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Scott-T Transformer Connection Overview


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Larg e s t furnac e trans fo rme r with 105-MVA c ap ac ity manufac ture d at Sie me ns trans fo rme r fac to ry in Dre s d e n

Transf orming 3 Phase to 2 Phase


T here are two main reasons f or the need to transf orm f rom three phases to two phases, 1. To give a supply to an existing two phase system f rom a three phase supply. 2. To supply two phase f urnace transf ormers f rom a three phase source. Two-phase systems can have 3-wire, 4-wire, or 5-wire circuits. It is needed to be considering that a two-phase system is not 2/3 of a three-phase system. Balanced three-wire, two-phase circuits have two phase wires, both carrying approximately the same amount of current, with a neutral wire carrying 1.414 times the currents in the phase wires. T he phase-to-neutral voltages are 90 out of phase with each other. Two phase 4-wire circuits are essentially just two ungrounded single-phase circuits that are electrically 90 out of phase with each other. Two phase 5-wire circuits have f our phase wires plus a neutral; the f our phase wires are 90 out of phase with each other.

T he easiest way to transf orm three-phase voltages into two-phase voltages is with two conventional single-phase transf ormers. T he f irst transf ormer is connected phase-to-neutral on the primary (three-phase) side and the second transf ormer is connected between the other two phases on the primary side. T he secondary windings of the two transf ormers are then connected to the two-phase circuit. T he phase-to-neutral primary voltage is 90 out of phase with the phase-to-phase primary voltage, producing a two-phase voltage across the secondary windings. T his simple connection, called the T connection, is shown in Figure T he main advantage of the T connection is that it uses transf ormers with standard primary and Sc o tt-T Co nne c tio n - 2 and 3 p has e wire c o nne c tio n secondary voltages. T he disadvantage of the T connection is that a balanced two-phase load still produces unbalanced three-phase currents; i.e., the phase currents in the three-phase system do not have equal magnitudes, their phase angles are not 120 apart, and there is a considerable amount of neutral current that must be returned to the source.

The Scott Connection of Transf ormer


A Scott-T transf ormer (also called a Scott connection) is a type of circuit used to derive two-phase power f rom a three-phase source or vice-versa. T he Scott connection evenly distributes a balanced load between the phases of the source. Scott T Transf ormers require a three phase power input and provide two equal single phase outputs called Main and Teaser. T he Main and Teaser outputs are 90 degrees out of phase. T he MAIN and the Teaser outputs must not be connected in parallel or in series as it creates a vector current imbalance on the primary side. MAIN and Teaser outputs are on separate cores. An external jumper is also required to connect the primary side of the MAIN and Teaser sections. T he schematic of a typical Scott T Transf ormer is shown below:

Scott T Transf ormer is built with two single phase transf ormers of equal power rating. T he MAIN and Teaser sections can be enclosed in a f loor mount enclosure with MAIN on the bottom and Teaser on top with a connecting jumper cable. T hey can also be placed side by side in separate enclosures. Assuming the desired voltage is the same on the two and three phase sides, the Scott-T transf ormer connection consists of a centertapped 1:1 ratio main transf ormer, T 1, and an Typ ic al Sc o tt T Trans fo rme r s c he matic d iag ram 86.6% (0.53) ratio teaser transf ormer, T 2. T he center-tapped side of T 1 is connected between two of the phases on the three-phase side. Its center tap then connects to one end of the lower turn count side of T 2, the other end connects to the remaining phase. T he other side of the transf ormers then connects directly to the two pairs of a two-phase f our-wire system. T he Scott-T transf ormer connection may be also used in a back to back T to T arrangement f or a three-phase to 3 phase connection. T his is a cost saving in the smaller kVA transf ormers due to the 2 coil T connected to a secondary 2 coil T in-lieu of the traditional three-coil primary to three-coil secondary transf ormer. In this arrangement the Neutral tap is part way up on the secondary teaser transf ormer . T he voltage stability of this T to T arrangement as compared to the traditional 3 coil primary to three-coil secondary transf ormer is questioned.

Sc o tt-T c o nne c tio n c o nve rt 3-p has e to 2-p has e

Key Point s
If the main transf ormer has a turns ratio of 1: 1, then the teaser transf ormer requires a turns ratio of 0.866: 1 f or balanced operation. T he principle of operation of the Scott connection can be most easily seen by f irst applying a current to the teaser secondary windings, and then applying a current to the main secondary winding, calculating the primary currents separately and superimposing the results.

Load connect ed bet ween phaseY1 and phase Y2 of t he secondary:


Secondary current f rom the teaser winding into phase X1 =1.0 <90 Secondary current f rom the teaser winding into phase X2 =-1.0< 90 Primary current f rom H3 phase into the teaser winding= 1.1547< 90 Primary current f rom H2 phase into the main winding= 0.5774 <90 Primary current f rom H1 phase into the main winding= -0.5774< 90

T he reason that the primary current f rom H3 phase into the teaser winding is 1.1547 due to 0.866: 1 turns ratio of the teaser, transf orming 1/0.866= 1.1547 times the secondary current. T his current must split in half at the center tap of the main primary winding because both halves of the main primary winding are wound on the same core and the total ampere-turns of the main winding must equal zero.

Load connect ed bet ween phase X2 and phase X1 of t he secondary:


Secondary current f rom the main winding into phase X2 =1.0< 0 Secondary current f rom the main winding into phase X4= -1.0 <0 Primary current f rom H2 phase into the main winding =1.0 <0 Primary current f rom H1 phase into the main winding=- 1.0 <0 Primary current f rom H3 phase into the teaser winding= 0 Superimpose the two sets of primary currents: I H3= 1.1547 <90 +0= 1.1547 <90 I H2 =0.5774 <90 +1.0< 0= 1.1547 < 30 I H1 =0.5774 <90+ 1.0 <0=1.1547 <210 Notice that the primary three-phase currents are balanced; i.e., the phase currents have the same magnitude and their phase angles are 120 apart. T he apparent power supplied by the main transf ormer is greater than the apparent power supplied by the teaser transf ormer. T his is easily verif ied by observing that the primary currents in both transf ormers have the same magnitude; however, the primary voltage of the teaser transf ormer is only 86.6% as great as the primary voltage of the main transf ormer. T herefore, the teaser transforms only 86.6% of the apparent power transformed by the main. We also observe that while the total real power delivered to the two phase load is equal to the total real power supplied f rom the three-phase system, the total apparent power transf ormed by both transf ormers is greater than the total apparent power delivered to the two-phase load. T he apparent power transf ormed by the teaser is 0.866 X IH1= 1.0 and the apparent power transf ormed by the main is 1.0X IH2 =1.1547 f or a total of 2.1547 of apparent power transf ormed. T he additional 0.1547 per unit of apparent power is due to parasitic reactive power owing between the two halves of the primary winding in the main transf ormer. Single-phase transf ormers used in the Scott connection are specialty items that are virtually impossible to buy of f the shelf nowadays. In an emergency, standard distribution transf ormers can be used.

Advant ages of t he Scot t T Connect ion


If desired, a three phase, two phase, or single phase load may be supplied simultaneously. T he neutral points can be available f or grounding or loading purposes

Disadvant ages when used f or 3 Phase Loading


T his type of asymmetrical connection (3 phases, 2 coils), reconstructs three phases f rom 2 windings. T his can cause unequal voltage drops in the windings, resulting in potentially unbalanced voltages to be applied to the load.

T he transf ormation ratio of the coils and the voltage obtained may be slightly unbalanced due to manuf acturing variances of the interconnected coils. T his designs neutral has to be solidly grounded. If it is not grounded solidly, the secondary voltages could become unstable. Since this design will have a low impedance, special care will have to be taken on the primary protection f ault current capacity. T his could be an issue if the system was designed f or a Delta-Star connection. T he inherent single phase construction and characteristics of this connection produces a comparatively bulky and heavier transf ormer when compared with a normal three phase transf ormer of the same rating.

Application
Main application is f or For Industrial Furnace Transf ormer. For Traction Purpose: T he power is obtained f rom the 220 kV or 132 kV or 110 kV or 66 kV, three-phase, ef f ectively earthed transmission network of the State Electricity Board, through single-phase transf ormers or Scott connected transf ormer installed at the Traction Substation. T he primary winding of the single-phase transf ormer is connected to two phases of the transmission network or Where Scott-connected transf ormer is used, the primary windings are connected to the three phases of the transmission network. T he single-phase transf ormers at a Traction Substation are connected to the same two phases of the transmission network (ref erred as single-phase connection), or alternatively to dif f erent pairs of phases- the three single phase transf ormers f orming a delta-connection on the primary side. Out of three single-phase transf ormers, one transf ormer f eeds the overhead equipment (OHE) on one side of the Traction Substation, another f eeds the OHE on the other side of the Traction Substation, and the third remains as standby. T hus the two single-phase transf ormers which f eed the OHE constitute an open-delta connection (alternatively, ref erred as V-connection) on the three-phase transf ormers network. T he Scott-connected transf ormer and V-connected single-phase transf ormers are ef f ective in reducing voltage imbalance on the transmission network. T he spacing between adjacent substations is normally between 70 and 100 km.