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D.M.C.R. Protection Relay for Oil Transformer


Edvard

DMCR - De te c tio n, Me as ure me nt and Co ntro l Re lay fo r He rme tic ally Se ale d O il Trans fo rme r

Content
Introduction to D.M.C.R. Faults detected on live transformer unit:

Standards Possibilities of D.M.C.R.: 1. Oil level control and gas detection 2. Pressure control 3. Temperature control

Introduction to D.M.C.R.
T he DMCR is a protection relay designed f or the hermetically sealed oil immersed transformers without gas cushion. T his device enables complete control of the tanks internal parameters, i.e. pressure, temperature, oil level and gas detection . Fitted directly to the transf ormer cover, this relay ensures protection against internal faults, prolonged overvoltages and f ire risks associated with the use of inf lammable dielectric f luids. The accessory continuously monitors: 1. Dielectric f luid level, 2. Tank internal pressure, 3. Dielectric f luid temperature at two dif f erent thresholds. To operate properly, the protection relay mustbe fully filled with fluid (level higher than the float visible in the transparent section of the unit). If this is not the case, check the instructions which appear inside each casing. To ensure optimum protection, the following action and adjustments are recommended: Finding Gas emitted or drop in level Pressure switch T hermostat threshold 1 T hermostat threshold 2 Recommended adjustment Large f loat at the top 0.20 bar 90C 100C Fault detected Serious f ault Serious f ault Overvoltages Overvoltages Action to be taken De-energize unit De-energize unit Activate alarm De-energize unit

There are two types of transformers: 1. T he air-cooled transf ormer, also called dry transf ormer 2. T he oil immersed transf ormer. T he transf ormer is immersed in an oil-f illed tank. T he DMCR is a protection relay designed f or the hermetically sealed oil immersed transf ormers without gas cushion. T his device enables complete control of the tanks internal parameters, i.e. pressure, temperature, oil level and gas detection . Go to Content

Faults detected on live transf ormer unit

1. Dielect ric f luid level is det ect ed as low


T he protection relay is empty and the large f loat is at the bottom. May be due to:

1.1 Air ent ering


T here must be a dielectric f luid leak and thus oily stains should be visible on the ground. Accurately localise the f ault, carry out repair, then recheck the level with the body of f luid at a temperature of 20C, bef ore switching the unit live again.

1.2 Int ernal gas emission


Gas should be sampled using a syringe and then analysed. Whilst awaiting results, under no circumstances should the transf ormer be switched live again because a risk of total destruction exists. Go to Content

2. Overheat ing is det ect ed


This may be due to: 1. Improper cooling of the transf ormer (insuf f icient air f low around unit or plan-troom ventilation), 2. Continuous overvoltage. Go to Content

3. Excess pressure is det ect ed


This may be due to: 1. Overheating 2. Internal gas emission 3. Topping up of dielectric f luid with the body of f luid below 20C; drain the over-f low with the transf ormer de-energised and the dielectric f luid at 20C. Go to Content

Standards
T his protection relay has been designed according to the European standard EN 50216-3, specif ication which came into action on the 5th of June 2002.

T his standard applies to protection relays f or hermetically sealed oil immersed transf ormers, (in accordance with the EN 60076 standard) and induction coils (in accordance with the EN 60289 standard) without gas cushion f or an indoor or outdoor use. T he DMCR relay is an IDEF Systemes design, made in France. It has two French and one European patents. Go to Content

Possibilities of D.M.C.R.
1. Oil level cont rol and gas det ect ion
T he DMCR enables to control both the oil level and the presence of gas inside the transf ormers tank. T he DMCR body is a small see-through tank f itted ontothe transf ormers tank. Should gas form inside the transformer, it will then accumulate inside the DMCR and cause the oil level to drop.

Visual inf ormat ion


T he level drop is f irst visible through the lowering of the small red f loat inside the upper part of the DMCR, f ollowed by the lowering of the main red f loat.

DMCR re lay d ime ns io ns

T he 360 degree visibility is a specif ically designed and patented system.

Elect rical inf ormat ion


A circular magnet is f itted in the main f loat and it acts upon a magnetic changeover contact (REED switch) sitting inside the brass tube that runs through the f loat. T he lowering of the f loat triggers the activation of an electrical contact, through the magnets motion. A bleeding system f acilitates gas collection inside the relay so that one can analyze it and understand the reason f or its presence. T he bleeding system has a male G1/8 thread, accordingto the standard.

For the oil level and gas detection control, the contacts have been chosen in order to use the REED switchs working contact when the f loat is in a high position. T his means that, in such a position, i.e. with a normal oil level and theref ore normal conditions of use, the contact has already switched. This is a positive safety system. With this method, any potential damage to the switch is immediately spotted. T he DMCR below is f illed in with oil: the main f loat and the secondary f loat are both in high position. Go to Content

2. Pressure cont rol


Pressure inside a transformers tank can increase significantly when: 1. T here is a temperature rise due to the transf ormer charge: oil expands and pressure increases 2. An internal short-circuit occurs and provokes an oil temperature rise. An adjustable pressure captor detects overpressure in the transformers tank. It f eatures a changeover contact actuated by a sof t membrane which def orms under pressure.

The DMCR - O il le ve l c o ntro l and g as d e te c tio n

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3. Temperat ure cont rol Visual check:


A needle thermometer indicates the temperature inside the transf ormer.

Elect rical check


Two identical adjustable thermostats detect potential over-heating inside the transf ormer.
The DMCRs p re s s ure c ap to r is ac c e s s ib le fro m ab o ve , o nc e the to p re mo ve d

T he thermostats f eature a changeover contact actuated bya diaphragm linked by a capillary tube to a temperature probe sitting deep inside the central brass tube, which is immersed in the transf ormers tank. T he capillary tube and probe are f illed in with a liquid which expands proportionally to the temperature surrounding the probe. T he ALARM thermostat detects a primary temperature threshold. T he TRIPPING thermostat detects a secondary temperature threshold, superior to the f irst.

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Re s o urce s :

MINERA Transformer Installation guide Schneider Electric DMCR relay IDEF Systems

DMCR - Trip p ing and alarm tre s ho ld s e tting s