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REVIEWER BIOLOGY 4TH QUARTER REPRODUCTION 19. Seminiferous tubules the actual site of 1.

. Reproduction the process of producing new sperm production found inside the testes organisms of the same kind to avoid extinction and to perpetuate species 20. Semen the organic fluid secreted by the testes that contains sperm 2. Fertilization the process by which egg cells unite with the sperm forming a fertilized egg 21. Ejaculation the process that result in the discharge of semen 3. Zygote the fertilized egg 22. Fructose secreted by the seminal vesicles 4. Hermaphroditism phenomenon wherein an and the primary source of energy of sperms animal or plant has both male and female reproductive organs 23. Prostaglandins secreted by the seminal vesicle and is involved in suppressing the 5. Protandy a type of hermaphroditism in which immune response by female against the a male becomes a female foreign semen 6. Protogyny a type of hermaphroditism in which a female becomes a male 7. Asexual reproduction in which no gametes are involved 8. Gametes sex cells 9. Sperm male gamete 10. Egg female gamete 11. Penis male copulatory organ 12. Glans penis long shaft with enlarged bulbous-shaped tip 13. Foreskin retractable, double layer fold of skin that covers the glans penis 14. Scrotum pouch like structure that hangs behind the penis that holds and protects the testes and regulates the temperature 15. Epididymis whitish mass of tightly coiled tubes cupped against the testicles; acts as maturation and storage of sperm 16. Vas deferens the sperm duct that starts from the epydidymis to the pelvic cavity 17. Testes the male gonads; the organs that produce the sperm cells and testosterone 18. Testosterone male hormone that stimulates the production of sperm and facilitates male maturation 24. Zinc secreted by the prostrate; helps stabilize the chromatin in sperm cells 25. Seminal vesicle sac-like structures attached to the vas deferens and produce sticky yellowish fluid that contains fructose that provide sperm cells energy and aids in their motility; responsible for 70% of semens volume 26. Prostrate gland surrounds the ejaculatory duct at the base of the urethra; responsible for the production of the semen 27. Bulbourethral gland two small glands on the sides of the urethra below the prostrate gland; produce clear slippery liquid that empties directly to the urethra; aka Cowpers gland 28. Urethra common passageway of urine and sperm 29. Flagella propels live sperm cells 30. 33oC temperature to produce healthy sperm cells 31. Capacitation sperm cell activation occurring after ejaculation 32. Cavernosa fibrous connective tissue of the penis 33. Vagina a muscular tubular tract leading to the uterus; the place where the semen is deposited; birth canal

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34. Cervix the lower, narrow portion (neck) of the uterus 35. Pubic hair literally means mountain of hair; protects the vagina from infection 36. Uterus aka womb; pear shaped muscular organ that holds and sustains the developing embryo 37. Endometrium the lining of the uterine cavity; where the lining for the embryo is built and is the site of implantation 38. Myometrium the middle layer of the uterus responsible for uterine contractions 39. Perimetrium the outer wall of the uterus 40. Oviducts aka fallopian tubes; tubes leading from the ovaries into the uterus 41. Ovaries small, paired organ responsible for the production of the ova and secretion of hormones 42. Ova eggs 43. Bartholins glands two glands located slightly below and to the left of the opening of the vagina; secrete mucus to lubricate the vagina 44. Clitoris the pleasure erectile organ of females homologous to the penis; contains 8000 nerve endings 45. Vulva the external genital organs of female; includes labia majora, labia minora, clitoris, and external opening of the vagina 46. Follicle holds immature egg cell in the ovary 47. Oocyte immature egg cell 48. Graafian follicle mature follicle 49. Antrum the fluid filled cavity developed once the follicle is developed 50. Fimbrae a fringe of tissue near the ovary leading to the fallopian tube 51. Corona radiata surrounds the ovum or unfertilized egg and supplies vital proteins to the cell

52. Zona pellucida membrane surrounding corona radiata that protects egg from being fertilized by other organisms 53. Corpus Luteum yellowish mass of tissue that secretes progesterone immediately after rupture of the graafian follicle 54. Progesterone hormone responsible for maintaining the lining of the uterus during pregnancy 55. Estrogen a group of hormones secreted by female 56. Oogenesis the formation of the egg cells 57. Menstrual cycle aka ovarian cycle; the female reproductive cycle 58. Stages of Menstrual Cycle a. Follicle stage b. Ovulation stage c. Corpus luteum stage d. Menstrual flow stage 59. Follicle stage stage when the ovarian follicle grows into maturity; FSH, LH 60. Ovulation stage stage when ripe follicle releases an ovum; LH, FSH 61. Corpus luteum stage stage when the uterus undergoes changes I preparation for the implantation of the embryo; LH, FSH, progesterone; 62. Menstrual flow stage stage when the lining of the uterus disintegrates and flows out of the body; progesterone 63. Follicle stimulating hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland and stimulates growth and maturation of ovarian follicles 64. Luteinizing hormone - secreted by the anterior pituitary gland and stimulates the development of the corpus luteum 65. Spermatogenesis - formation of sperm cells 66. Blastula ball of cells that developed from the zygote; one layered 67. Blastocoel the fluid-filled cavity at the center of the blastula

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68. Gastrulation stage in the embryonic development wherein the blastula develops into a 3 layered structure

83. Telophase the reverse of the propase; production of the nuclear envelope or cell cleavage

69. Layers of Gastrula a. Ectoderm epidermis and epithelial 84. Centromere region of the DNA found in the linings; nervous system and sense organs center of the chromosome b. Mesoderm dermis; lining of cavities, circulatory, excretory, reproductive, 85. Kinetochores protein structure in the skeletal, muscular system chromosome where the spindle fibers attach c. Endoderm lining of food tube, respiratory tract, bladder and uterus, liver, pancreas, 86. Centriole barrel shaped structure that thyroid produces spindle fibers in mitosis 70. Fetus the developed embryo with organs formed 87. Synapsis process in propase I where homologous chromosomes pair up

71. Gestation the condition of having developing 88. Cross over process during synapsis where young in the female reproductive tract exchange of genetic material occur CELLULAR DIVISION 72. Mitosis cell division of somatic cells 73. Meiosis cell division of gametes 74. Interphase the nondividing stage of cell which is devoted to cell growth 75. Cytokinesis the division of the cytoplasm 76. Gap 1 phase the period when the cell increases in size in preparation for cell division 77. Synthesis phase the period when the cell is synthesizing DNA and replicating chromosomes 78. Gap 2 phase period when the cell continues to synthesize RNA and proteins 79. Gap 0 phase differentiation stage 80. Propase stage when chromosomes coil up into rod-shaped structures, nucleoli and nuclear membrane disappear and spindle fibers are formed 81. Metaphase involves the alignment of double stranded chromosomes at the equatorial plate, with the kinetochores attaching the spindle fibers 82. Anaphase starts with the division of the centromeres and ends with the migration of the single-stranded chromosomes to the poles 3 92. Chiasma also known as the recombinant nodule; usually produced once crossing over is done 93. X chromosome which is given or produced by the mother 94. Karyotype the complete set of chromosomes in an individual organism DNA DISCOVERY AND STRUCTURE 95. Hammerling made use of Acetabularia and found that the genetic material is seen at the base or the foot 96. Briggs and King made a nuclear transplant experiment and found out that the nucleus from frogs intestine can develop a new frog 97. T2 Bacteriophage the specific virus used by Hershey and Chase in their experiment 98. E. coli bacterium infected by the labeled bacteria 90. Meiosis 2 stage in meiosis wherein the diploid number of chromosomes is reduced to form haploid number of chromosomes 91. Y Chromosome given or produced by the father 89. 4X the total number of daughter cells produced in meiotic cell division

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99. S-35 radioactive material used to label proteins 100. P-32 radioactive material used to label DNA 101. Heinz Fraenkel-Conrat used TMV and HRV to prove that RNA is also a genetic material of viruses 102. Hershey and Chase proposed the transforming principle as seen in Pneumococcus bacteria 103. Chargaffs Rule rule states that adenine has an affinity with thymine and cytosine with guanine 104. Friedrich Miescher he used fish sperm and human pus and discovered a substance wich he called nuclein 105. Phoebus Levine biochemist who identified the components of the DNA 106. Rosalind Franklin made us of x-ray crystallography to see the 3-D structure of the DNA 107. Hydrogen bonding the bond responsible for DNAs double-helix structure 108. Phosphodiester bond bond present which attaches a nucleotide to another nucleotide 109. Purine double ringed nitrogenous base

116. Replication fork structure formed by removal of hydrogen bonds via helicase 117. RNA primase initiation of DNA replication wherein RNA nucleotides attach to the initial point of replication called primers 118. Leading strand the 3-5 strand of the DNA being replicated 119. Lagging strand the 5-3 strand of the DNA being replicated 120. Exonuclease removes RNA primers

121. DNA Ligase connects small DNA units produced at the lagging strand 122. Topoisomerase enzyme responsible for removing torsional strain in DNA; aka gyrase 123. Single stranded binding proteins proteins that bind to single stranded regions to prevent them from recoiling 124. Semiconserved nature of DNA replication wherein both daughter DNAs contain one strand from the parent DNA 125. Okazaki fragments gap between two RNA primers PROTEIN SYNTHESIS 126. Central dogma principle that states that DNA makes RNA and RNA makes protein 127. Transcription process by which RNA is produced from DNA template

110. Pyrimidine single ringed nitrogenous base

128. Translation process by which amino 111. Watson and Crick widely accepted model acids are produced from an RNA molecule of DNA structure 129. mRNA messenger RNA; RNA 112. Uracil a base present in RNA but absent transcribed form DNA in DBA 130. rRNA ribosomal RNA; provides site in 113. Ribose the other term for the 5 carbon protein production sugar of nucleic acid 131. Met the only amino acid which serves as 114. Helicase unwinds the double helix of the start codon DNA 132. selenocysteine only amino acid that 115. DNA polymerase synthesizes DNA in 5serves as stop codon 3 direction once primer is attached 133. Codon a triple code of mRNA that codes for a certain amino acid 4 DNA 3/14/11

134. Anticodon the complement of a codon found in tRNA 135. tRNA transfer RNA; RNA that contains the amino acid for a particular codon 136. 137. AUG start codon UAA, UAG, UGA stop codon

152. Hybrid cross cross between a pair of contrasting traits 153. Punnet a multiplication square which is used to determine the genotype and phenotype of possible offspring 154. Hybrid an intermediate phenotype produced at the F1 generation 155. Codominance a condition in which two alleles are expressed in a heterozygote 156. Multiple alleles a type of inheritance in which three or more alleles are found in a gene locus 157. X-linked traits which are seen or located in X-chromosome 158. Y-linked traits which are seen or located in Y-chromosome 159. Hemophilia condition in which an individual lacks blood clotting factor; an Xlinked trait 160. Ichthyosis an X-linked trait characterized by the lack of steroid sulfatase 161. Kelley-Seegmiller syndrome an X-linked trait characterized by the lack of HGPRT enzyme 162. Sex linked a mode of inheritance in which a trait is expressed in one gender and unexpressed in another gender 163. Male pattern baldness an X-linked trait also known as androgenic alopecia 164. Thomas Morgan scientist who gave a better understanding on x-linked traits using Drosophila melanogaster 165. Karl Landsteiner the one who proposed the ABO blood system 166. 167. AB universal recipient O universal donor

GENETICS 138. Genetics the science that deals with heredity and variation 139. Heredity transfer of traits from parents to offspring 140. Gregor Mendel father of modern genetics 141. Garden pea the experimental organism used by Mendel which opened a horizon in Genetics 142. Law of segregation states that during gamete formation, genes separate 143. Law of Dominance law that states that characteristics of an organism is determined by unit factors which is usually by pairs 144. Dominant traits of an organism which is expressed 145. Recessive traits of an organism which is kept 146. Genotype genetic makeup of an organism 147. Phenotype external appearance of an individual 148. Allele one of two alternative forms of the genes 149. Gene unit of inheritance

150. Homozygous organisms with the same allelic forms 151. Heterozygous organisms with different allelic forms

168. Antibodies substance that causes coagulation in ABO blood system 169. Snap dragon plants used to determine incomplete dominance inheritance

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170. Mutation Change or an abnormality in a DNA sequence 171. Mutagen substances which cause mutation 172. Chromosomal aberration loss or addition of chromosome that causes mutation 173. Aneuploidy abnormal number of chromosome 174. Nondisjunction failure of chromosome to separate during cellular division 175. Trisomy a genetic abnormality in which there are three copies, instead of two of a particular chromosome 176. Monosomy a form of aneuploidy with the presence of only one chromosome instead of two of a particular chromosome 177. Turner Syndrome disease caused by a loss of a single chromosome that produces short female with underdeveloped sexual organs and traits 45XO 178. Klinefelter Syndrome characterized by 47XXY that produces tall thin male with underdeveloped male traits and developed breasts 179. Cri du chat syndrome a rare genetic disorder due to a missing part of chromosome 5 180. Down syndrome trisomy 21; syndrome which lead to mental retardation characterized by 47 at chromosome 21 181. Amniocentesis a process by which an amniotic fluid is taken to detect if an individual might suffer from Down syndrome 182. Edwards syndrome trisomy 18; characterized by malfunctioning kidneys and ventricular septal defect 183. Trisomy mosaic syndrome aka trisomy 14 184. Poly X female aka superfemale; tall thin, delayed language development

185. Jacods syndrome 44XYY; tall male with persistent acne and below intelligence 186. Biotechnology modification of biological processes through human intervention 187. Interspecific crosses artificial mating between organisms within the same genus but different species; eg zebronkey, zorse, mules 188. Crossbreeding process by which organisms mate to produce a desirable champion trait 189. Fermentation an anaerobic type of respiration which is important for wine making 190. Cloning placing of nucleus to an anucleated unfertilized egg to produce organism of almost the same genetic make-up 191. Gene splicing process wherein a gene of one organism is injected into the genetic makeup up of another 192. GMO genetically modified organism; organism which has a new set or received sets of genes 193. Evolution - the biological phenomenon that involves changes in a species over time 194. Evidences of Evolution a. Fossil records b. Variation c. Comparative anatomy d. Comparative embryology e. Mutation f. Molecular Biology

195. Fossil preserved remains of organisms from the remote past 196. Homologous structures structures similar to other organisms because of common ancestry; eg. Forelimbs of whale, bat, and man 197. Spontaneous mutations mutation that are random, natural, and occur at low rate 198. Induced mutation manmade mutation that occur at higher rates

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PROBLEMS 1. From this DNA template, create the following TAC CCG CGA TTT CGC ACT mRNA: _________________________________ tRNA: __________________________________ amino acid:______________________________ # amino acid:__________ # peptide bonds:________ 2. From this DNA template, create the following TAC CAC AAC TCG mRNA: _________________________________ tRNA: __________________________________ amino acid:______________________________ # amino acid:__________ # peptide bonds:________ 3. a. b. c. d. e. f. Describe the genotypes given DD homozygous dominant Dd dd ss Yy WW

6. In humans, acondroplasia or dwarfism (D) is dominant over normal (d). A homozygous dominant person dies before age of one. A heterozygous person is dwarfed. A homozygous recessive individual is normal. A dwarf man maries a dwarf woman. a. What is the probability of having a normal child? b. What is the probability of having a child that dies from the disorder? c. What is the probability that the child is dwarfed? 7. In pea plants, the round seed allele is dominant over the wrinkled see allele, and the yellow seed allele is dominant over the green seed allele. The genes for seed texture and those for seed color are on different chromosomes. A plant heterozygous for seed texture and seed color is crossed with a plant that is wrinkled and heterozygous for seed color. R-round r-wrinkled Y-yellow y-green a. Construct a Punnet square for this cross b. What is the expected phenotypic ratio for the offspring?

8. In humans there is a disease called Phenylketonuria (PKU) which is caused by a recessive allele. People with this allele have a defective enzyme and cannot break down the amino acid phenylalanine. This disease can 4. In humans, brown eye color (B) is dominant result to mental retardation or death. Let E over blue eye color (b). What are the phenotypes represent the normal enzyme. Also in humans in of the following genotypes? a condition called galactose intolerance or a. BB galactosemia, which is also caused by a b. Bb recessive allele. Let G represent the normal c. bb allele for galactose digestion. In both diseases, normal dominates over recessive. If two adults 5. A heterozygous, smooth pea pod plant is were heterozygous for both traits (EeGg), what crossed with a wrinkled pea pod plant. There are are the chance of having a child that is two alleles for pea pod, smooth (SS) and wrinkled completely normal? Has just PKU? Has just (ss). Predict the offspring from this cross. galactosemia? Has both? a. What are the genotypes of the parents? b. Set up a Punnet square with possible gametes 9. Predict the offspring when two pink Four c. What is the predicted genotypic ratio for the oclock flowers are crossed. (Incomplete offspring? dominance) d. What is the predicted phenotypic ratio for the offspring? 10. In humans straight hair (ss) and curly hair e. If this cross produced 50 seeds how many (cc) care codominant traits, that result in hybrids would you predict to have a wrinkled pod? who have wavy hair (sc). Cross a curly female with wavy haired male

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11. In the 1950s, a young woman sued film star Charlie Chaplin for parental support of her illegitimate child. Charlie Chaplins blood type was AB. The mother of the child had type A and her son had type O blood. a. Complete a Punnet square for the possible cross of Charlie and the mother. b. The judge ruled in favor of the other and ordered Charlie Chaplin to pay child support costs of the child. Was the judge correct in his decision on blood typing evidence?

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