SOLAR INTERVALS OF THE DRESDEN CODEX VENUS TABLE

CARLOS BARRERA ATUESTA, Independent Researcher on Maya Science Introduction Could the Maya of the Classic Period (from third to tenth centuries) predict astronomical events hundreds and even thousands of years in advance? How did they manage to obtain the precision that is implied in their astronomical calculations? These are mysteries that persist after more than one century of research. The recent discovery of a solar property encoded in a set of multiples of the Dresden Codex - the oldest manuscript from the American continent – would reveal key aspects for understanding their mathematical models and scientific foundations, partially rescue their intangible heritage, and confirm the validity of the GMT correlation between Maya and Christian dates. These results suggest that the same calculation principle used to accurately determine, throughout the centuries, the main solar references of the agricultural year, also would have been used to set suitable dates for political, social, ritual, and mythical events, dates of deep time and the distant future. Abstract The ancient Maya are widely recognized for their refined intellectual achievements in Astronomical Sciences1 and Mathematics,2 and it has even been said that their solar calculations were more accurate than the current Gregorian calendar. 3 While it is true that there is evidence supporting the foregoing assertions, is also equally true that the mathematical procedures or theoretical foundations that allowed them to reach a certain degree of accuracy are still unknown. In that sense, this article seeks to contribute new concepts in regard to the Maya conception of time4, extracted from their own epigraphic records, which could give us a deeper understanding of their scientific methods, and would also help solve other crucial aspects in the study of their Culture, related to Chronology, History and Mythology. 1. On the Calculation of Solar Years The first indications that suggest the precision of the Maya solar calendar come from works of John E. Teeple in which he investigates 6940-day intervals between Maya chronological records that would represent 235 lunations and 19 solar years.5 Teeple also considers the possibility that the Maya may have allowed the independent course of the Jaab’ calendar and tropical year through a full synchronization circuit of 29 18980-day Calendar Rounds,6 where the following identity is obtained: 1508 x 365d = 1507 x 365.2422d. Regarding the techniques used by the ancient Maya to verify the moments in which the main solar references of the agricultural year were observed, the alignments of stelae oriented towards specific points in the eastern and western horizon, as well as the design of architectural structures arranged to indicate the dates of occurrence of solstices and the equinoxes7 can be cited, as evidenced by Group E at Uaxactún (Figure 1), the Temple of the Seven Dolls of Dzibilchaltún, El Castillo at Chichén Itzá, and El Castillo at Mayapán.

© Carlos Barrera Atuesta, 2004-2013. All Rights Reserved.

The establishment of the above solar references. and that is called "the zenith passage of the Sun". solstices and equinoxes included. the zenith passages of the Sun would occur in these latitudes at noon on August 12-13. © Carlos Barrera Atuesta. 1. and later. a phenomenon that occurs only twice a year in regions between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn. were the vertical zenith sighting tubes: dark underground chambers that project a perpendicular beam of light towards the center of its base when the rays of the Sun pass through an observation tube in the roof of the structure. and the zenithal observatories of Monte Alban and Teotihuacan. with their 8 respective description of solar dates and references [Drawing by Robert Sharer] Among the technical resources used by the ancient Maya to find out the fleeting moment when the Sun was at its highest point in the sky.9 Pioneering studies conducted by Zelia Nuttal. the midpoint between summer to winter solstices represents the autumnal equinox.10 Ola Apenes11 and Vincent H. The midpoint between April to August solar zenith passages represents the summer solstice whereas the midpoint between August to April zenith solar passages represents the winter solstice. Archaeological evidence on the tracking of the zenith passage of the Sun in Mesoamerica has been found in the so-called Cave “ Los Amates” at Xochicalco. Architectural layout of the structures that integrate the E Group at Uaxactun.FIG. Malmström. . allows for a better understanding of the basic mathematical characteristics that define the idealized 364-day solar model. All Rights Reserved. which the Maya would have formulated based on thirteenday periods (Figure 2). 2004-2013. there being a gap between these events of 260 days. According to the above criteria. and April 30-May 1. The agricultural importance of the dates obtained lies in the fact that they mark out seasons of rain and drought in extensive regions of Mesoamerica.12 linked the zenith passages of the Sun that occurred on Mesoamerican regions located between 14°42'N and 15°N with a possible astronomical origin of the Mesoamerican calendar. of 105 days. associated with the planting and harvesting of corn. In turn. while the midpoint between winter to summer solstices represents the vernal equinox.

The following records to its left correspond to © Carlos Barrera Atuesta. In order to obtain a symmetric model of solar representation. representing these references. the positions located ±52 days from the winter solstice are also considered. and the separation between equinoxes and their nearest zenith passages can be defined by three thirteen-day periods. and 39 days from their immediate equinoxes.14 2. References nearest to the equinoxes are ±39 days away. the 21st days of the respective months of June and December being the usual dates for the solstices. This interesting asymmetry of the solar year would have been resolved by the ancient Maya based on the Mesoamerican 260-day calendar. the existing separation for the Northern Hemisphere between the equinoxes and the winter solstice is 89-90 days.2. of 93-94 days. . as evidenced by a study of modular arithmetic applied to the so called anomalous multiples of the Venus Table. When making the respective calculations it is observed that the separation between the zenith passages of the Sun and the summer solstice can be defined by four thirteen-day periods. two 20-day Winals and zero K’ins or days (8. the passages of the Sun through the nadir. 364-day solar representation model. and on February 9-11. 2004-2013. On the Structure of the Venus Table The recording of eight 360-day Tuns.0). and between the equinoxes and the summer solstice. and the autumnal equinox near September 22. it leads to a 9-Ajaw destination date.13 which take place at midnight on October 29-31. All Rights Reserved. and five canonical 584-day Venus cycles. whereas the vernal equinox tends to occur more towards March 20. is equivalent in our decimal system to 2920 days: an interval that represents the synchronization of eight 365-day Jaab’ calendars. Page 24 of the Dresden Codex (Figure 3) presents a general synthesis of this structure. and those nearest to the solstices are ±52 days away. in the lower right section of page 24. 2.FIG.15 When such transition is made from a 1-Ajaw origin date. In actual astronomical terms.

0) 2920-day multiples. [Photo by Justin Kerr for FAMSI] © Carlos Barrera Atuesta. 2004-2013. All Rights Reserved. .the second. we have the ninth to twelfth multiples.6.8. had traditionally been interpreted exclusively according to Venus cycles.0) and thirteenth (5.17. caused by a set of records in between. FIG. and the four upper entries represent the fifth to eighth multiples. referred to as anomalous multiples. 68900 and 185120 days. then introducing a discontinuity between the twelfth (4.5. 3. Mathematical decoding of page 24 of the Dresden Codex. 33280. third and fourth multiples. The set of anomalous multiples of 9100. Going up through the Table.

The anomalous multiples (or peculiar numbers) of the Venus Table.72 days. or the canonical 584-day Venus cycle.16.1. 13 x 2920d) the least common multiple of 260.13.e.5.00 –00.9.0.02. John E. 72 365day Jaab' calendars.14. 68900 (9.9. The subtraction of the 2200-day Ring Number.3d 175760 days = 301 583. is that of 26280 days (i.0 to 1.0) and 185120 days (1. 365 and 584 days. cannot be expressed as whole repetitions of the 365-day Jaab’ calendar. and 45 584-day Venus cycles. the Jaab' calendar and the canonical cycle of Venus.09.5. it was possible to include an additional 33280-day interval.18 Teeple noticed that by subtracting 33280 days from 68900 days.0.0). Venus’ position could be indefinitely projected in time and would never show a theoretical deviation greater than ± 3.0. . and that by accumulating four 35620-day repetitions.0 to its right. relative to its point of origin.921375 days.16.19. 4 Ajaw 8 Kumk'u. and the Long Round 9.0).1. © Carlos Barrera Atuesta.00. All Rights Reserved.796125d (4 x 35620d + 33280d) = 175760 days = 301 583.52 days or ± 2.8. which represents the synchronization between 73 360-day Tun periods.0.00.0). being 37960 days (i.16.06.921375-day Venus periods – 0. by Ring Number 6.09.00 +09.11. Another significant interval included within the structure. forming a precision 175760-day transition. (68900d – 33280d) = 35620 days = 61 583.14. By doing so.00 12.00 4 Ajaw 8 Kumk’u (Era Date) 2200-day Ring-Number 1 Ajaw 18 K’ayab (Pre-Era Date) 1366560-day Long Round 1 Ajaw 18 K’ayab (Main Record) 3. 33280 (4.0. The intervals represented by anomalous multiples are: 9100 (1.9.0). For this reason.0).09. leads towards the main record of the Venus Table.16.5.0. 1 Ajaw 18 K'ayab. a slightly higher value was obtained than the one generated by 61 actual Venus periods.00 09. defined by the date 9.9203-day Venus periods (on average) In 2007.0.11062d.17 00. but they do allow for their exact divisibility by the Mesoamerican 260-day calendar. or (68900d + 37960d + 68900d). On the Calculation of the Venus Cycle Venus’ actual synodic period is 583. from the Era Date 0. The upper right section of the Table shows the first to fourth 37960-day multiples (5.e. Teeple suggested that the peculiar multiples of the Venus Table could play a compensatory role on such deviation. since 37960d mod 583. representing the moments of synchronization between the Mesoamerican calendar.0. in contrast to the 2920-day multiples.16.00. 2004-2013.11 days in the 37960-day interval. which is their main characteristic.7.00. there is a cumulative error due to excess of about 5. equivalent to 301 583. the author observed that this same 175760-day transition could be obtained by alternating (33280d + 37960d + 33280d + 37960d + 33280d). and the subsequent application of the 1366560 days implied by the aforesaid Long Round.5.16 and by performing the operations indicated in the lower left section of page 24.8.921375d = 5.2. 9 x 2920d = 3.9203-day Venus cycles.00.921375-day Venus periods + 0.13.12. The establishment of the historical moment referred to in the above records can be determined by adopting a correlation constant between Maya and Christian dates. hence.4.

5.2.24 The solution trajectory proposed by Lounsbury for the Venus Table used.10.9.4. 2004-2013.0 = 33280 days = (1 x 37960d – 2 x 2340d) 9. First peculiar number: Second peculiar number: Third peculiar number: Fourth peculiar number: 1.27 9. The obtained remainder of 340 days could then be expressed as (90d + 250d). towards a future heliacal rise. and that the achieved target date (register 227) should correspond to the last day on which Venus was visible as evening star on 9.0 = 68900 days = (2 x 37960d – 3 x 2340d) 1. and the third 37960-day multiple (i.14.22 Comparing Teeple's 175760-day interval to the anomalous 185120-day multiple.921375-day Venus cycles + 15.e. 1 Ajaw 13 K’ank’in. Thompson justified this replacement using the same mathematical logic that would years later confirm the validity of the anomalous multiple that it sought to correct.5. separated by 9100 days (represented by registers 165 and 227 of 260).17. equivalent to 7 x 260d and 5 x 364d.0. Thompson realized that the 9360 days between them. the duration of the Venus cycle is defined from four sub-intervals of 236. 1 Ajaw 13 K’ank’in © Carlos Barrera Atuesta. All Rights Reserved.0 = 9100 days = (4 x 37960d – 61 x 2340d) 4.The last day in which Venus is visible at sunset.8. 113880 days). which makes possible its tracking through the above-described method.258d The validity of the anomalous 9100-day multiple had been suggested by Bryan Wells in 1991.12. 185120 days = 317 583.26 On pages 46-50 of the Dresden Codex.5.9.0.2.11.19 The mathematical basis behind Venus’ behavior was established by Lounsbury.20 by proving that all peculiar numbers can be obtained from a linear Diophantine equation of the type z = 37960x – 2340y. projected the position of Venus in 9.16.924125d 113880 days = 195 583. and [2] the remainder of 340 days obtained when the 9100-day interval is compared to 15 canonical 584-day Venus cycles. typically occur within ± 4 days of their inferior conjunction. who stated two properties that made it special: [1] its exact divisibility by the Maya 1820-day cycle.11. 90.9.16.921375-day Venus cycles + 17.16.23 as indicated by the correlation between Maya and Gregorian dates that Thompson himself and John Teeple had helped improve in 1927.331875d 9360 days = 16 583. the 185120-day peculiar number.25 both recorded on page 24 of the Dresden Codex. in fact. based on the works of Joseph Goodman and Juan Martinez in 1897.9.8. 250 and 8 days.21 Without knowing it. and its first day of visibility at the break of dawn.16.921375-day Venus cycles + 16.0.0.7. 1 Ajaw 18 Muwan + 9100d = 9. .10. 9100 days = 15 x (90d + 250d + 8d + 236d) + (90d + 250d) = 15 x 584d + 340d The way in which the anomalous 9100-day multiple ought to be incorporated into the Venus Table was established by the author in 2007 by noticing that there were only two 1Ajaw dates in its structure.0. to obtain a compensating effect similar to that generated by the 9360-day interval on Venus’ synodic position of 9.0 = 185120 days = (5 x 37960d – 2 x 2340d) Eric Thompson believed that the anomalous 9100-day multiple was in error and should be replaced with an interval of 4 x 2340d = 9360d.

D.0.3.9. applied to the Era Date 0.0.30 the main record of the Venus Table 9.9.16.3.9. to complete 189 tropical years and recover the original date.0. 1 Ajaw 18 Sotz’) recorded in Palenque during the Classic Period. represents a transition between opposite dates minus 52 days.0.2422d – 234. plus 52 days.0. 1 Ajaw 18 K'ayab.0. Whenever the reached date differs from the expected value in one day. which is equivalent to the actual time elapsed since the beginning of the solar cycle. The 1364360-day interval. as well as the October and February solar nadirs with the summer solstice29 on June 21. 1 Ajaw 13 Pax.A subsequent calendric operation showed that. as a huge transition of 3735 ½ years. Within the idealized 364-day solar model (see Figure 2).D. subtracting the anomalous 68900-day multiple from 9.2422d = 234.15.10. 1 Ajaw 18 K’ayab + 9100d = 9. . 9. August 13. when making a 9100-day transition from 9.9.0.31 Consequently.2422-day solar years are completed. 623 February 9.4664 days.0. All Rights Reserved.9.4664d represents the actual lapse generated by the third anomalous multiple of the Venus Table on the solar cycle. it could be corrected by applying the canonical 364-day cycle in the corresponding direction.0. 623 February 9. 13 Ajaw 8 Xul is equivalent to the Gregorian date of A.38d Potential solar transition Maya notation 9.0. between the zenith passage of 3114 B. the obtained lapse of 234 days represents a transition between opposite dates (separated by 182 days).28 4. The operation indicates that after 68900 days.C.0. in fact. and subtracting 68900 days therefrom.4664d).16.9. The Discovery of the Solar Intervals of the Venus Table The expression 68900d mod 365.0 = 1364360 days 1364360 days = (1366560d – 2200d) 1364360d mod 365. and a mythical 819-day station (12. Applying the 584285 correlation constant.9.9. or from the August zenith passage to the September 23 autumnal equinox.16.19. 1 Ajaw 13 Pax For some reason that should be investigated.0 could be interpreted. and the solar nadir on A. it can be concluded that the anomalous 68900day multiple makes it possible to link the April and August zenith passages of the Sun with the winter solstice on December 21.0 – 0. associated with a South-yellow quadrant of the Maya Cosmos: the 819-day station 9.0. 188 365.15.0.15.10. leaving a remainder of 234.0. there is a separation of 42 x 32760 days (3767 sidereal years) between 9.0 to obtain record 9.D.16. 1 Ajaw 13 Pax.16.0 Effective progress in days February 9 (solar nadir) Similar analyses show that the peculiar 33280-day interval could also be used to perform transitions from the vernal equinox to the May 1 zenith passage. should result in the summer solstice.16.2422d = 180.9.0. From the foregoing. Another way to interpret the same result is to state that there are 130. 9. 1539 November 14.16.0. 2004-2013. should result in the October solar nadir. according to which the Initial Series 11.9.38d August 13 (zenith passage) + 180.10.3.16.9.9.7758 days left = (365.0. corresponds to the solar nadir on A. © Carlos Barrera Atuesta.9. whereas going back 130 days = (364d – 234d).9.13.3. an important computing reference was obtained.

8. As a result. which finally leads to the main entry of the Venus Table 9.0. March 18/19 + 33280d = April-May zenith passage April-May zenith passage + 68900d = Winter solstice Winter solstice + (185120d + 9100d) = September 22/23 March 18/19 + 1366560d (9. which is meaningful. there being a difference between their respective remaining results of just one day. whereas (33280d + 68900d + 185120d + 9100d) mod 365. because Venus is located at its first stationary position (the point at which Venus begins its 40-day retrograde motion). by subtracting 4680 days from 9. A. 558 April 30.16.2422d = 188. a transition is obtained from the winter solstice to the autumnal equinox with a stopover on the August 12-13 zenith passage.3. said intervals may be conveniently combined.2422d = 188. . 2004-2013. the 9.2422d = –88. Vernal equinox + 33280d = April-May zenith passage April-May zenith passage + 68900d = Winter solstice Winter solstice + 68900d = August zenith passage August zenith passage + 33280d = Autumnal equinox A new analysis of modular arithmetic.8504d (33280d + 68900d) mod 365.9. and other equivalents of an astronomical nature. (185120d + 9100d) mod 365. 18 x 260d.9.4. and when concatenating them in the reverse order. adjacent to 1 Ajaw 18 K'ayab on page 24 of the Dresden Codex.9298d.0 is correlated to the Gregorian date of A.16. 1 Ajaw 18 Wo is obtained. which took place during the 819-day station 9. 1 Ajaw 18 Wo. duplicated or subtracted.D. 13 x 360d.9. 610 April 18 is also the 18980-day Calendar Round anniversary of the zenith passage of the sun on A.8. depending on the specific situation at hand.16. actually serves the same solar function obtained by concatenating all the anomalous multiples.8160d Typical separation between the vernal equinox and the winter solstice: –89 days Typical separation between the winter solstice and the autumnal equinox: –89 days The huge 1366560-day interval. All Rights Reserved.9.5758d.16.16.Concatenating the anomalous multiples of 33280 and 68900 days.0. reveals that this interval could also be used to perform the same transitions from equinoxes to solstices obtained through the anomalous multiples of (33280d + 68900d). Maya date 9.0.D.16. 610 April 18. it can be observed that the minimum distance between them is 4680 days: a renowned Maya interval equivalent to 2 x 2340d.0.0) = September 22/23 Considering the Calendar Round 1 Ajaw 18 Wo.D. Therefore.0. since 1366560d mod 365.16. As a consequence.16. the Initial Series 9.6. © Carlos Barrera Atuesta. this time applied to the concatenated anomalous multiples of (185120d + 9100d).0.9.9.0 interval of 1366560 days could be used to perform transitions of 3741½ solar years from a “computing” vernal equinox (March 18/19) to an autumnal equinox (September 22/23).2422d = –87. a transition is obtained from the vernal equinox to the winter solstice with a stopover on the April 30-May 1 zenith passage.

0.6. the completion of this structure corresponds to the Gregorian date of A. while (September 25 – 33280d) leads to an August zenith passage. 557 August 13) 9. which suggests an orderly sequence of applied anomalous multiples. beginning on the Initial Series 9.24) A. A.D. 2004-2013.3.16.10. Venus should have been located three days after its first day of visibility as morning star.D.D. 544 October 20. 1446 September 22 (Equinox) Finally.16. 914 December 20 + (185120d + 9100d) = A. 1 Ajaw 8 Sak. on 9.D.0. 610 April 18 (1 Ajaw 18 Wo) to A.0. 635 March 18 (“Computing” equinox) A. 2340d mod 365. 33280 days before 9. the zenith passage of A.32 Within this framework of ideas. 1 Ajaw 8 Sak – 33280d = 9. .921375d = –3.D.15. 726 April 30 by 33280 days.10.D.D. 648 September 25. through various solar stations. and its origin.15. All Rights Reserved. 9.D. 641 August 13 is obtained (which best explains the concept of “computing” equinox).D.6.0.16. 1 Ajaw 8 Sak: first day on which Venus is visible as morning star 9. 635 March 18 by 9100 days. and ending 37960 days after. 1 Ajaw 18 Wo = A. the author deducted an original Venus structure. Distance between April 30 zenith passage and September 23 equinox: 146 days Distance between August 13 zenith passage and September 23 equinox: 41 day Optimal computing point for the 2340 and 33280-day intervals: September 25 Other possible application points (as additions): August 11 / April 28 In 2007.D.0.D. According to the 584285 correlation constant. 914 December 20 (Winter solstice) A.8. from A.10. 635 March 18. precedes the zenith passage of A.2422d = 148.D.8.8. and this date in turn.D.10. 33280d mod 583.16.0.10.15. September 25 may also be considered as a “computing” autumnal equinox because the operation (September 25 – 2340d) leads to an April zenith passage.16. 635 March 18 + 33280d = A.5.D. 1 Ajaw 8 Sak.D.D.D.9598d Distance between March 20 equinox and August 13 zenith passage: 146 days Distance between March 20 equinox and April 30 zenith passage: 41 days Optimal computing point for the 2340 and 33280-day intervals: March 18 Other possible application points (as subtractions): August 15 / May 2 In fact.0. 1446 September 22 (autumnal equinox).52d 9.15. during the August zenith passage of A.16.D. 557 (which is also located 4680 days after A.D. 1 Ajaw 3 Mol (A. when a 2340-day interval is applied to A.D.3. p. 1 Ajaw 3 Mol: first day on which Venus is visible as morning star + 3 days © Carlos Barrera Atuesta.8.Likewise. 610 April 18 (Dresden Codex.2422d = 42. 610 April 18 precedes A. 726 April 30 + 68900d = A.D.5468d 33280d mod 365. to A. 726 April 30 (Solar zenith passage) A. 544 October 20). 610 April 18 + 9100d = A.0.

15. It is especially worth noting the interval of (26280d + 33280d + 37960d). 558 April 30) 9. Venus should have been on its first day of visibility as morning star.15.D.4.D.D.5. Venus should have been in inferior conjunction with the Sun. which took place on the aforementioned 819-day station 9. 250.3. full moon) – 8d (inferior conjunction of Venus) – 250d (665 August 13) + 260d (666 April 30). 642). of 1.10.0: Last day on which Venus is visible as morning star / solar zenith passage Now. 642.0. though diverse. 1 Ajaw 13 Pax: 819-day station and 32760-day anniversary 9. 558 and A.D. (33280d – 260d) before 9.16. 1 Ajaw 13 Pax 9. 1 Ajaw 18 K’ayab (heliacal rise of Venus on 934 November 25)33 – 37960d (830 December 20. 1 Ajaw 13 Pax + (250d + 8d) = 9. 1 Ajaw 18 K’ayab + 9100 = 9. 1 Ajaw 18 Wo.0. © Carlos Barrera Atuesta.10.9.10. 12 Etz’nab 6 Sak 9. 90.3. heliacal rise of Venus. the interval of (33280d – 260d – 2340d) = 84 years (i.4.10.0. 12 Etz’nab 6 Sak: Autumnal equinox of A.5. because 2340 days before 9. 726).0.3.15.3.D. 648.15.4.6.0.6.e. new moon) – 250d (667 March 20) – 90d (666 December 20.4. 1 Ajaw 3 Mol. 558.0: First day of Venus as morning star + 263 days / solar zenith passage Distance between the first and last day on which Venus is morning star: 263 days 9. 12 Etz’nab 6 Sak: Completion of an 8-day Venus sub-cycle / station Completion of an 8-day Venus sub-cycle: first day on which Venus is the morning star Selected Results and Conclusions The implications derived of the above analyses.0. All Rights Reserved. 1 Ajaw 18 Wo (A.0. 558.8.4. .D. 9.15.9. anniversary of 118 x 260d + 29 x 37960d.0. during the autumnal equinox of A. 9. [2] Other non-anomalous 260-day multiples.3.D. 648 September 23 9. on 667 November 25.0.Therefore.10.0. during the April zenith passage of A.15.3.18.3. as well as other unconventional intervals are also part of the solar calculations.6. equivalent to 267 years.0.10.3.9. and Venus’ subintervals of 236.3. one Mesoamerican 260-day calendar after 9.6. Venus should have been very close to its last day of visibility as morning star. during the April zenith passage of A.15.16.0)34 – 26280d (transit of Venus35 – 1d. and through the previously suggested operation (185120d + 9100d) – (33280d + 68900d) = 252 years.10. and 8 days. 1 Ajaw 3 Mol + 260d = 9. major lunar standstill)36 – 236d (666 April 28.16.D.18.15.18.6. which comprise the following solution sequence: [3] 10. 1 Ajaw 13 Pax: Completion of a 90-day Venus sub-cycle 9. such as 4680 days and 18980 days.6. 558 and A. this Venus-Solar Structure of the Dresden Codex makes complete sense.4.D.10.16.15.10.15. inferior conjunction of Venus) – 33280d (heliacal rise of Venus. and (9100d + 250 d + 8d) after 9. during the April zenith passage of A. can be summarized as follows: [1] The tracking of solar years in Maya chronology is inferred through the interval of (18980d + 9100d + 33280d) = 168 years (which is the distance between the April zenith passages of A.0.9.15.D. Venus should have been on its last day of visibility as morning star. full moon. 2004-2013. the distance between the April zenith passages of A.0.18.6.8.15.3.

since 8.0.6.9. which is a significant equivalence. leads to A.0.12.0.5.9.16. 4797.. 31. so it is required to project the date obtained towards a region where our calendar is still effective. 4772 October 23 (1.39 might be projected in solar terms. as follows: [6.0. and 10.2. © Carlos Barrera Atuesta. A complete summary of other potential solar intervals is presented in Appendix I. 5 Lamat 1 Mol) precedes the Gregorian date of A.10.2] 9. 17 August 12 to A. the zenith passage of the sun of 33051 B.18.1] 9. corresponds to the autumnal equinox of A. 31.3. [6] The accession date of Pakal on 9.18. and solar nadir38 located 33280 days before the 819-day station and winter solstice of 2269 B.42 towards A. as follows: 9.C. 63 of the Dresden). and Sid Hollander for having commented on this document on a private basis.0. suggest at least other solar sequence based on anomalous multiples.4.8 – 185120d (108 September 24) – 33280d (17 August 12).0. is located 10967536 days before the Era Date.8. [9] The base date 9 K’an 12 K’ayab.2.9. 5 Lamat 1 Mol (615 July 29). [8] The Dresden Codex Serpent Series40 8.2. 62. The Gregorian calendar accumulates one day of error for each 3333. 1524 August 12. 1 Ajaw 18 K’ayab (1194 September 23) – 1366560d (2548 B.e.9. Michael Grofe.33 years.4.3.0.C. for calculation of the Dresden Codex Serpent Series.16.16.0. the date located 9100 days after 1.4. All Rights Reserved. a separation of 550420 days (= 1508 x 365d = 1507 x 365.16.8. [7] When calculating the interval from A. August 22 results.[4] The characteristics of the Initial Series 9. Acknowledgments I am grateful to Víctor Torres Roldán. 13 Ak'bal 1 K'ank'in.8. Going back 29 x 37960d.8 + 68900d (804 March 19) + 185120d + 9100d (1335 December 21) + 68900d (1524 August 12).0.0. Hence.D. 4797 September 22 by 9100 days. 2004-2013. 63 of the Dresden) + 33280d (451 October 31) + 185120d = 10. Such a projection is achieved through an interval of 11 x 29 x 37960d = 33176 x 365d (i.3.D. 1783 September 23.41 When applying a peculiar 33280-day interval to 9 K’an 12 K’ayab.D.8. 104 August 12.2422d) is obtained.D.5.D. March 19) + 68900d = 1.C.6.D. 13 Ak'bal 11 Yaxk'in.).0. .0 (610 April 18) + 9100d (635 March 18) + 33280d (726 April 30) + 68900d (914 December 20) + 68900d (1103 August 12) + 33280d (1194 September 23). 1 Ajaw 13 Mak (Birth of GII. 33154 x 365.D. on 2360 B. as follows: (9100d + 33280d + 2 x 68900d + 2 x 185120d).4. the solar nadir of A. in the distant future. Ed Barnhart.16.3.0:37 10.3 (pp.16. [5] This last sequence might be linked to the mythical record of Palenque 1.12.D. the Gregorian date 33051 B. Consequently.4. which can be formulated based solely on the anomalous multiples of the Venus Table.18.15. in deep time. resulting in the Gregorian date of A. are separated by (33280d + 185120d). 1 Ajaw 18 Wo. Susan Milbrath. the date 9 K’an 12 K’ayab precedes by 33280 days. [10] The projection of 40 x 37960d from the accession of Pakal.8. 451 October 31 being their common linking point. Ivan Šprajc.10. November 8.2422d).C.6.3 (pp.6.C. [6. to regions where our calendar is still effective.

1972). folklore and calendars (Austin. Ed. E. La antropología americanista en la actualidad: homenaje a Raphael Girard (vol. Stockholm. 71-76. 9. R. (ref. 320-21. F. A. 2007). cit. “Origin of the Mesoamerican 260-day calendar”. 1930). 21. S. The sky in Maya literature. Förstemann. 1910). 1936). Malmström. F. Washington. 1992). 1. 6. C. Traxler. “Maya astronomy”. J. cit. ed. 2. 23. Traxler. J. 13. 2. Papers of the Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnology. Bricker. cit. 2004-2013. TX. Contributions to American archaeology (vol. 119-48. no. (ref. (ref. op. “Star gods and astronomy of the Aztecs”. V. DC. 1928). Star gods of the Maya: astronomy in art. Sharer. C. 1. computation. J. op. S. vol. Skywatchers (Austin. M. 5. S. 20). Z. “Nouvelles lumières sur les civilizations Americaines et le système du calendrier”. 14). MA. Astronomy in the Maya codices (Philadelphia. Science 181 (1973). 20. ed. 8. (ref. Dictionary of scientific biography. Thompson. A commentary of the Dresden Codex. . © Carlos Barrera Atuesta. 16. L. 3). Teeple. Sharer. Teeple. Harvard Univ. The numeration.REFERENCES 1. 14). 4. 7. Milbrath. L. 2006). J. R. 6. México. op. (ref. 1978). cit. Proceedings of the 22nd International Congress of Americanists (Rome. published online 7 September 1973. 1999). S. TX. P. Teeple. (ref. The ancient Maya (Stanford. Apenes. Teeple. E. (vol. 1988). 1. a Maya hieroglyphic book (Philadelphia. Barrera. Aveni. 2001). New York. Aveni. P. 22. Cambridge. J. P. Milbrath. H. All Rights Reserved. “Maya numeration. Possible derivation of 260 day period of the Maya calendar (vol. 110-14. 94-98. A. op. S. 10. 2011). op. 289-303. 3). Commentary on the Maya manuscript in the Royal Public Library of Dresden . Nuttal. F. J. “A Derivation of the Mayan-to-Julian calendar correlation from the Dresden Codex Venus chronology”. 12. 14. 3. E. O. J. 11. cit. J. 163-177. 2. (ref. 15 (suppl. 19. Dos posibles soluciones para el intervalo de 9100 días de las Tablas de Venus del Códice de Dresde (Bogotá. op. Thompson. Lounsbury. 7). cit. op. Lounsbury. Bricker. J. 1980). 17. and calendrical astronomy”. 1906). (New York. León-Portilla. Thompson. 1. Bowditch. 3). 38-40. Lounsbury. 18. cit. 5-8. E. calendar systems and astronomical knowledge of the Mayas (Cambridge. V. 759-818. 4. 15. Time and reality in the thought of the Maya (Oklahoma.

16). Thompson. F. Barnhart. M. Anthropos (vol. op. © Carlos Barrera Atuesta. 1-7. Karasik. C. 44-73. “Measuring deep time: the sidereal year and the tropical year in Maya inscriptions”. Lounsbury. cit. Grofe. P. Schele. All Rights Reserved. 35. op. cit. J. Beyer. 26. 25. Beyer. Powell. B. . op. 1. F. (ref. (ref. cit. 33. Yucatán a través de los siglos: memorias del 49° Congreso Internacional de Americanistas (Quito. 39. Lounsbury. Mathews. ed. 1927). Barrera. C. E. 34. F. 2005). Paxton. A correlation of the Mayan and European calendars. 27. op. cit. The code of kings (New York. cit. 1991). (ref. Lounsbury. 17. 99-115. 85. op. Greene. “Astronomical observations from the Temple of the Sun”. Barrera. C. C. Schele. (ref. (ref. F. L. Ed. 28. 28. 2012). cit. “The Long Count position of the Serpent Number dates”. “Iconografía solar en la Tabla de Venus del Códice de Dresde”. cit. 1939). Barrera. 1933). 2009). M. 1. 36. 1997). E. Wells. no. 2011). 214-30. 34). H. (ref. 32. 401-05. L. Anthropological series (vol. 37. “Emendations of the ‘Serpent Numbers’ of the Dresden Maya Codex ”. 95-120. 41. 16). Mathews. 2008). Proceedings of the 27th International Congress of Americanists (vol. C. (Austin.24. F. 27). 42. S. 16). C. 19. “The Venus Table of the Dresden Codex and the movements of the planet Venus”. Archaeoastronomy (vol. Coughenour. Zenith and nadir in mayan space-time: sacred architecture. P. 39). no. and astronumerology (Greensboro. Mexico. M. 38. Desarrollo de estructuras Venus-solares en ambientes cronológicamente puros libres de los efectos correlativos (Bogotá. Méndez. 2004-2013. op. (ref. 1. Some problems in the interpretation of the mythological portion of the hieroglyphic text of the Temple of the Cross at Palenque. Barrera. 278 (Perú. TX. Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union Symposium No. H. Lounsbury. 30. Tránsitos de Venus en el Códice de Dresde (Bogotá. C. 31. op. archaeoastronomy. The Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada (vol. 6. 19). A. Chicago. 1999). Lounsbury. 1980). 29. 40.

November 8 + 33280d = December 21 28. June 21 – 68900d = October 29/30 3. March 10 + 68900d = October 31 27. 2004-2013. (9100d + 33280d + 2 x 68900d + 2 x 185120d) = 1507 solar years = 1508 x 365d 23. March 19/20 + 7 x 37960d = September 22/23 8. June 20 – 3 x 33280d = February 11/12 5. December 21 + 3 x 33280d = April 29/30 11. December 21 + 68900d = August 12/13 6. (185120d + 9100d – 33280d – 68900d) = 252 solar years – 1d 26.APPENDIX I – POTENTIAL SOLAR INTERVALS BASED ON MAYA CYCLES Solar Equations Based on the Anomalous Multiples of the Dresden Codex Venus Table 1. . December 21 + (68900d – 33280d – 185120d – 2 x 9100d) = October 28/29 12. October 28/29 – 13 x 37960d = September 22/23 10. September 22/23 – 36 x 37960d = March 19/20 © Carlos Barrera Atuesta. June 21 + 68900d = February 10/11 2. December 20/21 – 2 x 37960d = February 9/10 2.9d 25. All Rights Reserved. August 13 – 3 x 37960d = October 28 6. November 8 – 68900d = March 19 29. February 9 + 4 x 37960d = October 31 7. December 21 – 68900d = April 30/May 1 7. June 21 + 3 x 33280d = October 28/29 4. December 21 – (9100d + 185120d) = March 19/20 10.9d 24. April 28 + 3 x 37960d = February 11/12 5. March 19 + (33280d + 2 x 68900d) = August 13 16. December 21 – (33280d + 68900d) = March 19/20 8. December 20 + 2 x 37960d = October 30/31 3. September 22 – 16 x 37960d = October 31 11. March 19 + (33280d + 68900d + 185120d + 9100d) = September 22/23 17. March 19/20 + 33280d = April 30/May 1 15. October 29/30 + (9100d + 33280d – 68900d) = March 20/21 20. December 20 – 3 x 33280d = August 13/14 13. February 11/12 – (9100d + 33280d – 68900d) = September 22/23 21. (2 x 68900d + 4 x 33280d – 185120d – 9100d) = 210 solar years – 0. November 8 + (33280d – 68900d) = April 30/May 1 Solar Equations Based on the 37960-day Cycle 1. April 30 + (33280d + 2 x 68900d) = September 23 22. December 20 + (33280d + 68900d) = September 23 14. December 21 + (9100d + 185120d) = September 22/23 9. (68900d + 3 x 33280 d) = 462 solar years – 1. March 19 + 2 x (33280d +68900d) = September 23 18. September 23 – 33280d = August 12/13 19. April 30/May 1 – 2 x 37960d = June 20 4. March 19/20 – 13 x 37960d = February 9/10 9.

November 25 + 37960d = October 31 13. 3. 3. 3. . All Rights Reserved. 4. November 25 – 37960d = December 21 Solar Equations Based on the 18980-day Calendar Round 1. 4. 6. 2. March 18 + 2340d = August 13 April 28 + 2340d = September 23 August 11 + 2340d = September 23 February 9 + 3 x 2340d = April 30 August 12 + 3 x 2340d = October 31 Solar Equations Based on the 32760-day Cycle 1. 2. 4. June 21 – 11960d = September 22 Solar Equations Based on 819-day Multiples 1. 5. 2. November 8 – 2 x 32760d = June 20 2. August 12/13 + 260d = April 30/May 1 November 25 + 260d = August 12/13 1999 x 260d = 1423 solar years 2235 x 260d = 1591 solar years * 2117 x 260d = 1507 solar years 118 x 260d = 84 solar years = 83 Uranus cycles © Carlos Barrera Atuesta. 3. 6. 4. 2. 5. 7. March 19/20 + 3 x 18980d = February 10/11 March 19 + 11 x 18980d = October 31 December 20/21 + 25 x 18980d = February 9/10 December 20 – 25 x 18980d = October 31 April 30/May 1 + 25 x 18980d = June 20/21 October 30/31 + 3 x 18980d = September 22/23 February 9 + 11 x 18980d = September 23 Solar Equations Based on 2340-day Multiples 1.12. 2004-2013. September 23 + 819d = December 21 December 21 + 819d = March 19 February 9 + 18 x 819d = June 21 June 20/21 + 18 x 819d = October 31/November 1 Solar Equations Based on 260-day Multiples 1. March 10 – 3 x 32760d = February 9/10 Solar Equations Based on the 11960-day Cycle 1. 5. June 21 + 11960d = March 20 2.

5. 4. 3. . All Rights Reserved. March 19 + (185120d + 68900d – 18980d) = September 23 2. December 20/21 + (185120d – 33280d – 18980d) = September 23 Solar Equations Based on the Anomalous Multiples and the 32760–day Cycle 1. 3. 4. 6. 2. the 37960-day Cycle. 4. 2. (37960d + 33280d + 26280d) = 267 solar years © Carlos Barrera Atuesta. 6. December 21 – (33280d + 11960d) = February 9/10 February 9/10 + (11960d + 33280d + 68900d) = August 12/13 February 9/10 + (11960d + 33280d – 68900d) = April 30/ May 1 February 10/11 + (11960d – 68900d) = March 19/20 Solar Equations Based on the Anomalous Multiples and the 18980-day Calendar Round 1. 7. 4. August 13 + 1 K'atun = April 30/May 1 August 13 + 4 K'atuns = June 20/21 August 12 – 1 K'atun = November 25 August 13 – 2 K'atuns = March 10 Solar Equations Based on the Anomalous Multiples and 2340-day Multiples 1. and the 26280– day Cycle 1.Solar Equations Based on 117-day Multiples 1. June 20/21 + (2 x 32760d + 33280d) = December 21/22 2. 2. 2004-2013. June 20/21 + (2 x 32760d – 68900d) = March 19/20 3. June 20/21 + (2 x 32760d + 33280d – 68900d) = April 30/May 1 Solar Equations Based on the Anomalous Multiples. 2. 3. 3. October 29/30 + 234d = June 20/21 June 20/21 + 234d = February 9/10 April 30/May 1 + 234d = December 20/21 December 21 + 234d = August 12/13 September 22/23 + 585d = April 30/May 1 August 12/13 + 585d = March 19/20 April 19 + 585d = November 25 Solar Equations Based on K'atun Periods 1. 5. September 22/23 + (9100d – 2 x 2340d) = October 30/31 February 9 + (9100d – 2340d) = August 13 March 20 + (9100d – 2 x 2340d) = September 22 December 20 + (185120d + 2340d) = March 20 December 21 + (9100d + 33280d + 2 x 68900d – 2 x 2340d) = June 21 October 30 + (9100d + 33280d + 2 x 68900d – 2 x 2340d) = April 30 Solar Equations Based on the Anomalous Multiples and the 11960-day Cycle 1.

December 21 + (185120d – 33280d – 18980d + 9100d – 2 x 2340d) = October 30/31 Solar Equations Based on the Uranus Cycle 1. D. * (2 x 68900d + 4 x 33280d – 185120d – 9100d) = 210 solar years – 0.9d (based on 7670 days) 6. BOGOTÁ. * (33280d – 260d – 2340d) = 84 solar years = 83 Uranus cycles 3. December 20 + (68900d – 18980d – 2 x 2340d) = October 30/31 2. 2. 4. October 29/30 + 182d = April 29/30 December 21 + 182d = June 21 August 13 + 180d = February 9 September 22 + 180d = March 21 *Equation previously listed SOLAR INTERVALS OF THE DRESDEN CODEX VENUS TABLE BY CARLOS BARRERA ATUESTA. . (2 x 37960d – 2 x 32760d – 33280d + 68900d) = 1. (2 x 68900d + 3 x 33280d – 185120d – 2 x 9100d – 18980d) = 42 solar years 8.C. 3. * (9100d + 33280d – 5 x 2340d) = 84 solar years = 83 Uranus cycles 4. the 18980-day Calendar Round. * (5 x 2340d + 18980d) = 84 solar years = 83 Uranus cycles 2. 2004-2013. (185120d + 9100d – 33280d – 68900d – 364d) = 251 solar years = 248 Uranus cycles Solar Equations Based on Maya Super–Numbers 1. 2. March 19/20 + (185120d + 68900d – 18980d + 9100d – 2 x 2340d) = October 30/31 3. * (68900d + 3 x 33280d) = 462 solar years – 1. 5.. and the 2340–day Interval 1.9d 7. 3. All Rights Reserved. 3. * (185120d + 9100d – 33280d – 68900d) = 3 x 30680d = 252 solar years – 1d 9.Solar Equations Based on the Anomalous Multiples. April 28/29 + 236d = December 21 December 21 + 90d = March 20 March 20 + 250d = November 25 April 28/29 – 8d – 250d = August 13 Solar Equations Based on 182 and 180–day Intervals 1. 4. (185120d + 9100d – 33280d – 68900d – 364d) = 251 solar years = 157 Venus cycles 11.5 x 84 years = 126 solar years 10. COLOMBIA. © Carlos Barrera Atuesta. * March 20 + 1366560d = September 23 August 13 + 1364360d = February 9 September 22 + 1364360d = March 20/21 November 25 + 3276 x 365d = September 23 January 15 – 3276 x 365d = March 19/20 Solar Equations Based on Venus’ Sub-Intervals 1. 2. (33280d + 9100d + 18980d) = 168 solar years = 166 Uranus cycles 5. 4.

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