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H THNG THNG TIN QUANG GHP KNH THEO BC SNG WDM

CHNG 1 TNG QUAN V H THNG THNG TIN QUANG

1.1. Gii thiu v thng tin quang Khc vi thng tin hu tuyn hay v tuyn - cc loi thng tin s dng cc mi trng truyn dn tng ng l dy dn v khng gian nh hnh 1.2 - th thng tin quang l h thng truyn tin qua si quang nh hnh 1.3. iu c ngha l thng tin c chuyn thnh nh sng v sau nh sng c truyn qua si quang. Ti ni nhn, n li c bin i thnh thng tin ban u.

Thng tin hu tuyn

Thng tin quang

1.2. Nhng u im ca h thng thng tin quang Thng tin si quang c nhng u im vt tri. Trong phn ny, em a nhng u im th hin tnh vt tri ca n:

Bng thng khng l y tim nng: tn s sng mang quang

trong khong1013n 1016 Hz (thng gn vng hng ngoi quanh gi tr 1014 Hz), cung cp bng thng truyn ln hn nhiu so vi h thng cp kim loi (bng thng ca cp ng trc khong 500Mhz). Hin ti, gi tr bng thng ca h thng si quang cha s dng ht nhng vic mt vi GHz qua

khong cch vi km v hng trm Mhz qua khong cch hng chc Km m khng cn s can thip vin (dng b lp) l c th.

Si quang kch thc nh v nh: si quang c bn knh rt nh,

thng bn knh ny khng ln hn bn knh si tc con ngi

S cch li v in: si quang c ch to t thu tinh hoc i

lc l cht do, l nhng cht cch in, v th khng ging vi dy dn kim loi, n khng cho thy nhng trc trc c bn. Hn na, c tnh ny lm cho vic truyn thng tin ca si quang tr nn ph hp mt cch l tng cho s thng tin trong nhng mi trng mo him v in.

Khng b nh hng bi nhiu v xuyn m: si quang c ch

to t cc cht in mi phi dn nn chng khng bnh hng bi nhiu in t, cc xung in t, nhiu tn s v tuyn. V th hot ng ca h thng thng tin quang khng bnh hng khi truyn qua mi trng nhiu in. iu c ngha l n c th lp t cung ng vi cp in lc v c th s dng trong mi trng phn ng ht nhn.

Bo mt thng tin: nh sng t si quang b bc x mt cch

khng ng k nn chng c tnh bo mt tn hiu cao. c tnh ny thu ht i vi qun i, ngn hng v cc ng dng truyn d liu.

Suy hao thp: s pht trin ca si quang qua nhiu nm t

c kt qu trong vic ch to ra si quang c suy hao rt thp. Si quang c ch to vi suy hao 0.2dB/km v c tnh ny tr thnh li th chnh ca thng tin quang.

Tnh linh hot: mc d cc lp bo v l cn thit, si quang

c ch to vi sc cng cao, bn knh rt nh. Vi li th v kch thc v trng lng, si quang ni chung l tt hn trong vic lu tr, chuyn ch, x l v lp t d hn h thng cp ng.

tin cy ca h thng v d bo dng: do c tnh suy hao

thp ca si quang nn c th gim c yu cu s b lp trung gian hoc s b khuch i trn ng truyn. V th, vi mt vi b lp th tin cy ca h thng c thc nng cao hn hn h thng dn in. Hn na, tin cy ca cc thit b quang khng cn l vn , cc thit b quang c tui th rt cao, khong 20-30 nm.

Gi thnh thp y tim nng: thy tinh cung cp cho thng tin

quang c ly t ct, khng phi l ngun ti nguyn khan him. V th, si quang em li gi thnh thp. Thng tin quang cng cho php truyn ng thi cc tn hiu c bc sng khc nhau. c tnh ny cng vi kh nng truyn dn bng thng rng ca si quang sn c lm cho dung lng truyn dn ca tuyn tr nn rt ln. 1.3. Cu trc v cc thnh phn chnh ca h thng thng tin quang

M ho Pht

Thit b pht

quang

S i quang

B lp

S i quang

Thit bthu quang

Gii m Thu

Cu trc ca h thng thng tin quang

CHNG 2 GII THIU MNG WDM. 2.1. Gii thiu chng K thut mng ghp knh phn chia theo bc sng WDM (Wavelength Division Mutiplexing) c coi l cuc cch mng v bng thng trong mng xng sng Internet v hn th na. N hu cu bng thng ang gia tng mt cch nhanh chng vi nhiu ng dng mi phong ph, chng hn nh thng mi in t, video theo yu cu, cc cng vic i hi hot ng ng b trn ton cu. Mng quang WDM a ra ha hn ht sc ngha cho nhu cu bc thit trn.

S gia tng bng thng ca cc mng khc nhau qua cc nm thch ng vi s pht trin khng ngng v tho mn yu cu tnh linh hot v thay i mng, cc cng ngh truyn dn khc nhau c nghin cu, trin khai th nghim v a vo ng dng nh k thut TDM, CDM. Cng ngh ghp knh phn chia theo bc sng WDM c a chung hn c. iu ny l do cng ngh TDM c chi ph k thut v thit b lp t h thng tng i cao, c bit trong TDM gy lng ph mt s knh thng tin khi mi khe thi gian c d tr ngay c khi khng c d liu gi v pha thu kh khn khi phn bit cc khe thi gian thuc v knh no gii ghp knh tn hiu. Bn cnh , ghp knh phn chia theo m CDM cn tn ti nhng hn ch v k thut nh tc iu ch v suy hao trong m ho cng nh gii m cao. WDM l tin b rt ln trong cng ngh truyn thng quang, n cho php tng dung lng knh m khng cn tng tc bit ng truyn cng nh khng cn dng thm si dn quang.

Hnh 2.2: H thng TDM

Hnh 2.3: H thng WDM Vi WDM, mi knh vi mt bc sng khc nhau v cc bc sng nh sng ny khng nh hng ln nhau bi v chu k dao ng ca cc cc knh khc nhau l hon ton c lp nhau. Khc vi h thng TDM, mi phn t knh WDM c th hot ng tc bt k v mi knh cng c th mang y dung lng ca mi bc sng. Chng ny s trnh by r nguyn l hot ng ca h thng WDM v cc thnh phn ca n. 2.2. Nguyn l hot ng ca h thng WDM N gy nay, nhu cu ca con ngi v cc dch v thng tin bng rng ngy mt tng ln, th mng ghp knh a bc sng WDM tho mn c nhu cu . Theo kthut ny, cc lung nh sng vi cc bc sng khc nhau c truyn trn cng mt si quang. Mi bc sng mang mt dung lng in hnh, thung l 2.5Gbps.

Nguyn l ghp knh phn chia theo bc sng N guyn l c bn ca ghp knh theo bc sng l ghp tt c cc bc sng khc nhau ca ngun pht quang vo cng mt si dn quang nh b ghp knh MUX v truyn dn cc bc sng ny trn cng si quang. Khi n u thu, b tch knh quang s phn tch thu nhn li cc bc sng .

Vi cng mt nguyn l hot ng c hai loi truyn dn trong WDM, l: truyn dn mt chiu v truyn dn hai chiu mt si.
H thng WDM mt chiu: c ngha l tt c cc knh cng trn mt si

quang truyn dn theo cng mt chiu.

H thng WDM hai chiu: c ngha l knh quang trn mi si quang

truyn dn theo hai hng khc nhau, dng cc bc sng tch ri nhau thng tin hai chiu.

So vi h thng WDM mt chiu, h thng WDM hai chiu gim c s lng b khuch i v ng dy. Tuy nhin, h thng WDM hai chiu thng b can nhiu nhiu knh, nh hng phn x quang, vn cch li gia cc knh hai chiu, tr s v loi hnh xuyn m, ng thi phi s dng b khuch i quang hai chiu. 2.3. u im ca h thng WDM

C kh nng to dung lng ln ch trn mt si quang, v c tht

dung lng ln hn khi s dng k thut DWDM (Dense WDM: ghp knh phn chia theo bc sng mt cao).
H thng WDM thun tin khi cho php truyn dn ng thi tn hiu khng

ng nht.
C kh nng truyn dn tn hiu hai chiu.

2.4 . Vn tn ti ca h thng WDM v hng gii quyt trong tng lai Vi h thng WDM, si quang cung cp cho chng ta tc truyn mong mun nhng bng thng mng li b gii hn bi tc x l cc nt, do tc x l cc nt c thc hin bng in t, m tc in t li thp hn rt nhiu so vi tc thng tin truyn trong si quang (khong vi Gbps). N h vy, tn hiu quang trn si khi n nt sc chuyn thnh tn hiu in thc hin x l in t (s chuyn i quang- in O/E), sau c chuyn li thnh tn quang truyn i. iu ny lm gim tc mng, gii php t ra l xy dng mng m trong tn hiu c x l hon ton trong min quang, gi l mng ton quang. Trong mng ton quang, d liu i t ngun n ch hon ton di dng quang m khng cn bt c s chuyn i quang- in no trn ng i, vic iu khin x l chuyn mch cng c thc hin di dng quang. Tuy nhin, mng ton quang hin ti vn cha c tin hnh thnh cng bi nhng tn ti ca n. Cc thit b logic hon ton trong min quang kh thc hin hn nhiu so vi cc thit b logic in t. Bi v, khc vi cc electron th cc photon khng tng tc nh hng ln nhau, thng th cc thit b logic phc tp u c to ra bng cch s dng cng nghin t. Bn cnh , cc trm lp bng quang cng rt kh thc hin hn nhiu so vi cc trm lp in t mc d cc trm lp trong mng ton quang c t nhng khong cch nh k rt xa nhau.
2.4. Chuyn mch quang

Hu ht cc thit b mng ngy nay u da trn tn hiu in, iu c ngha tn hiu quang cn chuyn i sang tn hiu in c khuch i, ti to hoc chuyn mch v sau c chuyn i tr li tn hiu quang. iu ny ni n s chuyn i optical-to-electronic-to-optical (O-E-O) v l cng vic ct li ht sc c ngha trong vic truyn tn hiu. S lng ln tn hiu i qua mng quang cn c chuyn mch qua cc im khc nhau, c gi l cc node. Thng tin n node sc chuyn v pha trc theo hng n ni m n c gi ti qua ng tt nht c th, con ng ny c th xc nh bi cc yu t nh khong cch, chi ph, tin cy,bng thng ca tuyn . Cch chuyn i tn hiu thc hin chuyn mch l tch nh sng t nhng u vo si quang, chuyn i n sang tn hiu in v sau chuyn i tr li tn hiu nh sng laser, tn hiu ny c gi i trong si quang. Vn c bn ca chuyn mch quang l thay th s tn ti ca chuyn mch mng in bng mng ton quang, s cn thit ca vic chuyn i O-E-O c loi b. N hng thun li ca kh nng ny khi trnh c vic chuyn i O-E-O l iu ht sc ngha. u tin chuyn mch quang c th r hn bi v khng cn nhiu tn hiu in tc cao t tin. Cc b chuyn mch quang cho nhiu ng dng trong mng quang. Mi ng dng yu cu thi gian chuyn mch v s cng chuyn mch khc nhau. Mt ng dng ca chuyn mch quang l cung cp cc lightpath. Vi ng dng ny, chuyn mch c s dng bn trong b kt ni cho nhm cu hnh li chng cung cp cc lightpath mi. Mt phn mm c thm vo qun l mng tu cui n u cui. V th vi ng dng ny, cc b chuyn mch vi thi gian chuyn mch ms c th chp nhn, nhng cc b chuyn mch y i hi phi c kch thc ln. Mt ng dng quan trng khc l chuyn mch bo v. y cc chuyn mch c s dng chuyn cc lung lu lng t si chnh sang si khc trong trng hp si chnh gp s c. Ton b hot ng nh thi gian tm ra li, thng

tin li n cc phn t mng iu khin vic chuyn mch v qu trnh chuyn mch thc si hi phi hon thnh trong thi gian rt ngn. C th c nhiu dng chuyn mch bo v khc nhau, ph thuc vo phng php c s dng, s cc cng chuyn mch cn thit c th thay i t hng trm n hng ngn cng khi s dng trong cc b kt ni cho bc sng. 2.6. Cc thnh phn chnh ca h thng WDM Cu trc ca mng WDM gm c cc thnh phn: thit bu cui OLT, cc b ghp knh xen/rt quang OADM, cc b kt ni cho quang OXC lin kt vi nhau qua cc kt ni si quang. N goi ra cn c b khuch i b suy hao trn ng truyn. 2.6.1. Thit b u cui OLT Thit bu cui OLT (Optical Line Terminator) l thit bc dng u cui ca mt lin kt im ni im ghp v phn knh cc bc sng. Thit bu cui gm c ba phn t: b tip sng (transponder), b ghp knh cc bc sng (wavelength multiplexer) v b khuch i (optical amplifier). B tip sng lm nhim v thch ng tn hiu i vo t mt ngi s dng mng thnh mt tn hiu ph hp s dng trong mng. V hng ngc li n lm thch ng tn hiu t mng quang thnh tn hiu ph hp vi ngi s dng. Giao din gia ngi s dng v b tip sng c th thay i da vo ngi s dng, tc bt v khong cch hoc suy hao gia ngi dng v b chuyn tip. Giao din ph bin nht l giao din SON ET/SDH.

Hnh 2.6: OLT

S thch ng bao gm nhiu chc nng, tn hiu c thc chuyn i thnh bc sng thch hp trong mng quang, n cng c th thm vo cc phn u header nhm qun l mng. B tip sng cng c th gim st t l li bit ca tn hiu im i vo v i ra trong mng. V nhng l do ny nn b chuyn tip thc hin chuyn i quang- in- quang. hnh trn, s lm thch ng ch cho theo hng i vo v bc sng hng ngc li c gi trc tip n hng ngi dng. Trong mt s trng hp, ta c th trnh s dng b tip sng bng cch thc hin chc nng thch ng bn trong thit b ngi dng, nh phn t mng SON ET nh hnh trn, iu ny lm gim c chi ph ng k. Tn hiu ra khi b tip sng c ghp knh vi cc tn hiu khc cc bc sng khc nhau s dng b ghp knh theo bc sng trn mt si quang. Thm vo b khuch i c thc dng khuch i cng sut ln nu cn thit trc khi chng c a n b phn knh. N hng bc sng ny li c kt thc trong mt b tip sng nu c hoc kt thc trc tip trong thit b ngi s dng. Cui cng OLT cng kt thc mt knh gim st quang (OSC). OSC c mang bc sng ring l, khc vi cc bc sng mang lu lng thc s. N dng

gim st vic thc hin ca cc b khuch i dc theo lin kt cng nh cho cc chc nng qun l khc. 2.6.2. B ghp knh xen/rt quang OADM B ghp knh xen/rt quang cung cp mt phng tin iu khin lu lng trong mng. OADM c thc dng cc v tr khuch i trong cc mng ng di nhng cng c th s dng nhng phn t mng c lp. hiu c li ch ca b xen/rt quang, ta xt mt mng gia ba node A, B v C nh hnh v di, lu lng mng gia A v C i qua node B, gi thit cc tuyn lin kt hon ton song cng. Gi s yu cu lu lng nh sau: mt bc sng gia A v B, mt bc sng gia B v C, ba bc sng gia A v C. By gi trin khai cc h thng WDM im ni im cung cp nhu cu lu lng ny. Vi gii php trong hnh (a), hai h thng im ni im c trin khai, mt gia A v B, mt gia B v C. Mi lin kt im ni im s dng mt OLT cui lin kt. N ode B c hai OLT, mi OLT kt thc bn bc sng, v th cn yu cu bn b tip sng. Tuy nhin ch c mt trong bn bc sng l dnh cho node B, cc b tip sng cn li dng cung cp lu lng gia A v C. V th su trong tm b tip sng node B c dng iu khin lu lng. y l vic rt tn km. Vi gii php trong hnh (b), thay v s dng cc h thng WDM im ni im, ta trin khai mt mng nh tuyn bc sng. Mng s dng mt OLT node A v C, mt OADM node B. OADM rt mt trong bn bc sng, sau kt thc cc transponder. Ba bc sng cn li i xuyn qua trong min quang m khng cn kt thc trong cc transponder. iu ny thy c hiu qu l ch s dng hai transponder thay v s dng n tm transponder nh gii php (a), do gim c chi ph ng k.

Hnh 2.7: Vai tr ca OADM trong mng Cu hi t ra l ti sao cc b tip sng cn thit gii php (a) iu khin lu lng i qua. N i cch khc l ti sao chng ta khng n gin loi b cc b tip sng v thc hin kt ni trc tip cc b ghp knh v tch knh WDM gia hai b tip sng node B nh trong hnh (b), hn l thit k mt OADM ring bit. iu ny l c th, cc OLT c thit k h tr kh nng ny. Lp vt l c xy dng trong cc mng phc tp hn nhiu cc h thng im ni im. C nhiu kin trc xy dng nn OADM, cc kin trc ny in hnh s dng cc b ghp/b lc. Ta xt OADM nh mt hp en c hai cng mang mt tp hp cc bc sng v mt s cng ni b. Cc thuc tnh chnh ca OADM gm c:

Tng s bc sng c th cung cp c l bao nhiu. S bc sng ln nht c th xen/ rt l bao nhiu. C rng buc trn mt bc sng no c xen/rt. Mt kin trc

ch cho php mt s bc sng xc nh no c xen/ rt ch khng phi bt k bc sng tu no cng c.

C d dng xen/ rt cc knh thm vo. C cn thit ph v mt knh

ang tn ti xen/ rt cc knh thm vo.


Tnh n chi ph. Tnh phc tp ca vic thit k OADM lp vt l v khi thm vo

cc knh mi th nh hng n vic thit k ny nh th no. Hnh di y cho ta thy cc kin trc ca OADM:

Hnh 2.8: Cc ki n trc OADM

hnh 2.8(a), mt s knh c chn c thc tch ra v nhng knh khc c i qua. V th khng c s rng buc trn cc knh c rt v xen. V vy cu trc ny p t nhng rng buc nh nht trong vic thit lp cc lightpath trong mng. N goi ra suy hao qua OADM cnh, c lp vi s knh c rt v xen l bao nhiu. Tuy nhin kin trc ny li khng hiu qu v chi ph trong vic iu khin mt s nh cc knh c rt, v bt k bao nhiu knh c rt, tt c cc knh u cn phi c tch v ghp li vi nhau. Do ta phi tn chi ph cho vic tch v ghp cho tt cnhng knh i vo. iu ny cng dn n suy hao cao hn. Tuy nhin khi mt s lng ln s knh c rt v linh hot trong vic thm vo hoc ly ra bt c knh no th cu trc ny cng cho ta hiu qu kinh t. Hnh 2.8(b) l s ci tin ca hnh 2.8(a) nhm gim chi ph thit k trn, vic ghp v tch knh c thc hin qua hai giai on. Giai on th nht tch ring cc bc sng thnh nhng di (bands), giai on th hai tch nhng di thnh cc bc sng ring l. V d nh h thng 16 knh, c th thc hin s dng bn di, mi di gm bn knh. N u ch c bn knh c rt mt v tr, th 12 knh c th gi nguyn trong cc di, thay v phi tch xung thnh tng knh ring l. iu ny cho thy ta tit kim c chi ph cho b MUX v DEMUX. N goi ra, vic s dng cc di cho php tn hiu c i qua vi suy hao quang thp hn. Khi mng c s knh ln th cu trc hnh 2.8(b) ghp knh nhiu giai on tr nn cn thit. Trong cu trc hnh 2.8(c), mt knh ring lc tch v ghp t mt tp cc knh i vo. Ta gi thit b ny l b xen rt n knh (SC - OADM). tch v ghp nhiu knh th cc SC - OADM c ni lin tip nhau. Kin trc ny b sung cho kin trc ca hnh 2.8(a). Vic tch v ghp knh nh hung n cc knh ang tn ti, nn nhm gim ti thiu nh hng ny th ln k hoch tp bc sng no cn c ly ra tng v tr. Tuy nhin nu s knh cn c tch ra l ln th kin trc ny khng cn ph hp na, do chng ta phi s dng nhiu thit b ring

l ni li vi nhau. iu cho thy n khng hiu qu v kinh t. N goi ra suy hao cng gia tng theo. 2.6.3. B khuch i quang N hm b li s suy hao tn hiu trn ng truyn si quang cng nh ti cc thit b (nh cc b ghp knh) th cc b khuch i c t gia cc kt ni si quang nhng khong cch nh k. Trc khi cc b khuch i quang ra i th la chn duy nht l ti to li tn hiu, ngha l nhn tn hiu v sau pht li n. Qu trnh ny c thc hin bng cc b lp ti sinh. Mt b lp chuyn tn hiu quang thnh tn hiu in, khi phc sau chuyn li thnh tn hiu quang truyn tip. iu ny hn ch tnh trong sut v tng chi ph bo tr ca h thng. K thut khuch i quang chim u th hn nhiu cc b lp. B khuch i quang khng ph thuc vo tc bit v cc nh dng tn hiu. Mt h thng s dng khuch i quang c th d nng cp hn nhiu, v dn mt tc bit cao hn m khng cn phi thay th b khuch i. Hn na cc b khuch i quang c bng thng ln nn c thc dng khuch i ng thi nhiu tn hiu WDM. N u khng vi mi bc sng ta phi s dng mt b lp. Loi khuch i quang in hnh l b khuch i quang si EDFA (Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier - khuch i quang si c pha tp Erbium). B EDFA thc cht l si quang c pha tp c chc nng khuch i c tn hiu nh sng, chng c th thay i cc c tnh vt l ca si theo nhit , p sut v chng c tnh cht bc x nh sng. c im ca si ny l chng c kh nng t khuch i hoc ti to tn hiu khi c kch thch ph hp.

u vo

WDM

EDF u ra

Bcch li

Bcch li

Hnh 2.9: EDFA Theo hnh v th nh sng bm vo t laser c kt hp vi tn hiu vo nh s dng b ghp WDM trn h thng s dng mt b ghp. nh sng bm ny c truyn dc theo si c pha Eribium v tn hiu bm ny kch thch cc cc ion Eribium ln mc nng lng cao hn. S dch chuyn mc nng lng ca in t t cao xung thp s pht ra photon, c gi l bc x t pht nu khng c bt c tc ng no t pha bn ngoi, cn gi l bc x kch thch khi do s c mt cc photon cha nng lng bng nng lng dch chuyn. Khi tn hiu d liu c truyn n EDFA, tn hiu d liu ny n gp cc ion Er3+ c kch thch mc nng lng cao. Qu trnh ny lm cho cc ion nhy t trng thi nng lng cao xung mc trng thi nng lng thp nn pht ra photon, do s khuch i cng sut tn hiu ln ri truyn i tip trong si quang. Thng thng, mt b cch li c dng trc ng vo hoc ng ra ca b khuch i tn hiu EDFA ngn s phn x vo trong b khuch i ny. EDFA cho h s khuch i ln, cng sut ra ln v nhiu thp, n lm vic bc sng 1550nm. Trong cc h thng thng tin quang, cho cc EDFA hot ng th cn c ngun bm. Cc ngun bm thc t l cc diod laser bn dn cng sut cao dng cung cp ngun nh sng cho EDFA. EDFA c cc c im sau:

Khng c mch ti to thi gian, mch phc hi (b chuyn i O/E v E/O).Do

mch s tr nn linh hoc hn.


Cng sut ngun nui nh nn khi p dng cho cc tuyn thng tin vt bin, cp

s c cu trc nh v nh hn cp thng.
Gi thnh ca h thng thp do cu trc ca EDFA n gin, trng lng nh,

khong lp v dung lng truyn dn c nng cao. N goi ra do EDFA c kh nng khuch i nhiu bc sng trong cng mt si nn n c kh nng tng dung lng tc ln n 20Gbps hoc cao hn khi s dng k thut WDM. N goi loi khuch i EDFA cn c dng khuch i SOA (Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers- b khuch i quang bn dn). V c bn, SOA l mt mi ni P-N . Lp gia c hnh thnh mi ni hot ng nh l mt vng tch cc. nh sng c khuch i do s pht x kch thch khi n lan truyn qua vng tch cc ny. i vi mt b khuch i, hai u cui ca vng tch cc c ph mt lp khng phn x loi b gn sng trong li b khuch i. 2.6.4. Gii thiu v b kt ni cho quang OXC 2.6.4.1. Chc nng OXC

Hnh 2.10: Mng WDM nh tuyn bc sng

Trong mng nh tuyn bc sng WDM, hnh trn gm c hai loi node l: OXC v Edge node. OXC l node m ng vai tr kt ni cc si quang trong mng. Edge node ng vai tr cung cp giao din gia nhng h thng kt cui phi quang (nh l cc IP Router, chuyn mch ATM, hay cc siu my tnh) vi li quang. Cc Edge node thng nm u cui ca h thng v cc lightpath c thit lp gia hai edge node qua cc node trung gian nh hnh trn. y c mong i mang li cu trc ca mng ton quang, thng tin truyn i trn lightpath khng cn s chuyn i no t tn hiu in sang quang hoc ngc li t quang sang tn hiu in. OXC cung cp chc nng chuyn mch v nh tuyn h tr cc lin kt logic gia hai Edge. Mt OXC lm nhim v truyn thng tin trn mi bc sng mt u vo v n c th chuyn mch n mt cng ra ring bit. Mt OXC vi N cng vo- N cng ra m cc cng ny c kh nng x l W bc sng trn mi cng OXC ( optical cross connect) l thnh phn dng iu khin cc cu trc mt li phc tp v mt s lng ln cc bc sng. OXC l thnh phn mng chnh cho php cu hnh li mng quang, m cc lightpath c th thit lp v kt thc khi cn thit m khng phi c cung cp cnh. OXC c cu trc vi mch tch hp rt ln v kh nng ni kt hng ngn u vo vi hng ngn u ra to nn chc nng chuyn mch v nh tuyn. Trong thng tin quang, bn mi knh quang c thc truyn i trong mt si n, OXC l thit b cn thit c th tip nhn nhiu bc sng khc nhau cc u vo v nh tuyn cc bc sng ny n cc u ra thch hp trong mng. thc hin iu ny, OXC cn thit xy dng cc khi chc nng:
Chuyn mch si: kh nng nh tuyn tt c cc bc sng trn mt si

quang u vo ti mt si quang khc ng ra.

Chuyn mch bc sng: kh nng chuyn mch cc bc sng c th t

mt si quang u vo ti nhiu si quang khc u ra.


Chuyn i bc sng: kh nng nhn cc bc sng u vo v chuyn i

chng thnh tn s quang khc ng ra, iu ny l cn thit tho mn cc kin trc bt ng khi khi s dng chuyn mch bc sng.

Hnh 2.11: Cc khi chc nng ca OXC

Mt OXC c cc chc nng sau:


Cung cp dch v: Mt OXC c th dng cung cp cc lightpath trong

mt mng ln mt cch tng, m khng phi thao tc bng tay. Kh nng ny tr nn quan trng khi gii quyt s bc sng ln trong mt nt hoc vi s nt trong mng ln. N cng quan trng khi cc lightpath trong mng cn cu hnh li p ng vi s thay i lu lng ca mng.
Bo v: Chc nng quan trng ca b kt ni cho l bo v cc lightpath

khi si bt hoc thit b gp s c trong mng. B OXC l phn t mng thng minh m n c th pht hin s c trong mng v nhanh chng nh tuyn li cc lightpath.
Trong sut i vi tc bit: kh nng chuyn mch cc tn hiu vi tc

bit.

Gim st thc hin, nh v li: OXC cho thy tham s ca mt tn hiu

nhng nt trung gian, OXC cho php kim tra thit b v gim st cc tn hiu i xuyn qua n.
Chuyn i bc sng: ngoi kh nng chuyn tn hiu t cng ny sang

cng khc, OXC cn kh nng c th chuyn i bc sng bn trong.


Ghp knh: cc OXC iu khin cc tn hiu ng vo v ng ra tc

ng dy quang, tuy nhin n c kh nng ghp knh chuyn mch lu lng ni ti. Mt OXC c phn theo chc nng thnh mt trung tm chuyn mch v mt khu lin hp cng. Trung tm chuyn mch cha b chuyn mch m n thc hin chc nng kt ni cho thc s. Khu lin hp cng cha cc card c dng nh cc giao din lin lc vi cc thit b khc. Cc cng giao tip c th bao gm cc b chuyn i quang- in, in- quang hoc khng. Mt phn t kt ni cho c bn 2 x 2 gi cc tn hiu quang t hai ng vo n hai ng ra v c hai trng thi, l: trng thi cross v trng thi bar. Trong trng thi cross, tn hiu t cng vo pha trn c gi n cng ra pha di, v tn hiu t cng vo pha di c gi n ng ra pha trn. Trong trng thi bar, tn hiu t cng vo pha trn c gi n cng ra pha trn, v tn hiu t cng pha di c gi ti cng ra bn di.

Hnh 2.12: Trng thi ca OXC 2.6.4.2. Phn loi OXC

OXC c chia lm hai loi:


-

Hybrid OXC (hay OXC khng trong sut): hin ang rt ph bin, n thc

hin chuyn i tn hiu quang sang tn hiu in, thc hin kt ni bng cch s dng k thut kt ni in t v sau li chuyn i tn hiu in sang tn hiu quang.

Hnh 2.13: Hybrid OXC

All optical OXC (hay OXC trong sut): l cch kt ni trc tip cc knh

quang trong min photonic. Tn hiu dng photonic trong sut qu trnh chuyn mch m khng cn thit qu trnh chuyn i O-E-O. OXC ny c th phn thnh cc thnh phn thit b chuyn mch quang Free Space, thit b quang trng thi rn v cc thit b gng cin. Trong s cc thit b chuyn mch ph bin nht kt ni nhiu u vo vi nhiu u ra l WRG. Vi thit b ny, mt bc sng cho trc cng vo bt k s xut hin mt cng ra xc nh nh hnh 2.13. Loi chuyn mch quang Free Space ny c bit nh l chc nng nh tuyn bc sng.

Cc thit b chuyn mch quang Free Space: n c hiu l

lm nhim vnh tuyn bc sng, mt loi khc th chm laser c chiu mt cch c hc vo mt trong nhng si quang. Trong trng hp

ny, mt ma trn ca cc chm tia trn n kt hp mt ma trn ca cc si quang, lc mt trong nhng chm tia nng lng v mt si quang thu sc nh hng chng kt hp vi nhau t c mt kt ni trong khng gian.

Cc thit b quang trng thi rn: l cc cp thit b bn dn

nh hng, cc thit b ny c th thay i mt trong nhng c tnh quang trn ng i da vo cc ng dng iu khin tn hiu nh nhit , nh sng, dng in hay in p. Cc c tnh quang bao gm s phn cc, s truyn nh sng, s hp th, ch s khc x.

H thng vi cin: da vo s phn x nh sng trn mt b

mt sng bng lm thay i tnh nh hng ca nh sng. K thut ny da trn h thng gng cin (MEMS Micro Electro Mechanical Systems).

Hnh 2.14: OXC ton quang WGR Xt mt trung tm cung cp dch v ln, y c th kt thc nhiu kt ni, mi kt ni mang nhiu bc sng. Mt s bc sng ny khng cn c kt thc v tr m mun i n node khc. OXC thc hin chc nng ny, n lm vic k bn cc phn t mng SON ET/ SDH, bnh tuyn IP v cc chuyn mch ATM, cc thit bu cui WDM v b ghp knh xen/ rt. Mt cch in hnh,

mt s cng OXC c kt ni n cc thit b WDM, cc cng khc c ni n cc thit b kt cui. V th OXC cung cp dung lng hiu qu hn nhiu. 2.7. S chuyn i bc sng Chuyn i bc sng l kh nng chuyn tn hiu t bc sng ny( 1) trn mt ng vo sang bc sng khc ti ng ra ( 2). B chuyn i rt c ch trong vic gim xc sut tc nghn mng. N u cc b chuyn i c tch hp vo trong b kt ni cho quang trong mng WDM, cc kt ni c thc thit lp gia ngun v ch ngay c khi trn tt c cc tuyn ca ng i khng c sn cng mt bc sng. Cc b chuyn i bc sng gip loi tr s bt buc tnh lin tc v bc sng. B chuyn i bc sng y gip cho vic gim xc sut tc nghn tt hn nhng thc t b chuyn i ny rt kh thc hin bi cc l do v chi ph v gii hn k thut. Trong mt mng c rt t node mng c trang b b chuyn i bc sng, do cn phi c s la chn cc node t cc b chuyn i bc sng cc v tr thch hp sao cho ti u mng, thng t cc b chuyn i bc sng nhng node m lu lng mng xy ra cc i. tr-NodeA
1

NodeB

NodeC

Hnh 2.15: S chuyn i bc sng

V d nh hnh trn, mt lightpath c thit lp gia N ode A v N ode B trn bc sng 1, v mt ng lightpath khc c thit lp gia N ode B vi N ode C trn bc sng 2. N u c mt yu cu N ode A n N ode C, yu cu khng th thit lp c v s bt buc tnh lin tc v bc sng. N u c b chuyn i

bc sng c t N ode B m n c kh nng chuyn i t bc sng


1sang 2, th

yu cu c th thc hin thnh cng. R rng cc b chuyn i bc

sng c th ci thin c hiu sut khi cc bc sng ri c sn trn cc tuyn, v mt bc sng chung th khng c. Chuyn i bc sng c chia ra lm hai loi:
Chuyn i bc sng quang - in: theo phng php ny, tn hiu trc

tin c chuyn sang tn hiu in s dng b tch sng. Lung bit c lu tr trong bm. Sau tn hiu in c dng li ng ra ca mt tunable laser to thnh mt bc sng mong mun ng ra. Phng php ny khng thch hp cho tc bit cao hn 10Gbps, tiu hao cng sut ln v thc hin phc tp hn cc phng php khc.
Chuyn i bc sng ton quang: qu trnh chuyn i bc sng c

thc hin hon ton trong min quang. Phng php ny da vo hiu ng trn bc sng to ra mt bc sng khc. Kh nng chuyn i bc sng c th thc hin qua nhiu mc khc nhau. Hnh di y minh ho s khc nhau gia u vo v u ra, trng hp nhiu cng th cng phc tp hn nhng cng tng t. Kh nng chuyn i bc sng hon ton tc l c th chuyn i mt bc sng ng vo thnh mt bc sng bt k ng ra. Kh nng chuyn i bc sng gii hn qui nh rng mi bc sng u vo c thc chuyn i thnh mt s bc sng xc nh trc ng ra. Trng hp c bit ca chuyn bc sng gii hn l chuyn i bc sng cnh khi m mt bc sng u vo ch c th chuyn i thnh mt bc sng cnh u ra. N u mi bc sng c chuyn i thnh chnh n th chng ta gi khng c s chuyn i no.

Hnh 2.16: Cc kh nng chuy

n i bc sng

2.8. Kt lun chng. Qua chng ny, ta thy c ng lc thc Ny mng WDM hin nay. N hng mng ny cung cp cc lightpath tu cui ny n u cui kia qua cc node mng trung gian. Mt lightpath gm c mt knh thng tin quang, hoc bc sng, gia hai node mng m c nh tuyn qua nhng node trung gian. Cc node mng trung gian c th chuyn mch v chuyn i bc sng. V vy cc mng ny c xem l cc mng nh tuyn bc sng.