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Introduction: The Impacts of Tourism in Latin America Author(s): Tamar Diana Wilson Source: Latin American Perspectives, Vol.

35, No. 3, The Impact of Tourism in Latin America (May, 2008), pp. 3-20 Published by: Sage Publications, Inc. Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/27648094 . Accessed: 07/06/2013 22:32
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Introduction

The Impacts of Tourism in Latin America by


Tamar Diana Wilson the left and the right, and There are scientists, sociologists, political geographers, anthropologists. more than a dozen in to alone tourism dedicated research, journals English most which have been established since 1990 (Pearce, 1999: 2). The World Bank, other area banks, and the Bank, the Inter-American Development are among the bodies that have United Nations research on tourism sponsored in general and funded tourism projects throughout the underdeveloped world in particular 2001: 41, 53; (Jenkins, 1999: 55; Clancy, and Swift, 2001: 34), For example, the Inter-American Development Lumsdon to Brazil in 1994 to develop tourism in theNortheast, Bank lentUS$800 million and Latin America Tourism has been examined by economists on both

in Bolivia, Chile, theDominican has also approved loans for tourism development and Peru and has proposed loans Panama, Ecuador, Nicaragua, Republic, and Paraguay for this industry for Guayana, Honduras, (Inter-American Bank, 2004). Development tend to utilize a cost The theoretical works on tourism that I have perused the effects of the tourism benefit analysis when examining that welcome be expected, neoclassical approaches?those underscore the benefits industry. As might

in 2004 for the development of tourism in the South; a then US$150 million total ofUS$34.1 million toArgentina to develop tourism in the province of Salta; toMexico in 1993 to develop its tourism infrastructure. It and US$300 million

most?are point, while others?perhaps impacted negatively. Inmost places there are both positive and negative impacts, though this black-and-white distinction overlooks shades of grey. For example, the increased employment opportunities and under help to solve unemployment provided by tourism development are but of the created many jobs employment problems, relatively unskilled, and lacking in opportunities for advancement, similar to the jobs low-waged, in hotels, restaurants, and maintenance work held by Mexican immigrants to be assessed States. Furthermore, the negative (and the positive) impacts should in relation to the impact of possible alternatives to tourism in any initiative. For example, would program or balance-of-payments development have more positive or more negative industrial development impacts than the United tourism development?

''globalization'7? of tourism, whereas neo-Marxist and dependency as a new form of view globalization approaches?which imperialism?focus on its costs. most studies Unfortunately, neglect regional differences within the same country. Some locales are indeed the recipients of benefits, at least to a

Tamar

Diana

Wilson

is a research

affiliate

ciate editor

of Latin American

of the University The collective

of Missouri, thanks her

St. Louis,

and

an asso

Perspectives.

for organizing

this issue.

LATIN AMERICAN PERSPECTIVES, DOI: 10.1177/0094582X08315760 ? 2008 Latin American Perspectives

Issue 160, Vol. 35 No. 3,May

2008 3-20

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LATINAMERICAN PERSPECTIVES

Tourism impacts can be felt at national, regional, and local levels and by dif ferent communities within any given locality. Different classes will be affected differently, with the national and local elites gaining more than others (Britton, as some become beneficiaries is usually deepened and 1989; 1982). Inequality note:

As Mowforth andMunt (2003 [1998]:99) othersvictims of the touristindustry


Some of the negative effects of tourism in the past have included the opening of previously non-existent social divisions or the exacerbation of already existing divisions. These can appear in the form of increasing differences between the beneficiaries of tourism and those who are marginalized by it,or of the creation of spatial ghettos, either of the tourists themselves or of those excluded from
tourism.

mental.

(cultural) affects the structure and dynamics of production and Eber life Rosenbaum, 1993; J. Nash, 1993; van den Berghe, (social) (e.g., family or when 1992: 244; 1994:144-145) the visiting of heritage sites (cultural) nega In this introduction Iwill tively affects the physical environment. adopt what as Lea has identified the (2001 [1988]: 10) economy "political approach," as "negative about the effects of tourism, as is characterized which seeing it means which another at nations the yet by wealthy metropolitan develop expense of those less fortunate." Thus, Iwill generally be concerned with costs of tourism Nonetheless, rather than with its positive must be kept inmind it politically, to economic development. that other industries might be even more socially, culturally, and environmentally. contributions

can be economic, impacts of tourism political, social, cultural, or environ These impact categories can overlap, for example, when environmental or when women's has political and economic arti repercussions degradation The sanal or handicraft

costly economically,

ECONOMIC
Globalization, and Veltmeyer,

IMPACTS

Latin America

the latest stage in the development of imperialism (Petras 2001), ismarked by the emergence of a transnational capitalist class and the spread of transnational Both of these phenomena corporations. are characteristic of the tourist in in general and in the Third World industry in particular. As is pointed out by Brown tourism has within the constraints of (2000 [1998]: 112, my italics), developed and "has been conditioned the and economic capitalism by political organization of what is now a global system, and by the attitudes and social relations that In Reid's result from this organization." (2003: 7) words, "Because of its sheer an examination of tourism must also involve a critique of cap size and power, forces ithas created, and which allow it to continue italism, and the globalizing and the Caribbean Mowforth

and Munt (2003 [1998]: Chap. 9) institutions such as theWorld Bank lending and the International Monetary Fund are controlled by the First World and of projects, tourist-oriented or not, in the Third influence the development World by tying loans to specific political formulations and policies. hotels,

to grow unchecked worldwide." point out that the international

tourist industry, with its control of many of the The metropolitan-based tourists to the Third airlines, and tour companies accommodating

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Wilson /IMPACTSOF TOURISM

1982: 345; 1989:112;Crick, 2002 [1996]:22; Lea, 2001 [1988]:23), World (Britton,
intermeshes with its satellite industries theorists. Thus Cardoso by dependency classes and international ones/7 local dominant cidences of interests between a common in tourism development (Britton, 1982: 345; 1989: phenomenon from Frank's of elites in The (1969: 313) description 111). following passage is hap Latin America, written more than 30 years ago, resonates with what as Mexico in countries such in tourist (cf. Clancy, 2001): development pening The nationalist industrial or industrial nationalist policy of the 1930s and 1940s
Latin American industrialists

in a way reminiscent of that described and Faletto (1979: xvi) speak of "coin

more and more is no more; or in the near future will

and clients of mixed


becloud and obscure

Latin

foreign-Latin American
American national

become?associates,

partners, interests

enterprises and groups, which


and?more important?

have already bureaucrats,

become?

suppliers,

which increasingly tie the personal economic interests of the individual Latin American bourgeois industrialist tail to themetropolitan neo-imperialist dog. (2001: 88) describe process, Petras and Veltmeyer Writing of the globalization who share a Tirst World' those "15-20 percent of Latin Americans lifestyle" circuit of the new and "form part of the international imperial system." inherent in the development of this class, the social polarization Underscoring

Nef (2002: 64) argues:

What seems to be taking place all over theworld is a transnationalization of elites side by side with an increasing disintegration of national societies and local
communities. The internationalization polarization, of the social

and salaried sectors while, conversely, facilitating the formation of a new global
elite.

the marginalization,

and

"low-wage disintegration

economy" of the

has

increased

wage-earning

and -receiving countries, this new global elite is often In both tourist-sending involved in the tourist industry. Britton theory to patterns of tourism development, Relating dependency are to out subordinate that national (1982: 334) points policies "foreign pressure the needs local classes" while of other classes are groups and privileged (1989: 111) he says: ignored. Elsewhere Since foreign companies are most important in defining what constitutes a tourist product, tourist services in a peripheral destination are likely tobe owned Where local entrepreneurs collaborate in the pro and provided by these firms. vision of these services, theywill be members of a privileged commercial elite. This is because only these groups command the financial and other resources necessary to provide such specialized, capital intensive facilities. In tandem with the processes of globalization elsewhere in theworld economy, the tourist industry ismarked by the great influence of trans- or multinational (Brown, 2000 [1998]: 18; Reid, 2003: 77). These are based in the core companies or the and control such things as "package m?tropoles, capitalist countries, communications facilities (ticketing international tours, transport, marketing, and hotel financial services and reservations), chains, (traveller's luxury checks, insurance)" (2002 [1996]: 6) claims (Britton, 1989:112). Apostolopoulos that

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LATINAMERICAN PERSPECTIVES control over the tourism industry of developing nations the metropolitan transnational corporations (tourist plants and their advertising are pri through
marily based on

and the structure of the industry tends towards a monopoly),


relations

metropolitan

capital,

transport

systems

are

metropolis

tural dependency Though

of dependency

in such

vulnerable

economic

on developed

countries.

activity,

result

along with

oriented,

the

in a struc

as a means to overcome balance promoted and endorsed deficits substantial by providing foreign currency, leakage back of-payments to the tourist-sending states is one of the consequences of this type of control tourism was 48-49; Turner and Ash, 1975: 116-117). There are other types of leakages because on imports from more diversified dependent

(Brown,2000 [1998]: 58, 62; Crick, 2002 [1996]:22;Mathieson andWall, 1982:


much tourism development is economies, among them food

of other kinds, and manufactured stuffs expected by tourists, raw materials and Wall, 1982: 60; Patrullo, 1996: 38). commodities (Britton, 1989:112; Mathieson Pattullo (1996: 39) points out that, although there are exceptions, "in the dining rooms ofmany Caribbean hotels, where millions ofmeals are consumed daily, the tourists do not eat

the well-being water, and sewerage systems; while sometimes also enhancing is focused on making this development tourists com of the local population, 1982: 38, 48; Turner and Ash, 1975: 117). To and Wall, fortable (Mathieson take out loans from finance this infrastructure governments must usually international and Wall, 1982: 49; Lea, 2001 [1988]: 12; Inter Development American Development Bank, 2004). "Investors require that the groundwork the living conditions of the local is prepared for them. However impoverished lending agencies Bank (Mathieson such as theWorld Bank or the Inter-American

and breadfruit, citrus and bananas the mangoes of a drink eat from Caribbean banana Florida, orange every juice yard. They or stab chunks fromHawaii." from Colombia, this lack of pineapple Although more occurs in often small island states linkages with the national economy economies of Mexico, and than in the large diversified Brazil, or Argentina or be local from may missing, necessitating regional linkages imports although other parts of the country (e.g.,Wagner, 1997), the import of liquors or foodstuffs is not unknown. For example, scotch, vodka, and salmon and other cold-water inMexico. fish are imported into Puerto Vallarta, Canc?n, and Los Cabos While local and national earnings from tourism, if less than hoped for or are a are international countries banks, development reality, host predicted by as airports, roads, and electrical, responsible for the costs of infrastructure such

(Mathieson and Wall, 1982: 49). Private rather than public ownership of tourist facilities such as hotels may be a requirement for loans under structural adjust ment policies that, among other things, remove restrictions on foreign invest ment and privatize state enterprises (Bello, 2000: 286, cited in Reid, 2003: 98).

investors need to attract the amenities 'modern,' Western-style population, the infrastructure may sometimes tourists" (Pattullo, 1996: 30). Nonetheless, and Wall, aid the local population 1982: 33; Pattullo, 1996: 32). (Mathieson on tourist infrastructure diverts funds from other Government spending industries (e.g. Brown, 2000 [1998]: 57), though these may be as exploitative of the labor force as the unskilled, low-waged jobs in hotels and restaurants. To tax concessions attract private investors and subsidies may be offered

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Wilson /IMPACTSOF TOURISM Reid

North

intervention in the (2003: 99) argues that, by minimizing government these have allowed multinational tomove into economy, policies corporations at least, has been facilitated intoMexico the tourist industry. This move, by the American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), which permits U.S. and Mexican of tourist ownership plants on the same footing as Mexican

Canadian

Tourism permits not only the local elites but even busi petty-bourgeois nesses such as restaurants and souvenir to mention vendors and (not shops in the informal economy) craftsmen or women involved to earn incomes. on of dependency Because their future is decisions, however, metropolitan never secure. There is competition among tourist destinations: "The widening . . means . of the Pleasure Periphery that distant locations will compete, like it is getting more difficult for one country to the Caribbean and the Seychelles;

companies (Brown,2000 [1998]:39).

those of other locations keep its prices significantly above offering similar attractions" involves keeping prices (Turner and Ash, 1975: 124). Competition cor down, and transnational corporations play a role in this: "Trans-national one in another to order best the deal, porations pit country against get possible to the host country" (Reid, 2003: 30). regardless of the consequences Competition can lead to the demise of some destinations and the emergent success of others. can be paramount That price considerations in tourists' decisions of where to go, with

World

a friendly, they go because holiday there is cheap; and that cheapness is, in part, a matter of the poverty of the people, which derives in some theoretical formulations directly from the afflu ence of those in the formerly centers of the colonial system" (or, metropolitan Frank of the chainlike [1969], following m?tropole-satellite system). Besides aiding the inflow of foreign currency to offset external debt and counter balance-of-payment for its deficits, tourism has been applauded creation. Mathieson and Wall (1982: 77) have pointed out that employment increases can be found in hotels, restaurants, curio employment shops, and local transportation and entertainment facilities, in construction [and mainte infrastructure and nance] of hotels, and in transportation, water, and sewerage to stimulate to foodstuffs the industry. Lea may agricultural pursuits supply are that three of created by the (2001 [1988]: 46) argues types employment tourism industry: "first, direct employment on tourism from expenditure ... ; second, indirect facilities like hotels in businesses affected by employment ... ; tourism in a secondary way like local transport, handicrafts and banks countries because the people and dents of money by local resi can be fostered with entrepreneurship to and the third second of these forms of (Brown, 2000 regard employment on and 1982: Mathieson Samaoui's 38, 72). Elaborating Wall, [1998]: 57; (1979) tourism employment into direct, classification, de Kadt (1979: 30-42) divides is found "in businesses indirect, and investment-related. Direct employment Local finally, induced employment from their tourist incomes." from the spending

isbrought out by Crick (2002 [1996]:25): "Touristsdo not go toThird industry,


are

all that this implies

for wages

paid

to employees

in the tourism

that sell goods and services directly to tourists" and includes Lea's direct and It also includes such informal-sector activi indirect employment categories. ties as street or beach vending, shoe-shining, begging, and acting as a tour as such (de Kadt, 1979: 40; see also Pattullo, without guide being registered

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LATINAMERICAN PERSPECTIVES

is generated in local light manufacturing 58). Indirect employment and food industries, handicrafts, (de Kadt, 1979: 38) agriculture, processing where such linkages exist. Investment-related employment includes construction as as well of tourist facilities industries (de Kadt, 1979: 40); it "capital-goods" would also involve the construction of infrastructure?roads, sewerage, water, and electricity systems of benefit to tourists and often locals as well?and the 1996: maintenance of these. Construction of tourist facilities often involves massive, ifusually temporary, in-migration of laborers from other parts of the country, with its attendant social impacts, as well as employment generated by goods to the construction workers and services supplied 1979: 42). The (de Kadt, even not that if is direct and indirect most, much, (and construction) problem in tourism is low-skilled, poorly paid, and seasonal (Brown, 2000 employment and Wall, 1982: 81). As Reid [1998]: 58; see also Mathieson (2003: 28) points out, the lower-end jobs in the tourism industry leave "workers scraping out an existence at the of society." margins Atkinson's Adapting tourism of the analysis (1984)

are well-paid, or workers workers full-time, often professional managerial tomove between different and willing flexible"?"able who are "functionally 2002 [1994]: 173). Often they come from outside tasks" (Shaw and Williams, and Wall, 1982: 80; Lea, 2001 [1988]: the region or even the nation (e.g.,Mathieson are workers and valuable?given the low-skilled, low-waged, 48). Peripheral their high turnover and, thus, numerical seasonal nature of tourism?for flex flexibility is increased by employing part-time, temporary, ibility. Numerical and

treatment of manufacturing to an enterprises Shaw and Williams (2002 [1994]: 173-177) industry, in terms of dual-labor-market conceive of tourism employment theory (see and Piore, 1971). There are core and peripheral workers. Core also Doeringer

and by subcontracting out certain jobs short-term contracted workers 2002 [1994]: 175-176). Shaw and Williams (Shaw and Williams, point out that or small family firms involved in such things as small-scale accommodations souvenir shops (to this can be added restaurants, bars, boat trips, etc.) respond in demand to seasonal fluctuations through self-exploitation during peak in demand will be met by a to fluctuation periods: "Rhythmic willingness work very long hours. The small-hotel owner will be up early to cook guests' late at night to prepare food for the next breakfasts and will still be working or towelcome late arrivals" (177). day not if most, full-time, part-time, and temporary positions Many, peripheral in the hotels are held by women. Mathieson and Wall that (1982: 80) maintain in the tourism of work because of the characteristics industry, including its seasonal and janitorial aspects, "women employees outnumber men three to one." Shaw and Williams

(2002 [1994]: 181) argue that the existence ofwomen and the possibility of paying women lower wages than needing employment men help to shape the The impor core-periphery divide between workers. tance of women laborers in the tourist industry is brought out by Enloe (1989: 33-34): "When people go on a holiday they expect to be freed from humdrum . . . domestic tasks. To be a tourist is to have someone else make your bed. waitresses and cooks are as crucial to the international Thus chambermaids, tourism industry?and the official hopes that underpin it?as sugar workers and miners were to the colonial industries." Poor local women thus provide

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Wilson /IMPACTSOF TOURISM

low 1983; Tiano, 1994; Wilson, 2003). The exploitation (Fern?ndez-Kelly, wages of thewomen who work in the tourist industry provide a subsidy to the owners of tourist accommodations and thus to the tourists themselves: Third First World subsidize World workers (both men and women) populations. Host

or international national services to wealthy tourists, representing not only in alter This is a pattern replicated, however, class but gender subordination. native industries, such as transnational assembly plants, where work may be even more marked even sexual harassment and by drudgery, servility, and

governments do not intervene to boost wages because of the competition countries for tourists and the need to keep prices low in order to between 2002 [1994]: 44). succeed in this competition (Shaw and Williams,

POLITICAL
Crick (2002

IMPACTS

... tourism is [1996]: 24) has pointed out that "international in front of the The for the consumption deprived." conspicuous tendency to resent or desire to take part in this conspicuous is deprived consumption effect" (de Kadt, 1979: x, known in the critical literature as the "demonstration 1982: 142-143; Nettekoven, and Wall, 1979: 140). It may 65-66; Mathieson in tourist occupations resentment against the expatriates involved as or as small business 1982: 145), whether and Wall, (Mathieson employees owners. One of its effects is international migration in core for employment include countries Seaton (Mathieson

and Wall, 1982: 145; Nettekoven, 1979: 140). has the demonstration effect in terms of (1997: 310) reconceptualized the concept of relative deprivation, the tendency to evaluate one's own socioeco nomic conditions with reference to the conditions of others. Seaton hypothesizes that the magnitude

on the differences in of relative deprivation felt depends rewards received by the group vis-?-vis other groups in society (e.g., locals or in economically remunerative in the tourist positions expatriates employed to with the and reference of such and tourists, differences, visibility industry) "the perceived legitimacy order of the social of these differences in which in relation the differences

moral

system is especially visible because of the special provisions in terms and recreational of lodging, food and liquor consumption, facilities that a cannot hope to enjoy. local population low-waged cause resentment directed of relative deprivation either at the Feelings or one the tourists themselves which is the target government; against on the local socioeconomic to Seaton (1997: 311), ideology. According depends in egalitarian, socialist societies such as Cuba, resentment will most probably be seen as for the lower standards directed against the government, responsible In pluralistic, laissez-faire societies such as of living of the local population. individual for one's economic is where Mexico, responsibility position exist." Tourism stressed, resentment will be deflected from the government and directed toward the tourists, perceived as "advantaged groups" (Seaton, 1997:312). The increasing noted by many social and economic scholars of tourism (e.g., polarization

to the professed are observed to

Britton,1989:103; 1982: 335;Crick, 2002 [1996]:23-24; Enloe, 1989:34; de Kadt, 1979: 48;D. Nash, 1989: 45; Reid, 2003: 28; Shaw andWilliams, 2002 [1994]:44;

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10

LATINAMERICAN PERSPECTIVES and Ash, 1975: 203) can

Turner

only lead to deepening feelings of relative resentment also local elites who profit against perhaps including deprivation, social polarization from tourism. In the context of international competition, in is either reinforced or increased along with pressures toward reduced wages Turner socioeconomic industry. Concerning polarization, as a note: "It be taken (1975: 203) may general rule that any of tourism and other economic boom (resulting from the rapid development structures can only industries) occurring within unjust social and political serve to increase the injustices of those structures." The injustice of social can translate into feelings of relative deprivation, and tourists? polarization a in their home countries?present often spending farmore than they would in is the inherent visible contrast with local poverty. Socioeconomic inequality the labor-intensive and Ash tourism touristic goals, others industry: "If the tourist is to pursue peculiarly more more utilitarian functions. To put it succinctly, others must perform serve while the tourist plays, rests, cures, or mentally enriches himself" (D. Nash, consumers can 1989:45). Such a servile relationship to conspicuous only increase tourism

must

in the context of a polarized economy feelings of relative deprivation, especially income may be spent on low-quality inwhich most of the low-waged workers' in squatter settlements and on basic foodstuffs in stark contrast to the housing and foodstuffs consumed by tourists. accommodations luxury as in Cuba, where Cubans are denied access to Socioeconomic apartheid, a and "dollar unless hotels, bars, restaurants, shops" accompanied by foreigner on common and Latin American many of the Caribbean (Pattullo, 1996: 83), is (de Kadt, 1979: 45; N. Evans, 1979: 311, 314). Pattullo (1996: 82) points are in the Caribbean in law beaches that while public, in practice hotel access. true in is This also tourist centers such as locals will deny security and Los Cabos, where the luxury hotels are aligned along the seashore Canc?n and prohibit entrance to locals, despite beaches' guar being constitutionally beaches out anteed as public patrimony is also reinforced

this issue). De facto socioeconomic (see Wilson, in tourist centers in the less developed in world apartheid countries in particular by the over and Caribbean general and Latin American in tourist costs involved restaurants, bars, discotheques, enjoying whelming locals are essentially locked out and other entertainment facilities. Low-waged

income even if security of these tourist facilities by their lack of disposable or business managers not make do them unwelcome. Land inflation is guards also common, putting legally acquired property ownership out of the reach of 1982: and Wall, much of the local population (Pattullo, 1996: 35; Mathieson class. 88), including themiddle toward and resentment of the tourist industry is also Local hostility and fishermen to build hotels or of peasants fomented by the displacement N. 1979: G. Evans, 1994: 841-842; marinas Evans, 313-314; 2001; (e.g., Clancy, 2003 and 2003: Mowfort Munt, 236-242; 32; Reid, [1998]: Reynosa y Valle and this volume). of relative deprivation de Regt, 1979: 118-123; Wilson, Feelings and the dislocations of locals bolstered by de facto socioeconomic apartheid or fair with without from their properties, remuneration, may become a basis even in laissez-faire countries such for local organizing against governments
as Mexico.

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Wilson /IMPACTSOF TOURISM

11

SOCIAL
Among the social

IMPACTS

host

are the above-mentioned impacts of tourism in-migration from other regions of the country. There are also of expatriates and people on are systems; young people impacts gender and generational especially to 1979: the demonstration effect 2001 [1988]: 140; Lea, (Nettekoven, subject 66). Some of the most obvious impacts are on the sex/gender system of the of direct (hotels, restaurants) and country. One of these is the provision indirect (e.g., formal and informal retailing, informal-sector vending) employment on forwomen, which may have repercussions family economy and structure. Mexico and elsewhere Second is the emergence of sex/romance tourism. Studies in

in Latin America and the Caribbean have shown that women's income-earning often causes changes in household 1987; (e.g., Beneria and Roldan, dynamics and Eber 1997a; 1991; 1993; 1997b; Rosenbaum, 1993; Chant, Nash, Roldan, J. lost by men. and/or 1988; Safa, 1995), with power being gained by women for women may also have a higher Tourist centers providing employment as to number of female-headed households, permits women employment see leave conflict-ridden marriages this Wilson, (Chant, 1997a; 1997b; 1991; issue). A higher-than-average proportion ofwomen's employment in tourist centers, to these centers, has been documented 1991; Kennedy, Russin, and Martinez,

often involving women's both inMexico (Chant, 1977, cited in Reynosa

tourist pottery, also obtain increased income though their sales tomuseums, Eber and 1993; 1993; outlets, and tourists themselves Rosenbaum, Nash, J. (e.g., an van den Women's control of income often 1994; 1992). Berghe, independent leads to conflict within the family, as themale's breadwinner role and control of resources are undermined. Women may also be household physically attacked or even killed (J. The results of intrafamilial conflict may be an Nash, 1993). as women out in households increase female-headed of unsatisfactory opt or to to remain decide choose outside of legal mar marriages, delay marriage, Beneria and Roldan, 1987; Chant, 1997a; 1997b; 1991; riage altogether (e.g., Eber and Rosenbaum, 1993; J. 1993; Roldan, Nash, 1988; Safa, 1995). In sum, income will increase with women's earnings, such earnings though household can cause a restructuring of the household. In political [1996]: 29; economy critiques of tourism (e.g., Crick, 2002 Frantz Fanon 1996: Pattullo, 65) (1963: 153-154) is often quoted as follows:
The national

in-migration 1997a; 1997b; and de Regt, 1979) and in San Carlos de y Valle is there also much Bariloche, Patagonia, Argentina (Schl?ter, 1999). However, con in-migration of men, especially during the initial and often continuing struction period (see Wilson, this issue). Women and artisans, selling weaving

resorts tomeet thewishes of the Western bourgeoisie. Such activity is given the name of tourism, and for the occasion will be built up as a national industry If proof is needed of the eventual transformation of certain elements of the ex-native bourgeoisie into the organizers of parties for their Western opposite numbers, it isworth while having a look atwhat has happened to Latin America. and Mexico, the beaches of Rio, the little Brazilian and The casinos of Havana
Mexican girls, the half-breed thirteen-year-olds, the ports of Acapulco and

bourgeoisie

organizes

centers

of rest

and

relaxation

and

pleasure

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12

LATINAMERICAN PERSPECTIVES Copacabana?all


class. . . .The

national

these are the stigma of this depravation


middle class will have

of the national middle


to do than take on

the role of manager forWestern country as the brothel of Europe. Turner and Ash

enterprise, and

nothing

better

itwill

in practice set up

its

prostitution may Although as tourism to to it exist the advent of increase tourism, appears prior already tourism development in the Third increases and "is part and parcel of much in Sex tourism Latin 2002 American and Caribbean World" [1996]: 29). (Crick, InMexican tourist centers the designation countries is a growing phenomenon. of a "red light" district is common, while lap-dance and stripper clubs may be

(1975: 203) endorse of countries into brothels, exaggeration. We have only to think under Batista to see the truth of his conversion

this analysis: "When Fanon spoke of the he was not resorting to mere rhetorical of the Mexican border towns or Cuba assertion."

souvenir shops, and tourist restau found sprinkled among the discotheques, rants in places like downtown Cabo San Lucas. In Southeast Asia, governments may even turn a blind eye to prostitution because of the foreign currency itpro in because of feelings of vides (Hall, 2002 [1996]). Prostitution may be engaged as well. relative deprivation. This may be the case in Latin America Sex tourism, including sexual relations with boys and girls from the age of attention with regard to Costa 10 or 12 to 18, has received scholarly and media Dominican and Cuba the Mexico, Venezuela, Rica, (O'Connell Republic, and S?nchez Taylor, 1995a; 1995b; 1995c; 1995d; Bremer, 2004; Iliff Davidson ranks with Thailand and the and Case, 2004). The Dominican Republic sex as a major destination for tourists from and the United Europe Philippines sex industries" for their "exploitative States: all three are known (Pattullo, 1996: 90). Prostitution, including child prostitution, has returned to Cuba since tourism was reintroduced (partly in response to the fall of the Soviet Union) in the late 1980s; both tourism and prostitution had been absent since the the existing prostitutes had been trained for of 1959, after which Revolution 1998; Fernandez, revolutionary ideals (Cabezas, and S?nchez Taylor, 1995a). Davidson 1999; O'Connell sex tourism shades into romance tourism, under which there is Sometimes no direct commercial transaction for sexual relations but gifts, including over a tourist the be money, may supplied by relatively long time period. Male tourists are present in all the countries named above; women sex/romance not only in the traditional sites tourists have been documented sex/romance and Jamaica?but also inCuba, theDominican of female sex tourism?Barbados other work Republic, Ecuador Venezuela, and in accordance with

in among an indigenous group, the Otavale?os, Davidson and Sanchez 1995; O'Connell 1999; Meisch, (Cabezas, Pruitt S?nchez and La Font, 1995d; 2000; 1995c; 1999; Taylor, Phillips, Taylor, sex uncommon not in is tourism these countries. Homosexual 1995). Both sex tourism and romance family structure. Those romanced and marry their clients abroad tourism impact local gender relations and often hope to immigrate, and some do visit to do so) (Cabezas, them (or hope 2003; and S?nchez Taylor, 1995b; 1995c). In Davidson

Phillips, 1999: 199; O'Connell Jamaica (Pruitt and La Font, 1995: 432-433) and Barbados (Phillips, 1999: 198) refuse to have relationships with men who have sought out local women are who prostitute themselves from female tourists. Women marginalized

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Wilson /IMPACTSOF TOURISM normal

13

in family life in accordance with madonna-whore gender ideologies Latin America 1999: O'Connell Davidson and S?nchez 110; Cabezas, (e.g., Taylor, 1995c; Le Vine, 1993) and generally rejected by local men as potential to this, however, at least in Cuba, wives. There are exceptions the Dominican a sex and where worker's is not fixed but often Mexico, Republic, identity one fluid and involves entering a temporary status/occupation that may enter and then leave (Cabezas, 2003).

CULTURAL IMPACTS
and its links to commoditization The question of authenticity through tourism has inspired a vast literature (e.g., Cohen, 1988; Graburn, 1976; 1984; 1989 [1977]; Gr?newald, 2002; Hughes, Greenwood, 1995; Kroshus Medina, and Littrell, 2001; MacCannell, 1999 [1976]; Popelka and Littrell, 2003; Moreno and authenticity 1991; van den Berghe and Flores Ochoa, 2000). Commoditization are constant themes The problem is concerned

impacts of tourism upon them: (1) material artifacts, including folk and ethnic and other arts; (2) performances (e.g., village saint's days, Christmas posadas, as exotic, ritual events); and (3) everyday activities viewed including work routines such a market vending or fishing. Thus fishermen on Lake Patzcuaro inMichoac?n, throw their famous butterfly fishing nets in Mexico, exchange for tips from tourists who photograph them, even though there are no longer fish in the lake, their performance being both a "staged (MacCannell, authenticity" once real work and a commoditization 1999 [1976]) of what was of the range from of rituals and destroys the cultural meaning or for local inhabitants 1989 [1977]), indigenous (Greenwood, performances to their transformation and to their extinction otherwise, leading possibly are never accessible that real performances to tourists, through the observation see only staged versions who 1999 and truncated (MacCannell, [1976]) to the argument that aspects of culture may be revi artwork and handicrafts, an talized not only because of theirmoney-making potential but as expression of ethnic identity (e.g., Cohen, Garcia 2000 1988; Canclini, [1993]; van den and Swift (2001: 198-199) discuss 2000). Lumsdon Berghe and Flores Ochoa, tourism impacts that can lead to contamination of indigenous cultures and their eventual disintegration for the benefits or, alternatively, to their "fossilization" of tourists, the latter of which claim is in the they occurring indigenous communities of Amazonian Brazil and Peru. Given that cultures are always in flux and borrowings from other cultures an there be common, may (Cohen, 1988) in cultural "emergent authenticity" or in behavioral. Thus Oaxaca, practices, whether material tapetes?a Zapotee in the 1960s for sale to tourists?sometimes closed-necked sarape firstproduced Indian, or Peruvian motifs gleaned from books incorporate Navajo, Northwest authenticity 1991: 405). The problem, however, is that the forces of in the influence of tourists both as buyers and as templates of society (Ritzker, 2000), whereby mass-produced lead to theMcDonaldization local clothing, foods consumed, products and services replace, for example, (Popelka and Littrell, globalization embodied about Arguments picturesque. that commoditization the claim and commoditization

in the pages of the prestigious Annals of Tourism Research. of authenticity and its retention or loss through commoditization with at least three types of cultural manifestations and the

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14

LATIN AMERICAN PERSPECTIVES

those without a local market. Van den handicrafts?especially women who sell their notes that Chamula "poor Berghe (1995: 576) weaving to tourists in San Crist?bal dress their children in cheap, second [Chiapas] hand Western clothes imported in large bales from North America." In some circumstances, tourism can call forth a renaissance of culturally and Eber Rosenbaum, 1993; Kroshus Medina, 2003), (e.g., unique productions however altered for themarket they may be (Popelka and Littrell, 1991). Too and traditional often the local elites become

World

middlemen who siphon off most of the profit and command from indigenous people's handiwork themoney-making busi nesses in the tourist economy with, however, "some trickle-down effects for Indians" (van den Berghe, 1994:145). There are, then, issues of class and ethnicity in estimating the cultural impacts of tourism on the Third World and its Fourth some scholars out hope for cultural survival, peoples, with holding or and others influences of revival, reemergence lamenting the homogenizing of local and/or capitalism exploitation global indigenous peoples by capitalist elites, sometimes joined by expatriates.

ENVIRONMENTAL

IMPACTS

ment's

Carrying capacity, with regard to tourism, has been defined as "the maximum number of people who can use a site without an unacceptable alteration in the an and without environment in decline the quality of unacceptable physical visitors" the experience the and 1982: Wall, (Mathieson 21). It is gained by more the which the addition of will to the lead point beyond essentially people environment. of the Saleem that this (1994) argues degradation degradation as well as built-environment), can have social physical (including ecological economic and dimensions also and Mathieson Wall, 1982: (see psychological, as 2003: Economic is threatened 21-22; Reid, 178-179). carrying capacity more more and tourist resorts add visitors in the interest of profit making; the local population carrying capacity is reached when social-psychological the numbers of feels overwhelmed tourists; by physical and environmental use to is breached when interfere with the environ carrying capacity begins

establishment, for example, of national parks, archaeological sites, and historical in the establishment monuments. This is apparent, for example, of the 1.3 million-acre

(Reid, 2003: 178). capacity for regeneration and Wall Mathieson the environmental (1982: Chap. 4) have examined at tourism and to of found them be both length impacts positive and negative. are the conservation resources natural the of positive Among though the

patterns and of turtle eggs by ATV drivers in Cabo San Lucas and of the coral and in Belize reefs in Canc?n (see also Brown, 2000 [1998]: 48). At Machu Picchu, Peru, which 300,000 tourists visit each year, there has been increasing to buildings, and erosion of footpaths: one reaction has been to litter, damage

Sian Ka'an Biosphere Reserve south of Canc?n and the preservation of Tulum and Chich?n Itza, among other archaeological Mexico. Negative sites, in on flora and fauna, as well as air and water of impacts pollution, problems at are and erosion and trash and coastlines sewage disposal, campsites along common. Among the destructive impacts on fauna are the disruption of breeding

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Wilson /IMPACTSOF TOURISM outlaw

15

the taking of bottled water to this archaeological to site, "presumably the number of empty plastic bottles discarded visitors" (Lumsdon by and Swift, 2001: 144). The violation of carrying capacity has been framed by and Munt Mowforth (2003 [1998]) as an issue of sustainability: with the degra or dation of the environment tourists (whether social, economic, physical) is occurring. the sites where this degradation abandon reduce

the acquisition of foreign exchange and the creation of better forms of the local population. for The structural adjustment employment policies on the Dominican the World Bank with coincided the Republic by imposed on that island, and when, tourism of in the tourism 1980s, development early more than half of the country's began to generate foreign currency, much of this was drained off.As on most other islands in the Caribbean, the top jobs in the tourist industry are held by expatriates. Cabezas points out that to tourists in luxury resorts, the commu while high-tech services are provided impede nities where structure?a the low-waged stark contrast laborers

Tourism, despite its sometimes adverse environmental impacts, can, however, "be one of the most benign and sustainable uses of the natural environment, to competing uses such as forestry and mining" (Reid, 2003: 115). compared This may at least be the case with eco-tourism but may be less so with large-scale resort development, where air,water, and environmental pollution are serious concerns. A notable feature of the tourism industry, in common with many other national or international? industries, is the influence of big capital?whether and its exploitation of the local labor force. The first three articles in this issue more exploitative aspects of tourism. In her article on tourism in explore the L. Cabezas Amalia the Dominican Republic, points that in the case of former can tourism continue and reinforce and even colonies, patterns of dependency

and the tourist-receiving countries. I argue in the Mexico, my article thatwhereas impacts of tourism in Examining its goals has achieved for tourist Mexico internal development?diverting to the outside cities, increasing employment migrants growth poles major and augmenting has opportunities, foreign exchange?tourism development had negative aspects. Although middle and upper management positions are Mexican tourism filled and structural adjust citizens, usually by development ment policies have led to an increased exploitation of low-waged laborers, women. economic The between tourists and the local inequalities especially a de facto economic serves them that produce population apartheid. In their article, Alicia Swords and Ronald Mize focus on the consumption tourist-sending of labor, including the work of maids, waiters and waitresses, tour guides, a and tourists with to view that colonialism entertainers, others, by showing and /or unequal exacerbate from Puerto development inequality. Evidence

live lack electricity and other basic infra that reinforces the inequalities found between the

since the 1930s, when the United States fostered tourism on that island, since the 1980s indicates and from Mexico that in both countries tourism services are gendered, labor is exploited, and economic apartheid is apparent. The next three articles show that niches can be carved out in the spaces leftby national and international capital on both the individual and the community level. This raises the question whether tourist-host relations must be exploitative if how relations can last. "Ethnic tourism," through not, and, long nonexploitative tourists from core capitalist countries cast their gaze on which indigenous, Rico

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LATINAMERICAN PERSPECTIVES

often poverty-stricken peoples with little political power, can be defined as an but does "roots tourism" display the same dynamic? relation, exploitative on In her article roots tourism in Brazil, Patricia Pinho African-American in Brazil argues that rather than searching for the "Other," African-Americans tomake contact with the same?brothers and sisters in the diaspora. endeavor that permeates She comments on the "asymmetry the relationship between blacks located in the North and the South of the American continent" as it occurs in tourist/native are those relations in Bahia. Among the inequalities some can afford to travel and others cannot, from the arising from the fact that to local traditions for themodernity desire of black power and civil exchange and the from differential of movements, power representation rights through Pinho books and documentaries. concludes the inequalities that, despite between tourists from the North and the black population African-American of Brazil, roots tourism represents "a transnational channel of communication that permits the possibility of "overcoming and circulation" the current geog of raphy power." Even within "ethnic tourism," which Walter Little in his article defines as

"the promotion of ethnic others for touristic consumption," those relegated to a back seat can carve massive tourism out spaces? by plans development or out limited?for however themselves. Little that female temporary points are are attract to handicrafts vendors the "tourist Maya encouraged gaze" but not included in the multinational Mundo tourism Maya development plan

and not recipients of tourism development funds. Examining the way these women an authentic in vendors "make do" to attempting indigenous give while toward "cultural performance" their economic moving goals, Little the dissonance of their position argues that in order to minimize they joke are faced and the way inwhich about the social disparities with which they are in Their the participation they represented. project is volun development a not it that is and Little concludes tourist tary, struggle against development but rather the reservation of a niche for themselves. and Ivan Bursztyn present cases of Roberto Bartholo, Mauricio Delamaro, tourism development?development that takes the needs and "responsible" into account?in desires of the local community northeastern Brazil. They call tourism" that is environmentally for an "alternative and culturally friendly and

emphasizes heritage and traditions, and they claim to have discovered communities. Whether this type of tourism in two Brazilian big capital may, in the future, invade and destroy this grassroots tourism or alternative into capitalists and low-waged whether an internal differentiation proletari ans or semiproletarians may occur are questions left open.

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