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SPARTA NOTES 7.1 Messenian Wars and Conquered Population 1. 2. 3. 4. History is handicapped by problematic evidence.

Most of accounts written by outsiders, some did not visit. Many later others who anachronistically attribute. Authors impressed by prolonged political and military dominance of Sparta in Greece. Archaic period 371. Its success led to fame. 5. Spartan mirage idealized notion of past Sparta. 7.1 Thucydides Spartans were Dorian Greeks who emigrated to the Peloponnese around 1200. Sparta was only inhabited from the 2nd half of the 10th century. Worshipped Apollo and were divided into 3 tribes the Hylleis, Dymanes, and Pamphyli, which made up five villages. Sparta organized not as a metropolis but as a series of villages. Think LA. 7.2 Spartan expansion in Laconia had important impact on state and way of life. Sparta occupies Messenia in end of 7th century. 735-715 and 660-650 (two wars). Most informative sources on these wars are too late/heavily influenced by unreliable earlier ones. Motive for capturing Messene might be in order to secure farmland. This is important because contributing to food stock is vital for citizenship. 7.3 The Helots Spartas divided the pre-Dorian population in Laconia and Messenia into 2 categories, the perioeci who had personal freedom and autonomy but no political rights in Sparta. Many were farmers. These became craftsmen when the Spartans became warriors. They were obliged to obey calls to military duty. Second half were helots, who were captives and basically slaves. Served sort oas sharecroppers who gave up half of their produce. Strabo: Agis stripped people of their constitutional equality and demanded taxes. The only ones who didnt obey were the Helots who revolted and were defeated. At that point they were enslaved. Threat of Helot revolt pretty high. Spartan government recruited helots and then massacred some.

7.4 Eliminating Helots Thucy: Sparta was always focused on protective measures. Once, they made a selection of all helots who felt they had helped Sparta with great service against the enemy, under the premise to grant them freedom. This was a trap. Individuals who claimed to be the best probably would be leaders of a revolt. Killed em 7.5 The Krypteia Treatment of helots probably linked to warrior community. Krypteia was elite group of men who killed helots. 7.6 Lycurguss Regulations Spartans did not think Helots mattered as much as ruler. Lycurgus established order in chaotic times. 7.8 Spartan Gov and Great Rhetra Spartans very proud. Bicameral royal houses. Appearance of some participation. 7.9 Spartan Kingship Twin descendants of Heracles. Can do a lot of cool shit 7.10 Xenophon on Spartan Kingship Lycurgus did not want to establish the tyrant mentality or put in envy of the royal power. 7.11 The Spartan Gerousia Political power of kings constrained by the powers of the council of elders and the popular assembly. Council made up of two kings and twenty eight elders who were over 60. 7.12 The Ephors Popular assembly composed of male citizens elected men to office and coted on legislation and policy matters. Its lack of initiate demonstrated limited extent of popular power. Ephors were five annually elected officials who accompanied kings on campaigns and sat with the council.

7.13 The Ephors and Theopompus Ancient commentators found monarchic, oligarchic, and democratic elements in the Spartan government. Thought it was stable and good mixture of govs. Spartans prefer to use oligarchy outside of Sparta. 7.14 State and Family: Scrutiny of Spartan Babies Community controlled right to life. Kill babies if not good enough. 7.15 Schooling Most Greek states have private and voluntary education. Spartas was public and mandatory. Start education at age 7. Grouped together in bands, taught reading writing music and dancing, and PE. 7.17 Girls Educaton Spartan education included girls. In other states, taught home ec. In Sparta, trained. More robust children born from parents who are both strong. 7.19 Spartan Marriages Marriage considered the most important event in a womans life. Spartan women married later than Athenian counterparts. 18-20. Bride abducted, dressed in mens clothes and cut off hair. 7.20 Wife-Sharing Spartans allowed wife sharing for procreative reasons. Bonds two families without splitting inheritance. Spartan women passive and instrumental in male transactions but enjoyed more liberties than Athenian women. Women can also own property in Sparta. 7.21 Sayings of Spartan Mothers Basically demonstrations of warrior 7.22 The Common Messes preconditions for citizenship are parentage, completion of education process, a plot of land, and contribution to the common messes. Against the poor who cant afford to give up some food. 7.27 Sparta, Arcadia, Corinth

Spartans defeated in battle. Oracle tells them to bring back the bones of Orestes but could not find them. Asked the Oracle, Oracle says there is a level spot in Arcadia where two winds blow etc thats where youll find it r