171 Additional Signatories, Confirmed by E-mail Derrick Aarons, MB, BS, MSc, PhD Consultant Bioethicist / Palliative Care & Family Physician

Past President - The Bioethics Society of the English-speaking Caribbean Ocho Rios, Jamaica Roberto Abadie, PhD Project Director NYC National HIV Behavioral Surveillance HET-3 John Jay College of Criminal Justice New York, NY Kirk C. Allison, PhD, MS Director Program in Human Rights and Health University of Minnesota School of Public Health Minneapolis, MN Marcia Angell, MD Senior Lecturer in Social Medicine Harvard Medical School Cambridge, MA Misha Angrist, PhD, MFA Assistant Professor of the Practice Duke Institute for Genome Sciences & Policy Duke University Durham, NC George J. Annas, JD, MPH William Fairfield Warren Distinguished Professor and Chair Department of Health Law, Bioethics & Human Rights Boston University School of Public Health, School of Medicine, and School of Law Boston, MA Richard E. Ashcroft MA, PhD, FHEA, FSB Professor of Bioethics School of Law Queen Mary and Westfield College University of London London, United Kingdom Leslie Atkinson, PhD, CPsych Professor Department of Psychology Ryerson University Toronto, Ontario, Canada 1

Jesse F. Ballenger, PhD Associate Professor Bioethics Penn State University University Park, PA Virginia Barbour, MD Chair, Committee on Publication Ethics London, United Kingdom Françoise Baylis, PhD, FRSC, FCAHS Professor and Canada Research Chair in Bioethics and Philosophy Faculty of Medicine Dalhousie University Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada David Benatar PhD Professor and Head, Philosophy Department Director, Bioethics Centre University of Cape Town Cape Town, South Africa Solomon R Benatar, MD Emeritus Professor of Medicine University of Cape Town Cape Town, South Africa Mark Borrello, PhD Associate Professor Department of Ecology, Evolution and Behavior University of Minnesota Minneapolis, MN Pascal Borry, PhD Professor of Bioethics Faculty of Medicine Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Leuven Belgium Charles L. Bosk, PhD Professor of Sociology and Medical Ethics University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia, PA Lynne Bowyer Research Assistant Center for Bioethics University of Otago Dunedin, New Zealand 2

Jenny Dyck Brian, PhD Honors Faculty Fellow Barrett, The Honors College Arizona State University Phoenix, AZ Dan W. Brock, PhD Frances Glessner Lee Professor of Medical Ethics Department of Global Health and Social Medicine Harvard Medical School Boston, MA Howard Brody, MD, PhD John P. McGovern Centennial Chair, Family Medicine James Wade Rockwell Distinguished Professor of Medical History Director, Institute for the Medical Humanities University of Texas Medical Branch Galveston, TX James Robert Brown, PhD, FRSC Professor of Philosophy University of Toronto Toronto, Ontario, Canada Robin Brown, PhD Morse-Alumni Distinguished Teaching Professor Cultural Studies and Comparative Literature University of Minnesota Minneapolis, MN Daniel Callahan, PhD Founder, The Hastings Center Garrison, NY Felicity Callard, PhD Senior Lecturer in Social Science for Medical Humanities Durham University Durham, United Kingdom Michael A. Carome, MD Director, Health Research Group Public Citizen and former OHRP official Washington, D.C. Ron Carson, PhD Emeritus Professor Institute for the Medical Humanities University of Texas Medical Branch Austin, TX 3

Stacy Carter, PhD Senior Lecturer Centre for Values, Ethics and the Law in Medicine The University of Sydney Sydney, Australia Alan Cassels, MPA Faculty of Human and Social Development University of Victoria Victoria, British Columbia, Canada Bianet Castellanos, PhD Associate Professor American Studies University of Minnesota Minneapolis, MN Louis Charland, PhD Professor, Departments of Philosophy and Psychiatry and School of Health Studies University of Western Ontario London, Ontario, Canada Monika Clark-Grill, MD, PhD Faculty of Medicine University of Otago Dunedin, New Zealand Carl H. Coleman, JD Professor of Law Seton Hall University School of Law Newark, NJ Brandon Cooke, PhD Associate Professor Department of Philosophy Minnesota State University Mankato, MN Lori d'Agincourt-Canning, MSc, MA, PhD Clinical Ethicist B.C. Children's & Women's Health Centre Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada Joseph E. Davis, PhD (Alumnus University of Minnesota) Research Associate Professor Institute for Advanced Studies in Culture University of Virginia Charlottesville, VA 4

Jocelyn Downie, LLM, SJD Canada Research Chair & Associate Dean Graduate Studies Faculty of Law Dalhousie University Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada Rebecca Dresser, JD, MS Daniel Noyes Kirby Professor of Law Professor of Ethics in Medicine Washington University St Louis, MO Antony Duff, FBA, FRSE, BA (Oxon) DJur (Oslo) Professor Faculty of Law, University of Minnesota Minneapolis, MN James C. Edwards, PhD Louis G. Forgione University Professor of Philosophy (Emeritus) Furman University Greenville, SC David Egilman, MD, MPH Editor IJOEH Clinical Professor, Department of Family Medicine Brown University Attleboro, MA Carl Elliott, MD, PhD Professor Department of Bioethics, University of Minnesota Minneapolis, MN Carolyn Ells, PhD Associate Professor Biomedical Ethics Unit Faculty of Medicine, McGill University Montreal, Quebec, Canada Ellen K. Feder, PhD Associate Professor Department of Philosophy and Religion American University Washington, DC George M. Felis, PhD Lecturer Department of Philosophy and Religion 5

University of North Carolina Wilmington Wilmington, NC Roderick Ferguson, PhD Professor of American Studies University of Minnesota Minneapolis, MN Jill A. Fisher, PhD Assistant Professor of Social Medicine UNC Center for Bioethics University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Chapel Hill, NC Kathy Roberts Forde, PhD Associate Professor School of Journalism and Mass Communications University of South Carolina Columbia, SC Renee C. Fox, PhD Annenberg Professor Emerita of the Social Sciences University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia, PA Leslie Francis, JD, PhD Distinguished Professor of Law and Philosophy University of Utah Salt Lake City, UT Adriane Fugh-Berman, MD Associate Professor Dept of Pharmacology and Physiology Georgetown University Medical Center Washington, DC Marc-André Gagnon, PhD Assistant Professor School of Public Policy and Administration Carleton University Ottawa, Ontario, Canada Charlene A. Galarneau, PhD Assistant Professor Women's and Gender Studies Department Wellesley College Wellesley, MA

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Kyle L. Galbraith, PhD Manager Human Subject Protection Office Carle Foundation Hospital Urbana, IL Kathleen M Galotti, PhD William H. Laird Professor of Cognitive Science Director, Cognitive Science Program Carleton College Northfield, MN David Gems, PhD Professor of Biogerontology Institute of Healthy Ageing University College London London, United Kingdom Shannon E. Gibson, MSc, LLB, LLM Research Associate Faculty of Law, University of Toronto Toronto, Ontario, Canada Grant Gillett, PhD (Oxon); FRS; MBChB; MSc (Psych); FRACS Professor of Medical Ethics Otago Bioethics Centre University of Otago Medical School Dunedin, New Zealand Kathleen Cranley Glass, LLB, BCL, DCL Professor Emerita Biomedical Ethics Unit Faculty of Medicine McGill University Montreal, Quebec, Canada William B. Gleason, MS, PhD Associate Professor Department of Laboratory Medicine & Pathology University of Minnesota Medical School Minneapolis, MN Sara Goering, PhD Department of Philosophy Program on Values in Society University of Washington Seattle, WA

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Peter C. Gøtzsche, MD, DrMedSci, MSc Professor Director Nordic Cochrane Centre Copenhagen, Denmark Richard Graff, PhD Associate Professor, Department of Writing Studies Director, Literacy & Rhetorical Studies Graduate Minor University of Minnesota Minneapolis, MN Lejla Halilovic BSc, Hon OSGC Researcher Health and Society Program, York University Toronto, Ontario, Canada Alicia Hall, PhD Assistant Professor Department of Philosophy University of Alaska Fairbanks Fairbanks, AK Amy Laura Hall, PhD Associate Professor of Christian Ethics Duke University Durham, NC Raymond Hames, PhD Professor Department of Anthropology University of Nebraska Lincoln, NE William Harvey, LLB, PhD Professor Emeritus University of Toronto Toronto, Ontario, Canada Susan C. C. Hawthorne, PhD Assistant Professor Philosophy Department St. Catherine University St. Paul, MN David Healy, MD Professor of Psychiatry Director, North Wales Department of Psychological Medicine Cardiff University Bangor, United Kingdom 8

Adam Hedgecoe, PhD Director Cardiff Centre for the Ethical & Social Aspects of Genomics and Epigenetics Cardiff University Cardiff, United Kingdom Barry Hoffmaster, PhD Professor Department of Philosophy University of Western Ontario London, Ontario Suzanne Holland, PhD John B. Magee Professor of Science and Values Professor of Religion Department of Religion & Honors Program University of Puget Sound Tacoma, WA David Hunter, PhD Associate Professor of Medical Ethics Southgate Institute for Health, Society & Equity School of Medicine, Flinders University Bedford Park, Australia Ramona Ilea, PhD Associate Professor and Department Chair Department of Philosophy Pacific University Forest Grove, OR Lochlann Jain, PhD Associate Professor Department of Anthropology Stanford University Stanford, CA Monica Janzen, PhD Philosophy Professor Hennepin Technical College Eden Prairie, MN Jenell Johnson, PhD Assistant Professor of Communication Arts Director, Disability Studies Initiative Affiliate, Holtz Center for Science & Technology Studies Affiliate, Life Sciences Communication University of Wisconsin-Madison Madison, WI 9

Christopher Jordens, MPH, PhD Senior Lecturer in Bioethics & Senior Research Fellow Centre for Values, Ethics and the Law in Medicine Sydney University Sydney, Australia Jon Jureidini, MBBS, FRANZCP, PhD Clinical Professor Head, Department of Psychological Medicine, Women's & Children's Hospital University of Adelaide Adelaide, Australia Annemarie Jutel, PhD Associate Professor Graduate School of Nursing Victoria University of Wellington Wellington, New Zealand Gregory E. Kaebnick, PhD Research Scholar The Hastings Center Garrison, NY Jonathan Kahn, JD, PhD Professor Hamline University School of Law St Paul, MN Jane Kaye, LLB, DPhil Director HeLEX - Centre for Health, Law and Emerging Technologies Nuffield Department of Population Health University of Oxford Oxford, United Kingdom Ian Kerridge, BA, BMed, MPhil, FRACP, FRCPA Associate Professor & Director Centre for Values, Ethics and the Law in Medicine Sydney Medical School Sydney, NSW Australia Nancy M. P. King, JD Professor Department of Social Sciences & Health Policy & Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine Wake Forest School of Medicine Co-Director, Center for Bioethics, Health, & Society & Graduate Program in Bioethics Wake Forest University Winston-Salem, NC 10

Mike King, PhD Lecturer Bioethics Centre University of Otago Dunedin, New Zealand Kenneth Kipnis, PhD Professor of Philosophy University of Hawaii Hilo, HI Laurence J. Kirmayer, MD, FRCPC James McGill Professor & Director Division of Social & Transcultural Psychiatry McGill University Director, Culture & Mental Health Research Unit Institute of Community & Family Psychiatry Jewish General Hospital Montreal, Quebec, Canada Tom Koch, PhD Adjunct Professor Medical Geography, University of British Columbia Consultant in bioethics and gerontology, Alton Medical Centre, Toronto Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada Barbara Koenig, PhD (University of Minnesota Alumnus Nursing & BA) Professor of Medical Anthropology & Bioethics Department of Social & Behavioral Sciences Institute for Health & Aging Department of Anthropology, History, and Social Medicine University of California Oakland, CA Rory E. Kraft Jr., PhD Assistant Professor of Philosophy York College of Pennsylvania York, PA Matt Lamkin, JD, MA Assistant Professor The University of Tulsa College of Law Tulsa, OK Willem Lemmens, PhD Professor of Philosophy Director, Centre for Ethics University of Antwerp 11

Antwerpen, Belgium Douglas E. Lewis, PhD Professor Emeritus of Philosophy Department of Philosophy University of Minnesota Minneapolis, MN Joel Lexchin, MD Professor, School of Health Policy and Management York University Associate Professor, Department of Family and Community Medicine University of Toronto Toronto, Ontario, Canada Abby Lippman, PhD Professor Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics, and Occupational Health McGill University Montreal, Quebec, Canada Miles Little, AM, MD, MS, FRACS Professor Emeritus Centre for Values, Ethics and the Law in Medicine Sydney University Sydney, Australia Helen Longino, PhD Clarence Irving Lewis Professor of Philosophy Stanford University Stanford, CA Alan C. Love, PhD Associate Professor, Department of Philosophy Minnesota Center for Philosophy of Science University of Minnesota Minneapolis, MN Ruth Macklin, PhD Professor of Bioethics Department of Epidemiology & Population Health Albert Einstein College of Medicine Bronx, NY Cheryl Macpherson, PhD Professor and Chair, Bioethics Department St George's University School of Medicine St George's, Grenada 12

Susan MacRae, RN Registered Nurse, Clinical Ethicist, Psychotherapist Affiliate, Joint Centre for Bioethics, University of Toronto Toronto, Ontario, Canada Erik Malmquist, PhD Lecturer Department of Medical and Health Sciences Linköping University Linköping, Sweden Howard Mann, MBBCh Professor, Department of Radiology University of Utah Salt Lake City, UT Jo Manning, BA, LLM, MCompL Associate Professor Faculty of Law, University of Auckland Auckland, New Zealand Mary Faith Marshall, PhD, FCCM Emily Davie and Joseph S. Kornfeld Professor Director, Program in Biomedical Ethics Center for Biomedical Ethics and Humanities School of Medicine University of Virginia Charlottesville, VA John McMillan, PhD Professor and Director Bioethics Centre Te Pokapu Matatika Koiora Division of Health Sciences University of Otago North Dunedin, New Zealand Gilbert Meilander, PhD Duesenberg Professor in Christian Ethics Valparaiso University Valparaiso, IN Karen Melham, PhD Senior Researcher in Ethics HeLEX - Centre for Health, Law and Emerging Technologies Nuffield Department of Population Health Oxford University Oxford, United Kingdom 13

Paul T. Menzel, PhD Professor of Philosophy Emeritus Pacific Lutheran University Tacoma, WA Fiona A. Miller, PhD Associate Professor of Health Policy, Institute of Health Policy, Management & Evaluation Lead, Division of Health Policy & Ethics, THETA (Toronto Health Economics & Technology Assessment) Collaborative University of Toronto Toronto, Ontario Margaret E. Mohrmann, MD, PhD Professor of Pediatrics and Medical Education Associate Professor of Religious Studies University of Virginia Charlottesville, VA Kathryn Montgomery, PhD Julia and David Uihlein Professor of Medical Humanities and Bioethics Northwestern University Evanston, IL John Moskop, PhD Wallace and Mona Wu Chair in Biomedical Ethics Professor of Internal Medicine Wake Forest School of Medicine Medical Center Boulevard Winston-Salem, NC Dr. Mahdi Naamneh, PhD Visiting Scholar - Postdoctoral Research Fellow Northwestern University School of Law Chicago, IL Woods Nash, MPH, PhD Department of Philosophy University of Tennessee Knoxville, TN Meryl Nass, MD Ellsworth, Maine Hilde Lindemann, PhD Professor of Philosophy Michigan State University East Lansing, MI

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James Lindemann Nelson, PhD Professor of Philosophy Associate Dean for Graduate Studies College of Arts and Letters Michigan State University East Lansing, MI Karen Maschke, PhD Research Scholar The Hastings Center Garrison, NY Jing-Bao Nie, BMed, MMed, MA, PhD Associate Professor Bioethics Centre, University of Otago Dunedin, New Zealand Stephanie Nixon, PhD Assistant Professor Department of Physical Therapy University of Toronto Toronto, Ontario John H. Noble Jr. Emeritus Professor State University of New York at Buffalo Buffalo, NY Ubaka Ogbogu, LLB, LLM Assistant Professor Faculty of Law, University of Alberta Edmonton, Alberta, Canada Michael Oldani, PhD, MS Associate Professor Medical Anthropology, Sociology, Anthropology and Criminal Justice Department University of Wisconsin-Whitewater Whitewater, WI Nancy F. Olivieri, MD, FRCP(C) Professor of Pediatrics, Medicine and Public Health Sciences, University of Toronto Toronto, Ontario, Canada Donald L. Opitz, PhD Associate Professor School for New Learning DePaul University Chicago, IL 15

Doreen Ouellet, RN, BA, MHSc Joint Centre for Bioethics University of Toronto Toronto, Ontario, Canada Erik Parens, PhD Senior Research Scholar The Hastings Center Garrison, NY Susan Parry, PhD Philosophy Faculty Hennepin Technical College Brooklyn Park, MN Ron Paterson, LLB, BCL (Oxon) Professor of Health Law & Policy Auckland University Auckland, New Zealand Charlotte Paul, MB ChB PhD DPH (Otago) FAFPHM Emeritus Professor Department of Preventive and Social Medicine University of Otago Dunedin, New Zealand Nav Persaud, MD, MSc Staff Physician, St Michael's Hospital Lecturer, Department of Family and Community Medicine University of Toronto Toronto, Ontario, Canada Thaddeus Mason Pope, JD, PhD Director, Health Law Institute Associate Professor of Law Hamline University School of Law St Paul, MN Elita Poplavska, PhD Assistant Professor Faculty of Pharmacy Rīga Stradiņš University Riga, Latvia Christophe Quézel-Ambrunaz, PhD Maître de conférences Université de Grenoble Saint-Martin-d'Hères, France 16

Wendy Rogers, PhD, DipObst RACOG, MRCGP, FRACGP Professor of Clinical Ethics Department of Philosophy and Australian School of Advanced Medicine Macquarie University North Ryde, Australia Peter Sainsbury, MB, BS, MHP, PhD Associate Professor School of Public Health University of Sydney Sydney, Australia Naomi Scheman, PhD Professor of Philosophy and Gender, Women & Sexuality Studies (GWSS) Affiliate Faculty, Interdisciplinary Center for the Study of Global Change (ICGC) 2012-14 Imagine Chair, Humanities, Art, & Design Philosophy Department University of Minnesota Minneapolis, MN Maartje Schermer, MD, PhD Civis Mundi Chair in Philosophy of Medicine Medical Ethics and Philosophy Erasmus MC University Medical Center Rotterdam, The Netherlands Zachary M. Schrag, PhD Professor of History George Mason University Fairfax VA Ted Schrecker, PhD Professor of Global Health Policy School of Medicine, Pharmacy and Health Wolfson Research Institute Queen's Campus, Durham University Thornaby, United Kingdom Udo Schuklenk, PhD Professor of Philosophy and Ontario Research Chair in Bioethics Department of Philosophy, Queen's University Kingston, Ontario, Canada Barbara Secker, PhD Assistant Professor Department of Occupational Science & Occupational Therapy University of Toronto Toronto, Ontario, Canada 17

Arthur Shafer, BLitt (Oxon) Director, Centre for Professional and Applied Ethics University of Manitoba Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada Virginia A. Sharpe, PhD Center for Clinical Bioethics Georgetown University Medical Center Washington, D.C. Francis X. Shen, JD, PhD Associate Professor Faculty of Law, University of Minnesota Minneapolis, MN Joel James Shuman, PhD Professor of Theology King’s College Halifax, NS, Canada Douglas Sipp, BA RIKEN Institute of Physical and Chemical Research Japan Richard Smith CBE, FMedSci Adjunct Professor Imperial College London, United Kingdom Emily Smith Beitiks, PhD Assistant Director Paul K. Longmore Institute on Disability San Francisco State University San Francisco, CA Jeanne Snelling, PhD Research Fellow Bioethics and Health Law Bioethics Centre University of Otago Dunedin, New Zealand Jan Helge Solbakk, MD, PhD Professor and Head of Research Centre for Medical Ethics Faculty of Medicine University of Oslo Oslo, Norway 18

Glen Spielmans, PhD Associate Professor Department of Psychology Metro State University Saint Paul, MN Alessandro Spina, PhD Fellow in Regulation University of Milan Milan, Italy Dominique Sprumont, DrIur Deputy Director Institute of Health Law University of Neuchâtel Neuchâtel, Switzerland Jean-Claude St-Onge, PhD Professor Emeritus College Lionel-Groux Sainte-Thérèse, Quebec Bonnie Steinbock PhD
 Professor Department of Philosophy University at Albany/SUNY Albany, NY Sigrid Sterckx, PhD Professor of Ethics Bioethics Institute, Dept of Philosophy and Moral Sciences Ghent University Gent, Belgium Alison Thompson, PhD Assistant Professor Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy Dalla Lana School of Public Health & Joint Centre for Bioethics University of Toronto Toronto, Ontario Alexander Tsai, MD, PhD Assistant Professor of Psychiatry Harvard University Cambridge, MA Fernand Turcotte, MD, MPH, FRCPC Professor Emeritus 19

Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Faculté de Médecine Université Laval Laval, Quebec Leigh Turner, PhD Associate Professor Center for Bioethics & School of Public Health University of Minnesota Minneapolis, MN Duff Waring, LLB, PhD Associate Professor of Philosophy York University Toronto, Ontario C. Kenneth Waters, PhD
 Samuel Russell Chair of Humanities Professor of Philosophy
 Director, Minnesota Center for Philosophy of Science
 Director, Graduate Studies, Studies of Science and Technology
 University of Minnesota Minneapolis, MN Mark Waymack PhD Professor, Department of Philosophy Loyola University Chicago, IL Sheila Wildeman, MA, LLM Associate Professor & Associate Director Health Law Institute Schulich School of Law Dalhousie University Halifax, Nova Scotia Daniel Wikler PhD Mary B. Saltonstall Professor of Population Ethics School of Public Health, Harvard University Cambridge, MA Maran Wolston, MA, ABD in philosophy Philosophy Faculty Member Minneapolis Community and Technical College University of Minnesota Minneapolis, MN

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Neyyire Yasemin Yalim, MD, PhD Chair, Turkish Bioethics Association University of Ankara Ankara, Turkey Simon N. Young, PhD Professor Department of Psychiatry McGill University Montreal, Quebec

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