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Purpose of Shielded Isolation Transformer


Edvard

Us ing s hie ld e d is o latio n trans fo rme r in p o we r d is trib utio n s ys te ms Us ing s hie ld e d is o latio n trans fo rme r in p o we r d is trib utio n s ys te ms

shielded transf ormer is a two-winding transformer, usually deltastar connected and serves the f ollowing purposes: 1. Voltage transf ormation f rom the distribution voltage to the equipments utilization voltage. 2. Converting a 3-wire input power to a 4-wire output thereby deriving a separate stable neutral f or the power supply wiring going to sensitive equipment. 3. Keeping third and its multiple harmonics away f rom sensitive equipment by allowing their f ree circulation in the delta winding. 4. Sof tening of high-f requency noise f rom the input side by the natural inductance of the transf ormer, particularly true f or higher f requency of noise f or which the reactance becomes more as the f requency increases. 5. Providing an electrostatic shield between the primary and the secondary windings thus avoiding transf er of surge/impulse voltages passing through inter-winding capacitance. Figure 1 shows the principle Princ ip le o f a s hie ld e d two wind ing trans fo rme r involved in a shielded Fig ure 1 - Princ ip le o f a s hie ld e d two wind ing trans fo rme r transf ormer. T he construction of the transf ormer is such that the magnetic core f orms the innermost layer, f ollowed by the secondary winding, the electrostatic shield made of a conducting material (usually copper) and f inally the primary winding. Figure 2 shows this detail. It can be seen that the high-f requency surge is conducted to ground through the capacitance between the primary winding (on the lef t) and the shield, which is connected to ground. Besides the shield, the magnetic core, the neutral of the secondary winding and the grounding wire f rom the electronic equipment are all terminated to a ground bar, which in turn, is connected to the power supply ground/building ground. It is also important Co ns truc tio n o f a s hie ld e d two -wind ing trans fo rme r that the Fig ure 2 - Co ns truc tio n o f a s hie ld e d two -wind ing trans fo rme r primary wiring to and secondary wiring f rom the isolation transf ormer are routed through separate trays/conduits. If this is not done, the intercable capacitances may come into play negating the very purpose of the transf ormer. Figure 3 shows the proper way f or an isolation transf ormer to be wired. Note that the AC power supply wiring and the secondary wiring f rom the transf ormer are taken through separate conduits.

Also, the common ground connection of the isolation transf ormer serves as the ref erence ground f or the sensitive loads. T he AC system ground electrode connection is taken through a separate metal conduit.

Wiring /e arthing o f a s hie ld e d two -wind ing trans fo rme r If these Fig ure 3 - Wiring /e arthing o f a s hie ld e d two -wind ing trans fo rme r methods are not f ollowed and wiring /earth connections are done incorrectly, noise problems may persist in spite of the isolation transf ormer.

Resource: Practical-Grounding-Bonding-Shielding-and-Surge-Protection - G. Vijayaraghavan