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Definitions of Voltage Transformer Parameters


Edvard

VT

De finitio ns o f the To ltag e Trans fo rme r Parame te rs (o n p ho to withd rawab le vo ltag e tras nfo rme rs 36kV in Sc hne id e r Ele c tric ' s DNF7 AIS MV Switc hg e ar)

Parameters

Introduction to VTs
T he voltage transf ormer must comply with the network specif ications, this is essential. As with any device, the voltage transf ormer must meet requirements relating to the voltage, current and f requency. Voltage transf ormer specif ications are only valid f or normal conditions of use. A derating should be provided f or in accordance with the ambient temperature and the altitude. Rated voltage factor: this is the f actor by which the rated primary voltage must be multiplied in order to determine the maximum voltage f or which the transf ormer must attain the required levels of heating and accuracy. Go to Top

T he voltage f actor is determined by the maximum operating voltage, which depends on the network earthing system and the way the VT s primary winding is connected. T he voltage transf ormer must be able to withstand this maximum voltage f or the time necessary to clear the f ault (see Table 1 below).

Table 1 Normal values of t he rat ed volt age f act or


Rated voltage factor 1.2 1.2 Rated time continuous continuous Primary winding connection method phase to phase between the neutral point of a star transf ormer and earth phase to earth Network earthing system any any

1.2 1.5 1.2 1.9 1.2 1.9 1.2 1.9

continuous 30 seconds continuous 30 seconds continuous 8 hours continuous 8 hours

directly earthed neutral

phase to earth

limiting resistance earthing with automatic earth f ault clearance (tripping upon f irst f ault) earthed neutral without automatic earth f ault clearance (no tripping upon f irst f ault) tuned limiting reactance (or Petersen coil) earthing without automatic earth f ault clearance (no tripping upon f irst f ault)

phase to earth

phase to earth

Note: smaller time ratings are permissible by agreement between manuf acturer and user. Rated primary voltage (Up): Depending on their design, voltage transf ormers will be connected either: 1. Between phase and earth (see Figure 1a); or 2. Between phases (see Figure 1b ).

T he voltage transf ormer must be suited to requirements relating to protection and measuring devices. T he f oreseen application of the voltage transf ormer is used to determine the rated secondary voltage, the accuracy power, the accuracy class and the thermal power limit.

Fig ure 1 - Vo ltag e trans fo rme r c o nne c tio ns

Rated secondary voltage: this is equal to 100 or 110 V f or phase/phase VTs. For single-phase transf ormers designed to be connected between a phase and earth, the rated secondary voltage is divided by 3. Go to Top For example: Accuracy power: this is expressed in VA and it is the apparent power that the voltage transf ormer can supply to the secondary when it is connected under its rated primary voltage and connected to its accuracyload. It must not introduce an error in excess of the values guaranteed by the accuracy class. Go to Top T he standardized values are: 10 15 25 30 50 75 100 150 200 300 400 500 VA. Accuracy class: this def ines the guaranteed transf ormation ratio and phase error limits in specif ied power and voltage conditions. Go to Top Voltage ratio error: this is the error that the transf ormer introduces in the voltage measurement: Phase or phase displacement error: this is the phase dif f erence between the primary and secondary voltages and is expressed in minutes. Go to Top Rated thermal limiting output: this is the apparent power that the transf ormer can permanently supply at its rated secondary voltage without exceeding the heating limits stipulated in the standards. Go to Top

Accuracy class
Table 2 gives the accuracy class generally used in accordance with the corresponding application.

Table 2 Accuracy class in accordance wit h t he applicat ion f or measuring VTs


Application Not used in industry Precision metering Accuracy class 0.1 0.2

Precision metering Usual metering Statistical metering and/or measurement Measurement not requiring high accuracy

0.2 0.5 1 3

T he accuracy class is guaranteed if the voltage is between 80 and 120% of the rated primary voltage and f or any load between 25 and 100% of the rated accuracy power with an inductive power f actor of 0.8. T he standardized IEC accuracy classes are: 0.1 0.2 0.5 1 3. 1. Classes 0.1 and 0.2 are only used f or laboratory devices. 2. Classes 0.5 and 1 are used in the majority of cases. 3. Class 3 is used very little.

Resource: Protection of Electrical Networks Christophe Prv (get this book from Amazon)