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E CNG ON TAP HOC KY I - MON: HOA HOC

LP 8
I. DANG1: Cac Khai niem:
-Nguyen t, nguyen to hoa hoc, n chat, hp chat- phan t?
-Hoa tr, quy tac hoa tr.
- Hien tng hoa hoc, hien tng vat l, phan ng hoa hoc, Dau hieu nhan
biet phan ng hoa hoc xay ra.
- nh luat bao toan khoi lng, ap dung LBTKl.
- Cac bc lap PTHH
- Mol, khoi lng mol, the tch mol cua chat kh.
II. DANG2: Tnh phan t khoi cua chat
Bai tap mau: PTK cua Ca(HCO3)2 = 40 + (1 + 12 + 16 * 3) * 2 = 162 vC
Bai tap t giai: Tnh phan t khoi cua cac chat sau: CO2, SO2, O2, CaO,
FeCl2, Ca(OH)2, H2SO4, CuSO4, Al2(SO4)3,Fe2(SO4)3, Zn(NO3)2, BaSO4, BaCl2, KHCO3,
Mg(HCO3)2, Na2HPO4, Ca(H2PO4)2, AgNO3, Fe(OH)2, ZnCO3
III. DANG 3: Lap cong thc hoa hoc cua hp chat
Bai tap mau: a) Lap CTHH cua Al (III) vi O (II)
Ta co: III II
AlxOy

x*III = y*II

x
II
2
=
=
y
III
3

x = 2 va y = 3

Vay

CTHH la Al2O3
Bai tap mau: b) Lap CTHH cua Al (III) vi SO4 (II)
Ta co: III II
Alx(SO4)

x*III = y*II

x
II
2
=
=
y
III
3

x = 2 va y = 3

Vay CTHH la Al2(SO4)3


Bai tap t giai: Lap CTHH cua cac hp chat sau:
1/ Ca(II) vi O ; Fe(II, III) vi O ; K(I) vi O ; Na(I) vi O ; Zn(II) vi O ; Hg(II) vi
O ; Ag(I) vi O
2/ Ca(II) vi nhom NO3(I) ; K(I) vi nhom NO3(I) ; Na(I) vi nhom NO3(I) ; Ba(II) vi
nhom NO3(I)
3/ Ca(II) vi nhom CO3(II) ; K(I) vi nhom CO3(II) ; Na(I) vi nhom CO3(II) ; Ba(II)
vi nhom CO3(II)
4/ Zn(II) vi nhom SO4(II) ; Ba(II) vi nhom SO4(II) ; K(I) vi nhom SO4(II) ; Ag(I)
vi nhom SO4(II)
IV. DANG 4: Tnh hoa tr cua nguyen to cha biet trong hp chat
Bai tap mau: a) Tnh hoa tr cua nguyen to N trong hp chat N2O5
Giai: Goi a la hoa tr cua nguyen to N trong hp chat N2O5 (a>O)
Ta co: a II
N2O5

a*2 = 5*II

a=

5 * II
2

a=V

2 * II
1

a = IV

Vay trong CT hp chat

N2O5 th N(V)
Bai tap mau: b) Tnh hoa tr cua nguyen to S trong hp chat SO2
Giai: Goi a la hoa tr cua nguyen to S trong hp chat SO2 (a>O)
Ta co: a II
SO2

a*1 = 2*II

a=

Vay trong CT hp chat

SO2 th S(IV)
Bai tap mau: c) Tnh hoa tr cua nhom PO4 trong hp chat Ca3(PO4)2 , biet
nguyen to Ca(II)
Giai: Goi b la hoa tr cua nhom PO4 trong hp chat Ca3(PO4)2 (b>O)
Ta co: II
b

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Ca3(PO4)2 3*II = 2*b b =

3 * II
2

b = III

Vay trong CT hp chat

Ca3(PO4)2 th PO4 (III)


Bai tap t giai:
1/ Tnh hoa tr cua nguyen to N lan lt co trong cac hp chat NO ; NO2 ;
N2O3 ; N2O5
2/ Tnh hoa tr cua nguyen to Fe lan lt co trong cac hp chat FeO ; Fe2O3
3/ Tnh hoa tr cua nhom SO 4 trong hp chat Na2SO4 ; nhom NO3 trong hp chat
NaNO3, nhom CO3 trong hp chat K2CO3 ; nhom PO4 trong hp chat K3PO4 ; nhom
HCO3 trong hp chat Ca(HCO3)2 ; nhom H2PO4 trong hp chat Mg(H2PO4)2 ; nhom
HPO4 trong hp chat Na2HPO4 ; nhom HSO4 trong hp chat Al(HSO4)3
V. DANG5: Chon he so va can bang phng
trnh hoa hoc
1/ Na2O + H2O NaOH
12/ Fe(OH)3 + HCl FeCl3 +
2/ Na + H2O NaOH + H2
H2O
13/ CaCl2 + AgNO3 Ca(NO3)2 +
3/ Al(OH)3 t
Al2O3 + H2O
AgCl
4/ Al2O3 + HCl AlCl3 + H2O
14/ P + O2 t
P2O5
5/ Al + HCl AlCl3 + H2
6/ FeO + HCl FeCl2 + H2O
15/ N2O5 + H2O HNO3
7/ Fe2O3 + H2SO4 Fe2(SO4)3 +
16/ Zn + HCl ZnCl2 + H2
H2O
17/ Al2O3 + H2SO4 Al2(SO4)3 +
8/ NaOH + H2SO4 Na2SO4 +
H2O
H2O
18/ CO2 + Ca(OH)2 CaCO3 +
9/ Ca(OH)2 + FeCl3 CaCl2 +
H2O
Fe(OH)3
19/ SO2 + Ba(OH)2 BaSO3 +
10/ BaCl2 + H2SO4 BaSO4 +
H2O
HCl
20/ KMnO4 t K2MnO4 + MnO2 + O2
t

11/ Fe(OH)3 Fe2O3 + H2O


VI. DANG 6: Tnh phan tram khoi lng cua moi nguyen to trong hp
chat
Bai tap mau: a) Tnh thanh phan phan tram ve khoi lng cua
moi nguyen to trong hp chat NaOH
Ta co: M Na 0 H = 23+16+1= 40 (g)
0

23
16
1
100% = 57,5 (%) ; %O =
100% = 4O (%) ; %H =
100% =
40
40
40

%Na =

2,5 (%)
Bai tap mau: b) Tnh thanh phan phan tram ve khoi lng cua
moi nguyen to trong hp chat Fe(OH)3
Ta co: M Fe ( 0 H ) = 56+(16+1)*3 = 107 (g)
3

%Fe =

56
16 * 3
1* 3
100% = 52,34 (%) ; %O =
100% = 44,86 (%) ; %H =
107
107
107

100% = 2,80 (%)


Bai tap t giai: Tnh thanh phan phan tram ve khoi lng moi nguyen
to trong cac hp chat sau:
a) Ca(OH)2 ; b) BaCl2 ; c) KOH ; d) Al2O3; e) Na2CO3 ; g) FeO ; h) ZnSO4 ; i) HgO ; k)
NaNO3 ; l) CuO
VII. DANG 7: Tnh toan va viet thanh cong thc hoa hoc
Bai tap mau: Hp chat Crx(SO4)3 co phan t khoi la 392 vC. Tnh x
va ghi lai cong thc hoa hoc?
Ta co: PTK cua Crx(SO4)3 = 392 Crx = 392 288 x = 104 : 52 = 2
Vay CTHH cua hp chat la Cr2(SO4)3
Bai tap t giai: Tnh x va ghi lai cong thc hoa hoc cua cac hp
chat sau:
1) Hp chat Fe2(SO4)x co phan t khoi la 400 vC. 2) Hp chat FexO3 co
phan t khoi la 160vC.
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3) Hp chat Al2(SO4)x co phan t khoi la 342 vC. 4) Hp chat K2(SO4)x co


phan t khoi la 174 vC.
5) Hp chat Cax(PO4)2 co phan t khoi la 310 vC. 6) Hp chat NaxSO4 co
phan t khoi la 142 vC.
7) Hp chat Zn(NO3)x co phan t khoi la 189 vC. 8) Hp chat Cu(NO3)x co
phan t khoi la 188 vC.
9) Hp chat KxPO4 co phan t khoi la 203 vC.
10) Hp chat Al(NO3)x co
phan t khoi la 213 vC.
VIII. DANG 8: Tnh toan theo phng trnh hoa hoc
1/ Canxi cacbonat (CaCO3) la thanh phan chnh cua a voi. Khi nung a voi
nhiet o cao th xay ra phan ng hoa hoc
CaCO 3 t CaO +
CO2
Biet rang khi nung 300 gam a voi th tao ra 150 gam voi song (CaO) va
120gam kh cacbonic (CO2)
a) Viet cong thc ve khoi lng cua cac chat trong phan ng.
b) Tnh t le phan tram ve khoi lng canxi cacbonat co trong a voi?
2/ Cho biet khoi lng cua kh cacbonic (CO2) la 95,48 gam. Hay tnh:
a) So mol cua kh cacbonnic?
b) The tch kh cacbonic ieu kien tieu chuan?
o

3/ Lu huynh (S) chay trong khong kh sinh ra kh sunfur (SO 2). Phng trnh
hoa hoc cua phan ng la S + O2 SO2 . Hay cho biet:
a) Nhng chat tham gia va tao thanh trong phan ng tren, chat nao
la n chat, chat nao la hp chat ? V sao ?
b) The tch kh oxi (ktc) can dung e ot chay hoan toan 1,5 mol
nguyen t lu huynh.
c) Kh sunfur nang hay nhe hn khong kh ?
to

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