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[ACI 318-2008 Annexure A (Pg 379 393)] Guidance for sizing struts, node, ties It addresses o The performance of highly stressed compression zone o Effect of stresses in nodal zones o Requirements for bond and anchorage of ties

Design of struts, ties, and nodal zones shall be based on

Fn Fu
Fu is the factored force acting in a strut, in a tie, or on one face of a nodal zone Fn is the nominal strength of the strut, tie, or nodal zone; and is strength reduction factor, for Strut-and-tie models its 0.75

Strength of Struts The nominal compressive strength of a strut without longitudinal reinforcement, Fns, shall be taken as the smaller value of

Fns = fce Acs

Where, Acs is the cross sectional area at one end of the strut, fce is the smaller of (a) and (b): (a) The effective compressive strength of the concrete in the strut (b) The effective compressive strength of the concrete in the nodal zone The effective compressive strength of the concrete, fce, in a strut shall be taken as fce = 0.85 s fc fc compressive strength of concrete at 28 days s values For a strut of uniform cross-sectional area over its length s = 1.0

For struts located such that the width of the midsection of the strut is larger than the width at the nodes (bottle-shaped struts): (a) With reinforcement satisfying (b) Without reinforcement satisfying =0.60 The effective compressive stress, fce , on a face of a nodal zone due to the strut and tie forces shall not exceed the value given by fce = 0.85 n fc s = 0.75 s

n values In nodal zones bounded by struts or bearing areas, or both In nodal zones anchoring one tie In nodal zones anchoring two or more ties n = 1.0 n = 0.80 n = 0.60

If compression steel is provided the equation may be modified as

Fns = fce Acs + As fs

As = area of compression reinforcement fs = stress in compression reinforcement under factored loads

Strength of Nodal Zones The nominal compression strength of a nodal zone, Fnn,

Fnn = fce Anz

Where, fce is the effective compressive strength of the concrete in the nodal zone Anz is the smaller of (a) and (b): (a) The area of the face of the nodal zone on which Fu acts, taken perpendicular to the line of action of Fu (b) The area of a section through the nodal zone, taken perpendicular to the line of action of the resultant force on the section

Strength of Ties The nominal strength of a tie, Fnt, shall be taken as

Fnt = Ats fy + Atp (fse + fp)

Where, (fse + fp) shall not exceed fpy, Atp is zero for non prestressed members. fse = effective stress in prestressing steel fpy = specified yield strength of prestressing steel Atp = area of prestressing steel in a tie Ats = area of nonprestressed reinforcement in a tie

fp = increase in stress in prestressing steel due to factored loads, equal to 60,000 psi for bonded prestressed reinforcement, or 10,000 psi for unbonded prestressed reinforcement.

ACI Shear Requirements for Deep beams Nominal shear for deep beams shall not exceed 10 fc bw d

The minimum reinforcement perpendicular to the span, Av 0.0025bw s, s = spacing of reinforcement The minimum reinforcement parallel to the span, Avh, 0.0015bws2, and s2 = spacing of reinforcement perpendicular to the longitudinal reinforcement