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J. V. Bonta

ABSTRACT. Watershed models are becoming more sophisticated and require temporal inputs of precipitation to drive the modeled hydrologic processes. Short time increments of the order of minutes are particularly needed, but these are seldom available or do not have good spatial coverage. The most widely available precipitation data in the United States are total amounts for 24h periods. Information on the actual intensity distribution within a period of precipitation is lacking and practitioners resort to approximate methods to distribute the precipitation in time (disaggregation). The most common approach to disaggregate total precipitation amounts has been to use design storms, fixed patterns of the time distribution of precipitation intensities within a period. Huff curves provide a method of characterizing storm mass curves. They are a probabilistic representation of accumulated storm depths for corresponding accumulated storm durations expressed in dimensionless form. The development of Huff curves is described in the present study using precipitation data from Coshocton, Ohio because the procedure has never been documented in the literature. The potential use of these curves, the state of knowledge, and research needs for advancing the utility of Huff curves for storm disaggregation are summarized. Three approaches for using Huff curves to disaggregate precipitation totals are described: design storms (fixed patterns of intensities), stochastic simulation of withinstorm intensities, and a hybrid of these two approaches. Expanded use of Huff curves as described in the latter two approaches offer opportunities for maximizing the information contained in Huff curves. There is no meaningful correspondence between NRCS design storms (Types I, IA, II, and III) and Huff curves. A computer program is available to facilitate the development of Huff curves for stimulating research into their practical use. Keywords. Huff curves, Storm simulation, Storm synthesis, Stochastic simulation, Design storm, Disaggregation, precipitation.

atershed models are required for many purposes such as engineering design for runoff and erosion control in agricultural and urban areas, waterquality evaluations, global change investigations, etc. Precipitation inputs to models are often in the form of either measured precipitation or design storms (fixed patterns of the time distribution of precipitation intensities, often referred to as storm profiles). Design storms are often used for engineering design for stormwater control (e.g., urban areas) because time distributions of precipitation for time intervals less than a day are needed but are often not available. Design storms disaggregate total precipitation to synthesize withinstorm intensities. They are assumed to be representative of the general trend of the variation of precipitation intensities, but they are inadequate for this purpose because an expected time distribution never occurs. This is because observed precipitation within a storm has both random and deterministic components, resulting in an infinite number of possible time distributions of intensities within a storm. The most widely used precipitation inputs to watershed models are total amounts for 24h periods. This is because of

Article was submitted for review in December 2003; approved for publication by the Soil & Water Division of ASAE in April 2004. The author is James V. Bonta, ASAE Member Engineer, Research Hydraulic Engineer, USDAAgricultural Research Service, North Appalachian Experimental Watershed, Coshocton, Ohio 43812; phone: 7405456349 fax: 7405455125 email: bonta@coshocton.ars.usda.gov.

the large geographic coverage and long records of these data. However, information on the actual intensity distribution within the 24h period is lacking and practitioners resort to design storms to distribute subdaily precipitation. Hourly precipitation data are available to a lesser aerial extent over the United States, which can be directly used for inputs to models. Additionally, these data are useful for developing methods for distributing intensities. Fifteenminute precipitation is available, but to even a lesser aerial extent than hourly data. Another source of available precipitation data is intensitydurationfrequency (IDF) precipitation data. However, these uniform intensities are developed only from maximum intensities within storms, and thus represent incomplete storms. Incomplete storms do not include intensities prior to the maximum precipitation burst that satisfies a soilwater deficit incorporated into many watershed models. Another source of precipitation data to watershed models is from weathergeneration models (e.g., CLIGEN, Nicks et al., 1995; GEM, Hanson et al., 1989, 1994, and 2002). These models can simulate temporally distributed estimates of precipitation amounts and other weather elements by using known statistical characteristics of weather (stochastic simulation). However, the smallest timestep that is currently generated is often only 24 h because of the widespread availability of these data used to parameterize these models. Consequently, precipitation intensities must be artificially distributed in time given only the 24h total amounts. CLIGEN includes an undocumented breakpoint precipitation simulator (Zeleke et al., 2000). The AnnAGNPS watershed model (Bingner and Theurer, 2001) uses

Applied Engineering in Agriculture Vol. 20(5): 641653 2004 American Society of Agricultural Engineers ISSN 08838542 641

the various Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) Type profiles to distribute 24h totals over spatially distributed landscape cells (Theurer, F., 2003, personal communication). Algorithms for stochastic storm simulation of shorttime increment precipitation data are largely underdeveloped. Perhaps the most common design storms used in practice are the various distributions of the NRCS (i.e., Types I, IA, II, and III; SCS, 1986). Other patterns have been developed and many are used today such as, Kiefer and Chu (1957), Yen and Chow (1980), Desbordes and Raous (1976), Sifalda (1973), Pilgrim and Cordery (1975), Pilgrim et al. (1969), Natural Environment Research Council (NERC, 1975), Sutherland (1982), Asquith et al. (2003), Huff (1967; 1990), Huff and Angel (1989; 1992). An assumption often made for estimating the magnitude of peak runoff rates is that the frequencies of occurrence of the peak flow and causal precipitation are the same. Pilgrim and Cordery (1975) suggest that this is true if median or average values of parameters are used, but this assumption is unproven. It is also assumed that the season of largest precipitation intensities cause the largest peak flow rates. This assumption is not necessarily the case in small agricultural watersheds (Bonta and Rao, 1994), but may be

for urban areas where antecedent soilwater deficit is not a major factor. Problems with the designstorm concept and suggestions for improving rainfall inputs to urban watershed models are discussed in Patry and McPherson (1979). One particular type of expression of the random and highly variable character of storm mass curves of precipitation is Huffs (1967) probabilistic representation method (Huff curves; fig. 1). In this method, Huff (1967) separated storm data by the quartile (categories of 25% of storm duration) in which the maximum intensity occurred, forming four separate quartile graphs (e.g., fig. 1). Huff curves are isopleths of the probabilities of dimensionless storm mass curves for given elapsed times (described more fully later). For example, a 90% probability curve may be interpreted as the limiting storm intensities that occur in less than 90% of the storms (e.g., fig. 1). They are seldom fully used because there is a lack of understanding in the literature of what they represent and how to construct them, they are difficult to construct without a computer program, few Huff curve sets have been developed for different regions of the world, and there is no guidance on how to maximize the information contained in them and thus how to use them. Guidance is lacking because, in the original presentation of Huff curves, there are 36 curves from which to choose that were developed

Figure 1. Huff curves for the NAEW at Coshocton, Ohio, developed from breakpoint precipitation data (storms >12.7 mm). NRCS design storms (Types I, IA, II, and III) are superimposed. The greatest precipitation intensity occurs in the: a) first quartile; b) second quartile; c) third quartile; and d) fourth quartile.

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using Illinois precipitation data (Huff, 1967), and criteria for selecting a curve for use in any region of the United States are lacking. Three approaches to temporally disaggregate storm, 24h, and other precipitation totals using Huff curves have been investigated in recent years and are the subject of the present article: design storms, stochastic generation of storm intensities, and a hybrid of these two approaches. OBJECTIVES Information contained in Huff curves is seldom fully utilized but these curves offer opportunities for practical use for disaggregating precipitation totals. Detail on construction of Huff curves is not documented in the literature, and their use has been limited for the reasons mentioned earlier. Also, areas for further study can be identified based on present knowledge and use of Huff curves. The objectives of this article are to: 1) present the conceptual and mathematical development of Huff curves; 2) describe applications and approaches for use of Huff curves for design storms, stochastic simulation, and a hybrid approach; 3) summarize information on the effects of factors affecting the curves; and 4) discuss research needs. A computer program is available to readers for developing Huff curves to facilitate more widespread use, and is also briefly described. This article is intended to summarize what is known about Huff curves and to stimulate thinking on how to extract the maximum amount of information contained in Huff curves for practical use in precipitation and watershed modeling.

are developed strictly from eastcentral Illinois and are not based on data collected over an extensive area. STORM IDENTIFICATION Prior to constructing Huff curves, storms must be identified and separated within a record of precipitation. These storms are used as the underlying database for development of Huff curves. In a precipitation record, continuous bursts of rainfall are separated by periods of no precipitation (fig. 2) or dryperiod durations (Di). Intuitively, at the extremes for a given location, dryperiod durations of the order of minutes would belong to the same storm, but bursts of rainfall (Bi) separated by dryperiod durations of the order of days would not belong to the same storm. For example, figure 2 shows that rainfall bursts B1 and B2 are separated by dryperiod duration, D1; bursts B2 and B3 are separated by D2; and B3 and B4 are separated by D3. The minimum Dithat separates bursts of rainfall is referred to as the minimum dryperiod duration (MDPD), and identifies storms in a precipitation record. In figure 2, D3< D1< MDPD < D2, and two storms are apparent. A few methods are available to determine MDPD (Bonta and Rao, 1988a). However, the most useful method was reported by Restrepo and Eagleson (1982) where they calculated the MDPD by using the exponential method. This method assumes that the MDPD is found when Di greater than MDPD form an exponential distribution. An exponential distribution between storms characterizes a Poisson process, in which storm occurrences are statistically independent. This method is used subsequently in this article, and accounts for storm characteristics occurring in different seasons, climates, and locations. Huff (1967) used a constant, arbitrary MDPD value of six hours in his original paper across all seasons. However, Bonta (2001) showed that MDPD can be seasonally dependent on the time of year. In that study, median monthly MDPD ranged from 16.5 to 26.9 h over the plains area of Colorado and adjoining states covering 225,000 km2. Consequently, precipitation analyses are better represented by seasonal (monthly) MDPDs leading to seasonal (monthly) Huff curves.

PROCEDURE

DATA USED FOR THE PRESENT STUDY Data from rain gage RG100 on the USDA Agricultural Research Service facility at the North Appalachian Experimental Watershed (NAEW) located near Coshocton, Ohio, are used to describe the procedure for developing Huff curves and for evaluating some features of Huff curves. Data from RG109 and RG115 are also used for some purposes. These three gages are located about 1.5 km from each other on the 425ha NAEW facility. Data from these gages are tabulated at changes in precipitation intensity (breakpoint data) for the period of record from 1937 through 1994. Data from RG119 are also used for regional comparisons. Some features of Huffs original development are modified as explained in the steps that follow. Average annual precipitation is about 948 mm for the NAEW at Coshocton, Ohio. DATA USED BY HUFF In his original work, Huff (1967) used 12 years of data from 49 gages over an area of 1037 km2in eastern Illinois. The gaged area was topographically a flat prairie with elevations ranging from 198 to 277 m. He used storm data greater than a raingage network mean of 12.7 mm and/or when one or more gages recorded more than 25.4 mm. Storm durations used ranged from 1 to 48 hours. The study by Huff (1990) updated the previous study by including an additional 12 gages in a 25.9km2 ChampaignUrbana, Illinois area, and 6 more gages in the Chicago area (Huff and Vogel, 1976) to include 417 more storms. The latest work on Huff curves in Illinois is by Huff and Angel (1992) in which they used the curves from Huff (1990). Their Huffcurverelated results

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CURVES FROM COSHOCTON POINT RAINGAGE DATA There are two types of Huff curves: pointdeveloped and areaaveraged. This section assumes curves are developed from data from an individual rain gage (point). Areaaveraged curves are discussed in the next section, but the procedure is identical to pointdeveloped curves after an intermediate step. Storms are extracted from the precipitation record using monthly values of MDPD, forming a storm masscurve database. Figure 3 shows all 181 storm mass curves occurring in the months of May and June at Coshocton, Ohio, with storm totals greater than 12.7 mm. Each mass curve in figure 3 is nondimensionalized by dividing all breakpoint masscurve depths by the total storm depth, and all elapsed times by the total storm duration. The resulting graphs are subsequently superimposed (fig. 4). Order is subsequently made of the apparent disorder in figure 4 following a twostep process by adding a third dimension (probability) to the dimensionless mass curves. First, for a given vertical line representing a single dimensionless duration (e.g., dimensionless durationaxis value of 0.2 in fig. 4), the intersection of each dimensionless mass curve with this vertical is interpolated because breakpoints of individual mass curves in figure 4 do not lie directly on the selected verticals shown in figure 5 (interpolated mass curve intersection). Interpolated masscurve intersections are computed for every vertical selected by an analyst. In figure 5, the interpolated masscurve intersections (dimensionless depths) are found at verticals for increments of 0.02 along the dimensionlessduration axis. The second step is adding the probability dimension (frequency distribution of dimensionless depths) to the graph. This step involves determining the percentage of

Figure 3. Storm mass curves for storms identified (storm totals >12.7 mm) during May and June for RG100 at the NAEW near Coshocton, Ohio.

masscurve intersections at or below assigned percentages for each vertical. The equation used for computing these percentages is: P = 100i / (n + 1) (1) where P = cumulative percentage of dimensionlessdepth points i = point number n = total number of points For example, figure 6 shows that 90% of all masscurve intersections (dimensionless depths) for a dimensionless

Figure 4. Dimensionless storm mass curves for the same storm mass curves as in figure 3.

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duration of 0.20 are less than or equal to 0.76. This notation is the complement of the percentage of intersections exceeding a given value in the original publication by Huff (1967; e.g., the equivalent of 10% exceeding in this case). Interpolated dimensionless depths corresponding to identical assigned probabilities are connected by straight lines (e.g., all 90% dimensionless depths in fig. 6). In figure 6, the percentages of dimensionless depths ranging from 10% to 90% in increments of 10% were found for each vertical line

and the resulting points connected with lines. These probability isopleths comprise a set of Huff curves they are a probabilistic summary representation of storm mass curves in terms of dimensionless elapsed times into a storm and corresponding dimensionless accumulated depths. For example, a 90% curve (isopleth) implies that for all storm durations, 90% of the accumulated precipitation has occurred for all dimensionless storm durations (i.e., 90% of all storm profiles lie below this curve).

Figure 6. Storm masscurve intersections with isopleths of probability (Huff curves) and NRCS design storms (Type curves) superimposed.

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Huff (1967) presented nine isopleths in each quartile (increments of 10%) for a total of 36 curves (only three isopleths shown in each quartile in fig. 1). Separation of storms into quartiles is arbitrary because an analyst could use, for example, two categories (e.g., storms with maximum intensity in the first and last half of storms), or more than four categories. For purposes of the present article, this categorization is unnecessary. Consequently, all dimensionless mass curves are plotted on only one graph in this article (e.g., fig. 6). Furthermore, Huff (1967) originally combined all storm data across seasons and found that storm duration was related to storm quartile of maximum intensity. However, one possible reason for this observation is that summer and winter storms have different stormduration characteristics, and these storms were combined into one group. If storms are separated by month, storm durations will tend to be similar and Huff curves may be independent of storm quartile, but this requires further investigation. For simplicity in this article, the interpolated masscurve intersections in figure 6 will be omitted. Furthermore, only the 10%, 50%, and 90% isopleths will be used in comparisons presented. The difference between the 10% and 90% isopleths represent the variance of storm mass curves, and the 50% isopleth represents their central tendency. CURVES FROM AREAAVERAGED RAINGAGE DATA The procedure described above is for a given set of precipitation data at a point. However, Huff (1967) originally presented curves using data that were averaged over areas as large as 1037 km2. Averaging was performed by averaging clockhour precipitation amounts over areas of different sizes. This results in smaller intensities early in a storm compared with curves developed at a point (e.g., Huff, 1990; fig. 7). One reason for smaller averages is because as a storm

moves over a raingage network, the spatial distribution of precipitation at the leading edge of a storm is highly nonuniform and tends to average to a smaller intensity compared with intensities measured at a point. After developing areaaveraged mass curves, the procedure for development of the curves is identical to that described above for data at a point. NERC (1975) found minor differences between pointdeveloped and areaaveraged Hufftype curves. For purposes of the present article, the extra averaging step is omitted and only point curves are considered.

DESIGN STORMS Comparison of Flexibility of Other Design Storms Design storms can be fixed in their pattern, and many can also be flexible but have similar shapes by varying parameters that quantify the location of a major burst of rainfall. Bonta and Rao (1988b) compared four apparent flexible designstorm types and found that Huff curves were the most flexible pattern, characterizing the wide variation in natural storm mass curves. Huff curves had the largest range of patterns, from the most advanced (largest intensity occurs early in a storm) to the most lagged patterns (largest intensity occurs later in a storm). This is true if all Huff curves are considered. Nevertheless, even flexible Huff curves have their shortcomings when used as a design storm. NRCS design storms (Types I, IA, II, and III) are superimposed on the fourquartile representation of Huff curves in figure 1. It is apparent that the Type curves are most similar in position to the secondquartile storms, and not of the other quartiles. Types I and IA are most closely follow the 50% curve for Coshocton data, while Types II and III cut across curves from 10% to 50%. Type II curves are used in Ohio by the NRCS, and Type I and IA design storms are applicable to the West Coast of the United States. NRCS design storms are superimposed on the single graph of Huff curves (data not separated by quartile) in figure 6. It is apparent that the various Type curves do not meaningfully correspond to Huff curves. Which Curve to Use This most important question arises when deciding which of the 36 original curves should be used, and there is no good answer. Typically, only the single 50% curve with maximum precipitation intensity in the first quartile is selected as a design storm to distribute precipitation totals, and all others are ignored. Selection of a particular percentage curve is arbitrary, and a rational basis for selection of a particular isopleth is not available. However, Huff (1990) states that the median curve is the single most representative curve, however the other curves allow users to determine basin runoff relations for various types of distributions that occur in nature with each of the four basic storm types (quartile groups). He suggests that the 10% and 90% curves would be useful for estimating runoff in the more extreme types of time distributions. However, he also states that the median curve is the most stable curve in all quartiles (curve does not change relative position with added storm data), compared with the

Figure 7. Comparison between point (individual rain gage) and areaaveraged (combined data from gages over an area) for the 50% Huff curve using Illinois data (modified from Huff, 1990).

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10% and 90% curves. Huff and Angel (1992) state that median distributions are most commonly used by hydrologists and others. Furthermore, a Huff curve used as a design storm represents only an isopleth of probability of accumulation of storm durations and depths for an entire storm, and is not representative of the wide variation in observed storm distributions as characterized in a full set of Huff curves (e.g., fig. 6). The 50% curve conforms to the suggestion by Pilgrim and Cordery (1975) that median or average design storms be used when assuming equal frequencies of runoff and precipitation. Huff (1990) documents that areadeveloped first and second quartile storms were the most prevalent for areas less than 1037 km2 in Illinois, followed by third quartile storms. For point rainfall, first quartile storms were most prevalent, followed by second quartile storms, and then third quartile storms. He suggests that the quartile occurring most frequently for a given area should be used in design. Consequently, an analyst must decide whether to use point or areadeveloped curves, and no guidance is available. First through fourth quartile median Huff curves were plotted and tabulated in Huff (1990) for pointdeveloped curves, and for areadeveloped curves for areas between 25.9 and 130 km2, and between 130 and 1037 km2. Spatial Representativeness of Huff Curves Huff (1990) suggests that the Illinois curves should be useful to the hydrologist in estimating time distributions over areas of 10 to 400 mile2(25.9 to 1037 km2), and that they are applicable in the Midwest and other areas of similar climate and topography, in particular for midwestern thunderstorms. Huff and Angel (1992) found only small changes in the time distributions with increasing sampling area between 25.9 to 1037 km2. Huff (1990) further suggests that for areas less than 25.9 km2, the average of median curves for point and areadeveloped curves should be used. In research quantifying Midwest rainfall frequencies, Huff and Angel (1992) suggested that the Huff curves in their report should be applicable to the ninestate region that the report covers (Ill., Ind., Iowa, Ky, Mich., Minn., Mo., Ohio, and Wis.) and other locations of similar precipitation. The Huff curves they suggest were the same as those in Huff (1990) and are based upon only Illinois data. This guidance has never been tested; however, later in this article it will be shown that this assumption may be partially valid. It is expected that Huff curves will vary geographically due to different climates. This geographic variability is recognized, for example, by regionspecific design storms reported by SCS (1986; Types I, IA, II, and III) and Yen and Chow (1980). While areadeveloped curves were constructed by Huff (1990), the applicability of these curves is questionable because the curves provide a lumped intensity distribution over an area, and they do not spatially distribute the precipitation. Coherent spatially distributed precipitation inputs to watershed models are a significant need for simulations over large basins. It is apparent that guidance on the use of point and areaaveraged Huff curves, and on the selection of individual isopleths that should be used for design storms requires further investigation. Studies should use these curves as inputs to different watershed models to develop criteria for curve selection and to document limitations of the curves.

Selection of Huff Curves Based on Storm Durations Huff (1967, 1990) found general associations between duration and quartile. For Illinois, the fourth quartile storms were generally associated with longduration storms (>24 h), third quartile storms were associated with storms between 12 and 24 h, second quartile storms are associated with storms between 6 and 24 h, and first quartile storms were associated with storms less than 6 h in duration. Huff curves were developed by combining storms occurring in all seasons, and may explain some of these observations. If storms are separated by time of year (e.g., monthly), these associations may be different, but this requires further study. Huff (1990) suggests that the quartile occurring most frequently for a given spatial area and duration under consideration should be used in design. Huff and Angel (1992) state in particular, For most structural design applications, use of the quartile type occurring most often is recommended for the design duration under consideration. For example, use the first quartile curves design durations of 6 hours or less, and use the second quartile distributions for design involving storm durations for 6 to 12 hours. Applications of Huff Curves as Design Storms In spite of the uncertainties in selecting a curve to use for design, Huff curves are being suggested as a method to disaggregate precipitation in engineering practice. Akan and Houghtalen (2003) report the methodology is used in the United States and in Europe. Haestad Methods (2003), a firm supplying hydrology software, suggests the Huff curves found in Huff and Angel (1992) as a potential design storm. They caution that these and other synthetic design storms may yield significantly different runoff hydrographs and may not be acceptable to reviewing agencies. The SWMM stormwater model suggests the use of Huff curves as one option to distribute rainfall intensities. Hjelmfelt (1980) presented all 36 original curves (Huff, 1967) for use in the CREAMS agricultural fieldscale water quality model and suggested the median curve without much other guidance except that the 50% curve is probably the most useful. No suggestion was given regarding the quartile from which the median curve should be selected. Beaudoin et al. (1983) used the 50% curve for second quartile storms for Montreal, Canada for extreme events when MDPD was 2 h. Purdue et al. (1992) and Burke and Burke (1995) use Huff curves developed from several cities in Indiana for use in stormwater management using a MDPD of 4 h. Wenzel and Voorhees (1981) showed that the 50% curve (advanced storm pattern), under dry antecedent moisture conditions, was adequate for the ILLUDAS urban drainage simulation model (Terstriep and Stall, 1974). Burke et al. (1980) used the 50% curves for Huff curves developed for West Lafayette, Indiana, for the ILLUDAS model and found that the second and third quartile curves gave 30% higher peak flows than the first quartile curve originally developed by Huff (1967). The first quartile 50% curve is incorporated into the ILLUDAS model because it represented Illinois precipitation (Akan and Houghtalen, 2003). In the United Kingdom, the National Environmental Research Council (NERC, 1975) developed Hufftype curves by overlapping storms, centering them at the most intense parts of storms prior to developing curves. They used the resulting curves to determine peakedness of summer and

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winter 24h hyetographs. They found no differences due to area, and suggested the curves are useful across the United Kingdom except for higher elevation areas. They also found no differences due to storm duration ranging from 60 min to 4 days. It is apparent that much uncertainty remains regarding the use and limitations of Huff curves, and firm guidance is lacking. The only comprehensive investigation of the curves used data from Illinois (Huff, 1990). The following two sections describe alternative uses of the curves that have promise for disaggregating precipitation totals and address some of the limitations of Huff curves. However, the issue of spatial representativeness remains with the alternative methods. CONCEPT FOR USE OF HUFF CURVES FOR STOCHASTIC DISAGGREGATION Isopleths of probability distributions of dimensionless depths shown in figure 8 (Huff curves) from the dataderived dimensionless storm mass curves in figure 4 suggests a reverse procedure to stochastically generate dimensionless storm mass curves and subsequently, storm mass curves with units. The procedure is similar to sampling from a known frequency distribution in Monte Carlo sampling. Bonta (2004) describes the use of Huff curves for stochastic simulation of storm intensities in more detail. Only a brief description is presented in the present article. At a vertical selected near the beginning of a dimensionless storm (e.g. vertical at 0.2), the empirical cumulative distribution of dimensionless storm depths (fig. 5) is sampled by the Monte Carlo method (e.g., point A in fig. 8). At the next selected dimensionless storm duration (e.g., vertical at 0.3), the corresponding empirical frequency distribution of dimensionless depth is sampled (e.g., point B). The procedure is repeated until the dimensionless mass curve reaches the coordinates (1.0, 1.0).

The result of the above procedure is a set of mass curves that are in dimensionless form. However, a mass curve in terms of depth and time units is desired for practical applications. The procedure to determine units for a mass curve is proposed by Bonta (2004). Frequency distributions of durations and depths are formed from the storm data set developed by identifying storms using the exponential method. These distributions are sampled, considering the conditional relations between storm depth and duration. Bonta and Rao (1992) used such a method in their application of Huff curves to estimate peakflow rates and their return periods. Grace and Eagleson (1966) and Rao and Chenchaya (1974) also used a similar concept. Each dimensionless masscurve point of a generated mass curve is multiplied by the depthduration pair sampled. A storm mass curve with depth and duration units is thus derived. CONCEPT FOR HYBRID USE OF HUFF CURVES As mentioned previously, use of a single fixed curve for a design storm is arbitrary and does not capture the wide variability of actual storm intensities (fig. 3). Stochastic simulation of mass curves uses only the isopleths indirectly by sampling from them (fig. 8). A hybrid approach is possible to maximize the information contained in Huff curves, which uses all the fixed isopleths as design storms, and stochastic simulation of storm durations and depths. This hybrid approach was used by Bonta and Rao (1992) in the development of a method to estimate peak flow rates and their frequencies of occurrence from small agricultural watersheds. Because selecting a single representative curve is difficult to justify, Bonta and Rao (1992) used all 36 curves (design storms) contained in the fourquartile representation of Huff curves (e.g., fig. 1). Huff curves summarize the range of storm conditions through isopleths from advanced (maximum intensity in early part of storm) to lagged (maximum

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intensity in later part of storm) as illustrated in figure 1. The runoff response of an agricultural watershed to these idealized storm profiles depends on the soilwater status at the beginning of a storm. In their methodology a small watershed model representing agricultural areas was chosen that continuously simulated soilwater content, infiltration, and runoff using shorttimeincrement precipitation. Antecedent soilwater content was an initial state variable for the model also. The model was modified to run on a stormevent basis with an assigned antecedent soilwater content value. It was also modified to compute the rainfall intensity (of varying duration) that caused observed peak runoff rates. Each of the 36 Huff curves was used to temporally distribute a randomly sampled storm depth and duration pair with the assigned initial soilwatercontent value. This pair of storm values was obtained stochastically in a manner similar to that described in the preceding section. After running the model with the 36 curves, a new depthduration pair was sampled and the model was run again with the 36 curves. This procedure was repeated for 300 paired samples of storm depth and duration. The procedure was performed for five different initial antecedent soilwatercontent values ranging from dry to wet. It was found that the initial antecedent soilwater content that yielded identical frequency distributions of modeled peak runoff rates and causal rainfall intensities also matched the measured peak runoffrate distribution. This gives validity to the assumption of equal precipitation and peakrunoffrate distributions under conditions of varying storm durations found in the causal rainfalls.

METHOD OF STORM IDENTIFICATION Huff curves appear insensitive to the method of storm identification (value of MDPD). Two methods of computing MDPD gave different estimates but yielded very similar Huff curves (Bonta and Rao, 1987). That study documents the robustness of Huff curves to errors in estimating MDPD. STORM DEPTH Figure 9 shows that Huff curves resulting from use of storms less than 12.7 mm are generally biased low compared to Huff curves developed from storms greater than 12.7 mm. This observation is due to the many storms in which there are few breakpoints in the lessthan12.7mm group. Many times a storm consisted of two points, forming a straight line. Many straightline dimensionless mass curves were used to develop the Huff curves in the data set with storms having less than 12.7 mm, shifting all isopleths downwards on the graph. MINIMUM NUMBER OF STORMS Figure 10 shows the effect of sample size on Huffcurve development and the stability of Huff curves (no relative change in position of Huff curves with added storms) for different sample sizes. The base set of curves was developed from 182 storms. The curves developed from a sample size of 10 show poor agreement for the 90% and 50% isopleths. The small sample size graph in figure 10 is only one realization of many possible sample sizes of 10 storms, and the comparison can be better or worse than that shown for other samples of 10 storms. Consequently, guidelines for estimating the minimum sample size to develop Huff curves are needed. Bonta and Shahalam (1998; 2003) found that a minimum sample size of about 90 storms was required for Coshocton, Ohio, data and about 120 storms for some New Zealand data.

Several studies of factors that affect Huffcurve construction and use have been conducted that document their practical use and limitations. Some of these studies are summarized visually with Huff curves using the 10%, 50%, and 90% curves for RG100 as baseline curves. COMPARISON WITH OTHER DESIGN STORMS Huff curves were found to be the most flexible of four mass curve representations studied. These patterns include triangular, mixed rectangular and triangular, mixed triangular, and Huff curves (Bonta and Rao, 1988b). Figures 1 and 6 show that NRCS design storms (Types I, IA, II, and III) do not correspond meaningfully to Huff curves. SAMPLING INTERVAL OF PRECIPITATION DATA Huff curves are not sensitive to sampling interval of the data. Hourly precipitation data gave nearly identical Huff curves as 3min data, which is more representative of the breakpoint data. This observation is because, with ideal data, a mass curve developed from minutely data would total to the same precipitation amount as hourly data every hour. These results are important because the Huff curves can be developed from more widely available hourly precipitation data (Bonta and Rao, 1987).

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Figure 10. Effects of number of storms (sample size, n) on development of Huff curves.

TIME OF YEAR Time of year affects the development of Huff curves. Widely varying Huff curve shapes were apparent when summer and winter storms were used to develop Huff curves (Bonta and Rao, 1987). Figure 11 also shows the significant effect of season that must be considered when developing Huff curves for an area. The winter curves (combined Jan and Feb data) show much less storm intensity variation than the spring/summer curves (May and June). NERC (1975) also showed a significant effect of season of year. These studies document the importance of developing Huff curves for different seasons of the year, and suggest that storm data should not be combined across seasons as in the original work by Huff (1967).

REGIONALIZATION Huff curves show promise for regionalization. Published Huff curves for Coshocton, OH, Illinois, and Texas showed remarkable similarity, in spite of different methods used to develop them (point versus areaaveraged; Bonta and Rao, 1989). However, Burke et al. (1980) found that the differences between curves developed at W. Lafayette, Indiana and the original Huff curves in Illinois were significant enough to cause differences in modeled peak flows and runoff volumes. On the other hand, Bonta and Rao (1992) found that simulated peak flows were not sensitive to differing Huff curve inputs. These studies are important because a single set of Huff curves could be used over large areas, although a sensitivity study with a watershed model will need to be conducted. NERC (1975) found that their Hufftype curves did not vary regionally, although they suggested they may not be applicable for higher elevations. Hogg (1980) found substantial variation in Huff curves at 35 locations across Canada, and climatological differences were apparent. Figure 12 shows possible local regionalization of Huff curves (curves developed using rain gages close to one another.) Rain gage RG119 is located approximately 1.4 km from rain gage RG100 that was used in all previous comparisons. Visually the two sets of Huff curves agree as well as one would expect. This observation implies that there is regionalization at the local level. Figure 13 shows the Huff curves developed from raingage data at Coshocton, Ohio, and Monticello, Illinois. The rain gages were separated by approximately 660 km. The similarity between Huff curves developed at each site is remarkable, as the disparities over this long distance are of the order of the disparities between the gages that are about 1.4 km (fig. 12). Burke et al. (1980) found that West Lafayette, Indiana, curves were somewhat different compared with Illinois curves, however. These results lend support to the conclusion of Bonta and Rao (1989), in which only readily available published Huff curves were compared, that Huff curves can be regionalized over large areas if developed in a consistent manner. It also

Figure 12. Investigation of local regionalization of Huff curves on the NAEW at Coshocton, Ohio (comparison of RG100 and RG119, approximately 1.4 km apart).

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forcing the equations through the points (0,0) and (1,1). Equations can simplify use of frequency distributions for stochastic simulation, and simplify the hybrid use of Huff curves with watershed models. They are useful for computing causal precipitations and associated frequencies. TABULATION OF PRECIPITATION RECORDS Experience by the author in development of Huff curves has shown that they are sensitive to the depth and time resolutions of the raw data and the diligence of the person tabulating charts to insure good digitization of original raingage chart traces.

RESEARCH NEEDS

Based on previous studies and experience using Huff curves, the following research needs can be identified, however, this list is not comprehensive: S Develop guidance on the use of Huff curves if they are used strictly as design storms. S Quantify the association between duration and quartile if storms are separated by time of the year. S Determine the importance of separating Huff curves into quartiles if data are separated by month. S Develop qualitycontrol guidelines for Huff curve development such as minimum number of storms, minimum number of points, etc. S Investigate improved methods for objectively comparing Huff curves so regions of similar curves can be identified, and so factors affecting their development can be studied (e.g., time of year, minimum number of storms needed for stable Huff curves, etc.). S Many times only a lumped snowfall amount is available, and snow intensities are not tabulated. Furthermore, the form of precipitation is often not given in shorttime interval precipitation records. A method is needed to disaggregate lumped snow totals, as well as to identify when snow actually occurs in records where precipitation is not identified as snow. S As elevation increases, monthly precipitation distribution changes, monthly totals change, and precipitation occurs more frequently as snow. The effect will be similar to a seasonal effect. The effect of elevation on Huff curves needs to be identified and quantified in mountainous areas. S The discussion in this article so far has focused on storm totals. A method is needed to develop storm totals when only 24h totals are given. This is important because data from weather generators and most precipitation data are given in a 24h time step. One approach to this problem might be to determine frequency distributions of various precipitation parameters, such as time to start of a storm in a day. Storms spanning several days would need to be investigated. Exploratory investigations of relationships between storm depths and corresponding 24h amounts would significantly include a large precipitation data base consisting of 24h amounts across the United States and in other countries. One potential problem is that the time of observation for 24h amounts can vary from one gage to another, and they do not represent readings at 2400. S Investigate the hybrid approach, described for peakflow modeling, for large watersheds, urban drainage design,

Figure 13. Investigation of distant regionalization of Huff curves (Coshocton, Ohio and Monticello, Illinois approximately 644 km apart).

suggests that the recommendation by Huff and Angel (1992) regarding regionalization over their 9state Midwest area may have some validity. As rain gages farther apart are compared, an objective method is needed to compare sets of Huff curves to determine if they are statistically the same. Objective methods of comparing curves were tested by Bonta and Shahalam (1998; 2003), but more research is needed. SENSITIVITY OF A WATERSHED MODEL SAMPLING INTERVAL OF PRECIPITATION DATA The peakflow estimation method developed using the hybrid Huffcurve and stochastic storm input showed that the sampling interval of precipitation data did not affect peak flow rates and corresponding frequencies of occurrence (Bonta and Rao, 1992). This is important because Huff curves developed from hourly data can be used to estimate peak flows from small watersheds having times of concentration of the order of minutes . This implies that other watershed models normally requiring shorttime interval data can alternatively use hourly data. This result also makes available the more widespread hourly data base to develop curves. SENSITIVITY OF A WATERSHED MODEL MDPD OF PRECIPITATION DATA The same peakflow estimation method was not affected by large differences in MDPD estimates. (Bonta and Rao, 1992) This observation is important because large errors in estimating MDPD can be tolerated. FITTING EQUATIONS TO HUFF CURVES Tenthdegree polynomials were successfully fitted to Huff curves using linear programming (Bonta and Rao, 1988c). This procedure involved simultaneously fitting the nine equations in an individual quartile to the data, constraining the fits by not allowing the nine curves to overlap, by forcing them to remain the same or increase (first derivative was greater than or equal to zero), by not allowing them to exceed dimensionless depths and durations of unity, and by

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S S S

S S

and waterquality modeling. This investigation would include reducing the number of Huff curves from 36 to 9 (i.e., reducing and simplifying graphs from four quartile graphs to one graph). Improve and test the stochastic simulation approach, considering the limitations of builtin serial correlation. Develop a spatially distributed and coherent approach to constructing and using Huff curves. Perform a sensitivity study to determine the effects of the various factors affecting Huff curves on watershed response variables that quantify hydrology and water quality. This investigation will identify the important factors that should be considered in qualitycontrol guidelines and those factors that are not important. Develop a procedure for using Huff curves for probabilistic forecasting. Evaluate the utility of Huff curves for globalchange applications.

maximizing the information contained in Huff curves and address some concerns regarding their use as design storms. There is no meaningful correspondence between NRCS design storms (Types I, IA, II, and III) and Huff curves. A computer program is available to facilitate the development of Huff curves for stimulating research into their practical use.

REFERENCES

Akan, A. O., and R. J. Houghtalen. 2003. Rainfall for designing urban drainage systems. In Urban Hydrology, Hydraulics, and Stormwater Quality, Chapter 2, 519. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Asquith, W. H., J. R. Bumgarner, and L. S. Fahlquist. 2003. A triangular model of dimensionless runoff producing rainfall hyetographs in Texas. J. of the American Water Resources Association 39(4): 911921. Beaudoin, P., J. Rousselle, and G. Marchi. 1983. Reliability of the design storm concept in evaluating runoff peak flow. Water Resources Bulletin 19(3): 483487. Bingner, R. L., and F. D. Theurer. 2001. AnnAGNPS: Estimating sediment yield by particle size for sheet & rill erosion. In Proc. of the Sediment: Monitoring, Modeling, and Managing, 7th Federal Interagency Sedimentation Conference, I1 I7. Reno, NV The publisher is the Subcommittee on Sedimentation. Bonta, J. V. 2001. Characterizing and estimating spatial and temporal variability of times between storms. Transactions of the ASAE 44(6): 15931601. Bonta, J. V. 2004. Stochastic simulation of storm occurrence, depth, duration, and withinstorm intensities. Submitted to Transactions of the ASAE Bonta, J. V., and A. R. Rao. 1987. Factors affecting development of Huff curves. Transactions of the ASAE 30(6): 16891693. Bonta, J. V., and A. R. Rao. 1988a. Factors affecting the identification of independent storm events. J. of Hydrology 98: 275293. Bonta, J. V., and A. R. Rao. 1988b. Comparison of four designstorm hyetographs. Transactions of the ASAE 31(1): 102106. Bonta, J. V., and A. R. Rao. 1988c. Fitting equations to families of dimensionless cumulative hyetographs. Transactions of the ASAE 31(3): 756760. Bonta, J. V., and A. R. Rao. 1989. Regionalization of storm hyetographs. Water Resources Bulletin 25(1): 211217. Bonta, J. V., and A. R. Rao. 1992. Estimating peak flows from small agricultural watersheds. J. of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering 118(1): 122137. Bonta, J. V., and A. R. Rao. 1994. Seasonal distributions of peak flows from small agricultural watersheds. J. of Irrigation & Drainage Eng. 120(2): 422439. Bonta, J. V., and A. Shahalam. 1998. Investigation of techniques to compare Huff curves. ASAE Paper No. 982192. St. Joseph, Mich.: ASAE. Bonta, J. V., and A. Shahalam. 2003. Cumulative storm rainfall distributions: comparison of Huff curves. J. of Hydrology (NZ) 42(1): 6574. Burke, C. B., and T. T. Burke. 1995. Stormwater Drainage Manual. Indiana Technical Assistance Program, Purdue University. West Lafayette, Ind. Burke, C. B., A. R. Rao, and D. D. Gray. 1980. Duration and temporal distribution of storms in urban drainage design. International Symposium on Urban Storm Runoff, 7179. Lexington, Ky.: University of Kentucky. Desbordes, M., and P. Raous. 1976. Un example de Linteret des etudes de sensibilite des modeles hydrologiques. La Houille Blanche 1:3743 (in French).

A FORTRAN program is available to facilitate construction of Huff curves from a precipitation record. This program is useful for further research into maximizing the utility of Huff curves for the hydrology profession. Two input files are required: a file with mass curves of precipitation for a period of record and an information file. The information file contains data such as monthly MDPD values, season definitions (smallest time interval is one month, but months can be consolidated to define multimonth seasons), number of verticals, number of isopleths to construct, minimum (or maximum) threshold storm depth to consider, minimum number of points, and programcontrolvariable values. The outputs from the program include a log file for the computer run, distribution of the number of storms in each quartile (including ties) for each season, a file with dimensionless mass curves for all storms, a file with storm information, a file with masscurve intersections for the specified verticals, and a file with the isopleths. Other supporting programs include SAS programs (SAS, 1990) that use these output files to generate plots similar to figures 36.

CONCLUSIONS

The present study described the utility of using Huff curves for disaggregating precipitation totals. Huff curves are a probabilistic representation of accumulated storm depths for corresponding accumulated storm durations expressed in dimensionless form. The development of Huff curves is described because it is not documented in the literature. The potential use of these curves, the state of knowledge, and research needs for advancing the utility of Huff curves for storm disaggregation are summarized. Three approaches for using Huff curves to disaggregate precipitation totals are described: design storms (fixed), a proposed stochastic simulation of withinstorm intensities, and a hybrid of these two approaches (use of all of the fixed design storm patterns comprising Huff curves and stochastic simulation of storm depths and durations). Expanded use of Huff curves as described in the latter two approaches offer opportunities for

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Grace, R. A., and P. S. Eagleson. 1966. The synthesis of shorttime increment rainfall sequences. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Hydrodynamics Laboratory, Report No. 91. School of Civil Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass. Haestad Methods, 2003. Stormwater Conveyance Modeling and Design, First Edition. Waterbury, Conn.: Haestad Methods. Hanson, C. L., H. B. Osborn, and D. A. Woolhiser. 1989. Daily precipitation simulation model for mountainous areas. Transactions of the ASAE 32(3): 865873. Hanson, C. L., G. L. Johnson, and W. L. Frymire. 2002. The GEM (Generation of weather Elements for Multiple applications) weather simulation model. In 13th AMS Conf. Appl. Climatology, 117121. American Meteorological Society, Portland, Oregon Hanson, C. L., K. A. Cumming, D. A. Woolhiser, and C. W. Richardson. 1994. Microcomputer program for daily weather simulation. U.S. Dept. Agric., Agric. Res. Svc. Pub. No. ARS114. Washington, D.C. Hjelmfelt, A. T. 1980. Time distribution of clock hour rainfall. In CREAMS, A field scale model for chemicals, runoff, and erosion from agricultural management systems. USDA, Conservation Research Report No. 26. Washington, D.C. Hogg, W. D. 1980. Time distribution of short duration storm rainfall in Canada. Proc. of the Canadian Hydrology Symposium: Hydrology of Developed Areas, Toronto, National Research Council, 5363. Ottawa, Ontario: NRC. Huff, F. A. 1967. Time distribution of rainfall in heavy storms. Water Resources Research 3(4): 10071019. Huff, F. A. 1990. Time distributions of heavy rainstorms in Illinois. Illinois State Water Survey, Circular 173. Champaign, Ill. Huff, F. A., and J. R. Angel, 1989. Rainfall distributions and hydroclimatic characteristics of heavy rainstorms in Illinois (Bulletin 70). Illinois State Water Survey. Champaign, Ill. Huff, F. A., and J. R. Angel. 1992. Rainfall frequency atlas of the Midwest. Illinois State Water Survey, Champaign, Ill. Huff, F. A., and J. L. Vogel. 1976. Hydrometeorology of heavy rainstorms in Chicago and Northeastern Illinois. Illinois State Water Survey Report of Investigation 82. Champaign, Ill. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. 1990. Climate Change: The IPCC Scientific Assessment,eds.J. T. Houghton, G. J. Jenkins, and J. J. Ephraums. Cambridge: University Press. Keifer, C. J., and H. H. Chu. 1957. Synthetic storm pattern for drainage design. J. of the Hydraulics Divison, ASCE 83(HY4): 125. Natural Environment Research Council (NERC). 1975. Flood Studies Report, Vol. 2.Meteorological studies. Whitefriars Press Ltd., London.

Nicks, A. D., L. J. Lane, and G. A. Gander. 1995. Chapter 2. Weather Generator. In Hillslope Profile and Watershed Model Documentation, eds. D. C. Flanagan and M. A. Nearing. NSERL Report No. 10, USDAARS National Soil Erosion Research Laboratory, West Lafayette, Ind. Patry, G., and M. B. McPherson. 1979. The Design Storm Concept. Urban Water Resources Research Group. Proc. of a seminar at Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal Montreal, Quebec. Pilgrim, D. H., I. Cordery, and R. French. 1969. Temporal patterns of design rainfall for Sydney. Civil Engineering Transactions, Institution of Engineers, Australia CE11(1): 914. Pilgrim, D. H., and I. Cordery. 1975. Rainfall temporal patterns for design floods. J. of the Hydraulics Division HY1: 8195. Purdue, A. M., G. D. Jeong, and A. R. Rao. 1992. Statistical characteristics of short time increment rainfall. School of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, No. CEEHE9209. West Lafayette, Ind. Rao, R. A., and B. T. Chenchayya. 1974. Probabilistic analysis and simulation of the short time increment rainfall process. Purdue University Water Resources Research Center, Technical Report No. 55. West Lafayette, Ind. Restrepo, P. J., and P. S. Eagleson. 1982. Identification of independent rainstorms. J. Hydrol. 55: 303319. SAS Institute Inc. 1990. SAS/GRAPH RSoftware: Reference, Version 6, First Ed., Vol. 2. Cary, N.C.: SAS Institute Inc. Sifalda, V. 1973. Entwicklung eines Berechnungsregens fr die Bemessung von Kanalnetzen. Gwfwasser/Abwasser114(9): 435440 (in German). Soil Conservation Service (SCS). 1986. Urban hydrology for small watersheds. Technical Release 55, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C. Sutherland, F. R. 1982. An improved rainfall intensity distribution for hydrograph synthesis. Univ. of the Witwatersrand, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Johannesburg, South Africa Report No. 1/1983. Terstriep, M. L., and J. B. Stall. 1974. The Illinois urban drainage area simulator, ILLUDAS. Illinois State Water Survey Bulletin 58. Champaign, Ill. Wenzel, H. G., Jr., and M. L. Voorhees. 1981. An evaluation of the urban design storm concept. University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign, Water Resources Center, Research Report 164. UrbanaChampaign, Ill. Yen, B. C., and V. T. Chow. 1980. Design hyetographs for small drainage structures. J. of the Hydraulics Division, ASCE 106(HY6): 10551076. Zeleke, G., T. Winter, and D. Flanagan. 2000. BPCDG: Breakpoint climate data generator for WEPP using observed standard weather data sets. USDAARS Natl. Soil Erosion Res. Lab, http://topsoil.nserl.purdue.edu/nserlweb/weppmain/BPCDG.htm l (accessed 11/24/2003).

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