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Optical methods for near nozzle spray characterisation

Y. Hardalupas & A.M.K.P. Taylor Imperial College London Mechanical Engineering Department London SW7 2BX, UK

Autumn meeting of the Combustion Institute, British Section Atomisation and Spray Combustion Imperial College London, 26 September 2007

Spray formation
Coaxial air-liquid jets Liquid jet in Cross Flow of air 1. Liquid Jet Intact Length (S.M. Thawley 2006, MSc thesis, Virginia State University) - Where Does it end?

2. Ligament break-up - What is the size and 5. Planar velocity? 4. Droplet Cluster Formation Droplet Sizing 3. Dense Spray region Velocimetry - Why are they formed? - What is the size and velocity? - Tracking of - How large are the spray - Does it matter? individual spatial & temporal droplets fluctuations?

Experimental techniques
1. Liquid jet intact length 2. Sizing of ligaments (non-spherical) 3. Measurement of droplet clustering in dense sprays 4. Measurement of individual droplet sizes and velocities

Fluorescence imaging for Liquid jet intact length

Charalampous et al (2007), AIAA paper no. 2007-1337 Charalampous et al (2007), Int. Conf. on Multiphase Flows (ICMF), Leipsig, Germany.

Lighting of Water Fountains

Illumination from below and the side of the liquid jet source Observation of scattered light from liquid jet and droplets However, liquid jet breaks up earlier than the image suggests Liquid droplets cause multiple scattering and generate noise on the image

Fluorescence Imaging approach

Introduction of the laser beam through liquid injection nozzle Propagation of laser beam along intact liquid jet core, which acts as an optical fiber Break-up of liquid jet interrupts light propagation, so light intensity change identifies the intact core length Addition of fluorescing dye in the atomizing liquid, so that all the liquid volume is observed Addition of optical filter to collect fluorescent intensity eliminates scattered light from droplets
Laser Beam introduced into nozzle

Liquid flow Dye in intact liquid core is fluorescing

Intact Core Length

Dye in detached droplets not fluorescing because initial laser light does not propagate after liquid jet breaks

Experimental Set-up
Airblast Atomizer (modified with optical access to the nozzle) Nd:YAG pulsed laser at 532 nm for LIF Rhodamine WT fluorescent dye Nanosecond-Flashlamp for shadowgraph comparison Two 16-bit ICCD cameras (one for LIF, one for shadowgraph) Optical filters
Fluorescing Continuous Spray Core LIF Camera Shadowgraph Camera Dichroic filter

Experimental Set-up (Coaxial Airblast Atomizer)

Laser beam access

Laser Beam Alignment Optics



Shadowgraphy vs. Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) Imaging

We ~ 10 MR ~ 4


Flow 1c

Fig 1a

Shadowgraphic images are influenced by droplets around the liquid jet core. Difficult to identify location of intact Fig 1b length core.
We ~ 25

Flow 1d

LIF image is clear. No interference by surrounding droplets/ligaments. LIF measures shorter intact liquid jet core Fig 2b

MR ~ 23



Fig 2a

Liquid jet intact core as a function of Momentum Ratio (MR)

16 14 12 10 L/DL 8 6 4 2 0 0 100 200 MR 300 400
Flows 1a-1d (LIF)

Measured values from Flows 1a-1d (Shadowgraphy) each technique follow a Flows 2a-2d (LIF) general single trend for Flows 2a-2d (Shadowgraphy) all flow conditions
Engelbert et al

Consistently intact core length measured by LIF is shorter than that from shadowgraphy.

Simultaneous views from two directions for reconstruction of core

LIF Camera - 1

LIF Camera - 2

LIF measurement of intact length is the same for both views of the liquid jet. However, shape of liquid jet is different. Potential for measurement of 3-dimensional structure of intact core and characteristics of liquid-air interface instabilities

Detection of liquid Core instabilities

Identification of surface contour to detect core tip location, wavelengths of surface instabilities,

Demonstration in modified Diesel injector

Metering injector

Atomising injector
Metering injector: operated at 80 MPa, 0.6 ms injection duration, corresponding to 1.8 CAD at 500 rpm. Atomising injector: injection duration 1.92 ms, corrresponding to 5.76 CAD at 500 rpm

View along the injector axis of the scattered light image, when illuminated by flashlamp

Image measured with the laser beam illumination through the nozzle

Shadow Doppler Velocimeter for measurement of ligaments and nonspherical droplets

Hardalupas et al, "Shadow Doppler Technique for sizing particles of arbitrary shape", Applied Optics 33, (1994), 8417 8426. Hardalupas et al, Prototype Probe Design and Operating Experience for In Situ Measurements of Particle Size and Velocity in Co-Current Flow Spray Dryer and Spray Dryer Atomisers Using Shadow Doppler Velocimetry, Spray Drying 01, Dortmund (2001).

The Shadow Doppler Velocimeter (SDV) - 1

Magnified Projection of droplet passing through the crossing point of two laser beams

Linear Diode Array

Distance along the array

The Shadow Doppler Velocimeter (SDV) - 2

Microscope Objective Relay Lens

Linear Diode Array

Measurements of Size, Shape, 2D Velocity and Concentration of individual non-spherical droplets

SDV: Droplet measurement close to liquid film surface

High Magnification Imaging of breaking droplets from film Liquid film


SDV of detached droplet

From Matsuura et al, ILASS Europe 2002, Zaragoza 9 11 September 2002

Planar Droplet Sizing for droplet clustering measurement in dense sprays

Domann, R. & Hardalupas, Y., Spatial distribution of fluorescence intensity within large droplets and its dependence on dye concentration. Applied Optics 40, (2001), 3586-3597. Domann R. & Hardalupas Y. Quantitative Measurements of planar Droplet Sauter Mean Diameter in Sprays using Planar Droplet Sizing Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 20, (2003) 209 - 218. Zimmer L., Domann R., Hardalupas Y. and Ikeda Y. Simultaneous Laser Induced Fluorescence and Mie scattering for droplet cluster measurements. AIAA J. 41, (2003) 2170-2178. Domann, R. & Hardalupas, Y., Characterisation of spray unsteadiness in Proceedings 18th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomisation & Spray Systems (ILASS-Europe 2002), Lozano A. ed., 2002, 287-292. Domann, R. and Hardalupas, Y., Planar droplet sizing for characterisation of spray unsteadiness. In Proceedings 10th Workshop on Two-Phase Flow predictions, Sommerfeld M ed., 2002, 364-373. Charalampous et al. Optimisation of the Droplet Sizing Accuracy of the combined Scattering (Mie) / Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) technique in Proceedings 12th Int. Symp. on Application of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, Adrian R.J. et al. eds., Lisbon, Portugal, 12-15 July 2004, paper 15.6.

Planar Droplet Sizing in dense sprays

Scattered Light Liquid Surface Area In a cloud of Droplets

Imaged Area

m m j =1 j =1

3 j 2 j

1 i = K i
m j =1 m j =1

fluorescence j , scattered

(D ) (D )
j j

Calibration Constant K = a f

Fluorescence Light

Liquid Volume

Calibration parameter is not Constant

Experiment Calculation
Internal droplet fluorescence intensity distribution. Dye concentration 0.001 g/l


The calibration parameter K varies with Droplet size Scattering angle Dye concentration

2.5E-16 2.0E-16 K 1.5E-16 1.0E-16 5.0E-17 0.0E+00 0 50 100 SMD (m) 150 200

Advanced signal processing for increased accuracy

1. Determination of constant Kfit=af/as from the scattering and fluorescence intensity calculations 2. Initial Estimate of SMD by Kfit 3. New value of K, Kcorr, from the Main Trend of Kreal 4. Recalculation of SMD 5. Repeat steps 3 and 4 until SMD value converges

Burner geometry and Air Flow

Atomiser Distance along the Centreline (mm) Bluff body Air Flow Recirculation Zone downstream of bluff body

Instantaneous Spray Characteristics

Surface area

Liquid volume

SMD (quantitative)

Droplet Clusters are visible and will be quantified e.g. how are regions of high surface area (clusters) related to instantaneous liquid volume and SMD variations ?

Deviation of instantaneous droplet surface area from the mean

Droplet Clusters

Mean of 800 measurements Instantaneous measurement Instantaneous fluctuations

Provide statistical information about length scales of clusters deviations from the mean surface area distribution Provide statistical information about magnitude of the fluctuations

Probability of droplet cluster location and high vorticity in air flow

Line contours: PDF of high vorticity eddies in air flow

Coloured contours: PDF of droplet clusters

Suggested Physical Mechanism of Droplet Cluster Generation

Lengthscale of droplet cluster

Droplets with SMD = 30 microns can be centrifuged by the air flow eddies

Counter-rotating vortices (eddies) in the air flow turbulence are responsible for the formation of droplet clusters

Droplets with SMD = 10 microns follow the air flow eddies

Eddy lengthscale A mechanism responsible for formation of droplet clusters with negative correlation between SMD and surface area was associated with droplet response to air flow turbulence

In-cylinder droplet distribution

Cyclic Variations of Fuel-Droplet Distribution during the Early Intake Stroke in a VTEC gasoline engine
Aleiferis, P. G., Hardalupas, Y., Taylor, A. M. K. P., Ishii, K. & Urata, Y. Experiments in Fluids 39 (2005) 780-798.

Possible origin of cycle-to-cycle variability of in-cylinder fuel distribution

In cylinder droplet location for good cycle (leads to good fuel stratification) In cylinder droplet location for bad cycle (leads to bad fuel stratification)

Spray Impingement on main inlet valve

Image Processing of droplet scattering

Eliminate Engine Vibration Effects
Shift Image in Space by PIV-type Cross Correlation with Image of the Engine Head at Rest

Background Subtraction

Raw Image of Fuel Droplets

Processed Image of Fuel Droplets

Fuel-Droplet Distribution for Cycles of High & Low IMEP

Conditionally Averaged Difference from the Mean Droplet Distribution: (1) Good Cycles IMEP > 1.15IMEPMEAN (2) Bad Cycles IMEP < 0.85IMEPMEAN Difference: (1)-(2)

30% of the Pattern Area of (1) Scatters 20% More Light Intensity, I I due to More Droplets of Same Size: In, mn 20% More Fuel in 30% Area I due to Same Number of Larger Droplets: ID2, mD3, mI3/2 203/2% More Fuel in 30% Area Finally: 626% Difference in Fuel, i.e. 0.17 Good Agreement with of Reacting Mixture

Planar Droplet Sizing Velocimetry for Tracking of individual droplets: Interferometric Laser Imaging Droplet Sizing (ILIDS)
Glover et al, (1995) Interferometric laser imaging for droplet sizing : a method for droplet size measurement in sparce spray systems. Appl. Optics 34, 8409-8421. Kawagushi et al (2002) Size measurements of droplets and bubbles by advanced interferometric laser imaging technique Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 308316. Hardalupas et al, (2004) Sizing Spheroidal Droplets by ILIDS in Proc. 7th Int. Congress on Optical Particle Characterisation, 1-5 August 2004, Kyoto, Japan, paper 66 Sugimoto et al. (2006). Extension of the compressed interferometric particle sizing technique for three component velocity measurements. In Proc 13th Int. Symp. on Applic. of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, July 2006. Matsuura et al. (2006). Simultaneous planar measurement of size and three-component velocity of droplets in an aero-engine airblast fuel spray by stereoscopic interferometric laser imaging technique. In Proc. 10th Int. Conf. on Liquid Atomisation and Spraying Systems (ICLASS-2006), Kyoto, Japan, August 2006.

Principle of Interferometric Laser Imaging Droplet Sizing (ILIDS)

Sl i fo ght cu ly s O pla ima ut-o ne gin fg

Illuminated Droplet

In ag focu in s g pl an e

Resulting Image

Resulting Image Resulting Image (ILIDS)

Fringe spacing provides size information

Note: Fringe spacing represents the frequency of scattered light intensity fluctuations

O im ut-o ag fing foc Ci rc pla us ula ne rA p Re er tu ce re ivi L Im en ng ag s ing IC CD

ILIDS Spray Images

Spray Region

Focused Image

Defocused Image with Fringe Patterns

Overlapping fringe patterns can be an issue when many droplets exist

Compression Optics Assembly

Droplet Circular Aperture Imaging Lens Fringe Pattern


Rectangular Imaging Aperture Lens

Cylindrical Lenses

Fringe Pattern

Without Compression

With Compression

Planar measurement of individual droplet size and 2D velocity in spray regions where a Phase Doppler Anemometer can measure

Stereoscopic ILIDS
Stereoscopic ILIDS for simultaneous measurement of 3 velocity components and droplet size

Measurements in Spray from Gas Turbine Atomiser

Parker Hannifin atomiser Two operating conditions with constant ALR=9.5 Pressure Drop in Nozzle, p / Back pressure at inlet, Pb= 2% and 4% Ma=6.4 g/s, ML=0.67g/s and Ma=9.2 g/s, ML=0.97g/s

Droplet number density and Sauter Mean Diameter p / Pb=4%

Comparison of droplet sizing between ILIDS and PDA Radial profile at axial distance z=13.5 mm

Comparison of axial droplet velocity for different sizes measured with ILIDS and PDA Radial profile at axial distance z=13.5 mm

Volume Fluorescence measurement of liquid intact length and primary breakup characteristics Shadow Doppler Velocimeter for measurements of size, shape and velocity of non-spherical droplets / ligaments Combined Mie/LIF for measurements in the dense spray region. Quantification of surface area and volume of liquid, characteristics of droplet clusters and spray unsteadiness Interferometric Laser Imaging Droplet Sizing (ILIDS) for planar measurements of individual droplet sizes and velocities. Quantification of instantaneous spatial droplet motion, which can explain the physics of droplet cluster formation