# 5.

Design of Magnetic Components
5.1 Design of Transformer:
The conversion process in power electronics requires the use of transformers, which have a significant effect upon the overall performance and efficiency of the system. Accordingly, their design has an important influence on overall weight, power conversion efficiency, and cost. Because of the independence and interaction of parameters, judicious tradeoffs are necessary to achieve design optimization. A transformer can be designed to step voltage up or down the voltage. The transformer windings are enamel coated magnet wire which is wrapped around the core (as seen below). The number of windings is determined by the number of times that a piece of wire makes a complete turn around the core. The primary winding is the winding which is driven (in car audio amplifiers, it's usually driven by transistors). The secondary winding is the output winding. The secondary is driven by the magnetic field that the primary induces in the core. A transformer with a ratio of 1:1 will not cause a voltage increase or decrease (disregarding small losses) from the primary to the secondary (as measured across each of the individual windings). If the ratio is 1:2 (primary: secondary), the voltage across the secondary will be twice the voltage across the primary. A ratio of 1:3 will result in a secondary voltage 3 times as high as the voltage on the primary. Of course all of this applies to a transformer which is very lightly or not loaded ( minimal current flow). When current is drawn from the secondary winding, there may (will) be a voltage drop and therefore a primary to secondary voltage ratio which may not match the winding ratio exactly. This loss of voltage is primarily due to the less than 100% efficiency of the magnetic coupling of the primary and the secondary windings through the core and also some copper (resistance) losses. Remember that the primary and the secondary windings are not generally electrically connected together. This means that all of the power transfer between the primary and secondary is transferred (magnetically) through the core. The general procedure for designing a transformer is given below • • • • • • • • Understand the terminology Understand the transformer equivalent circuit Write down requirements Select a core size Compute primary turns Compute secondary turns Fit wire to core window Compute leakage inductance 26

15 T Output Power P : o Po =V × I o [W ] V =Vo +Vd V = 5 +1 = 6 Po = 6 ×0. go build it. B = = = = = 5V 0. go back and select a new (probably bigger) core size and loop back through the process. Specifications: Output voltage. I o Operating frequency. Otherwise.5 [W ] Apparent Power P : t 27 . select new interleaves and go back to fitting wire. Vo Output current. Otherwise. you've done.75 A 100 K 98% 0.75 P o = 4.• • • • • • • • If interleaving factor (Fh) is OK. f Efficiency. η Flux Density. Obtain materials Wind the coils s Stack the laminations Test the performance If result is OK.

672 cm 2 cm 2 Magnetic path length MPL = Mean length per turn MLT = cm cm Number of primary turns N : p Np = Np = V p ×10 4 K f × Bm × f × Ac 15 ×10 4 4 × 0.6 [W ]     ( x) Area Product A : p  Pt ×104 Ap =   K ×B × f ×K ×K m u j  f [cm ] 4   4.15 ×100 × 0.98 + 2    Pt ≅ 4.89 ( −0.d Outer dia o.12 ) [cm ] 4 For the area product of 1.68 0.2 ×100 ×0.d Core area Ac Surface area At = = = = = 1.0 8.15 4.6 ×10 4 Ap =   4 ×0.5  0. core chosen is “55071” and the appropriate data for this core is Area product A p Inner dia i.4 ×403     Ap =1.89 cm 4 .367 48.863 cm 4 1. 2   Pt = Po   η + 2  [W ]    2   Pt = 4.879 cm cm 4.672 N p ≅ 4 [turns] Number of Secondary turns N : s Ns = Vs ×Np Vp 28 .

863( −0.12 ) J = 374.2 Design of Inductor: Specifications: Inductance.3 ×0. I o Frequency. Bm Core material: MPP = = = = 420 µ H 1A 100 KHz 0.707 374 Aw( B ) = 56. f Flux density.15T 29 .306 [ A] Current Density J : J = K j × A(py ) J = 403 × 1.Ns = 5 ×4 15 N s = 1.3 ≅ 2 [turns] Primary Current I : p Ip = Ip = Po V p ×η 4.98 I p = 0. L dc current.0 [ A / cm ] 2 Bare wire size A w( B ) : Aw( B ) = Aw ( B ) = I p × 0.707 J 0.7 ×10 3 cm 2 [ ] 5.5 15 ×0.

5 ×10 −6 × 2 2 2 K =175µ [W −S] Area product A : p  2 × k ×10 4 Ap =   B ×K ×K u j  m     ( x)  2 ×175 ×10 −6 ×10 4 Ap =   0.11 2.d Outer dia o. core chosen is “55121” and the appropriate data for this core is Area product A p Inner dia i.65 Magnetic path length MPL = Mean length per turn MLT = Inductance for 1000 turns = cm cm 35.90 cm 2 4.192 cm 2 18.d Core area Ac Surface area At = = = = = 0.4 × 403  Ap = 0.14 ) For the area product of 0.247 0.123 cm 4 0.902 cm cm 2.Energy K : 2 L × Io K= 2 K = 87.110 cm 4 [ ]     (1.11 cm 4 .15 ×0. ×10 −3 H Number of turns N :  L N = 1000 ×  L  1000     30 .

123( −0.12 ) J = 518. 420 ×10 −3 N = 1000 ×   35      N = 12 [turns] Current Density J : J = K j × A(py ) J = 403 ×0.22 Aw ( B ) ≅ 2 ×10 −3 cm 2 [ ] 31 .22 A / cm 2 [ ] Bare wire size A w( B ) : Aw( B ) = Aw ( B ) = Ip J [cm ] 2 1 518.