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2010 China International Conference on Electricity Distribution

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New 20kV Network Concept for an Existing Distribution Network
Dr. Holger Mü ller1, Theodor Connor1
1, Network Consulting, Power Technologies International (PTI) Siemens AG, Erlangen, Germany E-MAIL: hmmueller@siemens.com, theodor.connor@siemens.com

Abstract: This paper presents a study of a distribution
network of the large city in a former republic of the Soviet Union. The current situation is analyzed and a new network concept is developed. The major part of the current electrical network has been built in the 1960th and 70th using old Russian technology. The economy develops strongly in the last years, and it can be estimated that the total consumption will roughly double within the next 15 years. Today the distribution network is using several voltage levels. A lot of the electrical equipment in the network is reaching the end of its lifetime in the coming years. Therefore and due to the historical developments in the network structure, reliability is low compared to European standards. For these reasons a new network concept has been developed in a consulting project undertaken by Siemens PTI and described in this paper. Especially for the new and optimal network concept for the city, the reduction of the large number of existing voltage levels has been proposed by introducing a new 20 kV level. The Greenfield planning approach is used for this task to achieve the optimal solution for the network. Finally a way is presented to transform the current network step-by-step into the recommended 20 kV solution with future oriented and optimized network structure for the year 2025. The objective of these steps is to achieve a fast improvement of network reliability. The liberalization in many countries all over the world has led to competition between companies of the electricity industry, which has created challenges as well as opportunities for both utilities and industrial consumers. After years of small investment in the electrical infrastructure many customers face now challenges for future operation of their networks: ● ● ● ● ● increasing consumption aging equipment movements of load centers target to use standardized equipment flexible adaptation to changes in load and structure

1. Introduction

Furthermore old equipment and grown network structures make the maintenance and operation of the network difficult and expensive. Especially fault detection and protection coordination within these networks are very complicated. Large-area outages are often the results of this historical development causing discontent with public consumers and high interruption costs for industry consumers. For strategic network planning the country’s economy is an important factor. Based on the positive economic development in the past with growth rates of about 10%, the standard of living shall be further developed. Thus it can be derived that the total consumption will double within the next 15 years. On the other hand if security of supply can not always be guaranteed, poor security of supply can have a negative impact on the economic development. Thus a highly reliable network is an important basis for the future economic development.

Keywords: Greenfield planning, distribution network,
optimal network concept.

CICED2010 Session x

Paper No xxx

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This can help to subdivided and distinguish areas of different load and design of distribution networks. the load growth of the network can be estimated over the next years.g. Based on the data collected of the actual status of the network and considering the future development of the city.1 Planning approach The main objective of network planning is to achieve a coordinated development of the electrical distribution network towards a secure. at contingency situation a voltage range of 90% to 110% of nominal voltage is acceptable. Status of Medium Voltage Network At the beginning of the strategic network planning process starts with an extensive data collection. Methodology The main planning criteria are: ● Reliability criteria: the network should comply with the (n-1)-criteria for disturbances as well as for planned outages and main reliability indices should show a good performance. To get an overview of the Short Short term term Data Data collection collection Actual Actual System System Medium Medium term term Long Long term term current status of the future development. the network under investigation is the Medium Voltage (MV) distribution system of a large city with nearly 1 million inhabitants and an area of about 100km² . Planning Loop for Greenfield Planning Approach growth of the load for the future years can be estimated. CICED2010 Session x Paper No xxx Page2/7 . Based on this solution for the year 2025 and taking into account the situation of the actual system status. the gross national product GNP) is important. ● Thermal limits: thermal capacity of equipment must not be exceeded under normal operation and contingency situation at planning process. ● Short-circuit current levels: maximum short-circuit currents have to be lower than rating of network components. 2.2 2010 China International Conference on Electricity Distribution 2. In this way the optimal target network design for the long term development is achieved. ● Economical network structure: network planning has to lead to a cost-effective power system considering both economic investments and efficient network operation.1 Development of Load By analyzing the peak load of the city of the last years the Figure 1. 1. To 2. the actual load distribution and its development can be approximated using topographic maps and satellite photos. information about new industrial and housing areas as well as data about the economic growth (e. The compliance of the proposed concept with these criteria is investigated through calculations of the network performance. efficient and economical performance. Thus a consistent network design for the distribution network can be achieved A typical planning loop is shown in Fig. If no detailed data of the load distribution over the city is available. 3. Weak points Next steps 2025 network 3. The current status of the actual system is analyzed and the major problems are determined. future modifications and a sequence of steps can be derived to transform the actual system in to the target structure. ● Voltage ranges: a voltage range of 95% to 105% of nominal voltage should be maintained at normal operation.2 Planning criteria The planning criteria describe the standards for development achieve a more accurate evaluation. Losses and other operational costs have to be minimized efficiently. reliable. Using the “Greenfield” planning approach a network concept for the complete distribution network is developed without considering the existing structure and constraints.

and to determine the optimal network concept. Thus the 3. Here the following categories are used: ● ● ● Residential areas Business and governmental areas Industrial areas The current network concept is characterized by long overhead lines inside the city and T-off connection with only a very low number of circuit-breakers. After the final concept is determined. For this network the results showed. Alternative 1 „220/35kV“: The existing 35 kV network level will be used to substitute the existing smaller 10 kV and 6 kV levels. The results matched the collected data very well. These loads can reasonably not be supplied anymore by the existing 10/6 kV voltage levels. which have a negative impact on the network performance. Example of Dividing the City into Sectors with typical Usage and Load Density To develop different possible alternatives. Optimal Selection of Voltage Levels Figure 2. This voltage level is well suitable to supply large loads. which is already loaded to their maximum capacity. which can be analyzed and compared. A reduction of voltage levels and an economic optimized selection of suitable voltage levels is important to reduce maintenance costs Business and providing higher flexibility for network operation. cables and transformers. Thus in some areas new customers can not be connected anymore. with a very simple protection concept and without any automated resupply of loads after faults.1 Selection of Optimal Medium Voltage Level To ensure an economical operation of the system. 4. The analysis of the 110 kV and 35/10 kV components gives a very good overview of the state of the network. Another factor is the high number of voltage levels from Using this approach the complete city could be divided into several sectors with a certain area and a designated load density. The performance is always judged using the planning criteria described above.2 Analysis of Existing Assets The condition and age of the existing assets in the network.2010 China International Conference on Electricity Distribution 3 density. Here three different alternatives are compared. 110 kV. 4. like switchgear. Industry Housing 220 kV and 110 kV via 35 kV and 10 kV to 6 kV and 400 V. These characteristics cause high number of interruptions and long down times for all customers. The main issue is the age of the network components leading to a higher number of faults and disturbances in the network. that a quarter of the 110/35 kV substations are over 40 years and 50% are between 20 and 40 years. as the voltages are very similar. Here the network simulation tool PSS®SINCAL has been used.g. Although a parallel 110 kV and 35 kV voltage level is not economically feasible. the reduction of the existing voltage levels of 220 kV. large hotel or business complexes with around 3-5 MW of peak load. 10 kV and 6 kV to a maximum number of three is necessary. The location of old equipment indicates areas. 35 kV. e. Additionally the currently large load growth results in network equipment. a “Greenfield” planning approach is used. Thus a lot of network components will have to be replaced in the coming years. CICED2010 Session x Paper No xxx Page3/7 . it is investigated using detailed network models and state of the art analysis tools. are assessed. 3.3 Analysis of Present Network Performance An initial analysis of a system’s existing structure from the HV transmission grid to the MV distribution levels shows the actual network performance and reveals any existing weaknesses or bottlenecks. where there is a strong need for action. There are some factors.

Also the number of cables needed in parallel is quite high. when in new city developments large loads have to be connected.4 kV Figure 3. as a new voltage level has to be introduced. Today 20kV is a standard level for distribution network in large areas of the world. are used as the basis of the final concept. A new 20kV voltage level will then substitute the 10kV and 6kV levels. Here only a few loads in the MW range can be supplied via on 110/10kV substation.5 MVA.) RMU 20 kV 0.) Circuit-breaker (n. This means that the 10kV level is already today meeting its limitations. Schematic Overview of the Developed Concept Thus the short-circuit currents are well within the ratings of typical 20kV switchgear. which will also have a high impact on the total costs. Advantages of this concept (shown in Fig. Hence the voltage level is adequate also for future developments in larger cities. keeping in mind the current situation and already existing developments. Compared to alternative 2 this solution shows initial higher investment costs.4 2010 China International Conference on Electricity Distribution 220 kV level will have to substitute the extensive 110 kV voltage level within the city. as this is not a standard voltage level used throughout the world. Additionally the complete 110 kV network has to be replaced by 220 kV substations and lines. Throughout the network structure typical component ratings are used.4 kV substations. This can happen in a step by step approach and the existing 10kV network can be used and extended.g. 4.o. A large number of manufacturers is existing. Thus it is not an adequate solution for future developments in the city. suitable to supply all different kinds of loads within a city. One is the 35 kV level itself. As a lot of components are reaching the end of their lifetime in the next years. This solution has some major drawbacks. The existing 220kV network and the 220/110kV substation. These lines are supplying the 110/20kV substations in a ring structure. Thus the equipment is expensive. On the other hand the advantages for the network are larger then in the other options. The power capability is high compared to the 10kV solution. 3) are a rather simple structure. where the substations are fed from one main 220/110kV station. Also there is only a small number of manufacturers for 35/0. Therefore several alternatives have been analysed to find an optimal concept. the standard transformer size for a 110/20 kV transformer is selected to 31. A drawback is that the 10kV level is very limited. thus the components are having moderate prices.c. e. Alternative 3 „220/110/20kV“: As a third possibility it is investigated to extend the existing 110kV network to replace the old 35kV level. but it can be used as intermediate step to a network with higher voltages. forming a ring around the city. Alternative 2 „220/110/10kV“: Another possibility is to upgrade the old 35kV level by 110kV components. CICED2010 Session x Paper No xxx Page4/7 . From these HV substations at the city’s border the power is transmitted to the city centers via 110kV cables or overhead lines. Main Infeed 220 kV 110 kV Substation 110 kV 20 kV Legend: Circuit-breaker (n. it is a good opportunity to set the course for a suitable distribution network.2 Development of Suitable Network Concept The future network concept has to be suitable to provide energy to the customer in a highly reliable way with low losses and without too complex network structures.

Additionally the losses are evaluated and the tap range of the transformers is approved. short-circuit calculations are performed to assess the maximum stress on the components during faults. 5. which are important for the identified areas: ● ● ● Figure 4. Here the geographic information can also be included to obtain a network model with correct position of the components. In case of critical loads the structure can be enhanced to ensure also (n-2) security. Thus the concept shows a very good reliability performance. Today these substations S/S 1. In Fig. e. Therefore the following aspects have been described. To confirm the ratings of switchgear and cables. An example graphic from the software PSS®SINCAL showing the load density of several areas within the city is shown in Fig.3 Optimal Location of Substations If new substations will be build to serve new loads or to replace old substations.3 are connected via T-off connected lines causing unreliable energy CICED2010 Session x Paper No xxx Page5/7 . the complete network from the surrounding 220kV level down to each 20/0. Additionally maximum and minimum short-circuit currents are used to determine the necessary protection concept and settings. Extensive probabilistic reliability calculations are performed to ensure a high security of supply and good reliability indices. 6. The middle of the red area symbolizes the optimum location for the substation in that area. e. the optimal location of the station has to be determined. Verification of Network Performance To analyze the behavior of the system of the developed network concept.g. which will lead to a minimum length of MV cables required to supply the loads and subsequently a minimum of losses during operation. Load-flow analysis assures that the voltages at bus bars in all voltage levels and loadings of all components are within the given limits during normal operation as well as during disturbed conditions. In an analysis the loads within one or two sectors are combined in the centers of gravity for the supply areas. where green indicates a low value and red indicates a high value for the load density.g. ● In the following one example of fast improvement of power supply within one area of the city is described. 5 the old network structure with its old substations (red circles) is shown. These locations have of course to be matched with local constraints and restrictions. Roadmap and Future Steps To improve the situation in the areas determined in the assessment. actions have been work out and proposed for the areas with the highest rating.2010 China International Conference on Electricity Distribution 5 If a fault occurs on one line in the 110kV network. The load centre governs the optimal site of the new substation with its planned standardized equipment. Load Density and Optimal MV-Substation Location Location of new substation depending on required space Load growth inside area up to year 2025 including new development areas Disentanglement of areas fed by one substation at the MV and LV level Fast improvement of reliability The optimum indicates the location. the distance protection or cable differential protection will trip the line without an interruption of loads. With this model detailed calculations have been performed to ensure a good performance of the proposed network concept. low frequency of interruption and customer minutes lost. for the airport or for governmental buildings.4kV substation is modeled in the power system simulation software PSS®SINCAL. 4.. 4.

grounding and interference. as a senior consultant in the S/S 1’ field of power system analysis. Also the planned development of the loads has been investigated and the load growth up to the year CICED2010 Session x Paper No xxx Page6/7 . As Head of Network Consulting his areas of expertise are strategic planning of transmission. Old network structure (red) with three substations and T-off at the 110kV level for improvements. His PhD research covered modeling and dynamic simulations of HVDC systems. Connor is doing training courses worldwide. The new substation will have state of the art circuit-breakers and protection devices with remotely controlled breakers. Theodor Connor was born in 1953. A detailed analysis of the network in the power system simulation software PSS®SINCAL ensured the good performance of the proposed concept.-Ing. CIGRE. He received his Dipl. New network substations 7.com S/S 3 Figure 6. born in 1973 in Darmstadt. Also the main targets to improve reliability and security of supply and to reduce of operational costs are achieved. Email: hmmueller@siemens. Biography Dr. received S/S 2 Dipl. Email: theodor. S/S 2 S/S 3 2025 has been estimated. and Dr. His research activities also include aspects about large scale integration of renewable energies into power systems. mainly in the fields of transmission and distribution planning and smart grid solutions. First steps are described for a selected number of areas with a high priority S/S 1 Figure 5. distribution networks. In the beginning the current state of the network has been analyzed and major drawbacks have been identified. Based on the developed concept a roadmap is described for transforming the current network into the new structure.-Ing. Conclusions This paper describes the development of a new network concept based on a Greenfield planning approach.CENELEC and IEC. Germany. Mr.-Ing degrees from the Technical University of Darmstadt in 1999 and 2003 respectively. Connor is working for Siemens AG in Erlangen. coping with the future load growth. The optimal solution with the substitution of the existing 6 kV and 10 kV voltage levels by the newly introduced 20 kV level has been discussed and proposed.g. Based on predefined planning criteria different possible concepts and voltage levels combinations have been developed and compared. Since 1980 Mr. Holger Mueller. A step by step replacement and extension of the network will finally lead to the proposed network concept in the coming years. DKE.6 2010 China International Conference on Electricity Distribution supply for these substations due to the lack of circuit-breakers and protection devices. 6). Since 2008 he works with the network consulting department of Siemens PTI in Erlangen. He is a member in different technical committees. ensuring efficient operation and guaranteeing a high quality of living. To increase the reliability a new substation S/S 1’ can be placed on the optimal location (blue circles in Fig.com.connor@siemens. e. degree in Electrical Engineering from the Technical University of Berlin in 1980. The proposed concept for the year 2025 is the base for enabling the distribution network to fulfill its tasks in the future.

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