Cp c ch to chc chn, cch in tt, li c t di t hoc trong hm cp nn
trnh c cc va p c kh v nh hng ca kh hu. in khng ca cp nh hn so vi
ng dy trn khng cng tit din, nn gim c tn tht cng sut v tn tht in p. Cp
cp in p U < 10kV thng c ch to theo kiu ba pha bc chung mt v ch.
Cp cp in p U > 10kV thng c ch to theo kiu bc ring l tng pha.
c im c bn nht ca cp l li cp c ch to bng ng hay bng nhm.
Cp thng dng li nhm mt si hay nhiu si, ch s dng li ng nhng ni c
bit nh d chy n, trong hm m, nguy him do kh v bi.
Li cp c th lm bng mt si hoc nhiu si xon li, cc si c dng trn, van,
cung qut, c th p cht hoc khng p cht.
70

Cp nhiu rut thng l loi 3 hay 4 rut. Vi cp 4 rut, rut trung tnh thng c tit
din b hn.
Cch in bao bc xung quanh cp, lp cch in c th l cao su hay cao su butyl
hay nha tng hp PVC, hoc cng c th l giy du cch in. Lp cch in ngoi cng
thng c ch to t hp kim ca ch v c bo v bn ngoi lp cch in ca cp.
Nhc im chnh ca cp l gi thnh cao, thng gp 2,5 ln so vi ng dy trn
khng cng tit din, do cp c dng nhng ni quan trng. Thc hin vic r nhnh
cp cng rt kh khn v chnh ti ch thng xy ra s c, v vy ch nhng cp c U
m
s
10kV v tht cn thit th mi thc hin vic r nhnh.
Hin c rt nhiu loi cp khc nhau do nhiu hng ch to: Cp cch in bng cao su,
cp cch in bng du, PVC, PE, XLPE hay cp cch in bng kh...
- Gii thiu v cp CADIVI:
Ngy nay, do yu cu ca s pht trin, v th h thng cung cp i hi phi c tin
cy v an ton cao trnh gy st p v h hng thit b. Do , trong qu trnh chn dy
dn cho h thng cung cp phi m bo rng s tn tht trn ng dy l nh nht v ng
dy vn hnh an ton nht. Trong cc loi dy dn c chn th cp CADIVI l mt trong
nhng loi dy dn c th p ng c yu cu . Cp CADIVI c nhiu loi dng cho h
thng phn phi v cung cp cho mng mt pha v ba pha. Sau y chng ta s tm hiu mt
vi loi v cp CADIVI.
- Dy in dn dng:
Bc cch in PVC, cp chu nhit 70
0
C
a. Dy n, i mm:
Rut dn: ng mm nhiu si xon.
Mt ct danh nh: (2 x 0.5 2 x 2.5)mm
2
.
Cp in p: 250 V.
Dng dn in cho cc gia dng nh.

b. Dy n 1 si (nhiu si):
Rut dn: 1 si (nhiu si) ng hoc nhm.
Mt ct danh nh: (0.5 12)mm
2
.
Cp in p: 0.6/1KV
Dng thit tr ng in chnh trong cc cn h
- Dy v cp in lc:
a. Dy v cp in lc bc cch in PE hoc PVC, v bo v PVC:
Dng truyn ti v phn phi in
Rut dn: ng, nhm
S rut: 1 - 4.
Mt ct danh nh rut dn n 1000mm
2

Cp in p: 0,6/1KV.
71

(SWA,DTA)

Cp chu nhit: 70
0
C.
b. Dy v cp in lc bc cch in XLPE, v bo v PVC:
Dng truyn ti v phn phi in.
Rut dn: ng, nhm
S rut: 1 4.
Mt ct danh nh rut dn n 1000mm
2
.
Cp in p: 0.6/1KV.
Khng c hoc c gip kim loi bo v
Cp chu nhit: 90
0
C
- CP VN XON
a.Cp vn xon h p (LV-ABC):
Rut dn: Nhm xon p cht
S rut: 2, 3, 4.
Mt ct danh nh: (16 150)mm
2

Cp in p: 0,6/1kV
Cch in: XLPE
Cp chu nhit: 90
0
C
Do cu to c xon chung thnh chm nn c nhiu tnh nng u vit, an ton khi s
dng, m bo m quan thnh ph, thun tin khi lp t v sa cha.
CADIVI c kh nng cung cp ph kin ng dy cp vn xon LV-ABC.
b. Cp vn xon trung p (MV-ABC):
Bc cch in XLPE, c si treo chu lc, ba rut dn 3 pha c xon thnh chm.
Mt ct danh nh: (35 185)mm
2

Mt ct danh nh: (35 185)mm
2

Cch in: XLPE.
Cp chu nhit: 90
0
C.

- CP TRUNG TH:
Bc cch in XLPE, c lp mn chn na dn in.
Dng truyn ti in cao p
Rut dn: ng, nhm.
S rut: 1 4.
Mt ct danh nh rut dn n 1000mm
2

Cp in p: (3 30)kV.
Khng c hoc c gip kim loi bo v (SWA, DTA).
Nhit lm vic di hn: 90
0
C
Nhit cc i cho php khi ngn mch l: 250
0
C vi thi gian khng qu 5 giy.
- CP IN K, R QUT:
a. Cp in k, bc cch in PVC, v bo v PVC:
72

Rut dn: ng mm
S rut: 2, 3, 4.
Mt ct danh nh: (5 50)mm
2

Cp in p: 0,6/1KV.
Dng dn in p t ng dy vo ng h in ca cc h tiu th.
C lp gip kim loi chng ly trm in.
b. Cp r qut:
Cp gn v nh hn so vi nhng loi cp trn cng loi, chu nn c hc cao hn,
s dng u ct nh vi cp in lc rut trn.
Rut dn: ng, nhm
Mt ct danh nh: (50 300)mm
2
Cp in p: 0,6/1kV

V: PVC, HDPE
Cch in: PVC, XLPE
3 li, 4 li, 3 pha 1 trung tnh.
Kiu khng gip, gip bng, gip si.

- CP CHNG THM, CP IU KHIN, CP THANG MY
a. Cp chng thm:
Hp cht chng thm c ph bn trong ca rut dn
nhm ngn nga s thm nc theo trc cp, bo v rut dn
khng b xm thc n mn v bo v lp cch in trnh h
hng do hi nc pht sinh. Cp h th v trung th treo:
chng thm rut dn; cp trung th c mn chn kim loi:
chng thm rut dn hoc chng thm mn chn kim loi.
Rut dn: ng, nhm.
Cch in: PVC, XLPE
b. Cp iu khin:
S rut: 2 30.
Mt ct danh nh: (0,5 22)mm
2
Cp in p: 0,6/1kV

Cch in v v: PE hoc PVC.

Cp chu nhit: 70
0
C
c. Cp thang my:
S rut: 4 30.
Mt ct danh nh: 0,75mm
2

Cp in p: 0,6/1kV.
Cch in v v: PVC mm.
Cp chu nhit: 70
0
C
73

* Cc bng tra chn la tit din dy cp CADIVI (xem ph lc):
3.5.3. Kt cu ca mng in phn xng:
Mng in phn xng thng c cc Hnh thc sau: dy trn, dy bc cch in, thanh
ci.
a. Dy trn, dy bc cch in:
Dy trn, dy bc cch in i trong phn xng u c t trn s cch in. m
bo an ton, dy trn phi m bo cc khong cch sau:
- Chiu cao t mt t n dy dn khng nh hn 3,5m. Nu trong cc phn xng
khng phi vn chuyn cc vt to cng knh th chiu cao c th gim bt nhng khng
c nh hn 2,5m.
- Khong cch t dy dn n cc vt ni t khng c nh hn 50 mm.
- Khong cch t dy dn n cc ng ng khng thng xuyn bo qun lau chi l
0,3m, n cc ng ng thng xuyn bo qun lau chi l 1 m.
- Khong cch t dy dn n cc thit b lm vic khng thng xuyn bo qun l 1
m, n cc thit b lm vic thng xuyn bo qun l 1,5 m.
- Khong cch cc pha khng c nh hn quy nh.
Dy c v bc cch in ngoi cch mc trn s cn c th lp t theo hai cch sau:
- Treo trn dy thp: Treo dc theo dy thp cng gia hai bc tng ca nh xng.
- t dy dn trong ng: Lun cc dy dn bc cch in vo trong ng thp, tn hoc
cht do, cc ng ny c t dc theo tng hoc chn ngm di t.
b. Thanh ci:
L ni nhn in n v truyn ti in i. cc phn xng c mt ph ti ln v
phn b dc theo phn xng th c th dng s cung cp in kiu "my bin p - thanh
ci ". Trong trng hp ny ngi ta t thanh ci dc theo phn xng, t cc thanh ci c
cc ng dy lun trong ng dn n cc t phn phi ng lc, t t phn phi ng lc li
c cc ng dy dn n cc my sn xut.
c. Cp:
Vt liu cch in ca cp cu to bi mt lp in mi v c mt gii hn nht nh v
kh nng cch in ca n. Nu trong qu trnh vn hnh ca cp nu xy ra hin tng vt
qu bn cch in ca lp in mi ni trn th lp cch in s b ph v. Trn c s ,
cp c ch to sao cho cng lp cch in mnh, hoc in trng bn trong cp
khng ln ph hng cch in ca cp.
Tuy nhin bit cng in trng:
r
V
E
A
A
= .
Do vy nu cp c thit k vi gradient in th gia n v t l tng i nh th
kch thc tng th ca cp s kh ln hoc nu gradient n p l kh ln s cho php lm
gim ng knh cp, nhng ng thi lm gim hiu qu cch in v s tn hao in mi c
th rt ln, dn n s qu nhit trn cp.
Ngi ta tm ra c rng ng dy cp s hiu qa cao nht khi t l gia bn knh cp
v li cp tha:
74

718 . 2
2
1
= = = e
R
R
o
Trong :
R
1
: l bn knh tng th ca cp (bn knh v cp).
R
2
: l bn knh li cp (bn knh dy dn).
C hai loi cp s dng ph bin:
+ Cp nhiu lp in mi v khng c mng phn cch in mi.
+ Cp nhiu lp in mi v c mng phn cch in mi.
Hot ng ii: t hc v n tp
- Ti liu tham kho cho bi ny:
- Nguyn Xun Ph, Nguyn Cng Hin, Nguyn Bi Khu: Cung cp in, NXB
Khoa hc v K thut, H Ni, 1998.
- Nguyn Cng Hin, ng Ngc Dinh, Nguyn Hu Kh, Phan ng Kh,
Nguyn Thnh: Cung cp in, NXB i hc v Trung hc Chuyn nghip, H Ni, 1984.
- Quyn Huy nh: Cung cp in, Trng i hc S phm K thut TP H Ch
Minh, 2006.
- Ng Hng Quang, V Vn Tm: Thit k cp in, NXB Khoa hc v K thut,
H Ni, 1998.
- Bi Ngc Th: Mng cung cp v phn phi in, NXB Khoa hc v K thut, H
Ni, 2002.
- Cung cp in cho x nghip cng nghip, NXB Khoa hc v K thut, H Ni,
1974.
- Cung cp in, V Trung hc Chuyn nghip v Dy ngh, NXB Gio dc, H Ni,
2005.
- Cung cp in, D n JICA-HIC, Ban iu khin in, 2003.
- Tr li cc cu hi:
3.1. Nu vn cn thit ca vic la chn phng n cung cp in.
3.2. Ti sao phi chn cp in p cho mng in.
3.3. Nu c im ca nhng s ni dy c bn.
3.4. Nu c im ca cc loi dy/cp.

75



Bi 4
Trm bin p
M bi : CIE 01 19 04

Gii thiu :
Vn u t ca trm bin p chim mt phn rt quan trng trong tng s vn u t ca
h thng in. V vy vic chn v tr, s lng v cng sut nh mc ca my bin p l vic
lm rt quan trng. Ni dung bi ny s trang b cc kin thc hc vin a ra phng n
ti u chn trm bin p hp l nht.

Mc tiu thc hin:
Hc xong bi ny, hc vin c nng lc:
- Chn v tr, s lng v cng sut trm theo tiu chun k thut in.
- u v vn hnh trm bin p theo tiu chun v in.

Ni dung chnh:
thc hin mc tiu bi hc, ni dung bao gm:
4.1 Khi qut v phn loi.
4.2 Chn v tr, s lng, v cng sut trm.
4.3 S ni dy ca trm bin p.
4.4 Cu trc ca trm.
4.5 Vn hnh trm bin p.

Cc Hnh thc hc tp:
Hnh thc nghe ging trn lp c tho lun
Hnh thc t hc v n tp.
Hnh thc thc hnh ti xng trng

Hot ng I: nghe ging trn lp c tho lun

TRM BIN P
4.1. Khi qut v phn loi.
4.1.1. Khi qut:
My bin p (MBA) l mt trong nhng phn t quan trng trong h thng cung cp
in. My bin p l mt my in tnh lm vic da trn nguyn l cm ng in t dng
bin i in p t cp ny sang cp khc.
4.1.2. Phn loi:
C nhiu cch phn loi trm bin p:
a. Phn theo nhim v (chc nng): c 2 loi
Trm bin p trung gian:
76

Trm ny nhn in t h thng in c in p 220kV - 35kV bin i thnh cp in
p 6 15kV, c bit c khi xung 0,4kV.
Trm bin p phn phi cn gi l trm bin p khch hng.
C nhim v bin i in p trung p (tc l nhn in t trm bin p trung gian)
xung 0,4kV cp in cho cc h tiu th l nhng khch hng ca ngnh in.
b. Phn theo kt cu
Trm bin p treo (trm treo):
Trm bin p treo (Hnh 4.1) l kiu trm m tt c cc thit b in cao h p v c my
bin p u c t trn ct. MBA thng l loi mt pha hoc t ba my bin p mt pha.
T h p c t trn ct. Trm ny thng rt tit kim t nn thng c dng lm trm
cng cng th cung cp cho mt vng dn c. My bin p ca trm treo thng c cng
sut nh (s 3x75 kVA), cp in p (15 22)/0.4kV, phn o m c trang b pha h p.


















* u im: n gin, r tin, xy lp nhanh, t tn t.
* Nhc im: km m quan v khng an ton.
Kiu trm ny c s dng nhng ni qu t hn hp v iu kin m quan cho
php.
thnh ph, th trn kiu trm ny ang c dng ph bin. Tuy nhin cc ng dy
trn khng trung v h p cng vi hng trm ngn trm bin p phn phi kiu treo cng lm
mt m quan th, cn phi c dn dn thay th bng ng cp v trm xy.
Trm bin p gin (trm gin):
Hnh 4.1: Trm treo S
m
s 3 x 75 kVA
77

Trm gin l loi trm m ton b cc trang thit b v my bin p u c t trn cc
gi bt gia hai ct. Trm c trang b ba my bin p mt pha (s 3x75 kVA) hay mt
my bin p ba pha (s 400 kVA), cp in p (15 22)/0.4kV, phn o m c th thc hin
pha trung p hay pha h p. T phn phi h p t trn gin gia hai ct ng dy n c
th l ng dy trn khng hay ng cp ngm. Trm gin thng cung cp in cho khu
dn c hay cc phn xng.



























Trm bt (trm nn):
Vi kiu trm ny, thit b cao p t trn ct. My bin p thng l t ba my bin p
mt pha hay mt my bin p ba pha t trn b xi mng di t v t phn phi h p t
trong nh xy mi bng, xung quanh trm c tng xy, trm c cng st bo v. ng dy
n c th l cp ngm hay ng dy trn khng, phn o m c th thc hin pha trung p
hay pha h p.
Hnh 4.2: Trm gin S
m
s 400 kVA, o m h th
78

Kiu trm bt rt tin li cho iu kin nng thn, y qu t ai khng hn hp lm,
li rt an ton cho ngi v gia sc, chnh v th hin nay cc trm BAPP nng thn hu ht
dng kiu tram bt.
Trm xy (hoc trm kn):
Trm xy l kiu trm m ton b cc thit b in cao, h p v MBA u c t trong
nh mi bng.
Trm kn thng c phn lm trm cng cng v trm khch hng.
- Trm cng cng: thng c t khu th, khu dn c mi m bo m quan
v an ton cho ngi s dng.
- Trm khch hng: thng c t trong khun vin ca khch hng.
Nh xy c phn thnh nhiu ngn tin thao tc, vn hnh cng nh trnh s c lan
trn t phn ny sang phn khc. Cc ngn ca trm phi c thng hi, thong kh nhng
phi c t li mt co, ca st phi kn phng chim, chut, rn chui qua cc l thng
hi, khe ca gy mt in. Mi phi dc (3 5)
o
trnh nc. Di gm b MBA phi
xy h du cha du MBA khi s c, chng chy n lan trn.

4.2. Chn v tr, s lng, v cng sut trm:
Vn u t ca trm bin p chim mt phn rt quan trng trong tng s vn u t ca
h thng in. V vy, vic chn v tr, s lng, v cng sut nh mc ca my bin p l
vic lm rt quan trng. chn trm bin p cn a ra mt s phng n c xt n cc
rng buc c th v tin hnh tnh ton so snh kinh t - k thut chn phng n ti u.
4.2.1. Chn v tr trm bin p:
Khi chn v tr MBA phi tha mn cc yu cu chnh sau y:
- Gn trung tm ph ti.
- Thun tin cho cc ng dy vo/ra.
- Thun li trong qu trnh lp t v thi cng xy dng.
- Thao tc, vn hnh, sa cha v qun l d dng.
- Phng chy, n, m t, bi bm v kh n mn.
- An ton cho ngi v thit b.
Trong thc t, vic t tt c cc yu cu trn l rt kh khn. Do , cn xem xt v cn
nhc cc iu kn thc t c th chn phng n hp l nht.
V tr ca TBA phn xng c th c lp bn ngoi, lin k vi phn xng hoc t
bn trong phn xng.
4.2.2. Chn s lng v chng loi my bin p:
C nhiu phng php xc nh s lng v chng loi my bin p, nhng vn phi
da vo nhng nguyn tc chnh sau y:
- Chng loi my bin p trong mt trm bin p: nn ng nht (hay t chng loi)
gim s lng my bin p d phng trong kho v thun tin trong lp t, vn hnh.
- S lng my bin p trong mt trm bin p:
79

S lng MBA t trong mt trm ph thuc vo tin cy cung cp in cho ph ti ca
trm .
- Vi h ph ti loi 1: ph ti quan trng khng c php mt in, thng phi t
2 MBA tr ln.
- Vi h ph ti loi 2: cc x nghip hng tiu dng, khch sn, siu th, thng t
mt MBA v my pht d phng.
- Vi h ph ti loi 3: cc h nh sng sinh hot, thng ch t trm 1 MBA
Tuy nhin, n gin trong vn hnh, s lng my bin p trong mt trm bin p
khng nn qu ba my v cc my bin p ny nn c cng chng loi v cng sut.
4.2.3. Xc nh cng sut trm bin p:
Cng sut MBA c chn theo cc cng thc sau:
- Vi trm 1 my: S
mB
> S
tt
(4.1)
- Vi trm 2 my:
S
mB
>
S
tt

1,4
Trong :
S
mB
: cng sut nh mc ca MBA do nh ch to quy nh c ghi trong l
lch my v trn nhn my
S
tt
: cng sut tnh ton, ngha l cng sut yu cu ln nht ca ph ti.
k
qt
: h s qu ti k
qt
= 1,4
Cn lu :
+ H s qu ti ph thuc vo thi gian qu ti. Ly k
qt
= 1,4 l ng vi iu kin thi
gian l: qu ti khng qu 5 ngy m, mi ngy qu ti khng qu 6 gi.
+ Nu khng tha mn iu kin thi gian trn phi tra th tm k
qt
trong s tay cung
cp in hoc khng cho qu ti.
Hai cng thc trn ch dng chn MBA ch to trong nc hoc vi MBA ngoi nhp
nhit i ha.
* Khi s dng MBA ngoi nhp cha nhit i ha cn tnh theo cng thc sau:
- Vi trm 1 my:
S
mB
>
S
tt

k
hc

- Vi trm 2 my:
S
mB
>
S
tt

1,4 k
hc


Trong : k
hc
: L h s hiu chnh nhit

100
1
2 1
u u
=
hc
k

Vi:
1
l nhit mi trng s dng (
0
C)
(4.2)
(4.3)
(4.4)
(4.5)
80


2
l nhit mi trng ch to
(
2
ghi trn l lchmy)
V d: Dng MBA Nga Vit Nam th :
k
hc
= 1 -
24 - 5
= 0,81
100

Trong : 24 l nhit trung bnh H Ni
5 l nhit trung bnh Matcva

Cng cn lu l MBA rt t xy ra s c, nu nh kho st thng k c trong h loi
1 c mt phn trm no h loi 3 c th ct in khi cn thit vi thi gian k trn th khi
mt MBA s c, MBA cn li ch cn cp in cho h loi mt. Kt qu l s la chn c c
my nh hn, hp l hn.
Cng thc chn cng sut cho trm 2 my s l:
S
mB
>
S
1

1,4
Trong :
S
1
l cng sut ca ph ti loi mt.
V d 4.1: Chn my bin p cho khu chung c c ph tI in S
tt
= 300 kVA, in p
trung p 22kV.
Gii:
V cp in cho khu chung c, trm t mt my
S
mB
> 300kVA
Chn my bin p 315kVA do ABB ch to: 315 - 22/0,4
Trng hp ny nu dng my Nga:
S
mB
>
300
=
370 (kVA)
0,81
Chn my bin p do Nga ch to: TM-400-22/0,4.
V d 4.2:
Chn my bin p cho trm bin p nh my luyn kim c ph ti in S
tt
= 1200 kVA,
trong hai trng hp:
1. Khng bit s % ph tI loi 3.
2. Bit s % ph tI loi 3 l 20%.
Gii:
Trm cp in cho nh my luyn kim phI t 2 my bin p.
Khi khng bit s ph tI loi 3 ca nh my, khi s c mt my bin p, my cn li
phI cp cng sut 1200kVA.
p dng cng thc (4.4), ta c:
S
mB

>
S
tt

=
857 (kVA)
(4.6)
81

1,4 k
hc

Chn dng 2 my bin p do cng ty Thit b in ng Anh ch to, cng sut
1000kVA.
2 x 1000 - 22/0,4
Trng hp kho st thng k c trong nh my c 20% ph tI loi 3 (v d nh kho,
nh hnh chnh, phn xng sa cha . . .)
p dng cng thc (4.6), ta c:
S
mB
>
S
1

=
80%.1200
=
685 (kVA)
1,4 1,4
Chn dng 2 my bin p do cng ty Thit b in ng Anh ch to, cng sut
750kVA.
2 x 750 - 11/0,4
So snh hai phng n chn my:
- Phng n chn 2 my 100kVA c li l khi mt my s c khng phI ct in ph
tI loi 3 nhng c hi l vn u t ln, h s tI nh.
k
t
=
S
tt

=
1200
= 0,6
2S
mB
2000

- Phng n chn 2 my 750kVA c li l vn u t nh, h s tI cao.
k
t
=
1200
= 0,8
1500
Tuy nhin, khi s c mt my, my cn li cho php tI 1,4 s phI ct mt lng tI
loi 3 l:
1200 - 1,4 . 750 = 150 (kVA)
S % ti phI ct:
1200
x 100 = 12,5%
1500
Ngha l khng cn ct ht 20% ph tI loi 3.

4.3. S ni dy ca trm bin p.
S ni dy ca trm phi tha mn cc iu kin sau:
- m bo lin tc cung cp in theo yu cu ph ti.
- S ni dy n gin, r rng, thun tin trong vn hnh v x l s c.
- An ton lc vn hnh v lc sa cha.
- Hp l v kinh t trn c s m bo cc yu cu v k thut.
Trong thc t kh m m bo c ton b cc yu cu trn, nu c mu thun ta cn so
snh ton din trn quan im li ch lu di v li ch chung ca c nn kinh t.

4.3.1. Trm bin p trung gian:
82

Li cung cp in c cp in t cc trm bin p trung gian (BATG), thng l
110/35, 22, 10 (kV) hoc 35/22, 10 (kV). Ty theo tnh cht quan trng ca li cung cp in
m cc trm trung gian ny c th t mt my hoc hai my.
- S nguyn l trm BATG:
83
















Hnh 4.3: S nguyn l trm bin p trung gian 110/35, 22, 10(kV)
35, 22, 10(kV)
a. Trm 1 bin p
35, 22, 10(kV)
MCLL
b. Trm 2 bin p
35, 22, 10(kV)
84

4.3.2. Trm bin p phn phi:
Trm bin p phn phi (TBAPP) cn gi l trm bin p khch hng, c nhim v bin
i in p trung p xung 0,4kV cp in cho cc h tiu th l nhng khch hng ca
ngnh in.
Ty theo tnh cht quan trng ca h tiu th, trm bin p phn phi c th t mt hoc
hai my bin p.
- S nguyn l trm bin p phn phi mt my nh Hnh 4.4
































DK 35, 22, 10
A A A V
A
1
A
1
A
1

CSV
2

AT
TC-0,4 (kV)
KWh
BI
TPI
CT
N
BA
CC
CSV
1

DCL
Hnh 4.4: S nguyn l trm bin p phn phi mt my

DK: ng dy trn khng trung p. BI: My bin dng in.
DCL: Dao cch ly trung p. ; ; kWh: Cc ng h o m.
CSV
1
: Chng st van trung p. AT: ptmt tng.
CC: Cu ch trung p. TC: Thanh ci ba pha v thanh ci trung tnh.
BA: My bin p phn phi. A
1
; A
2
; A
3
: Cc ptmt nhnh.
N: H thng ni t. CSV
2
: Chng st van h p.

CT: Cp tng.

A V
85


Nu trm bin p c cp in bng ng dy trn khng th pha cao p t dao cch
ly, cu ch v chng st van. Pha h p t ptmt tng v cc ptmt nhnh, nu mt trong
cc ng dy h p l ng dy trn khng th phI t chng st van h p. Ngoi ra cn
phI t cc ng h o, m.
Dao cch ly trung p:
Lm nhim v cch ly gia DK trung p v trm bin p phc v cho vic kim tra, bo
dng, sa cha chng st van, cu ch cao p, my bin p v cp tng cng nh h thng tip
a.
Dao cch ly khng c b phn dp h quang nn khng cho php ng ct mch in,
tuy nhin c th cho php dao cch ly ng ct khng ti my bin p khi cng sut my
khng qu ln (thng di 1000kVA).
Dao cch ly trung p c th dng loi ba pha ri, ng ct tng pha (gi l dao cch ly
mt la) hoc loi lin ng, ng ct ng thi ba pha. Vi trm bin p phn phi ngoI tri
c th dng mt trong hai loi DCL trn. Vi trm xy kn ch dng loi DCL lin ng.
Chng st van trung p:
Lm nhim v chng st nh t ngoi ng dy trn khng truyn vo trm. u
chng st van vo mch nh s Hnh 4.4, khi cn kim tra, sa cha, thay th CSV phi ct
in. Mun x l chng st van m khng nh hng n vic ct in ca trm th phi t
ring cho chng st van mt cu dao na, tuy nhin s lm cho kt cu trm cng knh, phc
tp thm.
Cu ch cao p: lm nhim v bo v ngn mch cho bin p v cp tng, thng
dng loi cu ch ng ct thch anh.
Cp tng: lm nhim v dn in t bin p (BA) vo t phn phi h p ca trm
bin p phn phi. Cng c th dng thanh dn thay cho cp tng.
ptmt tng: lm nhim v bo v qu ti cho bin p v bo v ngn mch cho
thanh ci h p.
Thanh ci h p (thanh gp h p): lm nhim v nhn in t bin p v phn phi
cho cc tuyn h p qua cc ptmt nhnh.
Cc ptmt nhnh: lm nhim v thao tc ng ct ng dy, bo v ngn mch
trn cc tuyn dy h p.
Chng st van h p: lm nhim v chng st nh vo ng dy trn khng h p
truyn vo trm.
My bin dng in: lm nhim v bin i dng in ti ca trm xung 5A, cp
ngun dng cho cc ng h ampe v cng t.
Ti cc trm bin p cng cng t 3 ng h ampe, 1 ng h vn v 1 cng t hu
cng.
Vi cc trm bin p x nghip cn phi t thm 1 ng h o cos v 1 cng t v
cng.
86

H thng ni t: h thng ni t ti cc trm bin p bin p lm ba chc nng: ni
t lm vic, ni t an ton v ni t chng st.
- S nguyn l trm bin p phn phi hai my l chp ni s nguyn l 2 TBAPP
mt my qua ptmt lin lc (ALL), Hnh 4.5.





























Nu ph ti hai phn on thanh gp bng nhau th nn vn hnh ALL trng thi
thng m lm gim dng ngn mch h p.
Nu ph ti hai phn on thanh gp khng bng nhau (ln b hn nhau nhiu) th nn
vn hnh ALL trng thi thng ng.
Vi trm hai my vn phi t y hai b CSV cao p v h p cho mi bin p v t
hai b ng h o m cho hai phn on thanh gp h p.
A
1
A
1
A
1

CSV
2

AT
KWh
BI
CT
N
BA
CC
DCL
CS
V
Hnh 4.5: S nguyn l trm bin p phn phi hai my
CSV
1
TPP1
A A A
V
PI
A
4
A
5
A
6

CSV
4

AT
KWh
BI
CT
N
BA
CC
DCL
TPP2
A A
V
PII
ALL
87

Pha h p thng t ba t: hai t phn phi v mt t lin lc.
cc trm ngoi tri b DCL-CC trung p c th thay bng b cu ch t ri (CCTR). B
CCTR lm c hai nhim v: ct ngn mch v to khong cch cch ly an ton trng thy. Cc
trm kn trong nh khng dng CCTR.
4.4. Cu trc ca trm:
4.4.1. i vi trm bin p phn phi:
Gm c ba kiu, mi kiu c u nhc im ring. Ngi thit k cn cn c vo c
im, iu kin ca khch hng m la chn cho h kiu xy dng thch hp.
a. Trm treo:
L kiu trm m tt c cc thit b in cao p, h p v c my bin p u c t trn
ct.
* u im: n gin, r tin, xy lp nhanh, t tn t.
* Nhc im: km m quan v khng an ton.
Kiu trm ny c s dng nhng ni qu t hn hp v iu kin m quan cho
php. cc thnh ph, th trn, kiu trm ny ang c dng ph bin. Tuy nhin cc ng
dy trn khng trung p v h p cng vi hng trm ngn trm bin p phn phi kiu treo
cng lm mt m quan th cn phI c dn dn thay th bng ng cp v trm xy.
b. Trm bt:
Vi kiu trm ny, thit b cao p t trn ct, my bin p t di t v t phn phi
h p t trong nh xy mi bng, xung quanh trm c tng xy, trm c cng st bo v.
Kiu trm bt rt tin li cho iu kin nng thn, y qy t ai khng hn hp lm,
li rt an ton cho ngi v gia sc, chnh v th hin nay cc trm bin p phn phi nng
thn hu ht dng kiu trm bt.
c. Trm xy (hoc trm kn):
Trm xy l kiu trm m ton b cc thit b in cao p, h p v my bin p u c
t trong nh mI bng. Nh xy c phn ra thnh nhiu ngn tin thao tc, vn hnh
cng nh trnh s c lan trn t phn ny sang phn khc. Cc ngn ca trm phI c thng
hi, thong kh nhng phI t li mt co, ca st phI kn phng chim, chut, rn chui
qua cc l thng hI, khe ca gy mt in. Mi phi dc (3 5)
o
that nc. Di gm
b my bin p phI xy h du s c cha du my bin p khi s c, trnh chy n lan
trn.
4.4.2. i vi trm bin p trung gian:
Vi trm bin p trung gian 110/35, 22, 10 (kV) thng pha cao p v bin p t h
ngoi tri, cn phn trung p t trong nh phn phi ging nh kt cu xy dng trm phn
phi.

4.5. Vn hnh trm bin p:
Thit k v vn hnh c quan h mt thit vi nhau. Ngi vn hnh cn hiu thit
k v cn chp hnh y cc quy trnh d nh thit k pht huy ht cc u im ca
phng n thit k v tn dng c ht kh nng ca thit b.
88

4.5.1. Trnh t thao tc:
Trnh t thao tc cc thit b in trong trmc th chia lm 4 loi khc nhau d dng
vn hnh
a. Khi bt u cung cp in:
- ng cc cu dao cch ly ca ng dy v trm (pha cao p).
- ng dao cch ly ca thit b chng st.
- ng dao cch ly phn on thanh cao p v h p.
- ng my ct cao p ca ng dy vo trm.
- ng cu dao sau ng my ct cao p ca MBA.
- ng my ct h p ca MBA (nu c).
- Ty theo yu cu ca ph ti m ng cc my ct ca cc ng dy v cc phn
xng.
b. Khi ngng cung cp in:
- Ct cc my ct ca cc ng dy v cc phn xng.
- Ct cc my ct pha h p ca MBA (nu c).
- Ct my ct sau ct cu dao cch ly pha cao p ca MBA.
- Ct my ct sau ct cu dao cch ly ca ng dy i vo.
c. ng MBA a vo vn hnh:
- ng my ct sau ng cu cch ly pha cao p ca MBA a vo vn hnh.
- ng my ct pha h p ca MBA .
d. Khi ct MBA:
- Ct my ct pha h p.
- Ct my ct sau ct cu dao cch ly pha cao p ca my bin p .
4.5.2. Kim tra:
Song song vi vic vn hnh chng ta cn phi kim tra thng xuyn v kim tra nh
k my bin p, kim tra cc ng h o m, cc thit b bo v ... ghi chp y vo s
theo di vn hnh ca trm.
a. Kim tra thng xuyn:
i vi trm c cng nhn trc nht c na gi hoc mt gi phi i kim tra ph ti ca
my bin p v cc ng dy. Cn ghi r vo s trc gi tr ph ti (cc thng s k thut ca
trm) ln kim tra .
b. Kim tra nh k:
i vi trm vn hnh hoc d tr u c ch kim tra bo dng nh k. Thi gian
c th l 3 n 6 thng hoc mt nm ty theo yu cu c th khu vc cng tc.
V d: phi kim tra mu sc du, cao ca mc du, kim tra r ca du, kim tra
s c nguyn lnh v sch s khng, cc ng h o c hot ng bnh thng khng....
Tt c cc kt qu ca ln kim tra cn phi ghi chp y vo s theo di vn hnh ca
trm.
c. Kim nghim:
89

i vi my bin p, cc my ct du, cc cp in phi c ch kim nghim nh k
cht cch in. Cc r le phi kim nghim li mt nm mt ln. Cc vn ny trong quy
trnh vn hnh nu rt chi tit cn chp hnh cho ng.




4.6. La chn cc phn t trong li cung cp in:
4.6.1 La chn cu ch, dao cch ly:
Cu ch c chc nng ch yu l bo v ngn mch.
Dao cch ly (cn gi l cu dao) c nhim v ch yu l cch ly phn c in v phn
khng c in to khong cch an ton trng thy c phc v cho cng tc sa cha,
kim tra, bo dng. S d khng cho php dao cch ly ng ct mch khi ang mang tI v
khng c b phn dp h quang. Tuy nhin, c th cho php dao cch ly ng ct khng tI
bin p khi cng sut my khng ln (thng nh hn 1000kVA).
Cu ch v dao cch ly c ch to vi mi cp in p.
Trong li cung cp in, cu ch c th dng ring r, nhng thng dng kt hp vi
dao cch ly hoc dao ct ph ti. Dao cch ly cng c th dng ring r, nhng thng dng
kt hp vi my ct v cu ch.
a. La chn dao cch ly, cu ch cao p:
Trong li in cao p, cu ch thng dng cc v tr sau:
- Bo v my bin in p.
- Kt hp vi dao ct ph ti thnh b my ct ph ti trung p bo v cc ng dy.
- t pha cao p (6, 10, 22, 35kV) cc trm bin p phn phi bo v ngn mch cho
bin in p.
Cu ch c ch to nhiu loi, nhiu kiu, in p trung p ph bin nht l cu ch
ng. in p trung p ngi ta cn dng cu ch t rI (CCTR) thay cho b cu dao - cu ch
(CD-CC).
Trong li in trung p v cao p, dao cch ly t dng ring r, thng dng kt hp.
- Kt hp vi my ct trong t my ct hoc trong b MC-DCL.
- Kt hp vi cu ch trung p t ti cc trm BAPP.
Cu ch v cu dao cch ly trung p, cao p c chn v kim tra theo cc iu kin
trong Bng 4.1 v 4.2:

Cc i lng chn v kim tra iu kin
in p nh mc (kV) U
mDCL
> U
mL

Dng in nh mc (A) I
mDCL
> I
cb

90

Dng in n nh ng (kA) I
.m
> i
xk

Dng in n nh nhit (kA)
I
nh.m
>
dm nh
qd
t
t
.
I




Bng 4.2:
Cc i lng chn v kim tra iu kin
in p nh mc (kV)
U
mDCL
> U
mL

Dng in nh mc (A)
I
mDCL
> I
cb

Dng ct nh mc (kA)
I
m
> I

Cng sut ct nh mc (MVA)
S
cm
> S

Trong hai bng trn:
U
mL
: l in p nh mc ca li in (kV);
I
cb
: l dng in cng bc, ngha l dng in lm vic ln nht I qua my ct,
xc nh theo s c th;

I , I:l dng ngn mch v cng v siu qu , trong tng ton ngn mch li
cung cp in, coi mgn mch l xa ngun,cc tr s ny bng nhau v bng
dng ngn mch chu k.
i
xk
: l dng in ngn mch xung kch, l tr s tc thi ln nht ca dng ngn
mch:

i
xk
= 1,8. 2 .I
N
(4.7)
S": l cng sut ngn mch

S =
tb
U . 3 .I (4.8)
t
nh.m
: l thi gian n nh nhit nh mc, nh ch to cho tng ng vi
I
nh.m
(I
0nh
)


t
q
: l thi gian quy i, xc nh bng cch tnh ton v tra th. Trong tnh ton
thc t li trung p, nhi ta cho php ly t
q
bng thi gian tn ti ngn
mch, ngha l bng thi gian ct ngn mch.
Vy: I
cm
= t
nh.m
> I

dm nh
c
t
t
.
(4.9)
Cc thit b in c I
m
> 1000 (A) khng cn kim tra n nh nhit.


91

V d 4.3:
Trm bin p ca mt x nng nghip t mt my bin p 320kVA in p 10/0,4 kV.
Bit rng trm c cp in t TBATG 35/10kV ca huyn cch 3km bng DK-10, dy
AC-35. My ct u ng dy l ca Lin x (c) mt catalog. Yu cu tnh ton 2
phng n:
1. Chn cu ch t ri 10kV cho trm.
2. Chn DCL-CC 10kV cho trm.

Gii
Dng in ln nht qua dao cch ly v cu ch chnh l dng in qu ti my bin p.
cc my bin p cp in cho nng thn, do non ti sut ngy, bui ti c th cho php qu ti
vi k
qt
= 1,25.
Dng cng bc qua DCL v CC l:
I
cb
= I
qtB
= 1,25.I
mB
= 1,25.
10 . 3
320
= 27,75 (A)
1. Phng n dng cu ch t ri:
Chn cu ch t ri 10kV do Chance ch to c cc thng s k thut ghi trong bng:

Loi CCTR U
m
(kV) I
m
(A) I
Nmax
(kA)
I
N3S
(kA)
C710-112PB 12 100 10 7,88

Cn tnh ngn mch kim tra CCTR chn.














Ly tr s S
cm
ca my ct 10kV do Lin x (c) ch to l 250MVA, in khng ca h
thng:
10 (kV)
BATG
BATG
DK - AC - 35; 3km
CCTR
N
BA-320 (kVA)
0,4 (kV)
H
N
X
H
R
D
X
D

Hnh 4.6: S nguyn l v s thay th tnh ngn mch v d 4.3
a. S nguyn l
b. s thay th
a)
b)
92

) ( 44 , 0
250
5 , 10
2 2
O = = =
MC cdm
tb
S
U
H
X

Tng tr ng dy AC-35 dI 3km l:

= + = l l
0 0 D
jx . r Z 0,92 . 3 + j0,4 . 3 = 2,76 + jj1,2 (O).

Tr s dng in ngn mch qua CCTR l:
) ( 9 , 1
) 2 , 1 44 , 0 ( 76 , 2 . 3
5 . 10
) ( . 3
2 2 2 2
kA
X X R
U
I
D H D
tb
N
=
+ +
=
+ +
=
Cn c vo I
N kim
tra CCTR chn, kt qu ghi trong bng:

Cc i lng chn v kim tra Kt qu
in p nh mc (kV)
U
mDCL
= 12 > U
mL
= 10
Dng in nh mc (A)
I
mDCL
= 100 > I
cb
= 27,75
Dng ct nh mc (kA)
I
cm
= 10 > I
N
= 1,9
Cng sut ct nh mc (MVA)
S
cm
= 3 .12.10 > S
N
= 3 .10,5.1,9

2. Phng n dng DCL-CC:
Cn c vo I
cb
= 27,75 (A) chn dao cch ly 3DC in p 12 (kV) v cu ch ng 3GD do
Siemens ch to c cc thng s k thut ghi trong bng:

Bng chn dao cch ly:
Loi DCL U
m
(kV) I
m
(A) I
Nmax
(kA) I
N3
(kA)
3DC 12 400 40 10

Bng chn cu ch:
Loi CC U
m
(kV) I
m
(A) I
Nmax
(kA) I
N3
(kA)
3GD1-120-2B 12 100 80 40

kim tra n nh in ng dao cch ly cn tnh tr s dng ngn mch xung kch:
I
xk
= 1,8. 2 .I
N
= 1,8. 2 .1,9 = 4,79 (kA)

Bng kt qu kim tra dao cch ly:
93

Cc i lng chn v kim tra Kt qu
in p nh mc (kV) U
mDCL
= 12 > U
mL
= 10
Dng in nh mc (A) I
mDCL
= 400 > I
cb
= 27,75
Dng in n nh ng (kA) I
.m
= 40 > i
xk
= 4,79
Dng in n nh nhit (kA)
I
nh.m
= 10 >
3
8 , 0
9 , 1





Bng kt qu kim tra cu ch:
Cc i lng chn v kim tra Kt qu
in p nh mc (kV)
U
mDCL
= 12 > U
mL
= 10
Dng in nh mc (A)
I
mDCL
= 100 > I
cb
= 27,75
Dng ct nh mc (kA)
I
cm
= 80 > I
N
= 1,9
Cng sut ct nh mc (MVA)
S
cm
= 3 .12.80 > S
N
= 3 .10,5.1,9

b. La chn cu dao, cu ch h p:
li h p thng gi dao cch ly l cu dao. Ngi ta ch to cu dao 1 pha, 2 pha, 3
pha vi s cc khc nhau: 1 cc, 2 cc, 3 cc, 4 cc.
V kh nng ng ct, cu dao c ch to gm hai loi:
- Cu dao (thng, khng ti) ch lm nhim v cch ly, ng ct khng ti hoc ti nh.
- Cu dao ph ti lm nhim v cch ly v ng ct dng ph ti.
Cu ch h p cng c ch to gm 3 loi:
- Cu ch thng thng (khng lm nhim v cch ly, ct ti)
- Cu ch cch ly c mt u c nh, mt u m ra c nh dao cch ly lm nhim v
cch ly nh cu dao.
- Cu ch ct ti l cu ch cch ly c th ng ct dng ph ti nh cu dao ph ti.
Ngi ta cng ch to b cu dao cu ch theo 2 loi:
- B cu dao - cu ch thng thng.
- B cu dao ph ti - cu ch.
Bng 4.3 ch ra k hiu, s v chc nng ca tng loi cu dao, cu ch h p.
Bng 4.3:
94

Loi K hiu Chc nng

Cu dao (dao cch ly)


Cch ly, ng ct dng nh.
Cu dao ph ti
(dao ph ti )


Cch ly, ng ct dng ph ti

Cu ch


Bo v qu ti v ngn mch

Cu ch cch ly


Bo v qu ti v ngn mch,
cch ly

Cu ch ct ti


Bo v qu ti v ngn mch
ng ct dng in ph ti

B cu dao - cu ch


Bo v qu ti v ngn mch,
cch ly


B cu dao ph ti -
cu ch


Bo v qu ti v ngn mch
ng ct dng in ph ti

Cu ch h p c c trng 2 i lng:
I
dc
dng nh mc ca dy chy cu ch, tnh bng A;
I
v
dng nh mc ca v cu ch (bao gm cau v np).
Khi la chn cu ch h p phi la chn c I
dc
v I
v
. Thng chn I
v
ln hn I
dc
vi cp
khi dy chy t v qu ti, ngn mch hoc khi cn tng ti ta ch cn thay dy chy ch
khng cn thay v.
K hiu y cu ch h p cho trn Hnh 4.7.







CD (DCL)
CD PT
CC
CCCL
CD - CC
CCCT
CDPT - CC
Hnh 4.6: K hiu y cu ch h p v cc v d
a) K hiu y
b) Cc v d
(A) I
(A) I
dc
vo
15
30
100
200
200
500
a) b)
95


Lu :
- Khi ni cu ch 100A, phI hiu l: cu ch c I
v
= 100A.
- Khi ni b cu dao - cu ch 100A, phi hiu l: I
CD =
I
vCC
= 100A.
Trong li h p cu ch v cu dao thng c t khs xa ngun (TBAPP) v th dng
ngn mch qua chng nh, nn khng cn kim tra cc i lng lin quan n dng ngn
mch.
a. La chn cu dao h p:
Cu dao h p c chn theo 2 iu kin:
U
mCD
> U
mL
(4.10)
I
mCD
> I
tt
(4.11)
Trong :
U
mCD
: l in p nh mc ca cu dao, thng ch to 220V, 230V, 250V,
380V, 400V, 440V, 500V, 690V.
U
mL
: l in p nh mc ca li in, c tr s in p pha l 220V hoc tr
s in p dy l 380V.
I
mCD
: l dng in nh mc ca cu dao, tnh bng A.
I
tt
: l dng in tnh ton ca ti. tnh bng A.
Ngoi ra, cn phI ch n s pha, s cc, kh nng ct tI, trong nh, ngoi tri v.v..
b. La chn cu ch h p:
Trong li in thp sng, sinh hot:
Cu ch c chn theo hai iu kin:
U
mCC
> U
mL
(4.12)
I
dc
> I
tt
(4.13)
Trong :
U
mCc
: l in p nh mc ca cu ch, thng ch to cc c in p nh cu
dao.
I
dc
: l dng in nh mc ca dy chy, nh ch to cho; tnh bng A.
I
tt
: l dng in tnh ton, y l dng in lu dI ln nht chy qua dy chy
cu ch, tnh bng A.
- Vi ph ti mt pha (v d cc thit b in gia dng):

I
tt

=
I
m
=
P
m

U
pm
cos

Trong :
U
m
: l in p pha nh mc. bng 220V
cos: l h s cng sut
- Vi n si t, bp in, bnh nng lnh: cos = 1.
(4.14)
96

- Vi qut, t lnh, iu ha, n tup: cos = 0,8.
- Vi lp hc dng qut + n si t: cos = 0,9.
- Vi lp hc dng qut + n tup: cos = 0,8.
- Vi ph ti ba pha:
I
tt

=
P
tt

3 U
m
cos
Trong :
U
m
: l in p dy nh mc, bng 380V
cos: l h s cng sut, ly theo ph ti.

Trong li in cng nghip:
Ph ti ch yu ca li in cng nghip l cc my mc cng c, cc ng c. S
cp in cho cc ng c gii thiu trn Hnh 4.9. Khi ng t (KT) lm nhim v ng m
v bo v qu ti cho ng c v dy dn.
- Cu ch bo v 1 ng c:
Cu ch bo v 1 ng c chn theo 2 iu kin:
I
dc
> I
tt
= k
t
.I
m


o o
dmD mm mm
dc
I . k I
I = >
Trong :
k
t
: h s tI ca ng c, nu khng bit ly k
t
= 1;
I
m
: dng nh mc ca ng c, tnh theo cng thc:
I
m
=

q . cos . . 3
dmD
dm dm
U
P

Trong :
U
m
= 380 (V) l in p nh mc li 3 pha h p
cos
m
: h s cng sut nh mc ca ng c, nh ch to cho.
Thng cos
m
= 0,8;
q : hiu sut ca ng c, nu khng bit ly bng 1;
K
mm
: h s m my ca ng c, nh ch to cho, thng K
mm
= 5, 6, 7.
o : h s, ly nh sau:
+ o = 2,5: i vi ng c m my nh (hoc khng ti) nh my
bm, my ct gt kim loi.
+ o = 1,6: i vi ng c m my nng (c ti) nh cn cu, cu trc,
my nng
- Cu ch bo v 2, 3 ng c:
(4.15)
(4.16)
(4.17)
97

Trong thc t, cm 2, 3 ng c nh hoc 1 ng c ln cng 1, 2 ng c nh gn c
th c cp in chung 1 ng dy v c bo v chung bng 1 cu ch (nh 1, 2 trn
Hnh 4.7)













Trng hp ny cu ch c chn theo 2 iu kin sau:

dmi
n
I . k I
ti dc
>

o
dmi
n
I . k I
I
1
ti max mm
dc

+
>
Trong :
o ly theo tnh cht ca ng c m my.
- Cu ch tng bo v nhm ng c:
Cu ch tng c chn theo 3 iu kin:

tt dc
I I >

o
mm
dc
I
I >
iu kin (4.20); (4.21) l iu kin chn lc, ngha l CCT ch chy khi c ngn mch
trn thanh ci t in, cn khi xy ra ngn mch ti ng c no hoc dy dn no th ch cu
ch nhnh chy, m bo cho c nhm khng b mt in. Mun vy, ngi ta quy c phI
chn I
dc
ca cu ch tng ln hn t nht l 2 cp so vi I
dc
ca cu ch nhnh ln nht.
Trong cc cng thc (4.20) v (4.21) dng in tnh ton ca nhm c th xc nh theo
2 cch:
Nu bit k
t
th xc nh theo (4.19)
Nu khng bit K, th xc nh theo (2.40), tc l xc nh ph tI tnh ton theo cng
sut trung bnh v h s cc i
(4.19)
(4.18)
(4.20)
(4.21)
CC1
KT
2
CC2
KT
3
CC3
KT
4
CCT
KT
1
Hnh 4.7: Cu ch bo v 1 ng c (CC2, CC3); Bo v 2 ng
c (CC1) v bo v c nhm ng c (CCT)
98

Khi I
tt
xc nh theo (4.18) iu kin 2 tnh theo (4.19)
Khi I
tt
xc nh theo (2.40) iu kin 2 tnh theo biu thc:

o
dm tt max mm
dc
I . k I ( I
I
sd
+
>
Trong :
K
sd
I
m
ng vi ng c c I
m m m a x

V d 4.4:
Yu cu la chn bo v bng n si t 100 (V).
Gii
Bng n si t dng in p 220 (V) v cos = 1, cu ch chn theo (4.13) v (4.14)
I
dc
> I
tt
= ) ( 45 , 0
220
100
cos .
A
U
P
dm
dm
= =




Vy chn cu ch h p c I
dc
= 2(A), I
v
= 5(A)

V d 4.5:
Yu cu chn b cu dao - cu ch tng cho 1 cn h gia nh c cng sut t 4 .
Gii
Ph tI tnh ton cn h gia nh khi bit P

:
P
tt
= K
t
.P

= 0,8.4 = 3,2 (kW)


Dng in tnh ton cn h:
I
tt
= ) ( 1 , 17
85 , 0 . 22 , 0
2 , 3
cos .
A
U
P
dm
dm
= =



Chn dng b CD-CC 30 (A), c:
I
mCD
= I
vCC
= 30 (A), I
dc
= 20 (A)
V d 4.6:
Yu cu chn cc b CD-CC cho t in ca nh ging ng 2 tng, mi tng 6 lp hc.
Gii
Ph tI tnh ton 1 tng nh 6 lp v c nh 2 tng l:
P
ttT
=

7,2 (kW)
P
ttN
= 14,4 (kW)
Dng tnh ton tng (mi tng c cp in c 3 pha) v c nh:
I
tt
= ) ( 69 , 13
8 , 0 . 380 . 3
200 . 7
cos . . 3
A
U
P
dm
dm
= =



I
ttN
= 2 x 13,69 = 27,38 (A)
Vy chn b CD-CC tng 50 (A),c
I
mCD
= I
vCC
= 50 (A); I
dc
= 20 (A)
Chn b CD-CC nh 100 (A), c
99

I
mCD
= I
vCC
= 100 (A); I
dc
= 50 (A)
Kt qu la chn cc b CD-CC cho nh ging ng ghi trn Hnh 4.8.




















V d 4.7:
Yu cu la chn 3 cu ch nhnh v b CD-CC tng cho t in cp in cho 4 ng c
c cc thng s k thut cho trong bng sau:
ng c P
m
(kW)
cos
K
mm
K
t

q
My mi 10 0,8 5 0,8 0,9
Cu trc 8 0,8 7 0,8 0,9
My phay 10 0,8 5 0,8 0,9
My
khoan
4,5 0,8 7 0,8 0,9

Gii
La chn CC1:
I
dc
> I
tt1
=
9 , 0 . 8 , 0 . 38 , 0 . 3
10
. 8 , 0 = 0,8 . 21,125 = 16,9 (A)
I
dc
>
5 , 2
125 , 21 . 5
. = 42,25 (A)
Chn cu ch h p c I
dc
= 50 (A), I
v
= 100 (A)
Hnh 4.8: T in nh ging ng cc b CD-CC chn
100A
50 50
Trc tng 2 Trc tng 1
20
50
50
100
20
50
100

La chn CC2:
I
dc
> I
tt2
=
9 , 0 . 8 , 0 . 38 , 0 . 3
8
. 8 , 0 = 0,8 . 16,9 = 13,52 (A)
I
dc
>
6 , 1
9 , 16 . 7
= 73,9 (A)
Chn cu ch h p c I
dc
= 80 (A), I
v
= 100 (A)
La chn CC3:
Cu ch bo v 2 ng c
I
dc
>

2
1
dmi ti
I k =
9 , 0 . 8 , 0 . 38 , 0 . 3
5 , 4
. 8 , 0
9 , 0 . 8 , 0 . 38 , 0 . 3
10
. 8 , 0 +

= 0,8 . 21,125 + 0,8 . 9,5 = 24,5 (A)


5 , 2
5 , 9 . 8 , 0 125 , 21 . 5 I k I
I
D4 dm t4 D3 mm
dc
+
=
+
>
o
= 45,29 (A)

Chn cu ch h p c I
dc
= 50 (A), I
v
= 100 (A)
La chn CCT:
I
dc
>

4
1
dmi ti
I k = 0,8(21,125 + 16,9 + 21,125 + 9,5) = 59,92 (A)

( )
6 , 1
5 , 9 125 , 21 125 , 21 8 , 0 9 , 16 . 7
I k I
I
3
1
i dm ti D2 mm
dc
+ + +
=
+
>

o
= 89,25 (A)
Theo kt qu tnh ton trn, l ra c th chn I
dc
= 100 (A).
Nhng theo iu kin chn lc, chn b CD-CC c I
dc
= 150 (A) I
CD
= I
CCT
= 200 (A)
Kt qu la chn cu ch ghi trn Hnh 4.9.











50
100
150
200
50
100
50
100
101














4.6.2 La chn ptmt:
ptmt l thit b ng ct h p c chc nng bo v qu tI v ngn mch.
Do c u im hn hn cu ch l kh nng lm vic chc chn, tin cy, an ton, ng ct
ng thi 3 pha v c kh nng t ng ha cao nn ptmt mc d c gi t hn vn ngy
cng c dng rng rI trong li in h p cng nghip, dch v cng nh li in sinh
hot.
ptmt c ch to vi in p khc nhau: 400 (V), 440 (V), 500 (V), 600 (V), 690 (V)
Ngi ta cng ch to cc loi ptmt 1 pha, 2 pha, 3 pha vi s cc khc nhau: 1 cc, 2
cc, 3 cc, 4 cc.



K hiu ca ptmt cho bng di y:

K
hiu



S
cc
1 cc 1 cc + TT 2 cc 3cc 3 cc + TT 4 cc

Ngoi ptmt thng thng, ngi ta cn ch to loi ptmt chng r in. ptmt
chng r t ng ct mch in nu dng r c tr s 30 mA, 100 mA hoc 300 mA ty loi.
ptmt c chn theo 3 iu kin:
U
mA
> U
mL
(4.22)
U
mA
> I
tt
(4.23)
I
cm
> I
N
(4.24)
102

V d 4.8:
Yu cu chn ptmt tng cho cn h gia nh c cng sut t l 6 (kW).
GII
Ph tI tnh ton cn h
P
tt
= K
t
. P

= 0,8 . 6 = 4,8 (kW)
Cn h dng in p 220 (V), cos = 0,85
I
tt
=
85 , 0 . 22 , 0
8 , 4
= 25,66 (A)
C th chn ptmt 32(A), y d phng pht trin ph tI, chn dng ptmt 1 pha
G4CB 1040C do Clipsal ch to c I
m
= 40 (A), I
cm
= 6 (kA)
Khng cn kim ta iu kin ct ngn mch v xa ngun.
4.6.3 La chn dy dn v cp:
Dy dn v cp l mt trong cc thnh phn chnh ca mng cung cp in. V vy, vic
la chn dy dn v cp ng tiu chun k thut v tha mn ch tiu kinh t s gp phn
m bo cht lng in, cung cp in an ton v lin tc, ng thi gp phn khng nh vo
vic h thp gi thnh truyn tI v phn phi in nng, mang li li ch ln khng ch cho
ngnh in m cn cho c ngnh kinh t quc dn.
Ty theo loi mng in v cp in p m iu kin kinh t ng vai tr quyt nh v
iu kin k thut ng vai tr quan trng hay ngc li. Do , cn phI nm vng bn cht
ca mi phng php la chn dy dn v cp s dng ng ch v c hiu qu.
Chn dy dn/cp trong mng phn phi cao p:
Nguyn tc chn dy dn/cp l phI m bo yu cu v ch tiu kinh t v k thut.
Tuy nhin, thng hai ch tiu ny mang tnh i lp cho nn cn c vo c im ca phn
phi, truyn tI in c xem xt v cc yu t nh hng khc m vic chn dy/cp s
c tin hnh trn c s kinh t hay k thut l chnh. Tuy nhin, d c chn da trn c s
no th cng phi kim tra c s cn li.
Cc phng php chn dy/cp trn c s ch tiu kinh t bao gm:
- Phng php chn dy/cp theo mt dng in kinh t.
- Phng php chn dy/cp theo khi lng kim loi mu cc tiu.
Cc phng php chn dy/cp trn c s ch tiu k thut bao gm:
- Phng php chn dy/cp theo dng in pht nng.
- Phng php chn dy/cp theo iu kin tn tht in p.
Phng php chn dy/cp trn c s ch tiu kinh t v k thut: l phng php mt
dng in J khng i.
a. Xc nh tit din dy dn theo mt dng in kinh t (J
kt
):
i vi ng dy truyn ti v phn phi in p cao, do truyn ti cng sut ln v c
ly truyn ti tng i xa nn vn u t, chi ph vn hnh v tn tht cng sut c ngha
quyt nh. Ngoi ra, do vic m bo tn tht in p trong phm vi cho php c th t c
103

nh cc bin php iu chnh in p cho nn dy dn/cp trong mng truyn tI v phn phi
thng c chn da trn c s m bo chi ph tnh ton hng nm l thp nht.
n gin trong tnh ton tit din dy dn theo iu kin kinh t, thng cn c vo
mt dng in kinh t (J
kt
). Mt dng in kinh t c xc nh nh sau:

kt
lv
kt
F
I
J
max
= T cng thc ny nh s nhm (3.3)
Mt dng in kinh t ph thuc vo vt liu loi dy cp v thi gian s dng cng
sut cc i. C th tham kho J
kt
ca Lin X (c) cho bng 4.1
Bng 4.1: Tra mt J
kt

Loi dy dn
Mt dng in kinh t (J
kt
) ng
vi thi gian T
max
(gi/nm)
Di 3000
3000
5000
Trn
3000
Dy trn v thanh ci bng ng.
Dy trn v thanh ci bng nhm.
Cp cch in bng giy v dy d bc cao su:
- Li ng.
- Li nhm.
Cp ng cch in bng cao su.
2,5
1,3

3,0
1,6
3,5
2,1
1,1

2,5
1,4
3,1
1,8
1,0

2,0
1,2
2,7
Sau khi tra bng tm c J
kt
, tit din kinh t c xc nh theo biu thc:

kt
lv
kt
J
I
F
max
= (3.4)
Vi: I
lvmax
: l dng in lm vic ln nht

U
S
I
lv
. 3
max
= (A)
J
kt
: l mt dng in kinh t (A/mm
2
)
F
kt
: l tit din kinh t (mm
2
)
Chn tit din tiu chun F
tc
gn F
kt
nht.
Sau , cn kim tra iu kin k thut:
- tn tht in p cho php:
AU
max
s AU
cp

- Dng pht nng cho php:
I
lvmax
s kI
cp

Nu iu kin k thut b vi phm th phi tng tit din dy.

b. Xc nh tit din dy dn theo iu kin ph tn kim loi mu b nht (V
min
).
104

i vi mng in cung cp cho cc ph ti phn tn, cng sut nh v thi gian s dng
cng sut cc i thp m mng in nng nghip l mt v d th chi ph u t xy dng
chim t trng ln trong chi ph tnh ton hng nm. Trong trng hp ny, vic chn dy/cp
c tin hnh trn c s cc tiu ha khi lng kim loi mu.
Xt trng hp ng dy cung cp cho 2 ph ti a, b (Hnh 4.6).









Tn tht in p cho php t ngun 0 n im cui b l . Ty chn gi tr x
0
(O/km),
tnh AU v AU:
AU = AU
cp
- AU (3.5)
Trong : AU l thnh phn tn tht in p do cng sut tc dng v in tr gy nn
trn hai on oa v ab.
AU = AU
oa
+ AU
ab
(3.6)
Nu bit AU
oa
v AU
ab
th tit din F
oa
v F
ab
c xc nh theo biu thc:

/
1 1
. .
.
oa dm
oa
U U
l P
F
A
=

(3.7)

) .( .
.
. .
.
/ /
2 2
/
2 2
oa dm ab dm
ab
U U U
l P
U U
l P
F
A A
=
A
=

(3.8)
Khi lng kim loi mu trn ton b ng dy ob l:
V = 3(F
oa
.l
1
+ F
ab
.l
2
).d (3.9)

|
|
.
|

\
|
A
+
A
=
/
2
2 2
/
2
1 1
. .
.
3
ab oa dm
U
l P
U
l P
U
d
V

(3.10)

|
|
.
|

\
|
A A
+
A
=
/ /
2
2 2
/
2
1 1
. .
.
3
oa oa dm
U U
l P
U
l P
U
d

(3.11)
Trong : d l khi lng ring ca kim loi cu to dy dn.
iu kin V min l: 0
/
=
A c
c
oa
U
V

0
. .
.
3
/ /
2
2 2
/
2
1 1
/
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
A A
+
A
=
A c
c
oa oa dm oa
U U
l P
U
l P
U
d
U
V

(3.12)
0
l
1
, r
1
l
2
, r
2

P
1
+jQ
1

r
P
2
+jQ
2

r
P
b
+jQ
b

r
P
a
+jQ
a

r
a b
Hnh 4.6: S mng cung cp in
105


/ /
2
2 2
/
2
1 1
. .
oa oa
U U
l P
U
l P
A A
=
A
(3.13)

2 /
2
2 2
/
2
1 1
. .
ab oa
U
l P
U
l P
A
=
A
(3.14)
Thay
oa dm
oa
F U
l P
U
. .
.
1 1 /

= A v
ab dm
ab
F U
l P
U
. .
.
2 2 /

= A vo biu thc (3.14), ta c:



2
2 2
2
2 2
2
1 1
2
1 1
. .
.
.
. .
.
.
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
ab dm oa dm
F U
l P
l P
F U
l P
l P



2
2
1
2
P
F
P
F
ab oa
=

ab oa
F
P
P
F
2
1
=
V vy, iu kin khi lng kim loi mu ca ng dy nh nht l:
const
F
P
=
1
1

Do: AU = AU
oa
+ AU
ab
=
oa dm
F U
l P
. .
.
1 1

+
ab dm
F U
l P
. .
.
2 2


V:
ab oa
F
P
P
F
2
1
=
Nn:
ab dm
ab dm
F U
l P
F
P
P
U
l P
U
. .
.
. . .
.
2 2
2
1
1 1 /

+ = A

T y, xc nh c tit din F
ab
:
( )
2 2 1 1
/
2
. . .
. .
l P l P
U U
P
F
dm
ab
+
A
=

(3.15)
Tng t, xc nh c tit din F
oa
:
( )
2 2 1 1
/
1
. . .
. .
l P l P
U U
P
F
dm
oa
+
A
=

(3.16)
Trng hp tng qut, tit din on li th i xc nh theo iu kin ph tn kim loi
mu nh nht l:

=
A
=
n
i
i i
dm
i
i
l P
U U
P
F
1
/
. .
. .
(3.17)
Trong :
106

F
i
(mm
2
); P
i
(kW); l
i
(km); (km/Omm
2
); U
m
(kV); AU(V).
Da vo tit din tnh ton, tra bng tm tit din tiu chun. Cui cng kim tra iu
kin tn tht in p v pht nng ca ng dy.
c. Xc nh tit din dy dn theo iu kin tn tht in p cho php.
Ch tiu v cht lng in p lun c quan tm khi nh gi cht lng cung cp
in. Chn dy/cp trn c s m bo in p ca nt ph ti cui ng dy khng thp hn
gi tr in p cho php chnh l mc ch ca phng php chn dy/cp theo iu kin tn
tht in p cho php. Phng php ny thng c p dng cho cc ng dy ti cng sut
nh v hn ch v cc bin php iu chnh in p nh mng phn phi th l mt v d.
Xt mng cung cp in n gin (Hnh 4.7).










* Tng tn tht in p:
Nu ton b ng dy cng chng loi v cng tit din:

dm
n
i
i i
dm
n
i
i i
U
l Q x
U
l P r
U

= =
+ = A
1
0
1
0
. .
(3.18)
Hay:
// / 1
0
1
0
. .
U U
U
L q x
U
L p r
U
dm
n
i
i i
dm
n
i
i i
A + A = + = A

= =
(3.19)
( )

=
+ = A
n
i
i i i i
dm
X Q R P
U
U
1
1
(3.20 )
y:
AU: l thnh phn tn tht in p do cng sut tc dng v in tr ng dy
gy nn.
AU: l thnh phn tn tht in p do cng sut phn khng v in khng ng
dy gy nn.
x
0
, r
0
: ln lt l in tr v in khng trn mt n v chiu di ng dy
(O/km).
P
i
, Q
i
: ln lt l cng sut tc dng v phn khng trn on li th i.
l
i
: l chiu di on li th i.
Hnh 4.7: S cung cp in
0
P
1
+jQ
1

r
p
b
+jq
b

r
p
a
+jq
a

r
a b
l
1
l
2

P
2
+jQ
2

L
1

L
2

107

p
i
, q
i
: ln lt l cng sut tc dng v phn khng ti nt th i.
L
i
,: l khong cch t nt th I n nt ngun.
V gi tr in khng x
0
t thay i theo tit din dy cho nn c th ly gi tr trung bnh
x
0
tnh AU:
i vi ng dy trn khng cao/trung p: x
0
= (0,35 0,42)O/km .
i vi ng dy cp: x
0
= 0,08 O/km .
T gi tr tn tht in p cho php AU
cp
tnh t ngun n ph ti xa nht, tnh c
AU.
AU = AU
cp
- AU
Do:
dm
n
i
i i
U
l P r
U

=
= A
1
0
//

V:
F
r
.
1
0

=
Nn tit din dy dn F xc nh nh sau:

/
1
. .
.
U U
l P
F
dm
n
i
i i
A
=

=

(3.21)
Hay:
/
1
. .
.
U U
L p
F
dm
n
i
i i
A
=

=

(3.22)
Trong :
F: n v l mm
2
. : n v l km/Omm
2
.
P
i
, p
i
: n v l kW. U
m
: n v l kV.
L
i
, l
i
: n v l km. AU: n v l V.
Cn c vo gi tr tit din F tnh ton, tra bng chn tit din dy dn tiu chun gn
nht. Tra gi tr r
0
v x
0
ng vi tit din dy dn chn, tnh li tn tht in p AU theo
biu thc (3.18) hay (3.19) v so snh vi AU
cp
. Nu iu kin tn tht in p cha tha mn
th phI tng tit din dy dn ln mt cp v kim tra li ln na.
d. Xc nh tit din dy dn theo iu kin mt dng in khng i.
Vic chn cng mt tit din cho mt tuyn dy theo phng php tn tht in p cho
php, cho trng hp ph ti tp trung, cng sut truyn ti v thi gian s dng cng sut cc
i kh ln nh mng in khu cng nghip l mt v d, s khng hp l. Khi ny, gim
chi ph u t xy dng mng nhng vn m bo iu kin tn tht in p nm trong phm
vi cho php cn s dng phng php chn dy/cp theo mt dng in khng i.
Xt ng dy c hai ph ti trnh by Hnh 4.8


Hnh 4.8: S mng cung cp in
0
p
2
+jq
2

r
p
1
+jq
1

r
a b
l
1,
F
1
l
2,
F
2

I
1
I
2

108







T AU
cp
= AU + AU, ty chn gi tr x
0
trong gii hn cho php, tnh AU theo biu
thc:

dm
n
i
i i
U
l Q x
U

=
= A
1
0
//

AU = AU
cp
- AU =
F
l I
U F
l P
n
i
i i i
dm
n
i
i i
.
cos 3
. .
1 1


= =
=
Mt khc:

i dm i
U I cos 3 P
i
=

Do : AU = AU
oa
+ AU
ab


2
2 2 2
1
1 1 1
.
cos 3
.
cos 3
F
l I
F
l I



+ =
Trong : cos
1
, cos
2
ln lt l h s cng sut trn on oa v on ob.
Mt dng in khng i c nh ngha l:

2
2
1
1
F
I
F
I
J = =
Do : ( )
2 2 1 1
/
cos cos
3

Jl Jl U + = A
Suy ra:
( )
2 2 1 1
/
cos cos 3
.

l l
U
J
+
A
= (3.23)
Tng qut, vi mng in c n ph tI th mt dng in khng i c xc nh nh
sau:

=
A
=
n
i
i i
l
U
J
1
/
cos . 3
.

(3.24)
Trong :
J (A/mm
2
); (km/Omm
2
); AU (V).
l
i
: l chiu di ca on th i.
cos
i
: l h s cng sut ca on th i.

109

chn mt dng in J hp l c v iu kin k thut v kinh t cn so snh vi
mt dng in kinh t J
kt
.
Nu J < J
kt
, chn J
Nu J > J
kt
, chn J = J
kt

Tit din dy dn cn chn c xc nh theo biu thc:

J
I
F
1
1
= v
J
I
F
2
2
= (3.25)
Cn c vo gi tr tit din F tnh ton, tra bng chn tit din dy dn tiu chun gn
nht v kim tra li tn tht in p. Nu iu kin tn tht in p cha tha mn th phI
tng tit din dy dn ln mt cp v kim tra li ln na.
e. Xc nh tit din dy dn theo iu kin pht nng.
Chn dy/cp theo iu kin pht nng cho php s m bo bn, an ton trong
qu trnh vn hnh v tui th ca dy/cp.
Do thc t, dy/cp c chn la v lp t khc vi cc iu kin nh mc do cc nh
ch to dy/cp qui nh nn dng pht nng cho php nh mc cn phi qui i v dng pht
nng cho php thc t bng cch nhn vi h s hiu chnh k. H s k c xc nh trn c s
loi dy/cp, phng php lp t, nhit mi trng thc t ti ni lp t .

+ H s ny c th tra Bng 4.2
Bng 4.2: Bng tra h s hiu chnh k
u
tc
ca
mi
trng
xung
quanh
(
0
C)
u
cp

ca
dy
(
0
C)
H s k khi nhit ca mI trng xung quanh l
0
C
- 5 0 + 5 +
10
+
15
+
20
+
25
+
30
+
35
+
40
+
45
+
50
15
25
80 1,14
1,24
1,11
1,20
1,08
1,17
1,04
1,13
1,00
1,09
0,96
1,04
0,92
1,00
0,83
0,95
0,83
0,90
0,78
0,85
0,73
0,80
0,68
0,74
25 70 1,29 1,24 1,20 1,15 1,11 1,05 1,00 0,94 0,88 0,81 0,74 0,67
15
25
65 1,18
1,32
1,14
1,27
1,10
1,22
1,05
1,17
1,00
1,12
0,95
1,06
0,89
1,00
0,84
0,94
0,77
0,87
0,71
0,79
0,63
0,71
0,55
0,61
15
25
60 1,20
1,36
1,15
1,31
1,12
1,25
1,06
1,20
1,00
1,13
0,94
1,07
0,88
1,00
0,82
0,93
0,75
0,85
0,67
0,76
0,57
0,66
0,40
0,54

iu kin la chn:
k.I
cp m
> I
lv max
(3.26)
Trong :
110

k: l h s hiu chnh theo cc iu kin lp t v vn hnh thc t.
I
cp m
: l dng in cho php lm vic lu di ca dy dn, do nh sn xut qui nh.
I
lv max
: l dng lm vic ln nht i trong dy/cp.

Chn dy dn/cp trong mng h p:
Cp trong mng h p thng l cp ng hoc nhm c bc cch in bng giy tm
du hoc cao su.
ti in xoay chiu mt pha, in mt chiu thng s dng cp 1, 2 li, thng dng
nht l cp 2 li. Cp 3 li dng ti in xoay chiu 3 pha, cp cho cc ng c hoc ph ti
ba pha i xng. Cp 4 li l cp thng c dng nhiu nht tI in xoay chiu ba pha
n 1kV, cp cho cc ph ti ba pha khng i xng hoc cc ti ng c cn dy trung tnh.
Li th t ca cp ny dng lm dy trung tnh v c tit din nh hn.
Dy dn h p thng dng l dy dng trong nh, c bc cao su cch in hoc nha
cch in PVC. Mt s trng hp dng trong nh l dy trn hoc thanh dn nhng phi c
t trn s cch in.
a. Chng loi cp v dy dn: (xem ph lc)
b. Phng php chn la:
Do mng phn phi h p ti cng sut nh v c ly truyn ti ngn nn ch tiu kinh t
ch ng vai tr quan trng m khng ng vai tr quyt nh nh ch tiu k thut. Ch tiu
k thut cn quan tm khi chn dy/cp bao gm:
o Nhit dy/cp khng c vt qu nhit cho php qui nh bi nh ch to
trong ch vn hnh bnh thng cng nh trong ch vn hnh s c khi xut
hin ngn mch.
o st p khng c vt qu st p cho php.










* Th tc y chn dy/cp trong mng h p nh Hnh 3.9:




Dng lm vic cc i
Dng nh mc CB hay cu ch
I
cp
ca dy m thit b bo v
c kh nng bo v
111








112

b
1
. La chn tit din theo iu kin pht nng:
Dy dn c chn theo iu kin pht nng lu di cho php s m bo cho cch in
ca dy dn khng b ph hng do nhit dy dn t n tr s nguy him cho cch in ca
dy. iu ny c thc hin khi dng in pht nng cho php ca dy/cp phi ln hn
dng in lm vic lu di cc i chy trong dy dn.
Kch c ca dy pha c lin h trc tip ti m ch ci (th hin cch lp t) v h
s k.
Xc nh m ch ci :
Cc ch ci (B ti F) ph thuc vo dng ca dy v cch lp t n. C nhiu cch
lp t, song nhng cch ging nhau s c gom nhm li v c chia lm 4 loi theo cc
iu kin mi trng xung quanh.
Bng 4.3: M ch ci ph thuc vo dng dy v cch lp t:
Dng ca dy Cch lp t Ch ci
Dy 1 li v
nhiu li

- Di lp np c, c th ly ra c hoc khng, b mt
lp va hoc np bng.
- Di sn nh hoc sau trn gi.
- Trong rnh hoc vn lt chn tng.
B
- Khung treo c b mt tip xc vi tng hoc trn.
- Trn nhng khay cp khng c l.
C
Cp c nhiu
li
- Thang cp, khay c c l hoc trn congxom .
- Treo trn tm nm.
- C mc xch ni tip nhau.
E
Cp 1 li


F

+ Xc nh tit din dy/cp khng chn di t:
Theo iu kin lp t thc t, dng pht nng cho php ca dy/cp khng chn ngm
di t phi hiu chnh theo h s k bao gm cc h s thnh phn:
- H s k
1
xt n nh hng ca cch lp t (Bng 4.4).
- H s k
2
xt n s mch dy/cp trong mt hng n (Bng 4.5).
- H s k
3
xt n nhit mI trng khc 30
0
C (Bng 4.6)
k= k
1
.k
2
.k
3
(3.27)
Bng 4.4: H s hiu chnh k
1
theo cch lp t
M ch Cch lp t H s k
1

B Cp t thng trong vt liu cch in chu nhit 0.70
ng dy t trong vt liu cch in chu nhit 0.77
Cp a li 0.90
Hm v mng cp kn 0.95
C Cp treo trn trn nh 0.95
113

B,C,E,F Cc trng hp khc 1.00
Bng 4.5: H s k
2
theo s mch cp t trn mt hng n.
M
ch
ci
Cch t
gn nhau
H s k
2
S lng mch hoc cp a li
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 12 16 20
B,C
Lp hoc chn
trong tng
1.00
0.8
0
0.7
0
0.6
5
0.6
0
0.5
7
0.5
4
0.5
2
0.5
0
0.4
5
0.4
1
0.3
8
C
Hng n trn
tng hoc
nn nh, hoc
trn khay cp
khng c l

1

0.8
5

0.7
9

0.7
5

0.7
3

0.7
2

0.7
2

0.7
1

0.7

0.7

Hng n trn
trn
0.95
0.8
1
0.7
2
0.6
8
0.6
6
0.6
4
0.6
3
0.6
2
0.6
1
0.6
1

E, F
Hng n nm
ngang hoc trn
mng ng

1

0.8
8

0.8
2

0.7
7

0.7
5

0.7
3

0.7
3

0.7
2

0.7
2

0.7
2


Hng n trn
thang cp,
cng xom
1
0.8
7
0.8
2
0.8 0.8
0.7
9
0.7
9
0.7
8
0.7
8
0.7
8

Khi s hng cp nhiu hn mt, k
2
cn nhn vi cc h s sau:
- Nu cp c t theo 2 hng: k
2
c nhn vi 0.8
- Nu cp c t theo 3 hng: k
2
c nhn vi 0.73
- Nu cp c t theo 4 hng hoc 5 hng: k
2
c nhn vi 0.7
Bng 4.6: H s k
3
cho nhit mi trng khc 30
0
C
Nhit
mi trng
Cch in
Cao su
(cht do)
PVC
Butyl polyethylene (XLPE), cao su
c ethylene propylene (EPR)
10
15
20
25
1.29
1.22
1.15
1.07
1.22
1.17
1.12
1.07
1.15
1.12
1.08
1.04
30
35
40
45
1.00
0.93
0.82
0.71
1.00
0.93
0.87
0.79
1.00
0.96
0.91
0.87
50
55
60
0.58
-
-
0.71
0.61
0.50
0.82
0.76
0.71
114

65
70
75
80
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
0.65
0.58
-
-

+ Xc nh tit din dy/cp chn ngm di t:
Theo iu kin lp t thc t, dng pht nng cho php ca dy/cp chn ngm di
t phi hiu chnh theo h s k bao gm cc h s thnh phn:
- H s k
4
xt n nh hng ca cch lp t (Bng 4.7).
- H s k
5
xt n s mch dy/cp trong mt hng n (Bng 4.8).
- H s k
6
xt n tnh cht ca t (Bng 4.9)
- H s k
7
xt n nhit t khc 20
0
C (Bng 4.10)
k= k
4
.k
5
.k
6
.k
7
(3.28)
Bng 4.7: H s k
4
theo cch lp t.

Cch lp t H s k
4

t trong ng bng t nung, ng ngm hoc rnh
c
0.8
Trng hp khc 1.0
Bng 4.8: H s k
5
cho s dy trong hng.
nh v dy
H s k
5

S mch hoc cp nhiu li
t k nhau 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 12 16 20
Chn ngm 1.00
0.8
0
0.7
0
0.6
5
0.6
0
0.5
7
0.5
4
0.5
2
0.5
0
0.4
5
0.4
1
0.3
8
Khi s hng cp nhiu hn mt, k
5
cn nhn vi cc h s sau:
+ Nu cp c t theo 2 hng: k
5
c nhn vi 0.8
+ Nu cp c t theo 3 hng: k
5
c nhn vi 0.73
+ Nu cp c t theo 4 hng: k
5
c nhn vi 0.7
Bng 4.9: H s k
6
theo s nh hng ca t
Tnh cht ca
t
H s k
6

Rt t (bo ha) 1.21
t 1.13
m 1.05
Kh 1
Rt kh 0.86
Bng 4.10: H s k
7
ph thuc vo nhit t.
Nhit t
0
C
Cch in
PVC XLPE, EPR (cao su
115

ethylene-propylene)
10
15
20
25
1.10
1.05
1.00
0.95
1.07
1.04
1.00
0.96
30
35
40
45
0.89
0.84
0.77
0.71
0.93
0.89
0.85
0.80
50
55
60
0.63
0.55
0.45
0.76
0.71
0.65

b
2
. La chn tit din dy dn kt hp vi chn thit b bo v:
Trong mng h p, thng s dng ptmt (CB) hay cu ch bo v qu tI thit b
tiu th in v y dn/cp. Do , vic chn dy/cp trong mng h p lin quan cht ch
vi vic chn thit b bo v.
+ Chn tit din dy dn kt hp vi chn CB:
Khi tnh ton c dng in lm vic cc i ca ph ti I
B
, chn CB c dng nh mc
I
n
tha iu kin:
I
n
> I
B
(3.29)
T , chn dng pht nng cho php I
cp
ca dy/cp m CB c kh nng bo v.
I
cp
= I
n
(3.30)
T iu kin lp t thc t ca dy/cp tm c h s hiu chnh k. T y, xc nh
dng pht nng cho php tnh ton I
cptt
:

k
I
I
cp
cptt
> (3.31)
Chn loi dy/cp v tit din ph hp c dng pht nng nh mc (I
cpm
) tha iu
kin:
I
cpm
> I
cptt
(3.32)
Sau tnh st p AU v kim tra iu kin st p cho php:
AU s AU
cp
(3.33)
Nu iu kin st p cho php khng tha, cn tng tit din dy ln v kim tra li st
p.
Nu tha iu kin st p cho php th tip tc kim tra n nh nhit khi xut hin ngn
mch:
F

> F
nh
(3.34)
116

Nu iu kin n nh nhit khi xut hin ngn mch khng tha, cn tng tit din dy
ln cho n khi iu kin n nh nhit c m bo v kt thc qu trnh chn dy/cp kt
hp vi CB.
+ Chn tit din dy dn kt hp vi chn cu ch:
Khi tnh ton c dng in lm vic cc i ca ph tI I
B
, chn dng tc ng ca
dy chy cu ch I
dc
tha iu kin:
I
dc
> I
B
(3.35)
Sau , chn dng pht nng cho php I
cp
ca dy/cp m cu ch c kh nng bo v:
I
cp
= 1,31I
n
nu I
n
s 10A
I
cp
= 1,21I
n
nu 10A < I
n
s 25A
I
cp
= 1,1I
n
nu I
n
> 25A
Cc bc xc nh h s hiu chnh k, dng cho php tnh ton I
cptt
, dng pht nng nh
mc I
cpm
, chn tit din dy/cp, kim tra iu kin st p cho php v iu kin n nh nhit
khi xut hin ngn mch tng t nh trn.


b
3
. Kim tra iu kin tn tht in p v n nh nhit:
+ Kim tra theo iu kin tn tht in p:
i vi mng h p, do trc tip cung cp in cho ph ti nn vn m bo in p
rt quan trng. V vy, thng phi kim tra iu kin tn tht in p cho php.
Cng thc xc nh tn tht in p trn ng dy/cp nh bng 3.12
Bng 4.11: H s k
7
ph thuc vo nhit t.
Mch
St p AU
AU AU%
1 pha: pha/pha AU = 2.I
B
.( r
0
.cos + x
0
.sin)L
dm
U
U A 100

1 pha: pha/trung tnh AU = 2.I
B
.( r
0
.cos + x
0
.sin)L
3 pha cn bng: 3 pha (c
hoc khng c trung tnh)
AU = 3 .I
B
.( r
0
.cos +
x
0
.sin)L

Trong :
I
B
: l dng lm vic ln nht (A).
r
0
: l in tr ca dy dn trn mt n v chiu di (O/km)
x
0
: l cm khng ca dy d trn mt n v chiu di (O/km)
L: l chiu di ng dy (km)
: l gc pha gia in p v dng in trong dy.
U
m
: l in p dy nh mc (V).
r
0
v x
0
c xc nh vi cc lu sau:
- Vi dy ng:
117

r
0
=
22,5O (mm
2
/km)
F (tit din dy mm
2
)
- Vi dy nhm:
r
0
=
36O (mm
2
/km)
F (tit din dy mm
2
)

- r
0
c b qua khi dy dn c tit din ln hn 55mm
2

- x
0
c b qua khi dy dn c tit din nh hn 50mm
2

- Nu khng c thng tin no khc chn x
0
= 0,08 O/km
cos c chn nh sau:
- i vi ph ti chiu sng: cos = 0,6 1
- i vi ph ti l ng c:
+ Khi khi ng: cos = 0,35
+ ch bnh thng: cos = 0,8
Trong thc t, n gin trong tnh ton tn tht in p c th p dng cng thc sau:
AU = V
d
.I.L (3.36)
Vi:
V
d
: l in p ri trn mt n v chiu di ng dy (V/A.km).
I: l dng in ph ti (A).
L: l chiu di ca dy dn (km).
Khi nh ch to dy/cp cho trc gi tr V
d
th c th xc nh tit din dy dn m
bo tn tht in p qua bng tra.
iu kin kim tra tn tht in p cho php:
AU
max
% s AU
cp
%
Trong :
AU
cp
%: l tn tht in p cho php ( 5% hoc 2,5% ty loi ph ti).
AU
max
%: l tn tht in p ln nht trong mng.
Nu trong mng c nhiu on, nhiu nhnh th phI tm im no c tn tht in p
ln nht AU
max
% so snh.

+ Kim tra theo iu kin ngn mch:
Khi cha mng ti, nhit trong dy dn bng vi nhit mi trng. Khi ngn
mch, nhit lng trong dy dn s sinh ra rt ln v ta vo lp cch in. Nu cc thit b
bo v khng c lp s c kp thi s dn ti cch in dy dn b ph hy.
Cn phi kim tra kh nng chu nhit ca dy/cp khi xut hin ngn mch theo biu
thc:

2 2
. F K t I
cd N
s
118

Hay:
cd
N
K
t I
F
.
>
Trong :
t: l thi gian tn ti dng ngn mch (s)
I
N
: l dng in ngn mch (A)
F: l tit din ca dy/cp (mm
2
)
K
c
: l hng s c trng cho loi cch in (A
2
.s/mm
4
)
Gi tr K
c
c tra trong bng 3.13.

Bng 4.12: Nhit cho php ca cp
theo loi cch in v hng s K
c

Cch in
Nhit cc i (
0
C) Hng s K
c

Ch xc lp Ch kt thc ngn mch ng Nhm
PVC 70 160 115 76
Cao su tng
hp
85 135 135 90
PR, XLPE 90 143 143 94
Chn dy trung tnh:
Dng chy trong dy trung tnh c th coi nh bng 0. Tuy nhin li 3 pha i nui cc
cn h lun c dng chy trong dy trung tnh. S pht trin ca cc thit b bin i cng sut
trong cc mng li in cng nghip s to cc sng hi. Cc hi bi ba chy trong dy trung
tnh c khuch i ln ba ln, c th vt qu gi tr cho php. Do , cn c bit lu vn
ny.
Tit din dy trung tnh c th nh hn dy pha. Khi y cn lu kh nng t thit b
bo v dy trung tnh nu n khng m nhn chc nng ca dy bo v.
Tiu chun IEC 346-5.5.2 qui nh v cch chn dy trung tnh:
Dy ng: F
pha
s16mm
2
: F
N
= F
pha

F
pha
> 16mm
2
: F
N
s F
pha

Dy nhm: F
pha
s 25mm
2
: F
N
= F
pha

F
pha
> 25mm
2
: F
N
s F
pha

Trong trng hp F
pha
>16mm
2
(i vi dy ng) v F
pha
> 25mm
2
(i vi dy nhm)
c th chn F
N
= 0.5S
pha
, nhng lu l dy trung tnh phi c bo v thch hp.
Gi tr F
N
c tra trong bng 4.14.
Bng 4.13: Bng tra chn dy trung tnh
Tit din dy dn
pha (mm
2
)
S < 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 240 300
Tit din ti S < 25 25 25 35 50 70 70 95 120 150
119

thiu ca dy
trung tnh (mm
2
)
(35) (35)
(35) l tit din ca dy trung tnh li bng nhm

Hot ng ii: t hc v n tp
- Ti liu tham kho cho bi ny:
- Nguyn Xun Ph, Nguyn Cng Hin, Nguyn Bi Khu: Cung cp in -
NXB Khoa hc v K thut, H Ni, 1998.
- Nguyn Cng Hin, ng Ngc Dinh, Nguyn Hu Khi, Phan ng Khi,
Nguyn Thnh: Cung cp in, NXB i hc v Trung hc Chuyn nghip, H Ni, 1984.
- Quyn Huy nh: Cung cp in, Trng i hc S phm K thut TP. H Ch
Minh, 2006.
- Trnh Hng Thm, o Quang Thch, o Kim Hoa: Nh my in v Trm
bin p, NXB Khoa hc v K thut, H Ni, 1996.
- Cc Catalog cho hng ca ABB, Cng ty thit b in ng Anh v cc hng ca
Nht, Php, M, c,...
- Cung cp in cho x nghip cng nghip, NXB Khoa hc v K thut, H Ni,
1974.
- Cung cp in, V Trung hc Chuyn nghip v Dy ngh, NXB Gio dc, H
Ni, 2005.
- Cung cp in, D n JICA-HIC, Ban iu khin in, 2003.
- Tr li cc cu hi sau y:
4.1. Nhng yu t no nh hng n vic chn dung lng my bin p.
4.2. Phn tch nhng s trm bin p thng gp

- Lm bi tp:
4.3: Xc nh dung lng ca mt trm bin p phn xng, bit rng n cung cp cho mt
phn xng c cng sut 540 kVA.
Ngoi ra cung cp in lin tc cho mt xng ln cn ngi ta t mt ng dy lin
lc, ph ti loi 1 ca phn xng ln cn l 140kVA. Hy chn dung lng trm bin p cho
thch hp.


120



Bi 5
chng st v ni t
M bi : CIE 01 19 05

Gii thiu :
H thng cung cp in lm nhim v truyn ti v phn phi in nng n cc h dng
in. Do vy c im quan trng ca n l phn b trn in tch rng v thng xuyn c
ngi lm vic vi cc thit b in. Cch in ca cc thit b in b chc thng, ngi vn
hnh khng tun theo cc nguyn tc an ton.v.vl nhng nguyn nhn chnh dn n tai
nn in git. St nh trc tip hoc gin tip vo thit b in khng nhng lm h hng cc
thit b in m cn gy nguy him cho ngi vn hnh. Do , trong h thng cung cp in,
nht thit phi c bin php an ton chng in git v chng st. Mt trong nhng bin php
an ton c hiu qu v tng i n gin l thc hin vic ni t cho thit b in v t cc
thit b chng st.
S an ton cho ngi v thit b l rt quan trng, do vic nm bt, vn dng v khai
thc chnh xc cc kin thc thc hin tt vic ni t cho thit b in v t cc thit b
chng st l yu cu c bn mang tnh bt buc i vi ngi th cng nh cn b k thut
cng tc trong ngnh in.

Mc tiu thc hin:
Hc xong bi ny, hc vin c nng lc:
- Tnh ton ni t v thit b chng st cho trm bin p, cho cng trnh, nh v cho
ng dy ti in, ph hp vi iu kin lm vic, mc ch s dng, theo tiu chun in
(TCVN).

Ni dung chnh:
thc hin nc tiu bi hc, ni dung bao gm:
5.1 S Hnh thnh st v cc thng s ca st.
5.2 Bo v chng st nh trc tip.
5.3 Bo v chng st ng dy ti in.
5.4 Bo v chng st t ng dy truyn vo trm.
5.5 Mt s v d bo v chng st cho cc cng trnh.
5.6 Ni t.
5.7 Tnh ton trang b ni t.
5.8 V d.

Cc Hnh thc hc tp:
Hnh thc nghe ging trn lp c tho lun
Hnh thc t hc v n tp.
121

Hnh thc thc hnh ti xng trng
Hot ng I: nghe ging trn lp c tho lun

CHNG ST V NI T
5.1. S Hnh thnh st v tc hi ca st.
5.1.1. S Hnh thnh st.
St l s phng in trong kh quyn gia cc m my v t, hay gia cc m my
mang in tch tri du. Trc khi c s phng in ca st c s phn chia v tch lu rt
mnh in tch trong cc m my ging do tc dng ca cc lung khng kh nng bc ln v
hi nc ngng t trong cc m my. Cc m my mang in tch l do kt qu ca vic
phn tch cc in tch tri du v tp trung chng li trong cc phn khc nhau ca m my.
Phn di ca cc m my ging thng tch in tch m. Cc m my cng vi t
Hnh thnh cc t in my t. pha trn ca cc m my thng tch in tch dng.
Cng in trng ca t in my t tng dn ln v nu ti ch cng t ti
tr s ti hn 25-30 kV/cm th khng kh b ion ha v bt u tr nn dn in.
S phng in chia thnh ba giai on. Phng in gia cc m my v t c bt u
bng s xut hin mt dng sng pht trin xung t, chuyn ng tng t vi tc 100 -
1000 km/s. Dng ny mang phn ln in tch ca m my, to nn u cc ca n mt
in th rt cao hng trin vn. Giai on ny gi l giai on phng tia tin o tng bc. Khi
dng tin o va pht trin n t v cc vt dn in vi t th giai on th hai bt u,
l giai on phng in ch yu ca st. Trong giai on ny, cc in tch dng ca t
di chuyn c hng t t theo dng tin o vi tc ln (6.10
4
-10
5
km/s) chy ln v trung
ho vi in tch m ca dng tin o.
S phng in c c trng bi dng in ln qua ch st nh gi l dng in st v
s le mnh lit ca dng phng in. Khng kh trong dng phng in c nung nng n
nhit khong 10.000
0
C v gin n rt nhanh to thnh sng m thanh.
giai on phng in th ba ca st s kt thc s di chuyn cc in tch ca my m
t bt u phng in, s lo sng bt u bin mt.
Thng phng in st gm mt lot phng in k tip nhau do s dch chuyn in tch
t cc phn khc nhau ca m my. Tin o ca nhng phn phng in sau i theo dng
b ion ho ban u, v vy chng pht trin lin tc v c gi l tin o dng mi tn.
5.1.2. Tc hi ca st.
i vi ngi v sc vt, st nguy hin trc ht nh mt ngun in p cao c dng ln.
Nh chng ta bit, ch cn dng nh khong vi chc milli ampere cng c th lm cht
ngi. V th, rt d hiu ti sao khi b st nh trc tip ngi thng b cht ngay.
Nhiu khi st khng phng in trc tip cng gy nguy him. L do l dng in st i
qua mt vt ni t, n gy nn mt s chnh lch th kh ln ti nhng vng gn nhau, hay
122

ni mt cch khc l c gradient. Nu ngi hoc gia sc ng tr ma di cc cy cao
ngai ng khi c dng, nu cy b st nh, c th in p bc s gy nguy him.
Dng st gy nhit rt ln, khi phng vo cc vt d chy nh mi nh tranh, g kh,
n c th gy ra nhng m chy ln, im ny cn c bit ch i vi vic bo v cc kho
nhin liu v cc vt d chy n.
St cn ph hy v mt c hc. c nhiu trng hp cc thp cao, cy ci b n tung
v khi dng st i qua nung nng phn li, hi nc bc ra qu nhanh v ph v thn cy.
Rt ng ch ti in p c th cm ng cc vt dn hoc cc dy di to thnh nhng
mch vng h cm ng in t khi c phng in st gn. in p cm ng c th ln ti
hng chc kilovolt v rt nguy him.
Tm li, st c th gy nguy him trc tip v gin tip, do cn phi c nhng bin
php bo v thch hp.

5.2. Bo v chng st nh trc tip.
5.2.1. Khi qut v bo v chng st.
a. Khi nim.
Nhng nguyn tc bo v thit b in nh ct thu li hu nh khng thay i t
nhng nm 1750 khi Franklin kin ngh thc hin bng mt ct cao c nh nhn bng kim
loi c ni n h thng ni t. Trong qu trnh thc hin, ngi ta nghin cu v a
n nhng kin thc kh chnh xc v hng nh trc tip ca st, vng bo v ca ct thu
st v thc hin h thng ni t.
Khi c mt m my tch in tch m i qua nh ca mt ct thu li, nh cm ng tnh
in th nh ca ct thu li s np in tch dng. V nh ca thu li nhn nn cng
in trng trong m my kh ln. iu ny s to nn d dng mt knh phng in t u
ct thu li n m my tch in tch m, do vy s c dng in phng t m my xung
t.
St nh theo qui lut xc sut, v chu nh hng ca nhiu yu t. Do vy, vic xc
nh chnh xc khu vc hng nh ca st l rt kh v khng th m bo xc sut 100%
hng ca st n thu li chng st.
Nhng nghin cu t m v chng st cho thy rng iu quan trng l chiu cao ca ct
thu li chng st v h thng ni t m bo.
b. Cc qui nh chung v thit b chng st.
- Kim thu st: c th bng thp trn, thp dp, thp ng hoc thp gc vi tit din phn
kim loi ca nh kim khng c nh hn 100mm
2
(nu l thp dp, b dy khng c nh
hn 3,5mm; nu l thp ng, b dy thp ng khng c nh hn 3mm) v chiu di hiu
dng khng c nh hn 200mm. Nu kim thu st t ti nhng ni d n mn, tit din nh
123

kim khng c nh hn 150mm
2
(nu thp dt, b dy khng nh hn 4mm; nu l thp ng,
b dy thnh ng khng c nh hn 3,5mm). nh ca kim thu st khng cn vut nhn,
nu kim thu st l ng, phi hn kn nh kim li.
- Dy thu st: Dy thu st phi lm bng thp, tit in khng c nh hn 50mm
2

cng nh khng ln hn 75mm
2
v phi c sn dn in. Nu dy thu st t ti nhng ni
d b n mn phi tng tit in ln 75mm
2
. Dy thu st bo v cho nhng cng trnh nh,
chiu di khng c qu 50m, c php s dng loi c tit din bng 35mm
2
. C nh dy
thu st trn nhng kt cu chu lc phi c kp ni c bit, m bo chc chn v c hc v
tip xc tt.
- ai v li thu st: ai v li thu st dng chng st nh thng c th lm bng
thp trn hoc thp dt tit din khng c nh hn 50mm
2
, b thp dt khng c nh hn
3mm, v phi sn dn in. Nu t ti nhng ni d n mn, tit din khng c nh hn
75mm
2
, b dy khng nh hn 3,5mm.
- Dy xung, dy ni, cu ni: Dy xung c th lm bng thp trn hoc thp dt, tit
din khng nh hn 35mm
2
v b dy thp khng nh hn 3mm. Nu t b phn thu st n
b phn ni t ch t mt dy xung, tit din ca dy xung ny khng c nh hn
50mm
2
.
- B phn ni t chng st: B phn ni t chng st c th lm bng thp trn, thp
dt, thp gc hoc thp ng vi tit din phn kim loi khng nh hn 100mm
2
(b dy thp
dt, thp gc khng nh hn 4mm v b dy thp ng khng nh hn 3,5mm).
c. Cc cp chng st:
Ty theo chc nng s dng, cc cng trnh xy dng c chng st theo s phn cp
nh sau:
+ Cp I: Nhng cng trnh, trong c ta ra cc cht kh v hi d chy, cng nh ct
bi hoc cc cht oxy ho khc to thnh cc hn hp n, c th xy ra ngay trong iu kin
lm vic bnh thng k c xy ra trong iu kin bnh thng ngn hn.
+ Cp II: Nhng cng trnh trong c ta ra cc cht kh, hi, bi hoc si chy v c
kh nng kt hp vi khng kh hoc cc cht oxy ho khc to thnh cc hn hp n. Nhng
kh nng ny ch xy ra khi c s c hoc lm sai qui tc, khng th xy ra trong iu kin
bnh thng. Khi xy ra n ch gy ra nhng h hng nh v khng lm cht ngi.
+ Cp III: Tt c nhng cng trnh cn li.
d. Cch thc bo v:
+ Theo phng thc bo v trng im: Ch nhng b phn thng hay b st nh mi
phi bo v. i vi cng trnh mi bng, trng im bo v l bn gc, xung quanh tng
chn mi v cc kt cu nh cao khi mt mi. i vi cc cng trnh mi dc, trng im l
cc nh hi, b nc, b chy, cc gc dim mi v cc kt cu nh cao khi mt mi (nu
cng trnh ln th thm c xung quanh dim mi). Bo v cho nhng trng im nh trn c
124

th t cc kim thu st ngn (0,2 0,3)m cch nhau khong (5 6)m ti nhng trng im bo
v hoc nhng ai thu st dim ln nhng trng im bo v .
+ Bo v chng st theo nguyn tc ton b: Theo phng thc bo v ton b th ton
b cng trnh u nm trong phm vi bo v ca ct thu st.
+ Bo v chng st cm ng: chng st cm ng tnh in, tt c cc b phn kt
cu kim loi v cc my mc ln c trong cng trnh phi ni vi mt b phn ni t chng
cm ng st hay ni vi b phn ni t bo v thit b in.
e. Phm vi bo v:
Trn c s nghin cu cc m hnh, ngi ta c th xc nh vng bo v ca ct thu li.
Khong khng gian gn ct thu li m vt c bo v c t trong , rt t kh nng b st
nh, gi l vng hay phm vi bo v ca ct thu li.
+ Mt ct thu li: Phm vi bo v ca mt ct thu li l Hnh nn cong trn xoay c tit
din ngang l nhng Hnh trn, cao h
x
c bn knh R
x
(Hnh 5.1b). Tr s bn knh bo v
R
x
c xc nh nh sau:
- Cch 1: cao h
x
<
3
2
h th: .P
0,8h
h
- 1 1,5h. = R
x
x
|
.
|

\
|
(5.1)
cao h
x
>
3
2
h th: .P
h
h
- 1 0,75h. = R
x
x
|
.
|

\
|
(5.2)
- Cch 2: (da vo Hnh 5.1c)

|
.
|

\
|
+
h
h
1
.P 1,6h
= R
x
a
x
(5.3)
Trong :
h
x
: chiu cao ca i tng c bo v nm trong vng bo v ca ct thu li
h
a
: chiu cao hiu dng ca ct thu li
h
a
= h - h
x

P: l h s, vi h s 30m th P = 1
vi h > 30m th P =
h
5 , 5

+ Hai ct thu li:
Hnh 5.2 cho phm vi bo v ca hai ct thu li
R
x
c xc nh nh mt ct thu li.
b
x
l b ngang hp nht ca cao bo v cao h
x

125

2b
x
= 4R
x

a h
a h
a
a

14
7
(5.4)
Trong :
a: l khong cch gia hai ct thu li, n v tnh |m|
h
a
: l chiu cao hiu dng ca ct thu li, n v tnh |m|


126

127

B ngang hp nht ca phm vi bo v ca ct thu li B
x
cao h
x
c th c xc
nh theo ng cong Hnh 5.3. i vi nhng ct thu li cao n 30m th t l a/h
a
nm trong
gii hn 0 7.
Hai ct thu li ch c tc dng tng h ln nhau nu a/h
a
s 7.
Mun xc nh b ngang hp nht b
x
ngi ta xc nh t l a/h
a
.
Gi thit ta c: a/h
a
= 3, sau ta hy tm t l h
x
/h. V d trong trng hp ny t l
h
x
/h = 0,3, tc l h
x
= 0,3h. Hnh 5.3a, t im c gi tr 3 trc honh (a/h
a
), ta dng theo
mt ng song song vi trc tung c ng cong h
x
= 0,3h ti mt im, im ny c gi tr
b
x
/h
a
= 0,9.
Sau tm b ngang hp nht 2bx chiu cao h
x
l :
2b
x
= 0,9 . 2h
a

Khi tnh ton t l a/h
a
= 5 7, ngi ta s dng wongf cong Hnh 3.5b.









Nu c mt thu li cao hn mt ct thu li kia th phn cao hn ca n coi nh mt ct
thu li n v xc nh nh Hnh 5.4.


Hnh 5.4: Phm vi bo v ca hai ct thu lI c cao khng bng nhau
Hnh 5.3: ng cong xc nh b
x
ca hai ct thu li
a) b)
128

Trng hp trm t nhiu ct thu li (Hnh 5.5) th cc phn ngoi ca khu vc bo v
cng c tnh nh cng thc nu trn, vt c cao h
x
nm trong trm s c bo v nu
tho iu kin sau:
D s 8 (h-h
x
) vi h s 30m (5.5)
D s 8 (h-h
x
)P vi h > 30m (5.6)

Hnh 5.5: Phm vi bo v ca ba v bn ct thu li
V d 5.1: Hy tnh ton vng bo v ca hai ct thu li c chiu cao h =10m, khi
khong cch gia cc ct thu li a = 8m; Trang thit b c bo v c chiu cao h
x
= 8m v
hai cnh cd = 7 x 2m. V tr tng i ca thit b v hai ct thu li c gii thiu Hnh 5.6.

Hnh 5.6: hnh v d 1-Tnh ton vng bo v ca hai ct thu li
129

Bi gii:
Chiu cao tc dng ca ct thu li.
h
a
=h h
x
= 10 8 = 2m.
Bn knh bo v R
x
, vi P = 1, theo cng thc (5.3):
m m 8 , 1 77 , 1
10
8
1
1,6.2
h
h
1
.P 1,6h
= R
x
a
x
~ =
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
|
.
|

\
|
+

Xc nh c 4
2
8
h
a
a
= = ; 8 , 0
10
8
= =
h
h
x

Trn ng cong Hnh 5.3a, ta tm c: 58 , 0
h
b
a
x
=
Do : b
x
= 58.h
a
= 0,58 . 2 = 1,16m.

Nu ta tm c b
x
theo cng thc 5.4 khi c R
x
= 1,8m th:
m
a h
a h
R b
a
a
x x
08 , 1
8 2 . 14
8 2 . 7
8 , 1 . 2
14
7
2 =

=
R rng, nu ta tm b
x
theo cng thc (5 .4 ) v tm b
x
theo cch tra ng cong Hnh 5.3a
th kt qu c th coi l tng t ging nhau (sai s khng ng k do tra t ng cong

5.3a).

V d 5.2: Yu cu xy dng vng bo v ca h hai ct thu li cao h
x
= 6,4 m
(bng cao ca ta nh).
Chiu cao ca ct thu li l 18m. Khong cch gia cc ct thu li a = 40m (Hnh 5.7).


5.7










Hnh 5.7: Hnh v d 2- Bo v ta nh bng h hai ct thu li
1. Vng bo v cao 6,4m
1
130

Bi gii:
Chiu cao hiu dng ca ct thu li:
h
a
= h h
x
= 18 - 6,4 = 11,6m
Bn knh R
x
ca vng bo v co h
x
:
13,7m
18
6,4
1
1,6
11,6
h
h
1
1,6
h R
x
a x
=
+
=
+
=
B ngang hp nht ca phm vi bo v cao h
x
:
m
a h
a h
R b
a
a
x x
4 , 18
40 6 , 11 . 14
40 6 , 11 . 7
7 , 13 . 4
14
7
4 2 =

=
Theo cc s liu tnh ton trn, ta s v c mt ct ca vng bo m nh Hnh 5.7.

f. in tr ni t ca h thng chng st.
bo v i vi qu in p ca st, ngi ta quan tm n in tr tn ca h thng
ni t c dng in st i xung. in tr ny l in tr xung k hiu: Rx. Rx c xc nh
theo t l bin in th ca h thng ni t chng st v bin ca dng in st i vo
h thng ni t. Ga tr ca in tr xung khc vi gi tr ca in tr ca h thng ni t
thng thng dng cho bo v an ton. S khc nhau l do mt dng in chy qua h
thng ni t trong thi gian st nh s rt ln v tnh cht xung ca dng in ny. in tr
xung ca mt in cc c xc nh thng qua h s xung ca h thng ni t o .
R
x
=o .R (5.7)
y R l gi tr ca in tr tnh ton hay o lng trong ch tnh ti. Vic tnh ton
h thng ni t trong ch qu l rt kh khn v i hi s dng nhiu phn t gn
ng. Gi tr ca h s xung ty loi v chiu di ca in cc ni t, ty thuc vo dng
in xung chy trong h thng ni t, ng thi ph thuc vo in tr sut ca t.
Gi tr gn ng ca h s xung o i vi cc ni t ng thng ng khi xung c
phn u sng 3 6 gy:

Bng 5.1:
in tr sut
ca t Ocm
I (kA)
5 10 20 40
10
4

5.10
4

10
5

0,85 0,90
0,6 0,70
0,45 0,55
0,75 0,85
0,50 0,60
0,35 0,45
0,60 0,75
0,35 0,45
0,25 0,30
0,50 0,60
0,25 0,30


Gi tr gn ng ca h s xung o i vi cc in cc nm ngang khi sng xung c
phn u sng 3-6 gy:



131


Bng 5.2:
in tr
sut ca t
Ocm
L(m)
I,(kA)
10 20 80
1 2 3 4 5
10
4
5
10
20
5
10

0,75
1,00
1,15
0,55
0,75

0,65
0,90
1,05
0,45
0,60

0,50
0,80
0,95
0,30
0,45
5.10
4
10
20
0,90
1,00
0,75
0,90
0,60
0,80
10
5
10
20
40
60
0,55
0,75
0,95
1,15
0,45
0,60
0,85
1,10
0,35
0,50
0,75
0,95
2.10
5
20
40
60
80
100
0,60
0,75
0,90
1,05
1,20
0,50
0,65
0,80
0,95
1,10
0,40
0,55
0,75
0,90
1,05

5.2.2. Nhng quy nh chung v bo v chng st:
a. Phng thc chng st:
Cc cng trnh xy dng cn phi s dng cc phng thc chng st nh sau:
+ i vi cng trnh cp I v II nht thit phi s dng phng thc bo v ton b
+ i vi cng trnh cp III, nu l nhng cng trnh c mt vi phng c nguy c n
chy, hoc nhng cng trnh thng xuyn tp trung ng ngi cn phi s dng phng thc
bo v ton b. Nu l cng trnh khng c cc phng c nguy c chy n, v tp trung ng
ngi th s dng phng thc bo v trng im.
b. B phn thu st:
B phn thu st c th s dng Hnh thc kim, dy, ai hoc li thu st. Phi cn c vo
cc c im c th ca mi cng trnh thit k cho ph hp vi yu cu v mt bo v,
cng nh nhng yu cu v kinh t, k thut:
+ Chng st nh thng cho cng trnh Cp I nht thit phi b tr kim, dy thu st t
c lp hoc cc b phn thu st khc t trc tip nhng phi cch li vi cng trnh qua cc
loi vt liu khng dn in.Cc b phn thu st ni trn phi m bo c phm vi cn bo
v.
+ i vi cc cng trnh Cp II, c th b tr chng st c lp, cch ly hoc t trc tip
ln cng trnh. Cn phi tnh ton v so snh v kinh t k thut chn phng n hp l nht:
132

- Nu b tr thit b chng st c lp hoc cch li vi cng trnh qua cc vt liu khng
dn in, cn phi thc hin theo cc qui nh cho Cp I trnh by trn.
- Nu b tr thit b chng st trc tip trn cng trnh cn phi tho mn cc yu cu
sau:
- i vi kim hay dy thu st t mi kim hoc dy thu st phi c t nht l hai dy
xung.
- i vi li thu st lm bng thp trn, kch thc mi li khng c ln hn
5*5m. Cc mt li c hn dnh vi nhau.
+ i vi cc cng trnh Cp III cn phi t thit b chng st ngay trn cng trnh, ch
c php t thit b chng st c lp vi cng trnh trong nhng trng hp t bit thun
li v k thut v kinh t. B phn thu st c th s dng Hnh thc kim, dy, ai hoc li thu
st tu tng trng hp c th.
a. in tr ni t:
Theo tiu chun c th mc in tr ti a cho php l 10 i vi h thng ni t
chng st. C rt nhiu phng php khc nhau thc hin in tr ca h thng ni t t
yu cu thp. H thng ni t to thnh mng li thng thng bao gm cc in cc t,
cc dy bng v cc chi tit ghp ni vi mt s x l nhn to.

5.3. Bo v chng st ng dy ti in.
Trong vn hnh, s c ct in do st nh vo cc ng dy ti in trn khng chim
t l ln trong ton b s c ca h thng in. Do , bo v chng st cho ng dy c tm
quan trng trong vic m bo vn hnh an ton v lin tc cung cp in.
bo v chng st cho ng dy, ta treo dy chng st trn ton b tuyn ng dy,
y l bin php tt nht, song rt tn km. Do vy, n ch c dng cho cc ng dy in
p 110 220kV ct st v ct b tng ct thp.
i vi ng dy in p n 35kV ct st v ct b tng ct thp t c bo v ton
tuyn.
Tuy nhin, cc ct ca ng dy ny cng nh ct ca ng dy 110 220kV u
phi ni t. tng cng kh nng chng st cho cc ng dy, c th t chng st ng
hoc tng thm bt s nhng ni cch in yu, nhng ct vt cao, ch giao chovi
ng dy khc hay nhng on ti trm.
Dy chng st, ty theo cch b tr dy dn trn ct c th treo mt hay hai dy chng
st. Cc dy chng st c treo bn trn ng dy ti in sao cho dy dn ca c ba pha
u nm trong phm vi bo v ca dy chng st.
133

Phm vi bo v ca mt v hai dy chng st nh Hnh 5.8















Di bo v b
x
ca ct treo mt dy chng st c tnh theo cng thc (5.8) v (5.9)
Vi h s 30m:
- cao |
.
|

\
|
= >
h
h
- 1 h 6 , 0 b h
3
2
h
x
x x
(5.8)
- cao |
.
|

\
|
= <
0,8h
h
- 1 h 2 , 1 b h
3
2
h
x
x x
(5.9)
Bn knh bo v phm vi ngoi ca hai dy chng st cng c tnh theo cng thc
(5.8) v (5.9).
Pha trong gia hai dy, phm vi bo v c gii hn bi mt cung trn i qua cc dy
chng st v im gia c cao
4
a
h = A .
Theo tI liu ca Nga th i vi dy chng st t cao h s 30m, dI bo v c
tnh theo cng thc (5.10):

|
.
|

\
|
+
h
h
1
0,8h
= b
x
a
x
(5.10)
i vi cc ct in thng thng, dy dn s c bo v chc chn nu gc bo v o
khng qu 25
0
. Gim gc bo v s lm gim xc sut st nh vo dy dn nhng phI tng
gi thnh v phi tng cng chiu cao ct.

5.4. Bo v chng st t ng dy truyn vo trm.
Cc ng dy trn khng d c c bo v chng st hay khng th cc thit b in
c ni vi chng u phi chu tc dng ca sng st truyn t ng dy n. Bin ca
Hnh 5.8: Gc bo v v phm vi bo v ca dy chng st
134

qu in p kh quyn c th ln hn in p cch in ca thit b, dn n chc thng cch
in, ph hoi thit b, v mch in b ct ra. Do vy, bo v cc thit b trong trm bin p
trnh sng qu in p truyn t ng dy vo phi dng cc thit b chng st. Cc thit b
chng st ny s h thp bin sng qu in p n tr s an ton cho cch in cn c
bo v.
Thit b chng st ch yu cho trm bin p l chng st van (CSV) kt hp chng st
ng (CSO) v khe h phng in.
Khe h phng in l thit b chng st n gin nht, gm c hai in cc, trong
mt in cc ni vi mch in, cn in c kia ni vi t (Hnh 5.9)
Khi lm vic bnh thng, khe h cch ly nhng phn t mang
in (dy dn) vi t. Khi c sng in p chy trn ng dy, khe
h phng in s phng in v truyn xung t.
u im ca loi thit b ny l n gin, r tin. Nhng v n
khng c b phn dp h quang nn khi n lm vic bo v rle c
th ct mch in. Do vy nn khe h phng in thng ch c
dng lm bo v ph cng nh lm mt b phn trong cc loi chng
st khc.
- Chng st ng (CSO):
Chng st ng c s nguyn l cu to nh Hnh 5.10.










Chng st ng gm c hai khe h phng in l
1
v l
2
. Khe h l
1
c t trong ng lm
bng vt liu sinh kh nh fibr baklt hay phi-niplt. Khi sng in p qu cao th l
1
v l
2
u phng in. Di tc dng ca h quang, cht sinh kh pht nng v sn sinh ra nhiu kh
lm cho p sut trong ng tng ti hng chc ata v thi tt h quang.
Kh nng dp tt h quang ca chng st ng rt hn ch. Nu dng in qu ln, h
quang khng b dp tt ngay gy ngn mch tm thi lm cho bo v rle c th ct mch
in. Chng st ng ch yu dng bo v chng st cho cc ng dy khng c dy chng
st, hoc lm phn t ph trong cc s bo v trm bin p.

- Chng st van (CSV): gm c hai phn t chnh l khe h phng in v in tr
lm vic. Khe h phng in ca chng st van l mt chui cc khe h nh c nhim v nh
xt. in tr lm vic l in tr phi truyn c tc dng hn ch tr s dng in ngn mch
chm t qua chng st van khi sng qu in p chc thng cc khe h phng in. Dng
Dy dn
Hnh 5.9
Khe h phng in
l
1


l
2

1 2
3
Hnh 5.10: Chng st ng
1. V; 2. in cc; 3. Np
135

in ny cn phi hn ch vic dp tt h quang trong khe h phng inc d dng sau
khi chng st van lm vic. Cht vi lt tha mn c hai yu cu tri ngc nhau: cn c in
tr ln hn ch dng ngn mch v li cn c in tr nh hn ch in p d, v in p
ln kh bo v c cch in.
Hnh 5.11 gii thiu mt loi chng st van.

















Bo v chng sng qu in p truyn t ng dy vo trm bin p c thc hin
bng cch t chng st van v cc bin php bo v on dy gn trm nh Hnh 5.12











on gn trm t 1 2 km c bo v bng dy chng st ngn nga st nh trc
tip vo ng dy. Chng st ng CS01 t u on ng dy gn trm nhm hn ch
bin sng st. Nu ng dy c bo v bng dy chng st DCS trn ton tuyn th
khng cn t CS01.
Hnh 5.11: Chng st van (CSV)
1. Dng ng
2. S nguyn l tc ng
Hnh 5.12: S bo v trm 35 110kV
136

CS02 dng bo v my ct khi n v tr ct. i vi trm 3 10kV c bo v theo
s n gin hn, khng cn t DCS on gn trm m ch cn t CSO cch trm
khong 200m; trn thanh ci ca trm hay st my bin p ta t CSV.
Ngoi ra, bo v chng qu in p cho trm, ta cn phi hp cch in ca trm bin
p.
Ni t chng st cho trm cn phi m bo qui nh sau:
- i vi trm c trung tnh trc tip ni t, in p t 110kV tr ln th in tr ni t
cho php l 0,5 O.
- i vi trm c trung tnh cch in, in p di 110kV th in tr ni t cho php
l 0,4 O.
- i vi trm c cng sut b (di 100kVA) th in tr ni t cho php l 10 O.

5.5. Mt s v d bo v chng st cho cc cng trnh.
Hnh 5.13: Gii thiu c cu gn ct thu li ln tng ca ta nh hay cng trnh.
Hnh 5.14: Gii thiu bo v chng st cho trm in phn bng dy chng st (cn gi
l thu li ng ten).
Khong cch S

=
0,3S
B
cn thit trnh s di chuyn in th cao ca st n cc lin
h ngm trong t.
Khong cch S
B

c

xc nh nh phn dy chng st.
y, dy chng st bo v st nh thng, cn bo v chng cm ng tnh in
th ta c th t thm cc li st trn mi nh.
Hnh 5.15: Gii thiu bo v chng st cho ng khi.
Hnh 5.16: Gii thiu bo v chng st cho trm in.

















Hnh 5.13: C cu gn ct thu li loi CM ln
tng ca ta nh hay cng trnh
a) tng gch.
b) Gn ln tng b tng ct thp.
1. Thanh ct thu li loi CM.
2. C cu gn ct thu li.
a) b)
1
1
2
2
Hnh 5.14: Bo v chng st cho tram in
phn bng thu lI ng ten.
1. B ni t ca bo v chng cm ng
tnh in .
2. Ct thu lI ng ten kim loi.
3. dy chng st.
4. Vng bo v cao h.
2
1
Mt chnh
3
4
137



138

















Hnh 5.16: Gii thiu s chng st

TT S chng st i tng bo v c tnh chng st
1 in p 3 - 20 kV
Trm bin p phn
xng v trm phn
phi c cung cp
bng ng dy trn
khng .
t PTB cc u vo mi
ng dy trn khng.
Trong trng hp ny nu
dng ngn mch ln hn
dng in gii hn m ca
chng st ng, th trn
thanh gp ca trm b tr
PBC hoc PB.


2 Trm bin p phn
xng v trm phn
phi c cung cp
bng ng dy trn
khng i qua cp ni.
B tr CSOF (chng st
ng phibr) hay PTB trn
cp ni v PBC hoc CSVT
trn thanh gp ca trm.





3 Trm h p chnh c
ng dy trn khng
t PBC trn thanh gp
ca trm, PT u hay PTB
Hnh 5.15: Gii thiu bo v chng st cho ng khi.
a) ng kim loi 1. Ni ti vng ni t
b) ng gch 2. Dy dn dng
c) Chi tit ca ca y ng gch 3. Ct thu li
d) Chi tit ca ca y ng kim loi.
e, g) Phn trn ca ng khi vi ct thu li.

139

i ra pha in p thp. trn u vo ca trm v
t thm khong cch
ba-bn khong vt t u
vo.





TT S chng st i tng bo v c tnh chng st
4 Trm h p chnh c
ng dy trn khng
dn ra, c lp cp
on sp vo trm.
t PBC trn thanh gp
ca trm PT H sau khng
in, PT u hay PTB u
ni cp v cch ba-bn
khong vt, khi chiu dI
cp ni ln hn 100m
khng cn b phng in
PT th hai.





5 My pht ti 12000 kW
ca trm pht in x
nghip. ng dy dn
trn khng ni vi
thanh gp qua mt on
cp, khng c cun
khng. Cm ni ng
dy trn khng vi
thanh gp my pht ln
hn 12000 kW.
t PBM (chng st van
kh t) trn thanh gp
trm pht in mt in
dung khong 1F, PT
u cp v cui on
sp vo trm c ct
chng st bo v, chiu di
ca cp ni khng c
nh hn 100m. on
ng dy trn khng dI
300m trc khi I vo trm
c ct chng st bo v.
Trng hp ny nu on
vo ca ng dy ti nh
my in hoc trm c
chn bi cc cng trnh
xung quanh th khng nht
140

thit phi bo v bng ct
chng st.

6 My pht n 12000
KW ca trm pht in
x nghip. ng dy
c khng in. Dy trn
khng ni ti thanh gp
in p my pht qua
cp ni.
t PBM (chng st van
kh t) thanh gp in
p my pht in, PBC hay
PB H sau cun khng, trn
cc ng dy: PT
2
cch
PT
1
300m. Trn thanh gp
ca trm, ngoI chng st
ng cn t thm in
dung khong 1F. Chiu
dI cp ni khng di
50m.

7
in p 35 110 kV.
Trm h p chnh 35
110 kV.
t PBC thanh gp, PT
u hay PTB H u vo v
cui phn dy chng st.
on vo ca ng dy
trn khng c bo v
bng dy chng st. Nu
on vo c chn bi
cc cng trnh bao quanh
th khng nht thit phi
bo v bng ct chng st.
Chng st t di dao
cch ly chung vi my
bin in p o lng.

TT S chng st i tng bo v c tnh chng st
8
Trm h p chnh 35
110 kV theo s n
gin dng dao ngn
mch thay cho my ct.



t PBC khng cn dao
cch ly
9 Trm h p phn xng
dn su 35kV c my
bin p ti 630kVA.
t PBC thanh gp ca
trm, Pt hoc PTB u
vo trm v cch 200m
141








10 Trm bm ca x
nghip cng nghip c
ng c 3 10 kV cp
bng wongf dy trn
khng, khng qua my
bin p h p (khng c
trm cung cp chnh
trm bm)
t PBM thanh gp ca
trm vi in dung khong
1F; trn ng dy cung
cp in t PT.




11 i vi tt c cc trm
c t t ni vi thanh
gp, khi u vo l
ng dy trn khng.
t PT cc ng dy
trn khng cch thanh gp
ca trm 150 200m v
PBC hoc PBM thanh
gp.




Trnh t cc bc thit k chng st bng ct thu li Franklin
1. Kho st cng trnh:
+ Xc nh cp bo v (theo nhng qui nh v cp bo v cng trnh)
+ Xc nh vng bo v
+ Xc nh in tr sut ca t (theo mt s quy nh v in tr sut)
2. Vi nhng s liu nhn c ta c th xc nh:
+ Chn c cch thc bo v (da theo quy nh v phng thc bo v)
+ La chn thit b chng st (kim, dy...theo nhng quy nh v thit b chng st)
+ Chn s ct thu
+ Tnh ton in tr ni t ca h thng.
3. Vi s cc chn ta tnh c vng bo v thc t.
4. Tnh ton kinh t cho h thng ni t.
5.6. Ni t.
5.6.1. Khi nim.
142

H thng cung cp in lm nhim v truyn ti v phn phi in nng n cc h dng
in. Do vy nn c im quan trng ca n l phn b trn in tch rng v thng xuyn
c ngi lm vic vi cc thit b in. Cch in ca cc thit b in b chc thng, ngi
vn hnh khng tun theo cc nguyn tc an ton.v.vl nhng nguyn nhn chnh dn n
tai nn in git. St nh trc tip hoc gin tip vo thit b in khng nhng lm h hng
cc thit b in m cn gy nguy him cho ngi vn hnh. Do trong h thng cung cp
in nht thit phi c bin php an ton chng in git v chng st. Mt trong nhng bin
php an ton c hiu qu v tng i n gin l thc hin vic ni t cho thit b in v
t cc thit b chng st.
Trang b ni t bao gm cc in cc v cc dy dn ni t. Cc in cc ni t bao
gm in cc thng ng c ng su vo trong t v in cc ngang c chn ngm
mt su nht nh. Cc dy ni t c dng ni lin cc thit b vi cc b phn ni
t.
Khi c trang b ni t, dng in ngn mch xut hin do cch in ca thit b in b
h hng, s chy qua v thit b theo dy dn ni t xung cc in cc v chy tn vo trong
t (Hnh 5.17).
















Nu tay ngi hoc cc b phn no ca c th ngi chm v thit b th in p tip
xc U
tx
l in p gia ch chm c th ngi vi chn ngi c xc nh:
U
tx
=
d
- (5.11)
Vi:
d
: l in th ln nht ti im 0.
: l th ti im trn mt t, ch chn ngi ng.
Khi ngi i n gn thit b b hng cch in th xut hin in p bc gia hai
chn U
b
.
in p bc c xc nh:
a)
b)
c)
Hnh 5.17: Phn b in th khi dng in chy
trong t qua mt thanh ni t ng thng ng
Hnh 5.18: Phn b in cc ni
t thng ng thnh hng theo
hnh vng
143

U
b
=
1
-
2
. (5.12)
tng an ton, trnh khi U
tx
v U
b
cn kh ln c th gy nguy him n tnh mng
ngi, ta phi c mt s ni t hp l (Hnh 5.18).

5.6.2. Tnh ton trang b ni t.
a. Cc loi ni t:
C hai loi ni t: ni t t nhin v ni t nhn to.
+ Ni t t nhin:
L loi s dng cc loi ng dn nc hay cc ng bng kim loi khc t trong t, cc
kt cu kim loi ca cng trnh nh ca c ni t, cc v bc kim loi ca cp t trong
t.v.v...lm trang b ni t. Khi xy dng trang b ni t cn phi tn dng nhng vt liu t
nhin c sn. in tr ni t ny c xc nh bng cch o thc t ti ch hay da theo
nhng ti liu tnh gn ng.
+ Ni t nhn to:
Thng c thc hin bng cc thp, thanh thp dt hnh ch nht hay hnh thp gc di
t 2 n 3m ng su xung t sao cho u trn ca chng cch mt t khong 0.5 n
0.7m. chng n mn kim loi, cc ng thp cc thanh thp dt hay cc thp gc c chiu
dy khng nn b hn 4mm.
Dy ni t cn c tit din tho mn bn c kh v n nh nhit, chu c dng
in cho php lu di. Dy ni t khng c b hn 1/3 tit din dy dn pha, thng dng
cc tit din 120mm
2
, nhm 35mm
2
hoc ng 25mm
2
.
in tr ni t ca trang b ni t khng c ln hn cc tr s qui nh trong cc
quy phm.
b. Mt s gi tr in tr ni t chun.
i vi li in trn 1000V c dng chm t ln, ngha l trong cc mng c im
trung tnh trc tip ni t qua mt in tr nh (mng in 110kV tr ln) th khi xy ra ngn
mch, bo v r le tng ng s ct b phn h hng hay thit b in b s c ra khi mng
in. S xut hin in th trn cc trang b ni t khi ngn mch chm t ch c tnh cht
tm thi. Xc sut xy ra ngn mch chm t ng thi ti thi im c ngi tip xc vi v
thit b c mang in p rt nh nn quy phm khng quy nh in p ln nht cho php m
ch i hi bt k thi im no trong nm ca trang b ni t cng tho mn Rd O s 5 . 0 .
Trong mng in c dng chm t ln, buc phi ni t nhn to trong mi trng hp
khng ph thuc vo ni t t nhin, in tr ni t khng c ln hn 1 O.
li in c in p ln hn 1000V, trung tnh khng ni t trc tip hoc ni t qua
cun dp h quang, thng bo v r le khng tc ng ct cc b phn hay thit b in c
chm t mt pha. Do vy nn chm mt pha c th ko di, in p U
N
trn thit b cng tn
ti lu di lm tng xc xut ngi tip xc vi thit b c in p. Do quy phm quy nh
in tr ca trang thit b ni t ti thi im bt k trong nm nh sau:
+ Khi dng trang b ni t chung cho c in p di v trn 1000V:
144


d
d
I
125
R s (5.13)
+ Khi dng ring trang b ni t cho cc thit b c in p trn 1000V:


d
d
I
250
R s (5.14)
y:
125 v 250: l in p nh nht cho php ca trang b ni t.
I
d
: l dng in tnh ton chm t mt pha.
Trong c hai trng hp ny in tr ni t khng vt qu 10 O.
i vi mng in c in p di 1000V, in tr ni t ti mi thi im trong nm
khng vt qu 4O (ring vi cc thit b nh, cng sut tng ca my pht in v my bin
p khng qu 100KVA cho php n 10O).
Ni t ca dy trung tnh trong mng 380/220V phi c in tr khng c qu 10O.
i vi thit b in p cao hn 1000V c dng chm t b v cc thit b c in p
n 100V nn s dng ni t t nhin c sn.
i vi ng dy ti in trn khng, cn ni t cc ct thp v ct st ca tt c cc
ng dy ti in 35kV , cn cc ng dy 3-20kV ch cn ni t khu dn c. Cn ni
t tt c cc ct betong ct thp, ct st, ct g ca tt c cc loi ng dy mi cp in
p khi c t thit b bo v chng st hay dy chng st. in tr ni t cho php ca ct
ph thuc vo in tr sut ca t v bng 10-30O.
Trn cc ng dy ba pha bn dy, in p 380V/220V c im trung tnh trc tip ni
t, cc ct st, x st ca ct b tng ct thp cn phi ni vi dy trung tnh.
Trong cc mng in c in p di 1000V, c im trung tnh cch in, cc ct st v
betong ct thp cn c in tr ni t khng qu 50O.
in tr ni t ch yu xc nh bng in tr sut ca t, Hnh dng kch thc in
cc v chn su trong t. in tr sut ca t ph thuc vo thnh phn, mt , m
v nhit ca t v ch c th xc nh chnh xc bng o lng. Cc tr s gn ng ca
in tr sut ca t
dat
tnh bng [ Ocm] nh sau:
+ t st, t st ln si ( dy ca lp t st t 1 n 3m):
dat
= 1.10
4
.
+ t vn, t rung:
dat
= 0,4.10
4
.
+ t bn:
dat
= 0,2.10
4
.
+ Ct:
dat
= ) 10 7 ( .10
4
.
+ t ln ct:
dat
= ) 5 3 ( .10
4
.
in tr sut ca t khng lun c nh trong nm m thay i do nh hng ca
m v nhit ca t. Do vy, in tr ca trang b ni t cng thay i. V vy trong tnh
ton ni t phi dng in tr sut tnh ton l tr s ln nht trong nm.

tt
= K.
dat
(5.15)
y:
145

K l h s tng cao, ph thuc vo iu kin kh hu ni s xy dng trang b ni
t, v c quy nh nh bng 5.6:
Bng 5.6: H s k hiu chnh tng cao in tr sut ca t
Loi cc ni t
Loi t
t rt
c
t c
trung bnh
t
kh
- Cc thanh dt nm ngang (in cc ngang) t
su cch mt t (0,3 0,5)m
- Thanh dt chn nm ngang mt t su
(0,5 0,8)m
- Cc ng thng ng ng su cch mt
t > 0,8m
6,5

3,0

2,0
5,0

2,0

1,5
4,5

1,6

1,4

c. Tnh ton ni t nhn to.
in tr ni t c hin khi ni t t nhin khng tha mn in tr ni t cho php
ln nht [R]
max
ca trang b ni t. Khi in tr ni t nhn to c tnh theo cng thc
sau:
R
nt
=
max
max
] [
* ] [
R R
R R
TN
TN

(5.16)

Ta bit ni t nhn to gm h thng cc cc ng thng ng (in cc thng ng) v
thanh t nm ngang (in cc ngang) c xc nh theo cng thc:

R
nt
=
ng d
ng d
R R
R R
+
*
(5.17)
Trong :
R
d
: in tr khunh tn ca h thng cc thng ng.
R
ng
: in tr khunh tn ca h thng cc chn ngang.

Cc cng thc xc nh in tr khuch tn ca cc in cc khc nhau cho trong bng
5.7.


146

Bng 5.7: Cc cng thc xc nh in tr khuch tn
ca cc in cc khc nhau
Kiu ni t
Cch t in
cc
Cng thc tnh, tnh bng (O) Ch thch

Chn thng ng,
lm bng thp trn
u trn tip xc
vi mt t



R

=
d
l
l
tt
4
lg
366 , 0



l > d

Chn thng ng,
lm bng thp trn
u trn nm su
cch mt t mt
khong.


R

=
|
.
|

\
|

+
+
l t
l t
d
l
l
tt
4
4
lg
2
1 2
lg
366 , 0




l > d

Chn nm ngang
lm bng thp dt,
di nm su cch
mt t mt khong


R
ng
=
t b
l
l
tt
.
2
lg
366 , 0
2

t
l
2
> 2,5
b: chiu rng ca
thanh dt, nu
in cc trn c
ng kinh d th
b = 2d

Tm chn thng
ng su cch mt
t mt khong



R

= 0,25
ab
tt


a v b l kch
thc di v rng
ca tm
Vnh xuyn, lm t
thp dt t nm
ngang su cch mt
t mt khong.



R
ng
=
bt
D
D
tt
2
2
8
ln
2t


b: chiu rng ca
cc
t < D/2
Nu in cc
trn c ng
kinh D th b = 2d

i vi thp gc, ng knh ng tr c tnh theo:
D = 0,95.b
Vi: b l b rng cc cnh thp gc.

Khi xc nh in tr ni t tng ca ton b mch vng cn phi xt ti nh hng ca
mng che gia cc cc. Trong trng hp ny, ta c h s s dng ca cc in cc ng
d
q
v in cc ngang hay thanh nm ngang
ng
q , c cho trong bng 5.8.
in tr khuch tn ca n cc c xt n nh hng mng che c tnh theo:
l
d
t
D
b
t

b
a

l

d
t
l
b
147

R
d
=
d
d
n
R
q *
1
(5.18)
y:
R
1d
: in tr ca mt cc hay mt in cc thng ng.

d
q
: h s s dng ca cc cc thng ng.
in tr khuch tn ca thanh nm ngang ni gia cc cc ng thng ng c xt n
nh hng mn che:
R
ng
=
ng
ng R
q
'
(5.19)
y: ng R
'
l in tr khuch tn ca thanh ni cha xt ti nh hng mn che

ng
q l h s s dng ca thanh ni nm ngang.

Bng 5.8:
S cc chn thng ng

T s a/l (a l khong cch gia cc cc,
l l chiudi cc)
1 2 3
d
q
ng
q
d
q
ng
q
d
q
ng
q
A. Khi cc cc t theo
chu vi mch vng
4
6
8
10
20
30
50
70
100


0,69
0,62
0,58
0,55
0,47
0,43
0,4
0,38
0,35


0,45
0,40
0,36
0,34
0,27
0,24
0,21
0,20
0,19


0,78
0,73
0,71
0,69
0,64
0,60
0,56
0,54
0,52


0,55
0,48
0,43
0,40
0,32
0,30
0,28
0,26
0,24


0,85
0,80
0,78
0,76
0,71
0,68
0,66
0,64
0,62


0,70
0,64
0,60
0,56
0,47
0,41
0,37
0,35
0,33
B. Khi cc cc t thnh
dy
3
4
5
6
10
15
20

0,78
0,74
0,70
0,63
0,59
0,54
0,49
0,43

0,80
0,77
0,74
0,72
0,62
0,50
,042
0,31

0,86
0,83
0,81
0,77
0,75
0,70
0,68
0,65

0,92
0,87
0,86
0,83
0,75
0,64
0,56
0,46

0,91
0,88
0,87
0,83
0,81
0,78
0,77
0,75

0,95
0,92
0,90
0,88
0,82
0,74
0,68
0,58
148

30

149

5.6.3. Cc s ni t.
a. S TT:
Phng php ni t: im ni sao ca ngun s c ni trc tip vi t. Cc b phn
cn ni t v vt dn t nhin s ni chung ti cc ring bit ni t ring bit ca li. in
cc ny c th c lp hoc ph thuc vi in cc ca ngun, hai vng nh hng c th bao
trm ln nhau m khng lin quan n tc ng ca cc thit b bo v.
B tr dy PE: dy PE ring bit vi dy trung tnh v c tit din c xc nh theo
dng s c ln nht c th xy ra.
B tr bo v chng chm in gin tip: mch s c t ng ngt khi h hng cch
in. Trn thc t, cc RCD s m bo chc nng ny. Dng tc ng ca n s nh do in
tr mc ni tip ca hai in cc ni t.
Ha hon: s dng RCD vi dng ln hoc bng 500mA s trnh c ha hon do in.
b. S TN:
S TN-C:
Dy trung tnh l dy bo v v c gi l PEN. S ny khng c php s dng i
vi cc dy nh hn 10mm
2
v 16mm
2
v vi thit b in cm tay.
S ny i hi mt s ng th hiu qu trong li in vi nhiu im ni t lp li.
Cc v thit b v vt dn t nhin s ni vi dy trung tnh.
Cch lp PE: dy trung tnh v PE c s dng chung c gi l dy PEN.
B tr dy bo v chng chm in gin tip: s c dng chm v v in p tip xc
ln nn:
+ C th ngt in trong trng hp hng cch in.
+ Ngt in bng CB, RCD s khng c s dng v s c h hng cch in c coi
nh l ngn mch pha - trung tnh.
Chng chy: s TN-C khng dng ni c kh nng chy n cao. Nguyn nhn l khi
ni cc vt dn t nhin ca ta nh vi dy PEN s to nn dng chy trong cng trnh gy
him ha chy v nhiu in t.
B tr bo v chng chm in gin tip trong s c dng s c v in p tip xc
ln:
T ng ngt ngun khi c h hng cch in;
CB hoc cu ch s m bo vic ny.


150


S TN-S:
Dy bo v v trung tnh l ring bit. i vi cp c v bc ch, dy bo v thng l v
ch. S TN-S l bt buc i vi mch c tit din nh hn10mm
2
(Cu); 16mm
2
(Al) hoc
cc thit b di ng.
Cch ni t: im trung tnh ca bin p c ni t mt ln ti u vo ca li. Cc
v kim loi v vt dn t nhin s c ni vi dy bo v PE. Dy ny s c ni vi trung
tnh ca bin p.
B tr dy PE: dy PE cch bit vi dy trung tnh v c nh kch c theo dng s c
ln nht c th xy ra.
B tr bo v chng chm in: do dng s c v in p tip xc ln nn:
T ng ngt in khi c h hng cch in;
Cc CB, cu ch m bo nhn vai tr ny, hoc cc RCD, v bo v chng chm in
tch bit vi bo v ngn mch pha-pha hoc pha trung tnh.
S dng RCD vi dng tc ng 500 mA s trnh h hng v in.nhng h hng ny
xy ra do h hng cch in hoc ngn mch qua tng tr.

S TN-C-S:
S TN-C v TN-S c th c dng cng trong mt li. Trong s TN-C-S, s
TN-C khng bao gi c s dng sau s TN-S. im phn dy PE tch khi dy PEN
thng l im u ca li.
c. S IT:
Cch ni t: im trung tnh ca my bin p c cch ly vi t hoc ni t qua in
tr v b phn qu p. Trong iu kin bnh thng, p ca n gn bng vi p ca v thit b
qua in dung r so vi t ca mch v thit b. V cc thit b v vt dn t nhin ca to
nh s c ni ti in cc ni t ring.
151

B tr dy PE: dy PE s c tch vi dy trung tnh v c nh c theo dng s c
ln nht c th.
B tr chng chm gin tip: dng s c khi ch c s h hng cch in thng thp v
khng nguy him.
Kh c kh nng ng thi xy ra s c ti hai im nu mng c lp t mt thit b
gim st cch in bo v v bo tn hiu khi xy ra s c th nht, t c th nh v chnh
xc v loi tr n.


Kt lun: khng c mt s no a dng c. Khi la chn s ni t cn phn tch
cc trng hp ring bit v s la chn cui cng da theo cc rng buc c bit ca li
in. Phng n la chn cn tho mn cc tiu chun c bn sau:
+ Chng in git.
+ Chng ho hon do in.
+ Cung cp in lin tc.
+ Bo v chng qu p.
+ Bo v chng nhiu in t.

5.7. Trnh t tnh ton ni t.
Trnh t tnh ton nh sau:
+ Xc nh in tr ni t cho php cn thit [R] tiu chun (theo nhng gi tr in tr
ni t chun)
+ Xc nh in tr ni t t nhin R
tn
(bng cch o thc t ti cng trnh)
+ Nu R
tn
< [R] nh nu phn trn, trong cc thit b cao p trn 1000V c dng
chm t b v trong cc thit b in p di 1000 V th khng cn t thm ni t nhn to.
Cn trong cc thit b in p trn 1000 V c dng in chm t ln, nht thit phi dng ni
t nhn to vi in tr khng ln hn 1O.
Nu R
tn
> [R] th phi xc nh ni t nhn to.
+ Qui nh din tch b tr cc in cc, chn s lng v kch tht cc in cc ng
thng ng v cc in cc ngang; ch n vic gim in p bc v in p tip xc; tnh
R
ndTB
152

in tr khuch tn ca cc, thanh nm ngang v ton b h thng ni t theo cc cng thc
trn.
+ i vi thit b in p cao hn 1000 V c dng chm t ln phi kim tra bn
nhit ca dy theo cng thc:
S =
c
t
I
qd

(5.20)
y:
-

I l dng in ngn mch xc lp, trong tnh ton ly dng in ln nht i qua dy
dn khi ngn mch thit b ang xt hoc l ngn mch mt pha chm t.
- t
qd
l thi gian qui i hay thi gian gi thit ca dng in i vo t, [giy].
- C l hng s.
+ i vi thp: C = 74.
+ Dy ng trn: C = 195.
+ Dy cp rut ng, in p di 10kV: C = 182.
+ Dy nhm trn v cp rut nhm in p di 10kV: C = 112.
5.8. V d:
V d 1: Tnh ton ni t mch vng cho trm 110/10kV, vi cc s liu nh sau:
Dng in ln nht i qua vt ni t khi ngn mch chm t pha 110kV l 3,2kA;
Dng in ln nht i qua vt ni t khi ngn mch pha 10kV l 42kA; Loi t ni t
trm l t st. ni t ph ta s dng h thng cp cc c in tr ni t l 1,2O.
Bi gii
pha 110kV, yu cu in tr ni t bng 0,5 O.
pha 10kV, ta xc nh R

bng biu thc:


O ~ = s 3
42
125
I
125
R
d
d

y in p tnh ton trn thit b ni t: U
tt
= 125 V, v dng trang b ni t chung
cho c in p di v trn 1000 V.
in tr ni t nhn to khi xt n s dng h thng cp cc c in tr ni t ph l
1,2 O
O =

= 857 , 0
5 , 0 2 , 1
2 , 1 . 5 , 0
] [
* ] [
max
max
R R
R R
R
TN
TN
NT

tnh ton s b, ta ly:
- in tr sut ca t ti ch t tip t (t st Tra bng: 10
4
Ocm).
- i vi in cc ngang khi chn su 0,3 0,5m, t kh: H s tng cao hiu chnh K
= 4,5
- i vi in cc ng thng ng di 2 3m ng su cch mt t > 0,8m l K
= 1,4 (i vi t kh).
- in tr sut tnh ton i vi in cc ngang:
4
10 . 5 , 4 =
ttngang
Ocm
153

- in tr sut tnh ton i vi in cc thng ng :
tt ng
= 1,4 .10
4
Ocm
Xc nh in tr tn ca mt in cc thng ng dng thp gc L50, dI 2,5 m khi
chn su cch mt t 0,8 m theo cng thc cho bng 5.7:
R
1ng
= |
.
|

\
|

+
+
l t
l t
d
l
l
tt
4
4
lg
2
1 2
lg
366 , 0

y:
d
ng tr
= 0,95b = 0,95.0,05 = 0,0475 m
m 05 , 2
2
2,5
0,8 t = + =
Vy: R
1
= O = |
.
|

\
|

+
+ 52 , 44
5 , 2 05 , 2 . 4
5 , 2 05 , 2 . 4
lg
2
1
0475 , 0
5 , 2 . 2
lg . 140 .
5 , 2
366 , 0


Xc nh s b ni t thng ng khi h s s dng cho cc thng ng l 0,6
87
0,857 . 0,6
44,52
n ~ = cc
Xc nh in tr khuch tn ca in cc ngang (thp thanh 40 x 4 mm
2
) c hn u
trn ca thp gc. H s s dng thanh ni thnh vng khi s in cc thng ng bng 85 cc
(thay v tnh s b: 87 cc) v t s 2 =
l
a
. Tra bng 5.8 v p dng php ni suy ta c h
s s dng q
ngang:
0,25
in tr tn ca thanh c chu vi vng: L = 85a = 85 . 2 . 2,5 = 425 m. Theo biu thc
5.19 v bng 5.7, ta c:
R
ng
=
t b
l
R
tt
ng
ng
ng
.
2
lg
1
366 , 0
.
1
.
1
2
'

q q
=
R
ng
= O = 688 , 9
8 , 0 . 04 , 0
425 . 2
lg .
425
450 . 366 , 0
.
25 , 0
1
2

Tnh chnh xc in tr ca in cc thng ng:

R

= O =

940 , 0
857 , 0 688 , 9
688 , 9 . 857 , 0

Tnh chnh xc s in cc thng ng khi h s s dng q

ly t bng 5.8 khi 2 =


l
a
v
n = 85, lc q

= 0,53.
89
94 , 0 . 53 , 0
52 , 44
~ = n cc.
Cui cng ta ly 89 thanh ghp gc 50 x 50 x4 lm 89 in cc thng ng.
154

Kim tra bn nhit ca thanh 40 x 4mm
2
. tit din b nht ca thanh theo iu kin
bn nhit khi xy ra ngn mch chm t theo cng thc (5.20) vi thi gian qui i dng in
ngn mch chy qua t
q
= 1,1gy:
S =
2
5 , 45
74
1 . 1
3200 mm
c
t
I
qd
= =


Do , tit din 40 x 4mm
2
= 160mm
2
tha m iu kin bn nhit.

V d 2: Tnh ton ni t lp li cui dng dy 380V/220V c trung tnh ni t,
cng sut ca my bin p cung cp l 100kVA, t trong vng t c
0
= 2.10
4
Ocm, h s
tng cao K = 2 i vi thanh nm ngang v K = 1,5 i vi in cc thng ng. y khng
c ni t t nhin.
Bi gii
Theo qui phm i vi my bin p cng sut 100kVA, in tr ni t lp li khng
c vt qu 10O.
Trc tin ta c on s b dng 10 in cc thng ng dng thp gc L60x60x6 di l
= 2,5m.
in tr khuch tn ca mt cc l:
R
1
=
|
.
|

\
|

+
+
l t
l t
d
l
K
l
do
4
4
lg
2
1 2
lg
366 , 0

R
1
= |
.
|

\
|

+
+
5 , 2 05 , 2 . 4
5 , 2 05 , 2 . 4
lg
2
1
06 , 0 . 95 , 0
5 , 2 . 2
lg 5 , 1 . 200
5 , 2
366 , 0

y:
m 05 , 2
2
5 , 2
8 , 0 t = + =

ng tr
= 0,95b = 0,95 . 0,06.
R
1
~ 84O.
Cc cc c ng thnh mch vng, cch nhau a = 2l = 5m (v 2 =
l
a
), tra bng 5.8 ta
c:
q

= 0,69
in tr khuch tn ca c 10 cc:
R

= O =12
69 , 0 . 10
84

Thanh ni dng thp trn c ng knh 8 mm, chiu di thanh ni tnh n ct in gn
bng 60 m (l = 6000 cm) v c chn su 0,8 m = 80 cm. in tr khuch tn ca thanh ni
nm ngang khi cha xt n nh hng mn che:
O ~ = 3 , 14
8 , 0 . 80 . 2
6000 . 2
lg . 2 . 20000 .
6000
0,366
R
2
/
ng

155

( y ta dng cng thc 3 bng 5.7 vi b = 2d)
H s s dng ca in cc ngang tra theo bng 5.8, s cc 10, vi 2 =
l
a
ta c
q
ngang
= 0,4.
in tr khuch tn ca thanh ngang:
R
ngang
= O = 2 , 36
4 , 0
3 , 14

in tr ni t ca trang b ni t.
R = O ~
+
9
2 , 36 12
2 , 36 . 12
< |10O|
Do vy s cc chn 10 cc l ph hp.

Gii thiu mt s k thut chng st mi xut hin gn y trn th gii:
Phng php chng st hin i theo tiu chun c:
Theo nh tiu chun c cho thy ngi k s khi thit k phi nghin cu ni dung 6 im
sau y hon tt cng vic bo v ton b.


1: n bt st nh trn nhng u thu st t trong khng
trung





2: Truyn dn dng in st i xung t mt cch bo
m





3: H thng ni t c in tr thp lm tiu tn nng lng
st vo trong t d dng.


1.
4.
2.
3.
156

4: Vic loi tr cc vng mch (li) nm trong t v s
chnh lch in th t bng cch to nn mt tng tr
thp, h thng ni t ng th.
157



5: Bo v trang thit b c ni n cc ng dy in
lc khi b nh hng tng vt v qu trnh qu ,
phng h hng trang thit b v nh tr sn xut.



6: Bo v cc mch in thoi, mch d liu v mch tn
hiu a n khi b nh hng tng vt v qua trnh qu
, phng h hng thit b v ngng phc v.

C th ca tng im nh sau:
+ im 1: n bt st nh trn nhng u thu st t trong khng trung.
- Vai tr ca u thu trong khng trung l khi c du hiu st nh n s phng mt
dng dn a ln pha trn n bt st mt cch hiu qu.
- Kh nng ca ct thu lI kiu Franklin l tp trung trng in v to thnh dng
qung in trng m chng ta bit. Qung ny ch quan st c vng ln cn nh thu
li v n s c gim nhanh chng theo khong cch.
- p ng tin b k thut mi v s i hi ca th trng, loi khng theo tp qun
Franklin hay loi tng cng vi u thu n bt t trong khng trung c nghin cu v
pht trin p dng. Mt trong nhng loi ny l qu cu thu n bt st t trong khng trung
kiu Dyna. y l thit b k thut mi, n c tc dng lm gim bt s bin dng ca trng
in v qung kt qu.
Hnh 5.19 gii thiu h thng bo v chng st vi u thu n bt kiu qu cu Dyna t
trong khng trung theo k thut mi.









5.
6.
Hnh 19: Chng st dng qu cu Dyna t trong khng trung
158



* u im ca cc u thu n bt t trong khng trung theo k thut mi so vi
nhng u thu theo tp qun kiu Franklin:
- u thu theo tp qun kiu Franklin:
+ t c s trn nhng thit k t nm 1752.
+ Mi mt ct yu cu khong cch trung bnh 5 15 m.
+ Hnh dng bn ngoi khng hp dn.
+ Kh khn v tn nhiu thi gian t trang thit b.
+ t tin tng trong vn hnh.
+ Mc hiu qu khng r rt.
+ Kh t tin do trang thit b tiu tn kh cao.
- u thu n bt st theo k thut mi:
+ t c s trn k thut mi nht.
+ Thng thng ch cn c mt u thu n bt st.
+ Hnh dng d chp nhn, khng d nhn thy v bn ngoi.
+ D t trn cng trnh.
+ D dng trong cng tc duy tr bo qun.
+ Hiu qu hn v tin tng trong vn hnh.
+ Thnh tu t c th hin r rng.
+ R tin hn v thng thng ch cn c mt thu tha mn.

+ im 2: Truyn dn dng in st i xung t mt cch m bo.
- ng dy dn dng in st xung h thng ni t c che ch v bo v.
K thut gn y nht ca s truyn dn nng lng st xung t l dng mt dy dn
a xung v dy dn ny c bo v cch ly. Trong trng hp ny, dy dn a xung
r rng l hai vnh ng Hnh vnh khn, hay cn gi l vnh ng kp. ng dy a xung
loi mi ny c tnh do v c bc bng nhiu lp ngn cch in nh Hnh 5.15, do
lm cho dng in st c ngn cch khi khu vc b nh hng mnh (Hnh 5.16).






159













Hnh 5.21: Dng in st chy trong dy dn
a. Dng in st chy khp cng trnh.
b. L trnh i xung t ca dng st c bo v do dy 3 trc

Hnh 5.20: Dy dn a dng in st xung t gm nhiulp,
trong c phn dn chnh l vnh ng tit din
50mm
2
v

c mn chn bng bng ng.

1. Vt liu cht do tng ng knh hiu qu
ca dy dn chnh ( cm ng, hiu qu mt
ngoi ).
2. Lp vnh dn chnh ( ng, tit din 50 mm
2
)
3. Kim tra ng sut bn dn.
4. Lp ngn cch in p cao polyethylene.
5. Lp kim tra ng sut bn dn in.
6. Di mng chn bng bng ng chnh.
7. Lp bc bng cht do.
8. Kim loi gi v nh v dy dn a dng in
st xung t.

160

Qua th nghim ch cho thy rng vic kt hp kh nng gia cc cu trc ca lp bc
vi dy ng dn dng in st l nguyn nhn to iu kin cho dng in di chuyn trn b
mt dy dn ng mt cch d dng v cng to iu kin lm gim s chnh lch in p.
Dy dn dng in st i xung t loi c bo v ny gm c mt dy dn chnh bng
ng c tit din 50 mm
2
(vnh ng chnh lp th hai k t trong ra). u im v phng
din m quan ta thy r rt.
Loi dy bc ny cng c th c du kn khi t bn trong tng.
- Nhng u im tng i ca mt dy dn a dng in st xung t c bo v so
vi dy dn a xung loi thng thng nh sau:

Dy dn a xung
loi thng
Loi dy dn bc ba trc
(triacial conductor)
- Mi dy dn yu cu thng qu 30 m,
v thng dng nhiu dy .
- L trnh dng in st chy bn trong
dy c th lm nh hng, h hng cu
trc.
- Xc xut ca nhng s tng vt do cm
ng ca nhng thit b c nhy l cao
hn.
- Mt s bng ng trn hay dy ng trn
dn st bn ngoi cu trc c th lm xu
mt v thm m ca cng trnh.
- Yu cu c nhng chi tit ni ghp bng
kim loi i vi dy dn a xung.
- Tn km v dng nhiu dy dn a
xung.
- Thng thng ch cn c mt dy.

- L trnh dng in st chy bn trong
khng lm nh hng h hng cu trc.

- Xc xut ca s le sng cnh hu nh
c loi tr.

- Lm hi lng v m quan.


- Khng yu cu nhng chi tit ni ghp
t bit.
- Thng thng r tin hn v ch cn c
mt dy dn a xung.

+ im 3: H thng ni t c in tr thp lm tiu tn nng lng st vo trong
t d dng.
- Nhng vt liu dng cho h thng ni t c in tr thp l phn rt quan trng lm
cho h thng bo v chng st c hiu qu. Nu h thng ni t c in tr cng thp l to
d dng cho s tiu tn nng lng ca st vo trong khi t cng nhanh.
161

- Theo tiu chun ca c th mc in tr ti a cho php l 10 O i vi h thng ni
t chng st. iu ny c th t c trc tin l nh s lin kt h thng ni t chng st
vi nhng h thng c t trong t khc hoc lin kt vi phn kim loi ca cu trc c
gia c (Hnh 5.22). Ngi ta lun lun to mi iu kin t c in tr ni t l thp
nht v mong mun t c khng qu 1O.















- C rt nhiu phng php khc nhau thc hin in tr ca h thng ni t chng
st t yu cu thp. H thng ni t to thnh mng li thng thng bao gm cc in cc
t, cc di bng v cc chi tit ghp ni vi mt s x l nhn to.
- Trc khi thit k h thng ni t th c mt vn lin quan n cc iu kin a
phng phi nghin cu v tm hiu r rng nh sau:
+ in tr vng t: Nhng s liu o v th nghim v t ca a phng v khu
vc.
+ c im vt l to nn lp t: V d, , t st, ct... cn xc minh r.
+ Cc chng ngi nm trong khu vc: ng x, cy, ro, cc ng cp ngm v cc
dch v c cc ng dy chn ngm.
+ H thng ni t theo thit k ny c hu qu g i vi h thng li ang nm trong
t khng.
+ S gia c thm cho cu trc c d dng t c khng?
+ S an ton: V d, cc h t thc hin c b can thip hay khng?
Hnh 5.22: S lin kt ca h thng ni t vi cc cu trc kim loi ca cng trnh
v vi cc h thng khc bng kim loi c t trong t
162

cn nh rng nu h thng ni t c t ng v thit k tt s to nn in th bc t
c s b nht.
- V in cc yu cu phi:
+ t c in tr thp nht.
+ C sc bn c kh v kh nng chng n mn c tui th phc v cao i vi bt
k mi trng loi no.
+ C kh nng ti c dng in phng xung t ca st v ta ra vng t xung
quanh c d dng.
* Mt s v d ca h thng ni t nh sau: Hnh 5.23 v 5.24


























Hnh 5.23: S tiu tn nng lng dng st xung t.
1. Dy dn bc ba trc loi mi, dn dng st xung.
2. Hp cht tng cng gim in tr h thng ni t.
3. H t.

Hnh 5.24a: Mt phng php c hiu qu ca cc ni t dng
in i xung t c r nhnh.
Hnh 5.24b: H thng ni t l tng dng tia dng cho nhng ni c
in tr sut ca t loi trung bnh dng in i xung
t c phn ra 6 ng.
Hnh 5.24c: H thng ni t l tng dng tia c chn rt dng cho
nhng ni c in tr sut ca t kh cao dng in i
xung e ta ra xung quanh mt khu vc rng ln
bng nhiu tia v nhiu chn rt.
Hnh 5.24d: H thng ni t trong din tch gii hn. Ngi ta khoan
nhng h su. kt qu lm gim s tng in p b mt
a) b) c) d)
163


- i vi nhng a im khng thun li, v d nhng ni c , ct hay t st
ln ln chung, th ngi ta s dng hp cht tng cng tip t. Hp cht ny c tc dng lm
gim in tr tip t kh nhiu.
- Hp cht tng cng tip t l hp cht l tng i vi phng php tip t loi
ny. Hp cht gm dung dch ho cht c dn in tt m i vi n khi ha tan vi
nc ri rt vo h thng ni t v vng t xung quanh th n s tr thnh mt khi keo
ng c gelatin to nn mt khi h thng ni t hon thin.
- Hp cht tng cng tip t in hnh bao gm hai ti ring bit, mt ti gm vt
cht cu to t dung dch ng, cn ti kia l hp cht ho hc c tc dng gip cho giai on
ng qunh thnh thch.

+ im 4: Vic loi tr cc vng mch (li) nm trong t v s chnh lch in th
t bng cch to nn mt tng tr thp, h thng ni t ng th.
- Dch v nm trong t cng c th bao gm: in thoi, ng dy cp in, ng
dy thng tin hoc nhng dch v phc v mc ch c bit no ang nm trong t. Tt c
nhng h thng nm trong t ny c th c b sung vo h thng ni t bo v chng st.
- Vic s dng nhiu h thng nm trong t ny c th l nguyn nhn duy nht lm
cho trang thit b in ngng hot ng. Khi s chnh lch in p xut hin gia mt trong
nhiu h thng nm trong t ny th s h hi trang thit b s xy ra sm hn. Vi phng
php thc hin qui nh: S lin kt ng th cho tt c nhng h thng ni t lm chc
nng bo v v nhng h thng nm trong t lm chc nng dch v th vn chnh lch
in th c th loi tr (Hnh 5.25).



Hnh ?








Hnh 5.25: Dng phng php S lin kt ng th loi tr s chnh
lch in th t v cc li (vng mch) nm trong t.
1. H thng ni t ca ng dy thng tin v lin lc vin thng.
2. H thng ni t ca ng dy phc v cho cung cp in.
3. H thng ni t bo v chng st.
4. H ni t.
164















- Mc d trong nhng iu kin vn hnh bnh thng, ngi ta mong mun cc h
thng ni t hoc nm trong t c tch ra ring bit, song khi st nh hoc xut hin in
p ca qu trnh qu th s chnh lch in p gia cc h thng ni t ring bit ny s
xy ra v khng th trnh c. iu ny c th hy hoi trang thit b v to nn rt nguy
him i vi ngi. khc phc tnh trng ny ngi ta dng con ni c bit gi l TEC
(The transient Earth clamp). N hot ng nh mt mch h c hiu qu lc bnh thng.
Nhng khi c s chnh lch in th di nhng iu kin ca qu trnh qu th mch ny
s ng li ngay v to nn s cn bng in th.
- Sau y l mt s cc h thng nm trong t thc hin nhim v ca mnh phi c
ni lin kt vi nhau:
+ H thng ni t phc v cho cung cp in
+ H thng nm trong t phc v cho thng tin lin lc
+ Nhng ng ng nc v ng dn hi nng (nu bng kim loi).
+ Cu trc ca cc xng bng thp.
+ H thng ni t bo v chng st.
- Tt c nhng lin kt trn phi i theo mt con ng ngn nht c th c v phi
thc hin ng tiu chun. Mt s cc cng trnh phc v nu trn c th phi c thc hin
cc bin php chng n mn theo quy nh ca Nh nc.

Hnh 5.26 : Dng in st chy xung t
thng qua ng dy tng tc.

165

+ im 5: Bo v trang thit b c ni n cc ng dy in lc khi b nh
hng tng vt v qu trnh qu , phng h hng trang thit b v nh tr sn
xut.
- Kinh nghim cho thy rng nhng tr khng mc r n gin c t t cu dao
chnh khng th p ng c s bo v mt cch y . Chng c tc dng kim sot s
tng cao mc in p c nh trc, nhng vn ko theo u sng nng cao nhanh. Cc b
lc lm gim s tng cao SRF hay cc b lc ng dy in lc PLF to nn mt t hp kim
sot v lc qu trnh qu . Nhng khi ny c dng lc cho cc mch mt pha c
nh t 1 Ampe n 3 pha c cng n 300 Ampe. Nhng khi c nh c dng
bo v cho PABX / Facsimile / Modems / my tnh c nhn v.v
- Nhng khi lc ln dng bo v s cp cho nhng phn cung cp chnh t gn t cu
dao chnh.























Hnh 5.27: S nguyn l b lc lm gim s tng cao SRF (Surge Reduction
Filters) dng bo v cc ng dy in lc i n.
1. Thit b vi tnh; 2. Trang thit b thng tin lin lc & in t
Hnh 5.28. S nguyn l b lc ng dy in lc PLF (Power Line Filter)
166


























+ im 6: Bo v cc mch in thoi, mch d liu v mch tn hiu a n khi
b nh hng tng vt v qua trnh qu , phng h hng thit b v ngng phc v.






Hnh 5.29. S nguyn l bo v my fax v bo v my tnh
1. Phch cm ly in t ng dy n v ni t.
2. ng in thoi v d liu a n.
3. ng i ra ca ng dy in thoi v d liu c bo v.
4. ng i ra chnh c bo v.
5. Mch bo v d liu.
6. Mch bo v ng dy in a n.

167











Hnh 5.31: Hnh dng bn ngoi chi tit CSP


Mt s nt v thit b chng st to tia tin o PREVECTRON 2 do hng nghin
cu sn xut Indelec - Cenes - Php - Ch to.
1. Cu to ca thit b chng st PREVECTRON - 2









3
4
168









Thit b chng st to tia tin o PREVECTRON - 2 bao gm:
- Kim thu st bng ng in phn hoc thp khng r, kim ny c tc dng to mt
ng dn dng st lin tc t tin o xung t theo ng dy dn st. Kim thu st ny
c gn trn tr c cao ti thiu 2m.
- Hp bo v bng ng hoc thp khng r, c tc dng bo v cc thit b to ion bn
trong. Hp ny gn vo kim thu st trung tm.
- Thit b to ion, gii phng ion v pht tia tin o: y l thit b c tnh nng c
bit ca u thu st Prevectron 2. Nh thit b ny m u thu st Prevectron 2 c th to ra
mt vng bo v rng ln vi mc an ton cao.
- H thng cc in cc pha trn: c tc dng pht tia tin o
- H thng cc in cc pha di: c tc dng thu nng lng in trng kh quyn,
gip cho thit b chng st hot ng.

2. Nguyn tc hot ng ca u thu st Prevectron 2:
Trong trng hp dng bo xy ra, in trng kh quyn gia tng nhanh chng khong
vi ngn volt (V/m), u thu st Prevectron 2 s thu nng lng in trng kh quyn bng h
thng cc pha di. Nng lng ny c tch tr trong thit b ion ha.
Trong trng hp dng bo xy ra, in trng kh quyn gia tng nhanh chng khong
vi ngn volt (V/m), u thu st Prevectron 2 s thu nng lng in trng kh quyn bng h
thng cc pha di. Nng lng ny c tch tr trong thit b ion ha.
Trc khi xy ra hin tng phng dng in st, c mt s gia tng nhanh chng v t
ngt ca in trng kh quyn, nh hng ny lm tc ng thit b ion ha gii phng nng
lng tch ly di dng cc ion, to nn mt ng dn tin a v pha trn, ch ng
dn st.

3. c im ca qu trnh ion ha.
Hnh 5.32: Thit b chng st to tia tin o Prevectron 2
1. Kim thu st trung tm.
2. H thng cc in cc pha trn.
3. Hp bo v bng ng v thit b to ion.
4. H thng cc in cc pha di.

169

- Qu trnh ion ho c c trng bi nhng tnh cht sau:
+ iu khin s gii phng ion ng thi im:
Thit b ion ho cho php ion pht ra trong khong thi gian rt ngn v ti thi im
thch hp c bit, ch vi phn ca giy trc khi c phng in st, do m bo dn st
kp thi, chnh xc v an ton.
+ S hnh thnh hiu ng qung sng in CORONA:
S xut hin ca mt s lng ln electron tin o cng vi s gia tng ca in trng
c tc dng rt ngn thi gian to hiu ng qun sng in corona.
+ S chun b trc mt ng dn st v pha trn:
u thu st PREVECTRON-2 pht ra mt ng dn st ch ng v pha trn nhanh
hn bt c im nhn no gn . Do s m bo dn st ch ng v chnh xc. Trong
phng th nghim, c im ny c c trng bng i lng AT, li v thi gian pht ra
mt ng dn st v pha trn gia u thu st PREVECTRON-2 v cc loi kim thu st
thng thng khc.
4. Cc loi u thu st Prevectron 2:
- C nm loi u thu st Prevectron-2, mi loi c chia ra lm hai nhm khc nhau:
+ Loi cu to bng ng: Kim thu st trung tm v cc in cc c ch to bng
ng, m bo thu v dn st tt.
+ Loi cu to bng thp khng r: Kim thu st trung tm, cc in cc v hp bo v
c lm bng thp khng r. Loi u thu st ny thch hp vi mi trng n mn v hi c
nhiu bi bm.
- Mi loi u thu st trong nm loi trn c bn knh bo v ph hp vi tng cu trc
cng trnh khc nhau ( Xem bng 5.3 ).
Bng 5.3: Cc loi u kim PREVECTRON-2:
Loi u kim
Prevectron - 2
ng knh
(mm)
Chiu cao h
(mm)
Loi u
kim bng
S.6.60 158 385 ng
S.4.50 185 385
Thp khng r
(inox)
S.3.40 185 385 ng
TS3.40 100 330
Thp khng r
(inox)
TS2.25 100 330 ng

170

5. Cc u im:
- Bn knh bo v rng.
- Kh nng bo v cng trnh mc cao.
- T ng hot ng hon ton, khng cn ngun in cung cp, khng cn bo tr.
- Ni t n gin nhng tin cy.
- Hot ng tin cy, an ton, c kim tra th nghim trong phng th nghim cao p
bi trung tm nghin cu khoa hc quc gia Php (C.N.R.S) v kim tra trong iu kin st
thc t bi hi ng nng lng nguyn t Php (C.E.A).

6. Kim tra tiu chun an ton.
- Ngay t khi mi ra i, cc sn phm chng st Prevectron c kim tra tiu chun
an ton trong phng th nghim cao p. Qu trnh th nghim chng t kh nng thu st ca
dn st Prevectron: u thu st Prevectron c kh nng thu st, gii phng mt xung in p
cao nhanh hn vi chc micro giy so vi kim thu st thng thng.
- Trung tm nghin cu khoa hc quc gia php (C.N.R.S) tin hnh th nghim v
cp chng nhn tiu chun an ton cho sn phm PREVECTRON 2

7. Nghin cu th nghim v pht trin thit b.
- INDELEC l nh ch to thit b chng st duy nht trn th gii a sn phm ca
mnh th nghim trong iu kin st thc t ti cng trng th nghim Camp Blanding bang
Florida (M) v Saint Privat D

allier (Php). S th nghim ny c thc hin bi cc chuyn


gia hng u trong lnh vc st ca hi ng nguyn t Php.
- Qu trnh th nghim kho st nhng c tnh chnh sau y ca u thu st
Prevectron 2.
+ Phm vi bo v ca tng loi u thu st thng qua th nghim v so snh trn nhiu
u thu st khc nhau.
+ Nguyn tc v qu trnh hot ng ca thit b ion ho trong u thu st
PREVECTRON - 2.
+ Kh nng thu st v bn trong iu kin thc t c th nghim vi nhiu ln
phng in st vi nhng cng khc nhau.
8. Tnh ton vng bo v.




171





- Bn knh bo v R
p
ca u kim dn st PREVECTRON-2 c tnh theo cng thc
c nh bi tiu chun quc gia Php NFC 17-102 (thng 7-1995).
R
p
= ) 2 ( ) 2 ( L D L h D h A + A + (5.11)
Trong :
- D: l khong cch phng in, ty thuc cp bo v m chn gi tr ca n.
+ i vi cp bo v th nht chn D = 20m.
+ i vi cp bo v th hai chn D = 45m.
+ i vi cp bo v th th ba chn D = 60m.
- h: chiu cao thc ca u kim tnh t mt bng phi bo v, tnh bng m.
- AL : l li v khong cch, tnh bng m
AL = 10
6
.At
- At: li v thi gian, gi tr ny ty thuc vo tng loi u thu, tnh bng s
(chn theo bng )
- R
p
l bn knh bo v.
* Ga tr ca R
p
c th tra theo cc bng sau :
Bng 5.4: Thng s k thut dng tnh R
p
.
Loi u
thu st
Gi tr AT
(s)
M s
loi ng
M s
loi thp
Trng
lng (kg)
S6.60 60 1241 1242 4.2
S4.50 50 1231 1232 4.0
S3.40 40 1221 1222 3.8
TS3.40 40 1211 1212 2.5
TS2.25 25 1201 1202 2.3

Bng 5.5: Bn knh bo v R
p
.
- Cp bo v cao nht: D = 20 m.
h (m)
>>
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 15 Max 20(m)
172

S6.60
S4.50
S3.40
TS3.40
TS2.25
31
27
23
23
17
47
41
35
35
25
63
55
46
46
34
79
68
58
58
42
79
69
58
58
43
79
69
59
59
43
79
69
59
59
43
79
69
59
59
44
80
70
60
60
45
80
70
60
60
45

- Cp bo v trung bnh: D = 45 m.
h(m)>> 2 3 4 5 6 8 10 15 20
Max
45m
S6.60
S4.50
S3.40
TS3.40
TS2.25
39
34
30
30
23
58
52
45
45
34
78
69
60
60
46
97
86
75
75
57
97
87
76
76
58
98
87
77
77
59
99
88
77
77
61
101
90
80
80
63
102
92
81
81
65
105
95
85
85
70






- Cp bo v tiu chun: D = 60m.
h(m)> 2 3 4 5 6 8 10 15 45
Max
60 m
S6.60
S4.50
S3.40
TS3.40
TS2.25
43
38
33
33
26
64
57
50
50
39
85
76
67
67
52
107
95
84
84
65
107
96
84
84
66
108
97
85
85
67
109
98
87
87
69
13
102
92
92
75
119
109
99
99
84
120
110
100
100
85

Hot ng ii: t hc v n tp
- Ti liu tham kho cho bi ny:
- Nguyn Xun Ph, Nguyn Cng Hin, Nguyn Bi Khu: Cung cp in -
NXB Khoa hc v K thut, H Ni, 1998.
173

- Nguyn Cng Hin, ng Ngc Dinh, Nguyn Hu Khi, Phan ng Khi,
Nguyn Thnh: Cung cp in - NXB i hc v Trung hc Chuyn nghip, H
Ni, 1984.
- Trn Bch, Phan ng Khi, Ng Hng Quang: H thng cung cp in Gio
trnh HBK, H Ni, 1978.
- Trnh Hng Thm, o Quang Thch, o Kim Hoa: Nh my in v Trm
bin p NXB Khoa hc v K thut, H Ni, 1996.
- Bi Ngc Th: Mng cung cp v phn phi in, NXB Khoa hc v K thut, H
Ni, 2002.
- Cc Catalog cho hng ca ABB, Cng ty thit b in ng Anh v cc hng ca
Nht, Php, M, c,...

- Tr li cc cu hi sau y:
5.1. Nu tc hi ca st.
5.2. Trnh by cc qui nh chung v thit b chng st
5.3. u im ca cc u thu n bt t trong khng trung theo k thut mi so vi nhng
u thu theo theo tp qun kiu Franklin:
5.4. Nhng u im tng i ca mt dy dn a dng in st xung t c bo v so
vi dy dn a xung loi thng thng nh sau
5.5. Trnh by trnh t tnh ton ni t.
- Lm cc bi tp: Gii cc bi tp lin quan trong ti liu tham kho.


174



Bi 6
chiu sng cng nghip
M bi: CIE 01 19 06

Gii thiu :
Trong cc nh my phn xng nh sng c vai tr rt quan trng, n quyt nh n
hiu qu v nng sut lao ng ca cng nhn. Nu khng nh sng cng nhn s phi lm
vic trong trng thi cng thng hi mt, hi sc khe ... v kt qu l hng lot ph phm v
nng sut lao ng gim. V vy vn nh sng l mt trong nhng vn lun c quan
tm tm hiu v gii quyt mt cch ti u.

Mc tiu thc hin:
Hc xong bi ny, hc vin c nng lc:
- Tnh chn dy dn, b tr h thng chiu sng ph hp vi iu kin lm vic, mc
ch s dng theo qui nh k thut in.

Ni dung chnh:
thc hin mc tiu bi hc, ni dung bao gm:
6.1. Cc yu cu c bn.
6.2. c im.
6.3. Cc Hnh thc chiu sng.
6.4. Cc i lng v n v o nh sng
6.4.1 Quang thng.
6.4.2 Cng sng.
6.4.3 chi.
6.4.4 chiu sng.
6.4.5 trng.
6.5. Trnh t thit k chiu sng.
6.6. Trnh t tnh ton chiu sng.
6.7. Cc th d v thit k chiu sng.

Cc Hnh thc hc tp:
Hnh thc nghe ging trn lp c tho lun
Hnh thc t hc v tho lun nhm
Hnh thc thc hnh ti xng trng








175


Hot ng I: nghe ging trn lp c tho lun

chiu sng cng nghip

6.1. Cc yu cu c bn:
Trong bt k x nghip no, ngoi chiu sng t nhin cn phi dng chiu sng nhn
to, ph bin nht l dng n in chiu sng nhn to.
Khi thit k chiu sng phi p ng yu cu v ri v hiu qu ca chiu sng i vi
th gic. NgoI ra, chng ta cn phi quan tm n mu sc nh sng, la chn cc chao chp
n, s b tr chiu sng va m bo tnh kinh t, k thut v cn phI m bo m quan.
Thit k chiu sng phi m bo cc yu cu sau:
a. Khng la mt: V vi cng nh sng mnh m lm cho mt c cm gic la, thn
kinh b cng phng, th gic mt chnh xc.
b. Khng la do phn x: mt s vt cng tc c cc tia phn x kh mnh v trc tip,
do khi b tr n cn ch trnh.
c. Khng c bng ti: ni sn xut, cc phn xng khng nn c bng ti m phi
sng ng u c th quan st c ton b phn xng. Mun kh cc bng ti cc b,
thng s dng bng m v treo cao n.
d. ri yu cu phi ng u: Nhm mc nh khi quan st t v tr ny sang v tr
khc mt ngi khng phi iu tit qu nhiu, gy mi mt.
e. Phi to c nh sng ging nh sng ban ngy: th gic nh gi c chnh
xc.

6.2. c im:
Hin nay ngi ta thng dng n in chiu sng nhn to bi v chng c nhiu u
im: thit b n gin, s dng thun tin, gi thnh r, to c nh sng gn ng nh sng
t nhin.
n bao gm bng n (ngun pht sng) v trang b mang bng n cc loi (chp,
chao, hp, mng . . . ).
Trang b mang bng n (hoc trang b n) dng chn hay phn b quang thng ca
bng n, ngn chn hoc hn ch s la mt do bng n gy ra v bo v bng n khi b
h hng do tc ng ca mi trng xung quanh. Trang b n cng cn c tc dng bo v,
ngn cch bng n vi nhng mi trng c th gy ra chy n.
Tnh kinh t v cht lng chiu sng phn ln ph thuc vo s phn b quang thng
ca n.
Cn c vo s phn b quang thng qua bn cu trn v bn cu di, n c chia
thnh cc loi nh sau (xem bng 6.1):

176

Bng 6.1: Phn loi n theo k thut chiu sng

Cc dng
phn b
nh sng
ca n
Cc mu ng
cong cng
sng
B tr n
Lng
quang thng
pht ra
bn cu trn
(%)
Phn loi n
nh sng
trc tip






0 10
Ph thuc vo
c tnh ng
cong cng
sng, n c
xp thnh cc
loi: nh sng
phn b trung
bnh v phn b
rng.









10 45
nh sng trc tip
nh sng
tn x







45 55
nh sng tn x
ng u










55 90
nh sng phn x
l ch yu
nh sng
phn x







90 100
Ph thuc vo c
tnh ng cong
cng sng,
n c xp
thnh cc loi:
nh sng phn b
177

tp trung, phn b
trung bnh v
phn b rng.



- Loi n c nh sng trc tip hon ton, quang thng i qua phn bn cu di so vi
ton b quang thng ca n > 90%.
- Loi n c nh sng trc tip l ch yu, quang thng i qua phn bn cu di so
vi ton b quang thng ca n bng 60 90%.
- Loi n c nh sng phn x l ch yu, quang thng i qua phn bn cu trn (hoc
bn cu di) s 60% ton b quang thng ca n.
- Loi n c nh sng phn x hon ton, quang thng i qua phn bn cu trn so vi
ton b quang thng ca n > 90%.
Cn c vo hnh dng ng cong biu th s phn b nh sng (ch yu l bn cu
di) ca n, c chia thnh cc loi n nh sau (xem Hnh 6.1)




















- Loi n c s phn b nh sng theo chiu su (n chiu su), cng nh sng
ca n t tr s cc i trong gii hn gc 0
0
40Error! Not a valid link., trong
Hnh 6.1: Cc dng ng cong cng sng
(theo ROCT 13828-74).
Tp trung (T), su (S) csin (c s), sin (Son), ng
u (), rng hn (R), rng mt na (r)

178

phm vi gc t 50
0
90Error! Not a valid link. tr s cng sng ca n rt
nh.
- Loi n c s phn b nh sng theo dng csin, cng nh sng ca n phn b
c dng gn ging nh ng kinh tuyn.
- Loi n c s phn b nh sng ng u, cng nh sng ca n phn b theo
mi phng.
- Loi n c s phn b nh sng rng, cng nh sng ca n t tr s cc i
trong gii hn gc 50
0
90Error! Not a valid link., trong phm vi gc t 0
0

40Error! Not a valid link. tr s cng sng ca n nh.
Cn c vo cch gia cng ch to, n c chia thnh cc loi nh sau:
- n kiu h: bng n khng b ngn cch vi mi trng bn ngoi.
- n kiu kn: bng v ui n b ngn cch vi mi trng bn ngoi qua chp,
hp... lm bng kim loi, knh hoc vt liu khc.
- n chng m: ui n, chp n, hp n c ch to chng s thm nhp ca kh
m, nc. Cc dy in c u vo uI n chc chn, m bo cch in tt.
- n chng bi.
- n chng n: gia khoang n v mI trng bn ngoI c s ngn cch c bit ,
khi v mt nguyn nhn no bng n b chy, n th hin tng ny khng lan ra
mI trng xung quanh, hoc dng cc cu to c bit loi tr c hon ton cc
hin tng pht sinh tia la in, h quang in, to nn nhit cao trong cc mi
trng c nhiu nguy c chy, n.
6.3. Cc Hnh thc chiu sng:
6.3.1. Chiu sng chung, chiu sng cc b v chiu sng hn hp:
a. Chiu sng chung:
L hnh thc chiu sng to nn ri ng u trn ton din tch sn xut ca phn
xng. Trong hnh thc chiu sng ny, cc bng n c treo cao trn trn theo mt quy lut
no to nn ri ng u trong phn xng.










Hnh 6.2: Mt s hnh thc chiu sng thng dng
179

Chiu sng chung c dng trong cc cc phn xng c din tch lm vic rng, c
yu cu ri ng u ti mi im trn b mt , chiu sng chung cn c s dng c
xng rn, mc, hnh lang, ng i...

b. Chiu sng cc b:
nhng ni cn quan st t m, chnh xc, phn bit r cc chi tit... th cn phi c
ri cao lm vic c. Mun vy phi dng phng php chiu sng cc b, ngha l t n
vo ni cn quan st. Chiu sng cc b thng dng chiu sng cc chi tit gia cng trn
my cng c, chiu sng cc b phn kim tra, lp my... Ti cc ni chiu sng chung
thng khng ri cn thit nn phi dng thm cc n chiu sng cc b. Cc loi n
chiu sng cc b trn my cng c hoc cc n cm tay di ng thng dng vi in p
12V hoc 36V.
c. Chiu sng hn hp:
L hnh thc chiu sng bao gm chiu sng chung v chiu sng cc b. Chiu sng
hn hp c dng nhng phn xng c nhng cng vic thuc cp I, II, III ghi trong bng
phn phi cng vic. N cng c dng khi phn bit mu sc, li lm, hng sp xp cc
chi tit... chiu sng hn hp thng dng cc phn xng gia cng ngui, phn xng
khun mu, c... cc nh my c kh.
6.3.2. Chiu sng lm vic v chiu sng s c:
Ngoi h thng chiu sng lm vic cn phi t thm h thng. ri ca h thng
chiu sng s c phi ln hn 10% ri ca h thng chiu sng lm vic.
nhng ni nu h thng chiu sng lm vic b mt in m c kh nng pht sinh chy
n gy nhim c hoc nh hng n chnh tr, kinh t th h thng chiu sng s c s m
bo cho ngi lm vic di chuyn ra khi ni nguy him hay tip tc lm vic trong thi gian
ch sa cha.
Khi chiu sng lm vic b mt in, nu cn s tn ngi ra khi phn xng trnh
tai nn th cc n chiu sng s c phi t cc ni my cn quay, h du, b nc, cu ni,
lan can, cu thang... v ri ca n ny khng c nh hn 0,1 lux.
Ngun cung cp ca h thng chiu sng s c phi ly ngun d tr hoc c quy.
H thng chiu sng s c phi lm vic ng thi vi h thng chiu sng lm vic hoc
phi c thit b ng t ng khi h thng chiu sng lm vic b mt in.
6.3.3. Chiu sng trong nh, ngoi tri v c im ca ph ti chiu sng:
Chiu sng trong nh trnh by trn, cn chiu sng ngoi tri l chiu sng cc khu
vc lm vic ngoi tri nh: sn bi, ng i, ni bc d hng ha... Khi thit k cn ch
n cc yu t kh hu: ma, bi, sng m...
c im ca ph ti chiu sng l bng phng vi h s nhu cu (k
nc
= 0,9 1). Ph ti
chiu sng ph thuc vo ma v v a l.

6.4. Cc i lng v n v o nh sng
6.4.1. Quang thng:
180

Mt ngi c cm gic rt khc nhau vi nh sng c cng cng sut nhng c bc sng
khc nhau. Mt trung bnh nhy cm nht vi nh sng mu xanh l cy c bc sng 555.10
-6
m. i vi cc bc sng lch khi 555.10
-6
m v hai pha, cm quang ca mt gim i v
ra ngoi khong bc sng 760.10
-6
m v 380.10
-6
m th mt khng cm nhn thy na. Nu coi
nhy cm ca mt vi cc bc sng 555.10
-6
m l 1, ri tnh nhy cm ca mt vi bc
sng cn li theo bc sng ny ta s c nhy tng i K. i vi mt ngi quan
trng khng phi l cng sut ca cc tia sng m chnh l cm gic v nh sng m cc tia
sng gy ra trong mt. phn nh iu ny, ta quy chuyn nh sng c bc sng bt k
v nh sng xanh l cy bng cng thc:
F
x
= F.K
Trong :
F: l cng sut ca nh sng c bc sng .
K: l nhy ca mt i vi bc sng .
F
x
: l cng sut ca nh sng c bc sng quy i v bc sng 555.10
-
6
m.
i lng F
x
vit gn l F v c gi l quang thng.
Nu nh sng bao gm bc sng t
1
-
2
th quang thng c tnh nh sau:

}
=
2
1
. . F

d K F
Nh vy quang thng chnh l cng sut ca nh sng (cng sut pht sng), c nh
gi bng cm gic vi mt thng ca ngi c th hp th c lng bc x.
n v quang thng: l lumen (lm), l quang thng do mt ngun sng im c cng
1 can la pht u trong gc khi 1 St ra i an (sr)
1lm = 1cd X 1gc khi
Cng c khi dng n v l W, vi:
W
683
1
1lm=
6.4.2. Cng sng (I) l mt phn b trong khng gian.
n v o cng nh sng l can la (cd), l n v c bn dng ch cng nh
sng trn mt phng vung gc vi ngun sng c din tch 1/600.000 m
2
v bc x ton phn
nhit ng c ca platin di p sut 101.325 N/m
2
(theo nh ngha nm 1921 1cd =
0,995 nn quc t).

6.4.3. chi B. L mt phn b I trn b mt theo mt phng cho trc.
n v o chi: cd/m
2
(hoc nt) l chi ca mt phng c din tch 1m
2
v c
cng nh sng 1cd theo phng thng gc vi ngun sng.
Trng hp theo phng to vi php tuyn ca b mt ngun sng mt gc th chi
c tnh theo cng thc:
B = I/ S.cos
Trong : S l din tch b mt c chiu sng.
181

6.4.4. chiu sng E ( ri): L mt phn b (u) trn b mt c chiu sng.
n v o ri: Lux l ri khi u phn b ng u mt lumen (1lm) chiu vung
gc ln mt mt phng din tch 1m
2
.
E =
S
u

Nh vy:
1lux = 1lm/1m
2
= 1cd/1m
2
6.4.5. trng (M) l mt phn b u trn b mt do mt mt khc pht ra.
n v o trng lm/m
2
l trng ca mt ngun hnh cu c din tch mt ngoi
1m
2
pht ra mt quang thng cu mt lumen phn b u theo mi phng.
M =
S
u

i vi b mt c chiu sng, chi v trng ph thuc vo h s phn x (),
cn ri khng ph thuc vo h s ny.
6.5. Trnh t thit k chiu sng.
Trnh t mt bn thit k chiu sng bao gm:
1. La chn loi n, cng sut, s lng bng n
2. B tr n trong khng gian cn chiu sng.
3. Thit k li in cn chiu sng:
- S nguyn l li chiu sng.
- La chn cc thit b bo v: ptmt, cu ch.
- La chn dy dn:

6.5.1. Thit k chiu sng dn dng:
Chiu sng dn dng bao gm chiu sng cho cc khu vc nh sng sinh hot nh nh ,
hi trng, trng hc, c quan, vn phng i din, ca hng, siu th, bnh vin v.v.
nhng khu vc ny yu cu chiu sng chung, khng i hi tht chnh xc tr s ri cng
nh cc thng s k thut khc.
Trong chiu sng dn dng ty theo kh nng kinh ph, ty theo mc yu cu m quan
c th s dng mi loi n: n si t, n tup, n halgen, n natri cao p v thp p.
Trnh t thit k chiu sng dn dng nh sau:
a. Cn c vo tnh cht ca i tng cn chiu sng, chn sut ph tI chiu sng P
o

b. Chn loi n, cng sut n P

, xc nh tng s bng n cn lp trong khu vc:


c. Cn c vo din tch cn chiu sng, vo s lng bng n, vo tnh cht yu cu s
dng nh sng m chn cch b tr n thch hp (b tr rI u hay thnh rnh, thnh cm, s
lng bng trong mi cm v.v).
d. V s u dy t bng in n tng bng n. l bn v mt bng cp in
chiu sng.
e. V s nguyn l li in chiu sng.
182

f. La chn v kim tra cc phn t trn s (ptmt, cu ch, thanh ci, dy dn)
Ghi ch:
Trong tnh ton chiu sng dn dng th bao gm c tnh ton thit k cho qut. Trong
trng hp ny c hai cch lm:
- Ly sut ph ti chung cho c chiu sng v qut, sau tr cng sut qut (ly theo
thc t) tm c cng sut chiu sng.
- Ly ring sut ph ti cho chiu sng tnh ton thit k chiu sng, cn qut ly theo
thc t, tnh ton ring.

6.5.2. Thit k chiu sng cng nghip:
Vi cc nh xng sn xut cng nghip thng l chiu sng chung khi cn tng cng
nh sng ti im lm vic c chiu sng cc b.
V l phn xng sn xut, yu cu kh chnh xc v ri ti mt bn cng tc, nn
thit k chiu sng cho khu vc ny thng dng phng php h s s dng.
Trnh t nh sau:
1. Xc nh cao treo n.
2. Cn c vo s b tr n trn mt bng, mt ct, xc nh h s phn x ca tng, trn

tng
,
trn
, (%).
3. Xc nh ch s ca phng (c kch thc a x b)
4. Tra bng tm h s s dng k
sd
5. Xc nh quang thng ca n
6. Tra s tay tm cng sut bng c F > F tnh ton theo
7. V s cp in chiu sng trn mt bng.
8. V s nguyn l cp in chiu sng.
9. La chn cc phn t trn s nguyn l.

6.6. Trnh t tnh ton chiu sng.
Trnh t tnh ton chiu sng bao gm:
- La chn cc thit b bo v: ptmt, cu ch.
ptmt (CB) c chn theo iu kin:
U
mCB
> U
mL

I
mCB
> I
tt

I
cmCB
> I
N

Cu ch c chn theo cc iu kin:
U
mCC
> U
mL

I
dc
> I
tt

Cu ch h p thng dng xa ngun nn dng ngn mch nh, khng cn kim tra
iu kin ct dng ngn mch. Vi cu ch cp trn vn phI m bo iu kin chn lc.
183

ptmt c cu to phc tp v t, tuy nhin do lm vic tin cy v thao tc ng li
nhanh lm cho thi gian mt in ngn nn ngy cng c dng nhiu trong li in chiu
sng dn dng v cng nghip.
- La chn dy dn:
Dy dn trong li in chiu sng h p chn theo dng pht nng cho php
k
1
k
2
I
cp
> I
tt

Trong :
k
1
: l h s hiu chnh nhit , k n s chnh lch gia nhit mi
trng ch to v nhit mi trng s dng, tra s tay.
k
2
: l h s hiu chnh nhit , k n s lng dy hoc cp I chung mt
ng (hoc mt rnh).
I
cp
: l dng in cho php ca dy dn ng vi tit din cn chn, nh ch to
cho, tra s tay.
Phi kim tra dy dn chn theo iu kin kt hp vi thit b bo v:
+ Nu bo v bng ptmt:

1,5
1,25I
I k k
dmCB
cp 2 1
>
+ Nu bo v bng cu ch:
0,8
I
I k k
dc
cp 2 1
>
NgoI ra khi cn thit, cn phi kim tra dy dn theo iu kin tn tht in p (nu
ng dy di) v iu kin n nh nhit dng ngn mch (nu gn ngun).

6.6.1 Tnh ton chiu sng dn dng:
a. Tnh tng cng sut chiu sng cho khu vc c din tch S (m
2
)
P
cs
= P
o
.S
Trong :
P
o
: Sut chiu sng trn mt n v din tch, tra bng chn. (W/m
2
)
S: din tch (m
2
)
b. Tnh tng s bng n cn lp trong khu vc:
n =
P
cs

P


Trong :
P

: cng sut n (W)


n: tng s bng n (bng)

c. Cn c vo din tch cn chiu sng, vo s lng bng n, vo tnh cht yu cu s
dng nh sng m chn cch b tr n thch hp (b tr rI u hay thnh rnh, thnh cm, s
lng bng trong mi cm v.v).
(6.1)
184

d. V s u dy t bng in n tng bng n. l bn v mt bng cp in
chiu sng.
e. V s nguyn l li in chiu sng.
f. La chn v kim tra cc phn t trn s (ptmt, cu ch, thanh cI, dy dn)
Ghi ch:
Trong tnh ton chiu sng dn dng th bao gm c tnh ton thit k cho qut. Trong
trng hp ny c hai cch lm:
- Ly sut ph ti chung cho c chiu sng v qut, sau tr cng sut qut (ly theo
thc t) tm c cng sut chiu sng.
- Ly ring sut ph ti cho chiu sng tnh ton thit k chiu sng, cn qut ly theo
thc t, tnh ton ring.

6.6.2 Tnh ton chiu sng cng nghip:
Trnh t tnh ton nh sau:
1. Xc nh cao treo n:
H = h - h
1
h
2
(6.2)
Trong :
h: l cao ca nh xng.
h
1
: l khong cch t trn n bng n.
h
2
: l cao mt bn lm vic.











2. Xc nh khong cch gia hai n k nhau (L) theo t s hp l L/H, tra theo bng 6.1:
Bng 6.1: t s L/H hp l cho cc i tng chiu sng
Loi n v nI s
dng
L/H b tr
nhiu dy
L/H b tr
1 dy
Chiu rng gii hn
ca nh xng
khi b tr 1 dy
Tt
nht
Max cho
php
Tt
nht
Max cho
php

Chiu sng nh
xng dng chao m
2,3 3,2 1,9 2,5 1,3H
L L L
L L
L L
h H
h
1

h
2

Hnh 6.3: B tr n trn mt bng v mt ng
185

hoc st trng men.
Chiu sng nh
xng dng chao vn
nng.
1,8 2,5 1,8 2,0 1,2H
Chiu sng c quan,
vn phng.
1,6 1,8 1,5 1,8 1,0H

3. Cn c vo s b tr n trn mt bng, mt ct, xc nh h s phn x ca tng, trn

tng
,
trn
, (%).
4. Xc nh ch s ca phng (c kch thc a x b)

b) H(a
b x a
+
= (6.3)
5. T
tng
,
trn
, tra bng tm h s s dng k
sd
6. Xc nh quang thng ca n
(lumen)
n.k
kESZ
F
sd
= (6.4)
Trong :
k: l h s d tr, tra bng 6.2.
E: l ri (lx) theo yu cu ca nh xng.
S: l din tch nh xng (m
2
).
Z: l h s tnh ton Z = 0,8 1,4.
n: l s bng n c xc nh chnh xc sau khi b tr n trn mt bng.
Bng 6.2: H s d tr
Tnh cht mi trng
S ln lau bng
t nht 1 thng
H s d tr (k)
n tup n si t
Nhiu bi khi, tro, m hng. 4 2 1,7
Mc bi khi, tro, m hng trung
bnh
3 1,8 1,5
t bi khi, tro, m hng. 2 1,5 1,3

7. Tra s tay tm cng sut bng c F > F tnh ton theo (6.4)
8. V s cp in chiu sng trn mt bng.
9. V s nguyn l cp in chiu sng.
10. La chn cc phn t trn s nguyn l.

6.7. Cc th d v thit k chiu sng.
- V d 6.1:
Yu cu thit k chiu sng cho mt siu th nh, din tch 10x10 = 100m
2
.

186

Gii:
Siu th yu cu mc chiu sng cao v vy chn sut chiu sng l:
P
o
= 30 W/m
2

Tng cng sut cn cp cho chiu sng siu th l:
P
cs
= P
o
.S = 30 x (10x10) = 3000W
Chn dng loi n n-on, di 1,2m, cng sut 40W. Vy s lng bng n cn dng l:
n =
3000
= 75 bng
40

S lng ny c b tr thnh 5 dy, mi dy 15 bng chia lm 5 cm, mi cm 3 bng.
Mt bng b tr n v i dy nh Hnh 6.4





























Hnh 6.4: Mt bng cp in chiu sng cho siu th
1; 4: Bng in. 5. ptmt tng.
2. Dy n 5 cm n. 6. Cc ptmt nhnh.
3. Cm n.
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
2 2 2 2 2
1
3
5
6 6 6 6 6
4
Bng in
3
187





S nguyn l li in chiu sng cho siu th nh sau:

















La chn ptmt tng CB
T
:
(A) 17,045
220.0,8
3000
I I
tt dmAT
= = >
Chn ptmt 30A do LG ch to.

La chn ptmt nhnh:
C 5 ptmt nhnh, dng tnh ton mi nhnh l dng ca 15 n.

(A) 3,409
220.0,8
40 x 15
I I
tt dmAi
= = >

Chn dng 5 ptmt 5A do LG ch to.
Thng s k thut ca cc ptmt cho trong bng sau:
Tn
ptmt
U
m
(V)
I
m
(A)
Loi Kiu
S
cc
I
cm
(kA)
S
lng
CB
T
600 30 50AF ABE 53a 3 2,5 1
CB
1
, CB
2
, CB
3
,
CB
4
, CB
5
.
600 5 50AF ABE 53a 3 2,5 5

V xa ngun nn khng cn kim tra iu kin ct ngn mch.
Hnh 6.5: S nguyn l cp in chiu sng cho siu th
CB
1

CB
T

CB
2
CB
3
CB
4
CB
5

188

La chn dy dn cho 5 dy n.
k
1
k
2
I
cp
> I
tt
= 3,409 (A)
D nh dng dy ng bc nha h p, li mm nhiu si do CADIVI ch to, I ring
l: k
1
= k
2
= 1
Chn dng dy i mm trn loi VCm (2 x 1) c I
cp
= 10 (A)
Kim tra iu kin kt hp ptmt bo v.

1,5
5 x 1,25
1,5
1,25I
10A I
dmCB
cp
= >> =
Vy chn dy VCm (2 x 1) cho cc dy n l tha mn.
V ng dy ngn nn khng cn kim tra iu kin tn tht in p.
V xa ngun nn khng cn kim tra n nh nhit dng ngn mch.

- V d 6.2:
Yu cu thit k chiu sng cho phn xng c kh c din tch S = 20 x 50 = 1000m
2

Gii:
1. Xc nh s lng, cng sut n:
Ni dung phn ny bao gm cc hng mc t 1 n 7 trong trnh t tnh ton nu trn.
V l xng sn xut, d nh dng n si t, cos = 1.
Chn ri cho chiu sng chung l E = 30 lx.
Cn c vo trn nh cao 4,5m, mt cng tc h
2
= 0,8m, cao treo n cch trn h
1
=
0,7m. Vy:
H = h - h
1
h
2
= 4,5 0,7 0,8 = 3 m.
Tra bng n si t, bng vn nng c L/H = 1,8. xc nh c khong cch gia cc
n.
L = 1,8 x H = 1,8 x 3 = 5.4 m.
Cn c vo b rng phng (20m) chn L = 5 m.
n s c b tr lm 4 dy cch nhau 5m, cch tng 2,4m, tng cng 36 bng, mi
dy 9 bng.
Xc nh ch s phng:
5
) 50 20 .( 3
50 . 20
b) H(a
b . a
~
+
=
+
=
Ly h s phn x tng 50%, trn 30%, tra s tay tm c h s s dng k
sd
=
0,48.
Ly h s d tr k = 1,3 v h s tnh ton Z = 1,1. Xc nh c quang thng mi n
l:
(lumen) 2483
36.0,48
0.1,1 1,3.30.100

n.k
kESZ
F
sd
= = =

Tra bng chn bng si t 200W c F = 2528 lumen.
189

NgoI chiu sng trong nh xng, cn t thm 4 bng 100W cho 2 phng thay qun o
v 2 phng WC. Tng cng sut chiu sng ton xng l:
P = 36 x 200 + 4 x 100 = 7600 (W) = 7,6 (kW)

2. Thit b li in chiu sng:
t ring 1 t chiu sng cnh ca ra vo ly in t t phn phi phn xng v. T
gm 1 ptmt ba pha v 10 ptmt nhnh mt pha, mi ptmt cp in cho 4 bng n. S
cp in trn mt bng v s nguyn l nh Hnh Hnh 6.5 v 6.6.
- Chn ptmt t ti t phn phi v ptmt t ti t chiu sng.
A) ( 56 , 11
1 . 38 , 0 . 3
6 , 7
cos . U . 3
P
I
dm
tt
tt
= = =



- Chn dng ptmt 3 pha 50A do Clipsal ch to c thng s ghi trong bng:
Tn ptmt M s
U
m
(V)
I
m
(A)
S
cc
I
cm
(kA)
ptmt tng v ptmt nhnh
t ti t phn phi
G4CB3050C 400 50 3 6

- Chn cp t t phn phi n t chiu sng:
Chn cp ng 4 li v PVC do Clipsal ch to, tit din 6mm
2
c I
cp
= 45 (A) PVC(3
x 6 + 1,4)
k
1
k
2
I
cp
= 1 . 1 . 45 > I
tt
= 11,56 (A)
- Chn ptmt nhnh:
A) ( 64 , 3
1 220
20 4
I
tt
= =
x
x

Tn ptmt M s U
m
(V)

I
m
(A)

S cc I
cm
(kA) S lng
ptmt nhnh G4CB2010C 400 10 2 6 10

- Chn dy dn t ptmt nhnh n cm 4 n:
Vi I
tt
= 3,64A chn dy ng bc nha, tit din 2,5mm
2
c I
cp
= 27A M (2 x 2.5)
Kim tra dy dn kt hp ptmt bo v:

+ Vi dy PVC(3 x 6 + 1,4):
A) ( 6 , 41
5 , 1
50 . 25 , 1
) A ( 45 = >

+ Vi dy M (2 x 2.5):
190

A) ( 33 , 8
5 , 1
10 . 25 , 1
) A ( 27 = >

191









































Hnh 6.6: S nguyn l mng chiu snngng c kh
TO-50EC-50A
L
1
L
2

50A
T PP
L
3
L
4

PVC (3X6+1.4)
10xQCE-10A
T CS
192



193



Hnh 6.7: S mng in chiu sng xng c kh
1: T in chiu sng.
2: Bng in nh thay qun o v WC.
1
W
C


2
0
.
0
0
0

50.000
L = 5cm
L

=

5
c
m


W
C


P
.
t
h
a
y

q
u

o

P
.
t
h
a
y

q
u

o

1
.
0
0
0

1
.
0
0
0

6
.
0
0
0

6
.
0
0
0

2
2
3.000
194

Hot ng ii: t hc v n tp
- Ti liu tham kho cho bi ny:
- Nguyn Xun Ph, Nguyn Cng Hin, Nguyn Bi Khu: Cung cp in,
NXB Khoa hc v K thut, H Ni, 1998.
- Nguyn Cng Hin, ng Ngc Dinh, Nguyn Hu Khi, Phan ng Khi,
Nguyn Thnh: Cung cp in, NXB i hc v Trung hc Chuyn nghip, H
Ni, 1984.
- Quyn Huy nh: Cung cp in, Trng i hc S phm K thut TP H Ch
Minh, 2006.
- Trn Bch, Phan ng Khi, Ng Hng Quang: H thng cung cp in,
Gio trnh HBK, H Ni, 1978.
- Ng Hng Quang, V Vn Tm: Thit k cp in, NXB Khoa hc v K
thut, H Ni, 1998.
- Trnh Hng Thm, o Quang Thch, o Kim Hoa: Nh my in v
Trm bin p, NXB Khoa hc v K thut, Haf Ni, 1996.
- Bi Ngc Th: Mng cung cp v phn phi in, NXB Khoa hc v K thut,
H Ni, 2002.
- Cc Catalog cho hng ca ABB, Cng ty thit b in ng Anh v cc hng
ca Nht, Php, M, c,...
- Cung cp in cho x nghip cng nghip, NXB Khoa hc v K thut, H Ni,
1974.
- Cung cp in, D n JICA-HIC, Ban iu khin in, 2003.
- Cung cp in, V Trung hc Chuyn nghip v Dy ngh, NXB Gio dc, H
Ni, 2005.

- Lm cc bi tp: Gii cc bi tp 6.1; 6.2; 6.3; 6.4 v cc bi tp lin quan trong
ti liu tham kho.
Bi tp:
6.1. Yu cu thit k h thng chiu sng v qut cho mt lp hc c kch thc:
rng 8m v di 10m
.

6.2. Yu cu thit k h thng chiu sng v qut cho mt phng lm vic ca vn
phng i din nc ngoI, kch thc (4 x 6)m
2
.
6.3. Yu cu thit k h thng chiu sng cho mt hi trng c din tch S = (12 x
20)m
2
.
6.4. Yu cu thit k h thng chiu sng chung cho phn xng may xut khu c
kch thc (15 x 30)m
2
. Yu cu ri 100 lx.

195



Bi 7
Nng cao h s cng sut cos
M bi: CIE 01 19 07

Gii thiu :
in nng l nng lng ch yu ca cc x nghip cng nghip. Cc x nghip ny
tiu th khong trn 70% tng s in nng c sn xut ra, v th vn s dng hp l
v tit kim in nng trong cc x nghip cng nghp c ngha rt ln. V mt sn xut
in nng vn t ra l phi tn dng ht kh nng ca cc nh my pht in sn
xut ra c nhiu in nht, ng thi v mt dng in phi ht sc tit kim in, gim
tn tht in nng n mc nh nht, phn u mt kWh in ngy cng lm ra nhiu
sn phm hoc chi ph in nng cho mt n v sn phm ngy cng gim.
H s cng sut cos l mt ch tiu nh gi x nghip dng in c hp l v
tit kim hay khng. Do , Nh nc ban hnh cc chnh sch khuyn khch cc x
nghip phn u nng cao h s cng sut cos.
Vic tit kim in v nng cao h s cng sut cos khng phI l bin php tm
thi i ph vi tnh trng thiu in, m y l ch trng lu di gn lin vi mc ch
pht huy hiu qu cao nht qu trnh sn xut, phn phi v s dng in nng. Tuy nhin,
khi thc hin cc bin php tit kim in v nng cao h s cng sut cos chng ta cn
ch khng gy nh hng xu n cht lng v s lng sn phm hoc lm xu iu
kin lm vic bnh thng ca cng nhn.
Tm li, nng cao h s cng sut cos l mt trong nhng bin php quan trng
tit kim in nng. lm c iu ny th vic phn tch, nm vng cc bin php
nng cao h s cng sut cos mt yu cu trng tm. N l c s chn phng n nng
cao h s cng sut hp l nht.

Mc tiu thc hin:
Hc xong bi ny, hc vin c nng lc:
- Chn c bin php nng cao h s cng sut ph hp tnh hnh thc t, theo tiu
chun Vit Nam.

Ni dung chnh:
thc hin mc tiu bi hc, ni dung bao gm:
7.1 Khi nim.
7.2 ngha ca vic nng cao h s cng sut cos.
7.3 Cc bin php nng cao h s cng sut cos.


Cc Hnh thc hc tp:
196

Hnh thc nghe ging trn lp c tho lun
Hnh thc t hc v tho lun nhm
Hnh thc thc hnh ti xng trng


Hot ng I: nghe ging trn lp c tho lun
Nng cao h s cng sut cos
7.1. Khi nim.
Cc i lng biu din cng sut c lin quan mt thit vi nhau qua tam gic cng
sut.










Tr s ca gc c ngha rt quan trng:
- Nu + th P|, Q+; khi = 0 th P S, Q = 0
- Nu | th P+, Q|; khi = 90
o
th Q S, P = 0
Trong nghin cu v tnh ton thc t ngi ta thng dng khI nim h s cng sut
(cos) thay cho gc gia S v P ().
Khi cos cng nh (tc cng ln) th lng cng sut phn khng tiu th (hoc
truyn ti) cng ln v cng sut tc dng cng nh, ngc li cos cng ln (tc cng
nh) th lng Q tiu th (hoc truyn ti) cng nh.
Lng Q truyn tI trn li in cc cp t nh my in n h tiu th cng ln
cng gy tn tht ln trn li in.

7.2. ngha ca vic nng cao h s cng sut cos.
Cc x nghip cng nghip s dng nhiu ng c khng ng b ba pha, thng
xuyn non tI hoc khng tI, tiu th lng Q rt ln, cos thp. V d cc x nghip c
kh thng c cos = 0,5 0,6. Lng Q m cc x nghip cng nghip tiu th chim
khong 65% 70% tng cng sut Q pht ra t cc nh my in.
Nu cc x nghip cng nghip, bng cc giI php k thut nng cao cos, ngha l
lm gim lng cng sut phn khng truyn tI trn li in t cc nh my in n x
nghip, th s dn ti lm tng tnh kinh t vn hnh li in. C th l:
a. Lm gim tn tht in p trn li in:
Hnh 7.1: Tam gic cng sut
S: Cng sut ton phn
P: Cng sut tc dng
Q: Cng sut phn khng
: Gc gia S v P
S Q
P

197

Gi thit cng sut tc dng khng i, cos ca x nghip tng t cos
1
ln cos
2
,
ngha l lng cng sut phn khng truyn tI gim t Q
1
xung Q
2
. Khi , do Q
1
> Q
2

U
X Q PR
U
1
1
+
= A >
2
2
U
U
X Q PR
A =
+

b. Lm gim tn tht cng sut trn li in:
Z
U
Q P
S
2
2
1
2
1
+
= A >
2
2
2
2
2
S Z
U
Q P
A =
+

c. Lm gim tn tht in nng trn li in:
t .
2
2
1
2
1
R
U
Q P
A
+
= A > R A R
U
Q P
. .
2
2
2
2
2
A =
+
t
Ta thy AS v AA gim t l vi bnh phng lng gim Q.
d. Lm tng kh nng ca ng dy v my bin p:













T Hnh 7.2 nhn thy S
2
< S
1
, ngha l ng dy v my bin p ch cn ti cng
sut S
2
sau khi gim lng Q truyn ti. Nu ng dy v my bin p chn ti S
1
th
vi Q
2
c th tI lng P ln hn (xem Hnh 7.2). iu ny cho thy, khi lm gim Q c
th lm tng kh nng ti cng sut P t P
1
ln P
2
ca ng dy v my bin p.

7.3. Cc bin php nng cao h s cng sut cos.
Cc bin php lm tng cos ca x nghip cng nghip c gi bng mt thut ng
l B cos .
7.3.1 B cos t nhin:
B cos t nhin cng l mt thut ng ch nhng gii php khng cn t thit b b
m lm tng c tr s cos. chnh l nhng gii php n gin, r tin lm gim
lng tiu th Q ca x nghip. Cc gii php b cos t nhin thng dng l:

Hnh 7.2: Tr s Q tng ng vi tr s gc

1

S
1

S
2

Q
2

Q
1

(Q
1
- Q
2
) = Q
B

Q
2

P
2
P
1

198



a. Thay ng c thng xuyn non tI bng ng c c cng sut b hn:
Tr s cos ca ng c t l vi h s ti ca ng c, ng c cng non tI th cos
cng thp.
Mi x nghip cng nghip ln c hng ngn ng c cc loi, nu cc ng c
thng xuyn non ti c thay bng ng c c cng sut nh hn (lm cho h s ti tng
ln) th s lm cho cos tng ng c tng ln dn n cos ca ton x nghip tng ln
ng k.
V d, ng c my tin 10kW, nhng do qu trnh gia cng ch cn s dng cng
sut 5,5kW, khi h s ti:
55 , 0
10
5 , 5
= =
t
k
Nu thay ng c my tin 10kW bng ng c 7kW s c h s ti l:
8 , 0
7
5 , 5
~ =
t
k
Kinh nghim ch ra rng:
+ Vi nhng ng c c k
t
< 0,45 th nn thay.
+ Vi nhng ng c c k
t
> 0,75 th khng nn thay.
+ Vi nhng ng c c k
t
= 0,45 0,75 th cn phi so snh kinh t 2 phng n:
thay v khng thay, xem phng n no c li hn, sau mi quyt nh c thay ng c
non ti bng ng c c cng sut nh hn khng.

b. Tng cng cht lng sa cha ng c:
ng c sau khi sa cha thng c cos thp hn so vi trc sa cha, mc
gim thp cos ty thuc vo cht lng sa cha ng c.
Mi x nghip ln thng xuyn c hng trm ng c thay nhau sa cha, chnh v
th nhng x nghip ny phi xy dng phn xng sa cha c kh, ch yu lm nhim
v sa cha ng c.
Nu cht lng sa cha m bo s gp phn khng nh vo vic gim mc tiu th
Q ca ng c sau sa cha v gp phn lm tng cos ca x nghip. V th, tng cng
cht lng sa cha ng c rt cn c cc x nghip cng nghip lu ng mc.
Tm li, bng cc gii php tng hp v ng b k trn, chc chn s gip cho cos
ca x nghip c nng cao trc khi s dng cc thit b b, iu ny em li li ch kinh
t r rt cho cc x nghip.
V d, mt x nghip c kh trung, qui m c tng cng sut tnh ton l P = 10.000
kW, cos = 0,5 th lng Q tiu th s l:
Q = P.tg = 10.000 x 1,732 = 17,320 (kVAr)
199

Gi s s dng cc gii php b nhn to nu trn nng c cos ln 0,6, khi
lng Q tiu th ch cn:
Q = 10.000 x 1,33 = 13,300 (kVAr)
Ngha l gim c mt lng tiu th Q l:
17,320 - 13,300 = 4,020 (kVAr)
Nh vy x nghip bt c khon tin mua, lp t, qun l, bo dng 4,020
(kVAr) t b.

7.3.2 Dng cc thit b b cos:
B cos ti x nghip l mt thut ng ca ngnh in, thc cht l x nghip t t
thit b pht ra Q t tc mt phn hoc ton b nhu cu tiu th Q trong x nghip, lm
gim lng Q truyn tI trn li in cung cp cho x nghip.
Thit b pht ra Q thng dng trn li in l my b v t b. My b, hay cn
gi l my b ng b, l ng c ng b chy qu kch thch ch pht ra Q. u khuyt
im ca hai loi thit b b ny gii thiu trong bng 7.1
Bng 7.1: so snh c tnh kinh t, K thut ca my b v t b.
My b T b
Cu to, vn hnh, sa cha phc tp Cu to, vn hnh, sa cha n gin
t R
Tiu th nhiu in nng
AP = 5%Q
b

Tiu th t in nng
AP = (2 5)%Q
b

Ting n ln Yn tnh
iu chnh Q
b
trn iu chnh Q
b
theo cp

Qua bng so snh trn, ta nhn thy t b c nhiu u im hn my b, nhc im
duy nht ca t l cng sut Q
b
pht ra khng trn m thay i thay cp (bc thang) khi
tng, gim s t b. Tuy nhin, iu ny khng quan trng v b cos mc ch l lm sao
cho cos ca x nghip ln hn cos quy nh l 0,85 ch khng cn c tr s tht chnh
xc. Thng b cos ln tr s t 0,9 n 0,95.
Tm li, trn li in x nghip cng nghip, dch v v dn dng ch nn b bng t
in.
7.3.3 Phn phi ti u cng sut b trn li in x nghip:
a. Xc nh tng cng sut phn khng cn b:
T Hnh 7.2, nu cng sut tc dng khng thay i th:
- ng vi cos
1
c:
Q
1
= P.tg
1

- ng vi cos
2
c :
Q
2
= P.tg
2

200

Cng sut cn b ti x nghip nng h s cng sut ca x nghip t cos
1
ln
cos
2
l:
Q
b
= Q
1
- Q
2
= P.tg
1
- P.tg
2

Q
b
= P(tg
1
- tg
2
) (7.1)
Trong : P l cng sut tc dng tnh ton ca x nghip (kW)
b. Phn phi ti u cng sut cn b:
Hnh 7.3 gii thiu cc v tr c th t t b cos trn li in x nghip.

































Hnh 7.3: v tr t t b trn li in x nghip
TPP
2

4 4
3

4 4
3

4 4
3
TL1 TL2 TL3
1
201

1. t t b pha cao p ca x nghip: t ti v tr ny c li l gi thnh t cao p
thng r hn t h p, tuy nhin ch lm gim tn tht in nng t 1 tr ln li in,
khng gim c tn tht in nng trong trm bin p v li h p x nghip.
2. t t b ti thanh ci h p ca trm bin p x nghip. T in t ti v tr ny,
so vi v tr 1, lm gim thm tn tht in nng trong trm bin p v cng khng gim
c tn tht in nng trn li h p x nghip.
3. t t b ti t ng lc. t t b ti cc v tr ny lm gim c tn tht in
nng trn cc ng dy t t phn phi ti cc t ng lc v trong trm bin p x
nghip.
4. t t b ti cc ca tt c ng c. t t b ti cc ca ng c c li nht v
gim tn tht in nng, tuy nhin vn u t s cao v tng chi ph qun l, vn hnh, bo
dng t.
t t b nhng v tr no vi cng sut bao nhiu l li giI ca bi ton Phn
phi ti u thit b b trong li in x nghip. GiI chnh xc bi ton ny rt kh khn
v phc tp.
Trong thc t, b cos cho x nghip, ngi ta tin hnh b nh sau:
1. Vi mt xng sn xut hoc x nghip nh nn t tp trung t b ti thanh ci h
p trm bin p x nghip.
2. Vi x nghip loi va c mt trm bin p v mt s phn xng vi cng sut
kh ln v kh xa trm bin p, gim tn tht in nng trn ng dy t trm bin p
n cc phn xng c th t phn tn t b ti cc t phn phi phn xng v ti cc
ng c c cng sut ln (nm by chc kW).
3. Vi x nghip qui m ln bao gm hng chc phn xng, thng li in kh
phc tp bao gm trm phn phi trung tm v nhiu trm bin p phn xng, khi
xc nh v tr v cng sut b thng tnh theo hai bc:
- Bc 1: xc nh cng sut b t ti thanh cI h p tt c cc trm bin p
phn xng.
- Bc 2: phn phi cng sut b ca tng trm ( xc nh c t bc 1)
cho cc phn xng m trm bin p cp in.
4. Cng c th xt t t b ton b pha cao p. hoc mt phn b bn cao p v mt
phn b bn h p ty thuc vo chnh lch gi t cao v h p.
Trong trng hp b t nhiu im (trng hp 2 v 3), cng sut b ti u ti im I
no xc nh theo biu thc:

i
td
R
R
) Q (Q - Q Q
b i bi
= (7.2)
Trong :

i
Q l cng sut phn khng yu cu ti nt i.

E
Q l tng cng sut phn khng yu cu

=
E
n
i
1
Q Q
202



E b
Q l tng cng sut b, xc nh theo (7.1) hoc theo bc 1 ca trng
hp 3.

i
R l in tr nhnh n v tr nt i.

td
R l in tr tng ng ca li in.


Ch : biu thc (7.2) khi gii ra ch ly gi tr dng (>0), nu khi gii ra xut
hin gi tr m th c ngha l ti khng nn t t b, ti Q
b
= 0, ta b n I v
giI li bI ton (n 1) n, c th cho n khi no c 1 tp nghim dng.
V d 7.1: Mt xng c kh nng nghip cng sut 100kW, cos = 0,6. Hy xc
nh cng sut b t b nng cos ln 0,9.
Gii
Vi cos = 0,6 tg = 1,33
Vi cos = 0,9 tg = 0,48
Tng cng sut b t b l:
Q
b
= P(tg
1
- tg
2
) = 100(1,33 0,48) = 85 (kVAr)
Vy chn dng ba b t b cng sut 30kVAr, in p 400V do Dac Yeong
ch to.

V d 7.2: X nghip c kh gm ba phn xng c mt bng v s liu ph tI cho
trong Hnh 7.4. Yu cu t t b bn cnh cc t phn phi ca ba phn xng nng
cos ln 0,95.
















n
td
R R R
R
1
...
1 1
1
2 1
+ + +
=

Px3 S
3
= 50 + j 70 (kVA)

Px2 S
2
= 50 + j 50 (kVA)

Px1 S
1
= 80 + j 120 (kVA)
PVC (3x16+1.10).100m
PVC (3x25+1.16).70m
PVC (3x50+1.35).50m
TBA
Hnh 7.4: Mt bng cp in cho x nghip
203


Gii:


Tng cng sut tnh ton ca x nghip l:
S = S
1
+ S
2
+ S
3
= 180 +J240


cos
2
= 0,95 tg
2
= 0,33
Tng cng sut phn khng cn b ti 3 phn xng nng cos ca x nghip ln
0,95 l:
Q
b
= P(tg
1
- tg
2
) = 180(1,33 0,33) = 180 (kVAr)
Cc ng cp t TBA v 3 phn xng dng cp do CADIVI ch to c cc s liu
cho trong bng sau:
ng dy Loi cp l (m) r
0

(O/km)
R (O)
TBA-PX1 PVC(3x50+1,35) 50 0,387 0,0194
TBA-PX2 PVC(3x25+1,16) 70 0,727 0,0509
TBA-PX3 PVC(3x16+1,10) 100 1,15 0,115


















in in tr tng ng ca li in h p x nghip:.


33 , 1
180
240
P
Q
tg
1
= = =
TBA
R
1

TBA
R
2
R
3
R
t

Q
2
- Q
b2
Q
1
- Q
b1
Q
3
- Q
b3
Q

- Q
b

Hnh 7.5: S thay th v s tng ng li in h p dng xc nh Q
bi

) ( 0126 , 0
115 , 0
1
0509 , 0
1
0194 , 0
1
1
1 1 1
1
3 2 1
O =
+ +
=
+ +
=
R R R
R
td
204



Cng sut cc t t b t ti ba phn xng l:
p dng cng thc:

i
td
R
R
) Q (Q - Q Q
b i bi
=
Ta c:
(kVAr) 81
0194 , 0
0126 , 0
). 180 40 2 ( - 120 Q
b1
= =
(kVAr) 35
0509 , 0
0126 , 0
). 180 40 2 ( - 50 Q
b2
= =
(kVAr) 64
0115 , 0
0126 , 0
). 180 40 2 ( - 70 Q
b3
= =
Vy chn dng cc b t b do Dac Yeong ch to c cc thng s k thut
cho trong bng sau:
Ni t Loi t S lng Q
b
(kVAr) U
m
(V) I
m
(A) S pha
PX1 DLE- 4D40 K5S 2 40 440 52,4 3
PX2 DLE- 4D40 K5S 1 40 440 52,4 3
PX3 DLE- 4D75 K5S 1 75 440 98,4 3

Hot ng ii: t hc v n tp
- Ti liu tham kho cho bi ny:
- Ti liu tham kho cho bi ny:
- Nguyn Xun Ph, Nguyn Cng Hin, Nguyn Bi Khu: Cung cp in,
NXB Khoa hc v K thut, H Ni, 1998.
- Nguyn Cng Hin, ng Ngc Dinh, Nguyn Hu Khi, Phan ng Khi,
Nguyn Thnh: Cung cp in, NXB i hc v Trung hc Chuyn nghip, H
Ni, 1984.
- Cung cp in, V Trung hc Chuyn nghip v Dy ngh, NXB Gio dc, H
Ni, 2005.
- Cung cp in cho x nghip cng nghip, NXB Khoa hc v K thut, H Ni,
1974.
- Lm cc bi tp: Gii cc bi tp 7.1, 7.2, 7.3, 7.4 v cc bi tp lin quan
trong ti liu tham kho.
7.1. Mt siu th ln, c ph tI tnh ton P = 600kW, cos = 0,7.
Hy la chn t b t ti thanh cI h p TBA siu th nng cos ln 0,9.
205

7.2. Mt trm bm cao p 10kV t 5 my bm 200kW, cos = 0,7.
Hy la chn t b 10kV cho trm bm nng cos ln 0,9.
7.3. Mt x nghip gm 2 phn xng v 1 ng c bm nc, c mt bng cp in
v s liu ph ti cho trn Hnh BT 7.3.
Hy la chn t b nng cos ln 0,95.
206





















7.4. Li in cao p ca x nghip gm 1 trm phn phi trung tm v 3 trm bin p
phn xng, cc s liu cho trn Hnh BT 7.4.
Hy xc nh cng sut t b t ti thanh ci h p cc trm bin p nng cos
ln 0,95.
















Hnh 7.6

PX1








24 + j 32
(kVA)
PVC (3.25 + 1.16)
15m
TBA

PX2








42 + j 56
(kVA)

~
PVC (3.16 + 1.10)
50m
30 +j 30
(kVA)
Hnh 7.7
PVC (3 x 16).65m
PVC (3 x 16).40m
PVC (3 x 16).50m
50kVA
500kVA
800kVA
1000kVA
0,4 kV
0,4 kV
0,4 kV
300 + j400
(kVA)
420 + j500
(kVA)
540 + j720
(kVA)
10 kV
207


Ph lc
Bng tra dy dn:
PL1: Cc dng dy khng chn di t: tit din nh nht theo m ch ci, vt liu
dy, dng cch in v dng in I
/
z
:

Cch in v s dy
Cao su hoc PVC Butyl hoc XLPE hoc EPR
M
ch
ci
B PVC3 PVC2 PR3 PR2
C PVC3 PVC2 PR3 PR2
E PVC3 PVC2 PR3 PR2
F PVC3 PVC2 PR3 PR2
Tit
din
ct
ngang
dy
ng
(mm
2
)
1.5
2.5
4.0
6.0
15.5
21
28
36
17.5
24
32
41
18.5
25
34
43
19.5
27
36
48
22
30
40
51
23
31
42
54
24
33
45
58
26
36
49
63

10
16
25
35
50
68
89
110
57
76
96
119
60
80
101
126
63
85
112
138
70
94
119
147
75
100
127
158
80
107
138
169
86
115
149
185


161
200
50
70
95
120
134
171
207
239
144
184
223
259
153
196
238
276
168
213
258
299
179
229
278
322
192
246
298
346
207
268
328
382
225
289
352
410
242
310
377
437
150
185
240
300

299
341
403
464
319
364
430
497
344
392
461
530
371
424
500
576
395
450
538
621
441
506
599
693
473
542
641
741
504
575
679
783
400
500
630

656
749
855
754
868
1005
825
946
1088

940
1083
1254
Tit
din
ct
ngang
dy
nhm
(mm
2
)
2.5
4
6
10
16.5
22
28
39
18.5
25
32
44
19.5
26
33
46
21
28
36
49
23
31
39
54
25
33
43
59
26
35
45
62
28
38
49
67


16
25
35
50
53
70
86
104
59
73
90
110
61
78
96
117
66
83
103
125
73
90
112
136
79
98
122
149
84
101
126
154
91
108
135
164

121
150
184
70 133 140 150 160 174 192 198 211 237
208

95
120
150
161
186
170
197
227
183
212
245
195
226
261
211
245
283
235
273
316
241
280
324
257
300
346
289
337
389
185
240
300
340

259
305
351
280
330
381
298
352
406
323
382
440
526
366
430
497
600
371
439
508
663
397
470
543
447
530
613
740
500
630

610
711
694
808
770
899

856
996

209

PL2: Dy chn ngm tit din nh nht theo dng dy, cch n v I
z
:

Cch in v s dy
Cao su hoc PVC
Butyl hoc XLPE,hoc EPR
(cao su ethylene-propylene)
3 dy 2 dy 3 dy 2 dy
Tit din
dy ng
(mm
2
)
1.5
2.5
4.0
6.0
26
34
44
56
32
42
54
67
31
41
53
66
37
48
63
80
10
16
25
35
74
96
123
147
90
116
148
178
87
113
144
174
104
136
173
208
50
70
95
120
174
216
256
290
211
261
308
351
206
254
301
343
247
304
360
410
150
185
240
300
328
367
424
480
397
445
514
581
387
434
501
565
463
518
598
677
Tit din dy
nhm (mm
2
)
10
16
25
35
57
74
94
114
68
88
114
137
67
87
111
134
80
104
133
160
50
70
95
120
134
167
197
224
161
200
237
270
160
197
234
266
188
233
275
314
150
185
240
300
254
285
328
371
304
343
396
447
300
337
388
440
359
398
458
520

Ngoi ra chng ta cn c th la chn dy dn theo bng tra ca cp CADIVI
c cho trong cc bng di y.
210

PL3: Thng s k thut v in ca dy ng trn xon ca Cty CADIVI
Tit din
nh mc
ng knh
ngoi
in tr mt
chiu 20
0
C
Dng in ph ti cho php
I
/
z
(A)
mm
2
mm km / O Trong nh Ngoi tri
0.9
1.4
2.0
3.5
4.0
5.5
6.0
8.0
10
11
14
16
22
25
30
35
38
50
60
1.20
1.38
1.60
2.11
2.24
2.63
2.76
3.20
3.57
4.20
4.80
5.10
6.00
6.39
6.90
7.63
7.80
9.00
9.90
21.009
13.445
9.3370
5.2520
4.6520
3.3600
3.1070
2.3340
1.8440
1.7065
1.3065
1.1573
0.8362
0.7336
0.6290
0.5238
0.4880
0.3800
0.3670
-
-
-
-
25
31
35
50
60
68
80
100
120
135
155
170
180
215
240
-
-
-
-
50
62
70
80
95
105
112
130
165
180
200
220
225
270
300

211

PL4: Thng s k thut v in ca dy ng trn xon ca Cty CADIVI
Tit din
nh mc
ng knh
ngoi
in tr mt
chiu 20
0
C
Dng in ph ti cho php
I
/
z
(A)
mm
2
mm km / O Trong nh Ngoi tri
70
80
95
100
120
125
150
160
185
200
240
250
300
315
325
350
400
10.65
11.50
12.55
13.00
14.00
14.50
15.75
16.35
17.57
18.20
19.88
20.30
22.05
23.10
23.45
24.15
25.26
0.2723
0.2335
0.1944
0.1812
0.1580
0.1430
0.1244
0.1191
0.1001
0.0952
0.0791
0.0722
0.0602
0.0569
0.0565
0.0524
0.0471

270
295
335
350
395
410
465
495
530
570
685
700
740
770
785
820
895
340
380
415
430
485
515
570
600
640
690
760
785
880
895
920
965
1050

212

PL5: Thng s k thut v in ca dy nhm trn xon ca cty CADIVI
Tit din
nh mc
Mt ct
tnh ton
ng knh
dy
in tr mt
chiu 20
0
C
Dng in ph ti cho php
I
/
z
(A)
mm
2
mm
2
mm km / O Trong nh Ngoi tri
10
16
25
35
40
50
63
70
95
100
120
125
150
160
185
200
240
250
300
315
350
400
450
500
550
560
600
630
650
700
710
750

10.0
15.9
24.9
34.3
40.0
49.5
63.0
69.3
92.4
100
117.0
125.0
148.0
160.0
182.8
200.0
238.7
250.0
288.3
315.0
345.8
389.2
449.1
500.4
544.0
560.0
586.8
630.0
641.8
691.7
710.0
747.4

4.05
5.10
6.40
7.50
8.09
9.00
10.16
10.70
12.30
12.94
14.00
14.47
15.80
16.37
17.50
18.30
20.00
20.47
22.10
23.05
24.20
25.60
27.30
29.10
30.30
30.73
31.50
32.64
32.90
34.20
34.65
35.60
2.8631
1.8007
1.1498
0.8347
0.7157
0.5784
0.4544
0.4131
0.3114
0.2877
0.2459
0.2301
0.1944
0.1798
0.1574
0.1438
0.1205
0.1150
0.1000
0.0915
0.0833
0.0740
0.0642
0.0576
0.0529
0.0531
0.0491
0.0458
0.0450
0.0417
0.0406
0.0386

40
75
105
130
150
165
190
210
255
265
300
310
355
375
410
445
490
510
570
590
630
690
755
820
875
900
930
-
-
-
-
-

65
105
135
170
190
215
235
265
320
335
375
390
440
465
500
550
590
615
680
705
750
815
900
980
1010
1030
1070
-
-
-
-
-


213




PL6: Dy in h p li ng v nhm cch in PVC ca Cty CADIVI
(dy cng mt si)

Rut dn in
Chiu
dy
cch
in
PVC
ng
knh
tng
th
in tr dy dn
20
0
C
Dng ph ti
Tit
din nh
mc
ng
knh
si
ng Nhm ng Nhm
mm
2
mm mm mm km / O (max) A A
0.50
0.75
1.00
1.50
2.00
4.00
6.00
10.0
0.80 0.15
0.98 0.02
1.13 0.02
1.38 0.02
1.75 0.02
2.25 0.02
2.78 0.02
3.57 0.02
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.9
1.0
1.2
2.40
2.58
2.73
2.98
3.35
4.05
4.78
5.97
35.70
23.79
17.84
11.95
7.41
4.48
2.93
1.78
-
-
29.30
19.70
11.89
7.40
4.91
2.94
5
7
10
16
20
25
35
50
-
-
8
12
16
20
29
40
214

PL7: Dy in h p li ng nhiu si ca cty CADIVI
Loi dy
Rut dn in
Chiu
dy
cch
in
PVC
Chiu
dy v
ngoi
PVC
in tr
dy dn
20
0
C
ng
knh
tng
th
Dng
in
ph
ti
mm
2
N
0
/mm mm mm km / O mm A
Dy n
mm
VCm
0.50
0.75
1.00
1.25
1.50
2.50
16/0.20
24/0.20
32/0.20
40/0.20
30/0.25
50/0.25
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8

37.10
24.74
18.56
14.90
12.68
7.60
2.6
2.8
3.0
3.1
3.2
3.7
5
7
10
12
16
25
Dy i
mm
xon
VCm
2 x 0.50
2 x 0.75
2 x 1.00
2 x 1.25
2 x 1.50
2 x 2.50
2 x 16/0.20
2 x 24/0.20
2 x 32/0.20
2 x 40/0.20
2 x 30/0.25
2 x 50/0.25
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8

39.34
26.22
19.67
15.62
13.44
8.06
5.2
5.6
6.0
6.2
6.4
7.4
5
7
10
12
16
25
Dy i
mm dt
VCm
2 x 0.50
2 x 0.75
2 x 1.00
2 x 1.25
2 x 1.50
2 x 2.50
2 x 16/0.20
2 x 24/0.20
2 x 32/0.20
2 x 40/0.20
2 x 30/0.25
2 x 50/0.25
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8

37.10
27.74
18.56
14.90
12.68
7.60
2.6 x 5.2
2.8 x 0.75
3.0 x 6.0
3.1 x 6.2
3.2 x 6.4
3.7 x 7.4
5
7
10
12
16
25
Dy i
mm
trn
VCm
2 x 0.50
2 x 0.75
2 x 1.00
2 x 1.25
2 x 1.50
2 x 2.50
2 x 16/0.20
2 x 24/0.20
2 x 32/0.20
2 x 40/0.20
2 x 30/0.25
2 x 50/0.25
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
1
1
1
1
1
1
39.34
26.22
19.67
15.62
13.44
8.06
7.2
7.6
8.0
8.2
8.4
9.4
5
7
10
12
16
25

215

PL8: Cp h p ba li loi dt cch in PVC:
Dy dn
Chiu
dy
cch
in
Chiu
dy v
bc
PVC
Kch thc cp
in tr dy dn
20
0
C (max)
Tit
din
nh
mc
S si/
ng
knh si
ng
knh
dy
dn
ng Nhm
mm
2
N
0
/mm mm mm mm mm km / O km / O
2.00
2.50
3.50
4.00
5.50
6.00
8.00
10.00
7/0.60
7/0.67
7/0.80
7/0.85
7/1.00
7/1.00
7/1.20
7/1.35
1.80
2.01
2.40
2.55
3.00
3.20
3.60
4.05
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.50
6.4 x 13.5
6.6 x 13.9
7.0 x 15.0
7.2 x 15.5
8.0 x 18.0
8.3 x 19.0
9.0 x 21.0
9.7 x 23.0
9.43
7.41
5.30
4.61
3.40
3.08
2.31
1.83
-
-
-
7.41
4.98
4.61
3.83
3.08
0.75
1.00
2.00
3.00
4.00
5.00
7.00
1/1.00
1/1.20
1/1.60
1/2.00
1/2.30
1/2.60
1/3.00
1.00
1.20
1.00
2.00
2.30
2.60
3.00
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
1.0
1.0
1.2
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.50
5.6 x 11.0
5.6 x 11.5
6.2 x 13.0
6.6 x 14.0
7.3 x 16.0
7.7 x 17.0
8.4 x 19.2
24.50
18.10
9.43
6.07
4.61
3.66
2.52
37.085
25.753
14.90
10.10
7.41
6.07
4.12

216

PL9: Cp h p mt li ng cch in PVC loi na mm t c nh ca cty
CADIVI, ki hiu CVV
Dy dn Chiu
dy
cch
in
Chiu
dy
v bc
PVC
ng
knh
tng
th
Ph
ti
dng
in
in tr
dy dn
20
0
C
(max)
Tit din
nh
mc
Kt cu
ng
knh
dy dn
mm
2
N
0
/mm mm mm mm mm A km / O
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.5
4.0
5.5
6.0
8.0
10
11
14
16
22
25
30
35
38
50
60
70
80
95
100
120
125
150
185
200
240
250
300
325
7/0.40
7/0.50
7/0.60
7/0.67
7/0.80
7/0.85
7/1.00
7/1.04
7/1.20
7/1.35
7/1.40
7/1.60
7/1.70
7/2.00
7/2.14
7/2.30
7/2.52
7/2.60
19/1.8
19/2.0
19/2.14
19/2.30
19/2.52
19/2.60
19/2.80
19/2.90
37/2.30
37/2.52
37/2.60
61/2.25
61/2.30
61/2.52
61/2.60
1.20
1.50
1.80
2.01
2.40
2.55
3.00
3.12
3.60
4.05
4.20
4.80
5.10
6.00
6.42
6.90
7.56
7.80
9.00
10.00
10.70
11.50
12.60
13.00
14.00
14.50
16.10
17.64
18.20
20.25
20.70
22.68
23.4
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.9
1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.9
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.1
2.2
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.5
2.6
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.7
1.7
1.8
1.9
1.9
2.0
2.1
2.2
2.2
2.3
2.3
2.5
2.6
2.6
2.8
2.8
3.0
3.1
10.16
10.88
11.61
12.12
13.06
14.00
15.57
16.34
17.79
19.75
20.12
22.25
22.96
25.81
26.82
28.18
30.26
31.52
34.62
37.23
39.41
42.02
45.08
46.24
49.34
51.03
55.09
59.69
61.73
67.08
68.36
74.03
76.25
14
17
20
22
27
30
35
38
44
49
52
62
68
82
88
97
108
113
132
150
163
177
198
206
228
236
270
298
311
348
360
400
414
18.10
12.10
9.43
7.41
5.3
4.61
3.4
3.08
2.31
1.83
1.71
1.33
1.15
0.84
0.727
0.635
0.524
0.497
0.387
0.309
0.268
0.234
0.193
0.184
0.153
0.147
0.124
0.0991
0.0994
0.054
0.0738
0.0601
0.0576
217

400
500
61/2.90
61/3.20
26.10
28.80
2.6
2.8
3.3
3.5
83.36
91.25
-
-
0.0470
0.0366


218

PL10: Cp h p li nhm cch in PVC, loi na mm t c nh ca cty CADIVI,
k hiu AVV
Dy dn Chiu
dy
cch
in
Chiu
dy
v bc
PVC
ng
knh
tng
th
Ph
ti
dng
in
in tr
dy dn
20
0
C
(max)
Tit din
nh
mc
Kt cu
ng
knh
dy dn
mm
2
N
0
/mm mm mm mm mm A km / O
4
5.5
6.0
8.0
10
11
14
16
22
25
30
35
38
50
60
70
80
95
100
120
125
150
185
200
240
250
300
325
400
500
630
800
1000
7/0.85
7/1.00
7/1.04
7/1.20
7/1.35
7/1.40
7/1.60
7/1.70
7/2.00
7/2.14
7/2.30
7/2.52
7/2.60
19/1.8
19/2.0
19/2.14
19/2.30
19/2.52
19/2.60
19/2.80
19/2.90
37/2.30
37/2.52
37/2.60
61/2.25
61/2.30
61/2.52
61/2.60
61/2.90
61/3.20
91/2.95
91/3.36
91/3.75
2.55
3.00
3.12
3.60
4.05
4.20
4.80
5.10
6.00
6.42
6.90
7.56
7.80
9.00
10.00
10.70
11.50
12.60
13.00
14.00
14.50
16.10
17.64
18.20
20.25
20.70
22.68
23.40
26.10
28.80
32.45
36.96
41.25
0.9
1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.9
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.1
2.2
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.6
2.8
2.8
2.8
3.0
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.6
1.6
1.7
1.7
1.8
1.8
1.9
1.9
2.0
2.1
2.2
2.4
2.6
7.35
8.00
8.32
9.00
9.65
9.80
10.60
11.10
12.20
12.62
13.10
13.96
14.40
15.60
16.60
17.50
18.50
19.60
20.00
21.20
22.10
23.70
25.64
26.40
28.65
29.10
31.48
32.40
35.30
38.60
42.45
47.36
52.45
31
36
40
47
55
61
67
75
92
105
119
130
143
165
187
210
230
250
265
295
302
340
390
413
465
480
528
555
628
752
-
-
-
7.41
4.98
4.61
3.83
3.08
2.81
2.17
1.91
1.38
1.2
1
0.868
0.814
0.641
0.507
0.443
0.384
0.320
0.300
0.253
0.242
0.206
0.164
0.154
0.125
0.120
0.1
0.0946
0.0778
0.0605
0.0469
0.0367
0.0291
219


PL11: Cp h p hai li nhm cch in PVC, loi na mm t c nh do CADIVI
ch to, k hiu AVV
Dy dn Chiu
dy
cch
in
Chiu
dy
v bc
PVC
ng
knh
tng
th
Ph
ti
dng
in
in tr
dy dn
20
0
C
(max)
Tit din
nh
mc
Kt cu
ng
knh
dy dn
mm
2
N
0
/mm mm mm mm mm A km / O
4.0
5.5
6.0
8.0
10
11
14
16
22
25
30
35
38
50
60
70
80
95
100
120
125
150
185
200
240
250
300
325
400
500
7/0.85
7/1.00
7/1.04
7/1.20
7/1.35
7/1.40
7/1.60
7/1.70
7/2.00
7/2.14
7/2.30
7/2.52
7/2.60
19/1.8
19/2.00
19/2.14
19/2.30
19/2.52
19/2.60
19/2.80
19/2.90
37/2.30
37/2.52
37/2.60
61/2.25
61/2.30
61/2.52
61/2.60
61/2.90
61/3.20
2.55
3.00
3.12
3.60
4.05
4.20
4.80
5.10
6.00
6.42
6.90
7.56
7.80
9.00
10.00
10.70
11.50
12.60
13.00
14.00
14.50
16.10
17.64
18.20
20.25
20.70
22.68
23.40
26.10
28.80
0.9
1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.9
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.1
2.2
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.6
2.8
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.6
1.6
1.7
1.7
1.8
1.9
1.9
1.9
2.0
2.1
2.1
2.2
2.2
2.3
2.5
2.5
2.7
2.7
2.9
2.9
3.3
3.3
12.1
13.4
14.4
15.5
16.6
17.1
18.9
19.4
21.4
22.64
23.60
25.52
26.40
29.00
31.20
33.00
35.20
37.60
38.40
41.00
42.40
46.00
49.88
51.40
55.90
56.80
61.56
63.40
69.40
76.00
25
29
32
38
44
49
54
60
74
84
95
104
114
132
150
168
184
200
212
236
242
272
312
330
372
326
359
377
-
-
7.41
4.98
4.61
3.83
3.08
2.81
2.17
1.91
1.38
1.2
1.04
0.868
0.814
0.641
0.507
0.433
0.384
0.320
0.300
0.253
0.242
0.206
0.164
0.154
0.125
0.120
0.100
0.0946
0.0778
0.0605


220

PL12: Cp h p 3 li nhm, cch in PVC, loi na mm, t c nh ca cty
CADIVI, k hiu AVV
Dy dn
Chiu
dy cch
in
Chiu
dy v
bc PVC
ng
knh tng
th
Ph ti
dng
in
in tr
dy dn
20
0
C
(max)
Tit din
nh
mc
Kt cu
ng
knh dy
dn
mm
2
N
0
/mm mm mm mm mm A km / O
4.0
5.5
6.0
8.0
10
11
14
16
22
25
30
35
38
50
60
70
80
95
100
120
125
150
185
200
240
250
300
325
400
500
7/0.85
7/1.00
7/1.04
7/1.20
7/1.35
7/1.40
7/1.60
7/1.70
7/2.00
7/2.14
7/2.30
7/2.52
7/2.60
19/1.80
19/2.00
19/2.14
19/2.30
19/2.52
19/2.60
19/2.80
19/2.90
37/2.30
37/2.52
37/2.60
61/2.25
61/2.30
61/2.52
61/2.60
61/2.90
61/3.20
2.55
3.00
3.12
3.60
4.05
4.20
4.80
5.10
6.00
6.42
6.90
7.56
7.80
9.00
10.00
10.70
11.50
12.60
13.00
14.00
14.50
16.10
17.64
18.20
20.25
20.70
22.68
23.40
26.10
28.80
0.9
1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.9
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.1
2.2
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.6
2.8
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.7
1.7
1.8
1.9
1.9
2.0
2.1
2.2
2.2
2.3
2.3
2.5
2.6
2.6
2.8
2.8
3.0
3.1
3.3
3.5
12.7
14.27
14.96
16.43
17.83
18.15
20.08
20.65
23.22
24.13
25.36
27.22
28.36
31.15
33.30
35.44
37.8
40.37
41.23
44.02
45.72
49.57
53.52
55.16
59.98
60.94
66.04
68.42
74.64
81.72
18
21
23
27
32
35
39
43
53
61
69
75
83
95
108
121
133
145
153
171
175
197
225
229
269
277
305
321
-
-
7.41
4.98
4.61
3.83
3.08
2.81
2.17
1.91
1.38
1.20
1.04
0.868
0.814
0.641
0.507
0.443
0.384
0.320
0.300
0.253
0.242
0.206
0.164
0.154
0.125
0.12
0.100
0.0946
0.0778
0.0605

221

PL13: Cp h p 4 li nhm, cch in PVC, loi na mm, t c nh ca cty
CADIVI ch to, k hiu AVV
Dy dn
Chiu
dy
cch
in
Chiu
dy
v bc
PVC
ng
knh
tng
th
Ph
ti
dng
in
in
tr dy
dn
20
0
C
(max)
Tit
din
nh
mc
Kt cu
ng
knh
dy dn
mm
2
N
0
/mm mm mm mm mm A km / O
4.0
5.5
6.0
8.0
10
11
14
16
22
25
30
35
38
50
60
70
80
95
100
120
125
150
185
200
240
250
300
325
400
500
7/0.85
7/1.00
7/1.04
7/1.20
7/1.35
7/1.40
7/1.60
7/1.70
7/2.00
7/2.14
7/2.30
7/2.52
7/2.60
19/1.80
19/2.00
19/2.14
19/2.30
19/2.52
19/2.60
19/2.80
19/2.90
37/2.30
37/2.52
37/2.60
61/2.25
61/2.30
61/2.52
61/2.60
61/2.90
61/3.20
2.55
3.00
3.12
3.60
4.05
4.20
4.80
5.10
6.00
6.42
6.90
7.56
7.80
9.00
10.00
10.70
11.50
12.60
13.00
14.00
14.50
16.10
17.64
18.20
20.25
20.70
22.68
23.4
26.10
28.80
0.9
1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.9
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.1
2.2
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.6
2.8
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.7
1.7
1.8
1.9
1.9
2.0
2.1
2.2
2.2
2.3
2.3
2.5
2.6
2.6
2.8
2.8
3.0
3.1
3.3
3.5
14.00
15.57
16.34
17.79
19.75
20.12
22.25
20.65
23.22
24.13
25.36
27.22
28.36
31.15
33.30
35.44
37.80
40.37
41.23
44.02
51.03
55.09
59.69
61.73
67.08
68.36
74.03
76.25
83.36
91.25
18
21
23
27
32
35
39
43
53
61
69
75
83
95
108
121
133
145
153
171
175
197
225
239
269
277
305
321
-
-
4.61
3.40
3.08
2.31
1.83
1.71
1.33
1.15
0.84
0.727
0.635
0.524
0.497
0.387
0.309
0.268
0.234
0.193
0.184
0.153
0.147
0.124
0.0991
0.0940
0.0540
0.0738
0.0601
0.0576
0.0470
0.0366


222

PL14: Cp h p mt li ng, cch in PVC, loi mm ca cty CADIVI
Dy dn Chiu
dy
cch
in
ng
knh
tng
th
Ph
ti
dng
in
in tr
dy dn
20
0
C
(max)
Tit din
nh mc
Kt cu
ng
knh
dy dn
mm
2
N
0
/mm mm mm mm A km / O
1.0
1.5
2.5
3.5
4.0
6.0
10
16
25
35
70
95
120
150
185
200
240
1/1.00
1/1.37
1/1.76
1/2.06
1/2.24
1/2.73
7/1.35
7/1.70
7/2.14
7/2.52
19/2.14
19/2.52
19/2.80
37/2.30
37/2.52
37/2.60
61/2.25
1.13
1.37
1.76
2.05
2.24
2.73
3.99
5.04
6.33
7.47
10.70
12.45
14.07
15.68
17.43
19.89
20.25
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.2
1.2
1.4
1.4
1.6
1.8
1.8
1.8
2.0
2.2
2.4
2.4
3.1
3.4
3.8
4.2
4.7
9.1
10.3
12.3
13.9
16.1
19.7
21.8
23.5
24.6
26.6
27.5
30.1
18
23
36
41
47
59
73
108
130
165
242
283
355
420
450
480
550
18.1
12.1
7.41
5.3
4.61
3.08
1.83
1.15
0.727
0.524
0.268
0.193
0.153
0.124
0.099
0.094
0.075

223

cc bi tp m rng, nng cao v gii quyt vn

ti: Thit k mng cao p nh my c kh a phng.
S liu cho:
1. Mt bng nh my v danh sch ph tI
2. Trm bin p trung gian 110/10 (kV) cch 3 km.
Mt bng nh my c kh a phng























Ph ti ca nh my c kh a phng
S trn mt bng Tn phn xng Cng sut t (kV)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Phn xng kt cu kim loi
Phn xng lp rp c kh
Phn xng c
Phn xng nn kh
Phn xng rn
Trm bm
Phn xng sa cha c kh
Phn xng gia cng g
B phn hnh chnh v ban qun l
B phn th ngim
2100
2500
550
800
1200
250
525
350
100 (cha k chiu sng)
470








T h thng in n
Khun vin
x nghip

3
10
6
4
9
8
5
7
1
2
T l: 1:2500
224

Ti liu tham kho
1. Nguyn Xun Ph, Nguyn Cng Hin, Nguyn Bi Khu: Cung cp in,
NXB Khoa hc v K thut 1998.
2. Nguyn Cng Hin, ng Ngc Dinh, Nguyn Hu Khi, Phan ng Khi,
Nguyn Thnh: Gio trnh Cung cp in, NXB i hc v Trung hc Chuyn nghip, H
Ni, 1984.
3. Quyn Huy nh: Gio trnh Cung cp in Trng i hc S phm K
thut TP H Ch Minh 2006.
4. Trn Bch, Phan ng Khi, Ng Hng Quang: H thng cung cp in -
Gio trnh HBK, H Ni,1978.
5. Ng Hng Quang, V Vn Tm: Thit k cp in, NXB Khoa hc v K thut,
H Ni, 1998.
6. Trnh Hng Thm, o Quang Thch, o Kim Hoa: Nh my in v Trm
bin p, NXB Khoa hc v K thut, H Ni, 1996.
7. Bi Ngc Th: Mng cung cp v phn phi in - NXB Khoa hc v K thut
2002.
8. Cc Catalog cho hng ca ABB, Cng ty thit b in ng Anh v cc hng ca
Nht, Php, M, c,...
9. Hng dn m-un Trang b in 1 (MG), D n Gio dc K thut v Dy ngh.
10. Gio trnh l thuyt, D n gio dc k thut v dy ngh.
11. Cung cp in cho x nghip cng nghip, NXB Khoa hc v K thut 1974.
12. Gio trnh Cung cp in, V Trung hc Chuyn nghip v Dy ngh, NXB
Gio dc, H Ni, 2005.
13. Cung cp in D n JICA-HIC, Ban iu khin in - 2003.

225

Cc ch vit tt
MBA My bin p
TBA Trm bin p
TBAPP Trm bin p phn phi (Trm bin p khch hng)
Trm BATG Trm bin p trung gian
ALL ptmt lin lc
NMT Nh my thy in
NMN Nh my nhit in
NMNT Nh my in nguyn t
GT??? Gas-turbine
MF???
MDB???
DB T ng lc
P
n
Ph ti nh nhn
P
m
Cng sut nh mc
DK ng dy trn khng trung p
BI My bin dng in
DCL Dao cch ly trung p
CSV
1
: Chng st van trung p
AT: ptmt tng
CC Cu ch
CCT Cu ch tng
TC Thanh ci ba pha v thanh ci trung tnh
BA My bin p phn phi
A
1
; A
2
; A
3
: Cc ptmt nhnh
N H thng ni t
CSV
2
Chng st van h p
CT Cp tng
DCL Dao cch ly (cu dao)
CB ptmt
CSV Chng st van
CSO Chng st ng
CSV
DCL-CC
CCTR
226

cdl
At
Pi
bi
P
mt
???
P
mphmax
???