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journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/matdes

L. Shi a, H. Yang a,, L.G. Guo a, J. Zhang b

a b

State Key Laboratory of Solidication Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xian, Shanxi 710072, China China National Heavy Machinery Research Institute Co. Ltd., Xian 710032, China

a r t i c l e

i n f o

a b s t r a c t

The 6005A aluminum alloy is one of the most widely used alloys in aeronautic and railway industries, yet its plastic deformation behavior under hot compression is still not fully understood. Isothermal compression tests of 6005A aluminum alloy were performed using a Gleeble-1500 device, up to a 70% height reduction of the sample at strain rates ranging from 0.01 s1 to 10 s1, and deformation temperatures ranging from 573 K to 773 K. Several modeling approaches, including ow stressstrain curves, a constitutive Arrhenius-type equation model, and processing maps were used to characterize the deformation behavior of the isothermal compression of 6005A aluminum alloy in this study. The related material constants (i.e. A, b and a) as well as the activation energy Q for 623773 K and 573623 K temperature regimes were determined. Two sets of constitutive exponent-type equations for the 6005A aluminum alloy were proposed. Furthermore, a change in deformation mechanism occurred when changing the temperature range from 623773 K to 573623 K. 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Article history: Received 27 April 2013 Accepted 8 August 2013 Available online 20 August 2013 Keywords: Constitutive modeling Aluminum alloy Activation energy

1. Introduction Due to their low density and reasonable strength, aluminum alloys have attracted considerable interest in material sciences and industrial applications alike. The 6005A aluminum alloy is a moderate strength alloy extensively used for panel components in aerospace industries and an entire range of railway applications [1,2]. In the past several decades, many studies have been published focusing on manufacturing processes of this alloy [19]. To date the previous efforts have been justly dealt with the inuences of deformation parameters on the ow behavior of 6005 aluminum alloys at super high temperature range (723848 K) by a torsion tests [10]. The deformation behavior of 6005A aluminum alloy during forging is characterized by a strong temperature dependence of the ow stress and substantial ow softening, which is mainly due to its dynamic recovery [3,4]. In order to accurately design the thermomechanical processing parameters, which are in direct relation to the microstructural and mechanical properties of the nal product, a comprehensive study of hot deformation behavior of the alloy is of great importance. Most reports published too date have focused on the inuence of friction, stir, and welding parameters on the ow behavior of 6005A aluminum alloy at different temperatures [24]. However, plastic compression deformation

Corresponding author. Tel./fax: +86 029 8849 5632.

E-mail address: yanghe@nwpu.edu.cn (H. Yang). 0261-3069/$ - see front matter 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2013.08.037

behavior of 6005A aluminum alloy under heat is still poorly understood and far from being optimized. Generally, mechanical behavior of pure metals and alloys under heat can be approximated by constitutive equations, which correlate ow stress, strain rate and temperature. The values of the variables of these equations are usually determined empirically using uniaxial compression testing at a series of temperatures and strain rates. In previous reports, various constitutive models have been proposed to predict the constitutive behavior of a broad range of metals [1116]. As is well known, the exponential model proposed by Sellars and McTegart [17], and adapted for different temperature ranges by Rokni and Zarei-Hanzaki [12] is one of the most well-known and most-widely used models of constitutive equations under hot working conditions [11,12]. This model describes the ow stress of the material as a hyperbolic sine-type Arrhenius-type equation. It is applicable for a wide range of stress conditions. Here, the effects of deformation temperature, strain rate and strain on ow stress under isothermal compression of a 6005A aluminum alloy extrusion are examined. The activation energy Q and other material constants for deformation at different strains were determined empirically. This data was subsequently used to develop two constitutive equations to model the plastic ow behavior of 6005A aluminum alloy across a specied temperature range and strain rate.

577

2. Materials and methods 2.1. Materials 6005A aluminum alloy was received as extruded bars with circular cross-section of 60 mm diameter. The cylindrical specimens for the uniaxial compression testing were machined from the asreceived materials with a diameter of 10 mm and a height of 15 mm in the extrusion direction in accordance with ASTM: E209. The chemical composition of the alloy is shown in Table 1. Cylindrical samples for uniaxial compression testing with a diameter of 10 mm and a height of 15 mm were cut from these bars parallel to the extrusion direction using a Gleeble-1500 testing machine [5]. The morphology of the extruded 6005A aluminum alloy was examined using a light microscope and is shown in Fig. 1. The typical microstructure of 6005A aluminum alloy at room temperature consists of a-matrix with attened grains and second phase particles aligned along the extrusion direction. 2.2. Methods To investigate the effect of temperature and strain rate on the deformation behavior of 6005A aluminum alloy, isothermal compression tests were carried out on a Gleeble-1500 device at temperatures ranging from 573 K to 773 K, achieving a height reduction of 70% using strain rates of 0.01, 0.10, 1.00, and 10.00 s1. Prior to isothermal compression, the samples were preheated and held at the deformation temperature for 5.0 min for temperature equilibration. Flow stressstrain curves were recorded using an automatic high accuracy load cell during isothermal compression. At the end of the straining cycle, the specimens were rapidly quenched in water. For microstructural examination, the specimens were axially sectioned, mechanically and chemically polished in two stages [18] and chemically etched using a solution of 47.5 ml H2O, 1.25 ml HNO3, 0.75 ml HCl and 0.5 ml HF. A Leitz3DMIXT optical microscope was used for microstructural examination. 3. Results and discussion 3.1. Flow stress behavior Flow strainstress curves of 6005A aluminum alloy under isothermal compression showed the impact of temperature and strain rate on ow stress (Fig. 2).Independently from strain rate, all the curves exhibited a peak stress at a strain close to 0.1, followed by dynamic ow softening that lasted until the end of straining. Resulting from the intensive thermal activation process, ow stress is negatively correlated with deformation temperature. The dynamic softening process at a temperature of 573 K was signicantly different from those at other temperatures. The ow stress decreased continuously at a temperature of 573 K and only started to stabilize at a strain of 0.7. This was most likely due to the fact that there is only one actively slip system along the octahedral {1 1 1} planes at this temperature [19,20]. Due to multiple different mechanisms such as fast dislocation generation, multiplication and hardening of the alloy, ow stress increased with the increasing strain rate. At a strain rate of 10 s1, ow stress decreased slowly and steady ow was not

achieved until the strain reached 0.7. Compared to lower strain rates, signicant differences were found in the dynamic softening effect at a strain rate of 10.0 s1. This is most pronounced when compared to a strain of 0.6 (Fig. 2(d)) and might be due to the formation of tangled dislocation structures, acting as barriers to the dislocation movement. The difference in the dynamic softening at lower strain rates might be attributed to deformation heating which leads to increased temperatures inside the samples making them different from the surface temperature of the samples. The ow stress level and the peak stress were positively correlated with strain rate and while a negative correlation was found between ow stress level, peak stress and deformation temperature. It should be noted that the stress peaks at a strain of approximately 0.1 that were very prominent at a temperature of 573 K all but disappeared with increasing temperature. 3.2. Constitutive equations Constitutive equations were developed to describe the deformation behavior of the samples under heat and to demonstrate the effects of deformation conditions on ow stress. Hot deformation of metals and alloys requires specic activation energy for the _ , temperadeformation. The relationships between strain rate e ture (T) and ow stress (r) can be described as the ow responses of the material. The effective activation energy under isothermic conditions is constant. The low and high ow stress can be described by the following constitutive equation [21,22], respectively.

_ A1 r n e _ A2 expbr e

1 2

_ is the strain rate (s1), b, A1, A2, and n are material conwhere e stants. r is the ow stress (MPa), and T is the temperature. A hyperbolic sine-type equation (Eq. (3)), as proposed by McTegart and Sellars [17], is usually used to describe the relationship between the deformation parameters for a wider range of stresses:

_ Asinharn exp e

Q RT

3

Table 1 The chemical composition of the experimental 6005A aluminum alloy. Element wt.% Si 0.8 Fe 0.35 Cu 0.1 Mn 0.1 Mg 0.6 Cr 0.1 Zn 0.1 Ti 0.1 Al 97.75

where A, a and n are material constants. Q is the effective activation energy for deformation (J mol1), and R is the universal gas constant (8.314 J mol1 K1). Introducing the Zener Hollomon parameters [12] into the Eq. (3) yields the following equation:

Z Asinar

578

Fig. 2. Flow stressstrain curves in the isothermal compression of 6005A aluminum alloy.

To obtain the value of the stress exponent (n) and material constant (b), the natural logarithm of Eqs. (1)(3) are taken and given as

_ ln A1 n ln r ln e _ ln A2 br ln e Q n lnsinhar RT

5 6

According to Eqs. (5) and (6), the slopes of the lines in Figs. 3 and 4 give an approximate value for n and b [12] Linear regression results in an equation of the type y = kx + C. Accordingly, the stress exponent n and material constant b are about 10.56546 and 0.1446 (Figs. 3 and 4). Since the material constant a is dened as a = b/n, the material constants a is about 0.0137. In order to derive A and Q from the hyperbolic sine type equation, the transformation equation of Eq. (7) leads to the following equation at constant strain rate:

_ ln A ln e

lnsinhar A1

B T

Using the variations of stresses (r), the natural logarithm of r with the natural logarithm of strain rate can be plotted for each deformation temperature (Fig. 3).

Fig. 5 shows that the experimental data followed the linear relation of a and T well. The ow stress and temperature of 6005A aluminum alloy was in accordance with the hyperbolic sine-type equation proposed by Sellars and McTegart. The relationship of the hot deformation activation energy (Q) and temperature (T) of 6005A aluminum alloy showed that the hot compression deformation was controlled by hot activation. Partial differentiation of Eq. (8) lead to the following equation, in order to estimate the effective activation energy Q and material constant A from the hyperbolic sine type equation (3) at constant strain rate:

Q R

Fig. 3. The effect of the strain rate on the ow stress at various temperatures.

_ =@ ln sinhar was evaluated by plotting The value of the @ ln e _ ln sinhar. The value of the @ ln sinhar=@ 1=T was ln e evaluated by plotting ln sinhar 1=T . According to Eq. (9), the slopes of the lines in Figs. 5 and 6 give the values for _ and @ ln sinhar=@ 1=T . The average slopes @ ln sinhar=@ ln e were approximately 0.1300 and 3310.6954 (623773 K), respectively. However at temperatures between 573 K and 623 K, the

579

Fig. 4. The relationship between the natural logarithm of strain rate and the ow stress at various temperatures.

Fig. 5. The variations of sinh(ar) with strain rate applying a = 0.0137 MPa1.

slope values for @ ln sinhar=@ 1=T is 5762.58. The three slope values and a value for R (8.3140 J mol1K1) [12] were introduced into the Eq. (9), to calculate the average Q-value for the experimental alloy. In the temperature range of 623 K to 773 K, it was about 211.7485 kJ/mol, while the average Q-value in the 573623 K temperature range was about 368.5722 kJ/mol. To obtain an exact value for the stress exponent (n) and material constant (b) the natural logarithm of Eq. (4) was taken and given as:

ln Z ln A n lnsinhar

10

Introducing the value of Q into the Eq. (3) yielded the value of Z. Plotting ln Z ln[sinh(ra)] and applying the obtained approximation for n into Eq. (5), yielded exact n-values derived from the slope of ln Z ln[sinh(ra)]. A was derived from the intercept of ln Z ln[sinh(ra)]. Fig. 7 shows the plot of ln Z ln[sinh(ra)] with slope and intercept at about 7.5751 and 35.9941 (for 623773 K) and 7.3823 and 60.8212 (for 573623 K), respectively. Finally, substituting the estimated values for n and a into the ZenerHollomon parameters [12], constitutive models for the hot compression of 6005A aluminum alloy are extracted as follows:

Fig. 6. The relationship between the ow stress and the deformation temperature at different strain rates.

! 11 ! 12

most cases, is close to 200 kJ/mol [10,23]. In this case, it can be deduced that the higher Q value of the 6005A alloy may be associated with an increase in the Si and Mg held in solution by the homogenization sequence. The fewer slip system contributes to a rough increase in activation energy for lower temperature (573623 K) deformation. 3.4. Verication of the acquired constitutive equation Fig. 8 shows the application of the FEM model to isothermal forging of 6005A aluminum alloy, based on the DEFORM-3D platform. Using the developed FEM model, isothermal extrusion of

for temperature ranges from 623 K to 773 K (Eq. (11)) and from 573 K to 623 K (Eq. (12)), respectively. 3.3. Comparison of deformation activation energies and material constants The average Q-value for the experimental alloy in the 623 773 K temperature range is $211.7485 kJ/mol. This is somewhat higher than that of AA 6005A alloy in the 723848 K temperature range, as obtained from the torsion tests (182.798 kJ/mol) [10], AA6063 alloy (204.078 kJ/mol) [10], and Al5.7Zn1.9Mg1.5Cu alloy (152 kJ/mol) [23]. At the same temperature range and strain rate employed in this study, Jin et al. [24] have studied 7150 aluminum alloy, and reported that the stress level can be represented by a ZenerHollomon parameter in the hyperbolic-sine equation with a hot deformation activation energy of Q = 229.75 kJ/mol, which is somewhat higher than the value obtained in this study. In general, it can be observed that the material constant n is close to 57, while the activation energy for high-temperature deformation, in

580

Rt _ t dt F h0 0 v 0 expe h0 s0

16

e ln

hn h0

17

where hn is the height of the blank. The axial load of die obtained from FEM is introduced into the Eq. (16). As shown in Fig. 9, comparison of simulated values and experimental values shows good accordance of the data sets, indicating that the proposed constitutive model is reliable. 4. Conclusions

Fig. 8. 3-D cylindrical geometric model.

the 6005A aluminum alloy was simulated under the following simulation conditions: initial height of the sample blank was 15 mm, diameter 10 mm, deformation temperature 573773 K and frictional factor 0.3. Pressing speed of die was determined by a con_ of 0.01 s1, 0.1 s1, 1 s1 and 10 s1. The stant strain rate e constitutive material relation of the 6005A aluminum alloy was determined from Eqs. (11) and (12). The relationship of pressing speed of the die and constant strain _ of the blank was described by the following equations: rate e

Flow behavior of 6005A aluminum alloy under isothermal compression has been analyzed based on ow stress analysis for deformation temperatures ranging from 573 K to 773 K, with strain rates ranging from 0.01 s1 to 10.0 s1 and a total height reduction by 70%. The following conclusions have been obtained from this study: (1) Flow stress increased quickly with increasing strain and reached a peak value when the strain was about 0.1, after which it decreased until it reached a steady value. this effect was attributed to the interaction between dynamic softening and work hardening during isothermal compression deformation. However, at a temperature of 573 K or a at a strain rate of 10 s1, ow stress decreased continuously and stabilized only when strain reached a value of 0.7 making the dynamic softening effect at a strain rate of 10.0 s1 is signicantly different from those seen at lower strain rates(Fig. 2(d)) (2) The ow stress was positively correlated with strain rate due to fast increasing of dislocation generation and multiplication, as well as increasing work hardening. Due to thermal activation and differences in the slip system at higher temperatures, ow stress decreased signicantly with increasing deformation temperature from 573 K to 623 K. (3) Because of differences in the deformation mechanism and slip system, the constitutive models for the hot compression of 6005A aluminum alloy are different for different temperature ranges. The following constitutive equations were developed:

_ t v v 0 expe _ e

13 14

v0

h0

where v0 was the initial velocity of the top die, h0 is the initial _ is strain rate and t is the runtime of top die. height of the blank, e The ow stress r (MPa) is determined by the axial load of die and the stress area of the blank. The ow stress is described by the following equation:

F S

15

where r is the ow stress, F is the axial load of the die, and S is the stress area of the blank. According the principle of constancy of volume, the stress area of the blank can be calculated at any point during the runtime In order to derive S from the Eq. (15), . Since pressing speed is a variable, Eq. (13) is integrated with respect to time. Introducing Eqs. (13) and (14) into Eq. (15) lead to the following equation:

2:11 105 RT

_ 2:59 10 sinh0:0195r e

26

7:58

for the 623773 K and 573623 K temperature ranges, respectively. Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank the National Science and Technology Major Project (No. 2009ZX04005-031-11), the 111 Project (No. B08040) and the Fund of the State Key Laboratory of Solidication Processing in NWPU for the support to this research. References

Fig. 9. The comparison of the calculated with the experimental ow stress in the isothermal compression of 6005A aluminum alloy. [1] Dong Peng, Li Hongmei, Sun Daqian, Gong Wenbiao, Liu Jie. Effects of welding speed on the microstructure and hardness in friction stirwelding joints of 6005A-T6 aluminum alloy. Mater Des 2013;45:52431.

L. Shi et al. / Materials and Design 54 (2014) 576581 [2] Simar A, Nielsen KL, de Meester B, Tvergaard V, Pardoen T. Micromechanical modelling of ductile failure in 6005A aluminium using a physics based strain hardening law including stage IV. Eng Fract Mech 2010;77:2491503. [3] Simar A, Brchet Y, de Meester B, Denquin A, Gallais C, Pardoen T. Integrated modeling of friction stir welding of 6xxx series Al alloys: process, microstructure and properties. Prog Mater Sci 2012;57:95183. [4] Nielsen KL, Pardoen T, Tvergaard V, de Meester B, Simar A. Modelling of plastic ow localisation and damage development in friction stir welded 6005A aluminium alloy using physics based strain hardening law. Int J Solids Struct 2010;47:235970. [5] Shahri Meysam Mahdavi, Sandstrm Rolf, Osikowicz Wojciech. Critical distance method to estimate the fatigue life time of friction stirwelded proles. Int J Fatigue 2012;37:608. [6] Birol Yucel. Impact of partial recrystallization on the performance of 6005A tube extrusions. Eng Fail Anal 2010;17:11106. echet Y, de Meester B, Denquin A, Pardoen T. Microstructure, local [7] Simar A, Br and global mechanical properties of friction stir welds in aluminium alloy 6005A-T6. Mater Sci Eng A 2008;486:8595. [8] Koltsakis EK, Preftitsi FG. Numerical investigation of the plastic behaviour of short welded aluminium double-T beams. Eng Struct 2008;30:202231. [9] Kuijpers NCW, Tirel J, Hanlon DN, van der Zwaag S. Quantication of the evolution of the 3D intermetallic structure in a 6005A aluminium alloy during a homogenisation treatment. Mater Charact 2002;48:37992. [10] Pinter Tommaso, EI Mehtedi Mohamad. Constitutive equations for hot extrusion of AA6005A, AA6063 and AA7020 Alloys. Key Eng Mater 2012;491:4350. [11] Zeng Z, Jonsson S, Zhang Y. Constitutive equations for pure titanium at elevated temperatures. Mater Sci Eng A 2009;505:1169. [12] Rokni MR, Zarei-Hanzaki A, Roostaei Ali A, Abolhasani A. Constitutive base analysis of a 7075 aluminum alloy during hot compression testing. Mater Des 2011;32:495560.

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[13] Luo J, Li MQ, Ma DW. The deformation behavior and processing maps in the isothermal compression of 7A09 aluminum alloy. Mater Sci Eng A 2012;532:54857. [14] Junhui Cui, He Yang, Zhichao Sun, Hongwei Li, Zhijun Li, Changwu Shen. Flow behavior and constitutive model using piecewise function of strain for TC11 alloy. Rare Metal Mater Eng 2012;41:397401. [15] Zhan Mei, Hongfei Du, Liu Jing, Ren Ning, Yang He, et al. A method for establishing the plastic constitutive relationship of the weld bead and heataffected zone of welded tubes based on the rule of mixtures and a microhardness test. Mater Sci Eng A 2010;527:286474. [16] Fan XG, Yang H. Internal-state-variable based self-consistent constitutive modeling for hot working of two-phase titanium alloys coupling microstructure evolution. Int J Plast 2011;27:183352. [17] Sellars CM, McTegart WJ. On the mechanism of hot deformation. Acta Metall 1966;14:11368. [18] Gronostajski ZJ. Development of constitutive equation of coppersilicon alloys. J Mater Process Technol 1996;60:6217. [19] Perocheau F, Driver JH. Slip system rheology of Al1% Mn crystals deformed by hot plane strain compression. Int J Plast 2002;18:185202. [20] Liu WC, Zhai PP. Characterization of microstructures near grain boundary in hot deformed AA 3104 aluminum alloy. Mater Charact 2011;62:819. [21] Jonas J, Sellars CM, Tegart WJ. Strength and structure under hot working conditions. Int Mater Rev 1969;14:124. [22] Shi H, Mclaren AJ, Sellars CM, Shahani R, Bolingbroke R. Constitutive equations for high temperature ow stress of aluminum alloys. Mater Sci Technol 1997;13:2106. [23] Lei Xu, Dai Guangze, Huang Xingmin, Zhao Junwen, Han Jing, Gao Jiewei. Foundation and application of AlZnMgCu alloy ow stress constitutive equation in friction screw press die forging. Mater Des 2013;47:46572. [24] Nengping Jin, Hui Zhang, Yi Han, Wenxiang Wu, Jianghua Chen. Hot deformation behavior of 7150 aluminum alloy during compression at elevated temperature. Mater Charact 2009;60:5306.

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