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WIPL-D Pro CAD 2012 Users Manual

Copyright 2012 WIPL-D d.o.o

Table of Contents
1. Introduction ....................................................................................... 1-1 WIPL-D Pro CAD Overview.................................................... 1-1 Main Menu and Toolbars ......................................................... 1-2 3D View ................................................................................... 1-4 Project Tree .............................................................................. 1-4 Important Definitions ............................................................... 1-6 1.5.1. Model Parts .................................................................... 1-6 1.5.2. Types of Bodies.............................................................. 1-7 2. Quick Tour ........................................................................................ 2-1 2.1. Example1: Horn Antenna with Reflector ................................. 2-1 2.1.1. Configuring the Model ................................................... 2-1 2.1.1.1. Open WIPL-D Pro CAD.................................. 2-1 2.1.1.2. Open and Save a New Project ......................... 2-2 2.1.1.3. Set the Drawing Units...................................... 2-2 2.1.1.4. EM Settings ..................................................... 2-3 2.1.1.5. Define Frequency Range of the Analysis ........ 2-4 2.1.1.6. Defining the Symbols ...................................... 2-4 2.1.2. Drawing the Model ........................................................ 2-5 2.1.2.1. Horn Antenna .................................................. 2-5 2.1.2.2. Reflector .......................................................... 2-9 2.1.2.3. Quarter Model ............................................... 2-10 2.1.3. Assigning the Excitation .............................................. 2-11 2.1.4. Simulation Settings ...................................................... 2-12 2.1.4.1. Symmetry Options Set Up ............................. 2-12 2.1.4.2. Simulation Options ........................................ 2-13 2.1.4.3. Setting the Output Results ............................. 2-13 2.1.4.4. Mesh Settings ................................................ 2-14 2.1.5. Run the Analysis .......................................................... 2-15 2.1.6. Viewing the Results ..................................................... 2-16 2.2. Example 2: Patch Antenna Fed by Coaxial Cable .................. 2-17 2.2.1. Configuring the Model ................................................. 2-18 1.1. 1.2. 1.3. 1.4. 1.5.
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2.2.2. Drawing the Model.......................................................2-20 2.2.3. Assigning the Excitation ..............................................2-22 2.2.4. Define Wire-to-Plate Junction......................................2-23 2.2.5. Assigning the Domains ................................................2-24 2.2.6. Half Model ...................................................................2-26 2.2.7. Simulation Settings ......................................................2-27 2.2.8. Viewing the Results .....................................................2-28 3. Preview of the Model ........................................................................3-1 3.1. Viewing the Model ...................................................................3-1 3.1.1. Orbit, Pan and Zoom ......................................................3-1 3.1.2. Coordinate Projection.....................................................3-3 3.1.3. Cutting Planes ................................................................3-3 3.1.4. Transparency and Hide...................................................3-4 3.1.5. Show Vertices ................................................................3-5 3.1.6. Show Curves as Wires....................................................3-6 3.1.7. Paint Model by Domains................................................3-6 3.1.8. Visible Domains.............................................................3-7 3.1.9. Mark Entities ..................................................................3-7 3.1.10. Symmetry Visualization .................................................3-8 3.1.11. Output Settings Visualization.........................................3-8 3.2. Configuring the Model .............................................................3-8 3.2.1. Model Units....................................................................3-9 3.2.2. Render Mode ................................................................3-10 3.2.3. Cutting Planes Options.................................................3-10 3.2.4. Visual Effects ...............................................................3-11 3.2.5. Project Tree Visualization ............................................3-12 3.2.6. Toolbar Configuration..................................................3-12 3.2.7. Open Path .....................................................................3-12 4. Primitives ..........................................................................................4-1 4.1. Drawing Primitives...................................................................4-1 4.2. Snap mode ................................................................................4-2 4.3. Curve Primitives .......................................................................4-3 4.3.1. Line ................................................................................4-3 4.3.2. Polyline ..........................................................................4-3 4.3.3. Loop ...............................................................................4-4 4.3.4. Elliptic Arc .....................................................................4-4 4.3.5. NURBS Curve................................................................4-5 4.3.6. Fitted Spline ...................................................................4-5 4.3.7. Wire Radius....................................................................4-6 4.4. Surface Primitives.....................................................................4-7 4.4.1. Circle ..............................................................................4-7 4.4.2. Ellipse.............................................................................4-8 4.4.3. Quad ...............................................................................4-8
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Rectangle........................................................................ 4-8 Regular Polygon............................................................. 4-9 Irregular Polygon ........................................................... 4-9 4.5. Solid Primitives ...................................................................... 4-10 4.5.1. Sphere........................................................................... 4-11 4.5.2. Cuboid.......................................................................... 4-11 4.5.3. Cylinder........................................................................ 4-11 4.5.4. Cone ............................................................................. 4-12 4.5.5. Flare ............................................................................. 4-12 4.6. Reflector Object...................................................................... 4-13 4.6.1. Paraboliod .................................................................... 4-13 4.6.2. Hyperboloid/Ellipsoid .................................................. 4-13 4.7. Helical/Spiral Object .............................................................. 4-14 4.7.1. Helix............................................................................. 4-14 4.7.2. Spiral ............................................................................ 4-16 4.7.3. General Helix ............................................................... 4-18 5. Coordinate Systems and Grid............................................................ 5-1 5.1. Working Coordinate System (WCS) ........................................ 5-2 5.1.1. Move Working CS in GCS............................................. 5-3 5.1.2. Rotate Working CS ........................................................ 5-4 5.1.3. Align Working CS.......................................................... 5-4 5.2. Grid Settings............................................................................. 5-6 6. Selecting Model Parts........................................................................ 6-1 6.1. Selection from 3D View ........................................................... 6-1 6.2. Selection from Project Tree...................................................... 6-3 7. Operations on the Model ................................................................... 7-1 7.1. Boolean Operations .................................................................. 7-1 7.1.1. Unite............................................................................... 7-1 7.1.2. Unite Simplify................................................................ 7-2 7.1.3. Subtract .......................................................................... 7-2 7.1.4. Intersect.......................................................................... 7-3 7.1.5. Imprint............................................................................ 7-4 7.1.6. Split Wires by Bodies..................................................... 7-5 7.2. Transformations........................................................................ 7-5 7.2.1. Rotate ............................................................................. 7-5 7.2.2. Translate......................................................................... 7-6 7.2.3. Scale ............................................................................... 7-7 7.2.4. Mirror ............................................................................. 7-8 7.3. Copy Options............................................................................ 7-9 7.3.1. Copy Body or Face......................................................... 7-9 7.3.2. Multiple Copy ................................................................ 7-9 7.3.3. History Copy ................................................................ 7-10 7.4. Sweep ..................................................................................... 7-11
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4.4.4. 4.4.5. 4.4.6.

Body Repair Tools..................................................................7-12 Sew Faces.....................................................................7-12 Removing Model Parts.................................................7-13 7.5.2.1. Remove Hole .................................................7-13 7.5.2.2. Remove Feature .............................................7-13 7.5.2.3. Remove Blend ...............................................7-15 7.6. Explode Body .........................................................................7-16 7.7. Delete Body or Face ...............................................................7-16 7.8. Crop by Plane .........................................................................7-17 8. Domains ............................................................................................8-1 8.1. Defining Domains.....................................................................8-1 8.2. Assigning Domains to the Model .............................................8-2 8.3. Domain Attributes Syntax ........................................................8-4 9. Loadings ............................................................................................9-1 9.1. Distributed Loadings ................................................................9-1 9.2. Concentrated Loadings .............................................................9-3 10. Excitations .......................................................................................10-1 10.1. Generators...............................................................................10-1 10.2. Waves .....................................................................................10-3 10.3. Field Generators .....................................................................10-5 10.3.1. Defining Excitation Type .............................................10-5 10.3.2. Defining Field Generators ............................................10-6 10.3.3. Radiation Pattern ..........................................................10-7 10.3.3.1. Analytical specification ...............................10-7 10.3.3.2. Imported.......................................................10-7 10.3.4. Array Dimension ..........................................................10-8 10.3.5. Array Position ..............................................................10-8 10.3.6. Magnitude and Phase ...................................................10-9 10.3.7. Consider Array as Single Excitation Check Box..........10-9 10.3.8. Main Beam Direction .................................................10-10 11. Model Verification and Validation..................................................11-1 11.1. Measuring Distance ................................................................11-1 11.2. Model Information..................................................................11-2 11.3. Model Validation ....................................................................11-2 12. Specifying Mesh..............................................................................12-1 12.1. Mesh Process Overview .........................................................12-1 12.2. Meshing Mode........................................................................12-2 12.3. Mesh Settings for User Controlled Mode ...............................12-3 12.4. Local Mesh Size .....................................................................12-8 12.5. Create and Show Mesh .........................................................12-10 13. More Options with WIPL-D Pro CAD............................................13-1 13.1. CAD File Import.....................................................................13-1 13.2. CAD File Export.....................................................................13-2 7.5.1. 7.5.2.
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7.5.

13.3. History List............................................................................. 13-3 14. Frequently Used Shortcuts .............................................................. 14-1 15. Index................................................................................................ 15-1

WIPL-D Pro CAD

Table of Contents

1. Introduction
WIPL-D Pro CAD is a powerful software package for electromagnetic simulation of arbitrary 3D structures. The core of the package is WIPL-D Pro 3D EM Solver, a standalone 3D modeler that uses wires, plates and parameterized objects as building blocks for surface modeling. WIPL-D Pro CAD is the module that allows easy modeling and conversion of CAD models into WIPL-D native format (.iwp).

1.1.

WIPL-D Pro CAD Overview

WIPL-D Pro CAD is 3D CAD modeling software with wide spectrum of available built-in primitives, which, combined with the usage of manipulations and operations, can be used for modeling of various 3D structures. Modeling of metallic and/or dielectric/magnetic structures is made easier and, with WIPL-D Pro 3D EM Solver in the back-end, the total time needed for solving a specific problem is significantly decreased. The common phases of creating an arbitrary EM model in WIPL-D Pro CAD are: Making the appropriate model geometry by using built-in primitives, manipulations and Boolean operations, Assigning domains (material properties), Defining loadings (distributed and concentrated) Defining model excitation, Configuring EM simulation settings, Configuring mesh settings, Running the simulation, Viewing output results. The graphic user interface (GUI) in which all these actions are performed consists of three main parts:
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Main menu and toolbars 3D View Project Tree

1.2.

Main Menu and Toolbars

Main menu consists of the following items: File - standard file operations, such as Open, Save and Print, Edit - besides standard operations, such as Undo and Redo, it contains options for defining project parameters, as well as History List,
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View - contains commands that simplify previewing of the model in coordinate plane and change the way in which the model is visualized, Draw - contains commands for drawing primitives and setting a suitable coordinate plane and grid. Select - options for selection of different model parts, Modify - contains all operations that are used to modify the created model, Inspect - investigation of the model, Mesh - for choosing meshing algorithm and starting meshing procedure, Run - for starting EM simulation, Output - for observing obtained output results, Configure - various program configurations, Window - navigation through multiple open models, Help - documentation for using the program. Toolbars encompass the most often used commands from the menu. They are organized in several groups: File Undo/Redo EM Settings Domains and Junctions Loadings Excitations Symbols Simulation Settings Inspect Mesh Run Output Result Draw WCS Modify
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Crop by Plane Set on Selection Selection Modes Manipulate Coordinate Projections Cutting Planes Render Modes

1.3.

3D View

3D View is the main workspace of WIPL-D Pro CAD. The structure is visualized in this space and a number of commands can be performed by left or right mouse button clicks and drag actions. Some most important ones are: Orbit and Pan are done by a click-and-drag action of the left mouse button, Select is done by a left mouse button click, optionally holding Ctrl or Shift keys, Click of the right mouse button opens a context menu.

1.4.

Project Tree

Project Tree is the main tool for navigation through the model. It represents a hierarchical tree view of the model topology, providing information about:
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EM settings: operation mode and frequency, Model structure: the defined domains (materials), parts of the model (their properties and mutual relations) and junctions, Loadings: parameters of distributed and concentrated loadings, Excitations: parameters of waves, generators and field generators that serve as excitations. Simulation setup: symmetry planes, simulation options, mesh settings and output results settings, Symbols Project Tree consists of two sections: Top section, which displays the actual project tree, Bottom section, which displays a subtree of the selected body or a list of parameters of the selected command as shown in figures below.

Main commands that can be performed from Project Tree are: Selection of model parts, done by a left mouse click on an item, Changing properties of model parts through context menus, obtained by the right mouse button click on an item, Changing values of the parameters from the bottom section of Project Tree.
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1.5.

Important Definitions

The following section contains the essentials for better understanding of model geometry in WIPL-D Pro CAD.

1.5.1.

Model Parts

Every structure created in WIPL-D Pro CAD represents a primitive i.e. body. There are several types of bodies. They are composed of one or more connected entities, or components. Bodies can contain the topological entities shown in the figure below.

Vertex represents a point in 3D space. Edge is a bounded piece of a single curve. Its boundary is a collection of zero, one or two vertices. Fin represents the oriented use of an edge by a loop. Loop is a connected component of a face boundary. A loop can have: an ordered ring of distinct fins a set of vertices Fins and loops are not displayed in WIPL-D Pro CAD graphical interface as they have no importance in user interaction. Face is a bounded subset of a surface, whose boundary is a collection of zero or more loops. A face with zero loops forms a closed entity, such as a full spherical face. Region is a connected subset of 3-dimensional space bounded by a collection of vertices, edges and oriented faces. Regions are either solid (contain material) or void (empty).
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Bodies always have an infinite void region, which can be imagined as all the space outside of the body itself. The sum of all regions of a body comprises the whole 3D space. Example: A hollow cube contains three regions: The void region in the center of the cube, The solid region occupied by the material of the cube, The (infinite) void region outside the cube. Only solid regions are displayed in WIPL-D Pro CAD and can receive domains specifications. Finite and infinite void regions are considered to belong to domain 1 (free-space). Assembly can be considered a combination of multiple bodies that also contains information on how the contained bodies are structured. Assembly is a collection of instances, where each instance is a pointer to a body used in the assembly (possibly with some transformation applied to the body), or to another assembly. Assemblies are sometimes used to transmit CAD models in files efficiently since they support reuse of certain model parts throughout the model. WIPL-D Pro CAD unpacks all assemblies immediately after import in order to allow the user full functionality of the program.

1.5.2.

Types of Bodies

Body types supported in WIPL-D Pro CAD are: Wire bodies, Surface bodies, Solid bodies, General bodies. Wire body is a topologically one-dimensional body that has one infinite void region. Each component in a wire body is a set of connected edges: an open component in a wire body has two ends a closed component in a wire body has no ends Surface body is topologically two-dimensional. Each component in a sheet body is either open (e.g. a bounded plane) or closed (e.g. a hollow sphere or torus whose walls have zero thickness). A surface body that contains only open components has one infinite void region. For each closed component, there is an
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extra bounded void region representing the interior of the closed component. A solid body is three-dimensional and occupies a finite volume. The volume of each component in a solid body is continuous. Each solid component has a continuous bound volume. A solid body has one infinite void region, one solid region for each continuous solid volume, and one void region for each bounded continuous void volume. A general body is a collection of entities (faces, edges and vertices) and connected three dimensional regions into which space is divided by the entities. Each region is either solid or void, indicating whether or not it represents material. General bodies differ from other body types in that they usually cannot exist in the real world. Examples are: bodies with internal partitions, bodies with mixed dimensions (containing both solids and wires), and non-manifold bodies (can be created in intermediate stages of Boolean operations).

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2. Quick Tour
Quick Tour is made for all WIPL-D Pro CAD users that are using this program for the first time. The whole chapter is based on modeling of the two concrete examples. The first example shows modeling and simulating of a reflector antenna fed by horn. The second example is a model of patch antenna fed by coaxial cable. The main idea is to gain some basic experience on how to make a valid electromagnetic model, with appropriate geometry and excitation, so that WIPL-D Pro CAD could be able to provide accurate analyses of the structure.

2.1.

Example1: Horn Antenna with Reflector

Reflector antennas are highly directive systems. They use a reflector to focus the energy radiated from a feed element. The following example demonstrates how to create and simulate a parabolic reflector antenna. The focus of the reflector is at the apex of the pyramidal horn that is utilized as feed.

2.1.1.
2.1.1.1.

Configuring the Model


Open WIPL-D Pro CAD

Double-click WIPL-D Pro CAD icon on the desktop. WIPL-D Pro 3D EM Solver opens by default. Start WIPL-D Pro CAD program by using the option WIPL-D Pro CAD from the File menu. From this point on, the work continues in WIPL-D Pro CAD interface.

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2.1.1.2.

Open and Save a New Project

In the File menu, click New.

In the File menu, click Save As, and locate the file where the project should be saved. Type ''reflector_antenna'' in the text box and click Save.

2.1.1.3.

Set the Drawing Units

In the Configure menu, click Units. The Units dialog box displays drawing units. Set the units as shown in the figure below, and click OK.

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2.1.1.4.

EM Settings

The program offers two modes of operation for antennas: ANTENNA (all generators) and ANTENNA (one generator at time). In the first option, all ports are simultaneously excited, while in the second option, the antenna is assumed to be driven one port at a time (while all the other ports are shortcircuited). If an antenna has only one port, as in this case, both options give the same results. Select Operation in the Edit menu. The Operation dialog box opens. The active radio button denotes the currently selected mode of operation. Initially, the default mode is ANTENNA (one generator at time). Click ANTENNA (all generators). The dialog box looks as shown below. Press OK. The dialog box closes.

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2.1.1.5.

Define Frequency Range of the Analysis

The analysis of the structure of interest is performed at one or more frequencies. The frequency range is defined by the start and stop frequencies and the number of frequencies. The computation is performed at a number of equally spaced frequencies. If the number of frequencies is one, the analysis is performed only at the start frequency. Select Frequency in the Edit menu. The Frequency dialog box opens. Type the number 1 in the Start frequency, Stop frequency and in the Number of Frequencies edit fields. Click OK. The dialog box closes.

2.1.1.6.

Defining the Symbols

Dimensions of horn antenna, reflector, and excitation will be defined as symbols. This enables easier drawing of objects by typing symbols as values instead of large numbers. Open Symbols list by selecting Symbols in the Edit menu. To add a new symbol press Add and type the symbol expression in the Add/Edit Symbol dialog box. To add a comment or description of the symbol, type ; after the symbol name and then type the text. Press OK
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to close the dialog box.

Define the following symbols with the values shown in the figure below:

Press Close to close the Symbols list.

2.1.2.

Drawing the Model

Creating the geometry of the model is done by using WIPL-D Pro CAD builtin solid and wire primitives. Since there is no need to use the grid, its visibility is turned off. Uncheck the option Draw/Grid/Visibility, or press G on the keyboard, to turn off the grid lines. 2.1.2.1. Horn Antenna

The pyramidal horn antenna that is modeled consists of a rectangular metal


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waveguide and flaring metal waveguide shaped like a horn to direct radio waves in a beam. In the Draw menu, choose Solid/Cuboid. The drawing mode is activated. Press Tab on the keyboard to switch to keyboard input of the parameters and define: o Cuboid position: Enter a/2 and b/2 in the X and Y fields and press Enter. Switching between the fields is done by Tab or by positioning the cursor on the field.

o o

Opposite base corner: Enter -a/2 and -b/2 in X and Y fields and press Enter. Cuboid height: Enter the symbol Lwg in the Z field and press Enter.

Press Esc to exit the drawing mode. Choose Select/Selection Level/Face, than choose Select/Select by Single Click to be able to select face of the body. Select the top face of the cuboid by clicking it in 3D View and choose option Align WCS to Face from the context right-click menu. This will translate the working coordinate system along z-axis. Press Home on the keyboard to fit the isometric projection of the model in 3D View area. Optionally the user can use the mouse scroll to zoom in or zoom out the structure.

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On the Draw menu, choose Solid/Flare. The drawing mode is activated. Press Tab on the keyboard to switch to keyboard input of the parameters and define: o First base corner: Enter a/2 and b/2 in the X and Y fields and press Enter. o Opposite base corner: Enter -a/2 and -b/2 in the X and Y fields and press Enter. o Top base size: Enter aHorn/2 and bHorn/2 in the X and Y fields and press Enter. o Flare height: Enter the symbol Lhorn in the Z field and press Enter.

Press Esc to exit the drawing mode. Press Home on the keyboard to fit the isometric projection of the model in 3D View area. Choose Draw/Coordinate Systems/Align Working CS/To global Coordinates to place the working coordinate system in the position of
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the global coordinate system. Optionally turn off the visibility of the working coordinate system by unchecking Draw/Coordinate System/Visibility/Local.

Choose Select/Selection Level/Body, than choose Select/Select by Single Click to be able to select body. Hold Ctrl and select bodies (waveguide and flare) by clicking them in 3D View. Go to Modify menu, select Boolean and choose Unite and Simplify. This operation unites the two bodies and removes the overlapped faces. Choose Select/Selection Level/Face, than choose Select/Select by Single Click to be able to select face of the body. Select the face that represents the upper base of the flare by clicking it in 3D View. Right click on the selected face and choose option Delete. Press Yes in the pop up window to confirm deletion.

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2.1.2.2.

Reflector

Go to Draw menu, and choose Reflector/Paraboloid. The drawing mode is activated. Press Tab on the keyboard to switch to keyboard input of the parameters and define: o Focal distance: Enter -Lfocus in the Z field and press Enter. o Aperture radius: Enter the symbol Rrefl in the R field and press Enter. o Reflector center offset: Enter 0 in the X and Y fields and press Enter. Press Home to fit the isometric projection of the model in 3D View area. The horn antenna and the reflector are overlapped currently.

Press Esc to exit the drawing mode. Choose Select/Selection Level/Body, than choose Select/Select by Single Click to be able to select body. Select the created reflector by clicking it in 3D View. Go to Modify menu and select Transformation/Translate Body. Move flare along z-axis of Lwg+Lhorn+Lfocus and click Apply once, then close the window after the reflector is moved.

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Now the model should look like as shown in the figure below.

2.1.2.3.

Quarter Model

Symmetry options in WIPL-D Pro CAD allow the user to analyze a structure or a system by modeling only a portion of it. That will lead to shorter analysis time. The way to do that is to split the model to either half or quarter model prior to symmetry options set up (see 2.1.4.1). Presented model is symmetric with respect to the two planes, yOz (X plane) and xOz (Y plane). Go to Modify menu and make sure that the option Keep Solids is unchecked. Go to Modify/Crop Plane and choose the X+ option, which will remove model parts positioned on the negative side of X plane. Go to Modify/Crop Plane and choose the Y+ option, which will remove model parts positioned on the negative side of Y plane.

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2.1.3.

Assigning the Excitation

In radiation problems, the generator is always connected to one node of a wire, and its reference direction is towards another node of the wire. A generator is completely determined by these two nodes and the complex voltage between them. This antenna is excited by a dipole placed parallel to y-axis. Since the quarter model is obtained only the parts of excitation placed in the positive side of Y plane should be defined. Go to Draw menu and choose Curve/Line. The drawing mode is activated. Press Tab on the keyboard to switch to keyboard input of the parameters and define: o First line point: Enter 0, 0, lambda/4 in the X, Y and Z fields and press Enter. o Second line point: Enter the symbol 0, Lwire and lambda/4 in the X, Y and Z fields and press Enter. Press Esc to exit the drawing mode. Use a combination of Orbit and Pan viewing manipulations from View menu in order to be able to see the created wire in 3D View. Click and hold the mouse button while dragging it to inspect the model. Mouse wheel zooms the model in and out. Choose Select/Selection Level/Body, than choose Select/Select by Single Click to be able to select body. Select the wire by clicking it in 3D View. Properly selected wire will be displayed in yellow. Choose option Set Wire Radius from the context menu. Enter the symbol Rwire in both Vertex fields and press OK.

Now the generator on the previously defined wire shoul be set.


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Choose Select/Selection Level/Vertex, than choose Select/Select by Single Click to be able to select vertex. The generator should be specified between the two wire vertices. Hold Ctrl and choose the first line point and the second line point, in that precise order. Right-click in 3D View and choose Draw Generator. In the opened Generator Settings dialog box, keep the default settings and press OK. To verify that the generator is properly defined, press Ctrl+E on the keyboard. The generator should be marked like in the figure below. Press Ctrl+E again to remove the mark.

2.1.4.
2.1.4.1.

Simulation Settings
Symmetry Options Set Up

Symmetry properties can be used to speed up the analysis only if both the geometry and the excitation are symmetrical and/or antisymmetrical with respect to the same basic coordinate plane (xOy, xOz, and yOz-plane), and/or basic coordinate axis (x, y and z-axis). If the model is symmetrical with respect to one coordinate plane, the simulation can take almost two times less memory and run up to 8 times faster. In Edit menu choose Symmetry option, define plane symmetries and press OK. yOz plane - Symmetry xOz plane - Anti-symmetry xOy plane - No symmetry
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Symmetry option assures that the structure and the excitation are symmetrical with respect to a basic coordinate plane. Anti-Symmetry option assures that the structure is symmetrical and the excitation is antisymmetrical with respect to a basic coordinate plane.

2.1.4.2.

Simulation Options

In WIPL-D Pro CAD, the user is able to change the accuracy for the numerical integration manually. Select Options in the Edit menu. The Options dialog box opens. Set Integral Accuracy to enhanced1. The purpose of this option is to increase the accuracy of integrals and analysis time.

2.1.4.3.

Setting the Output Results

Calculation of output results is performed by using the options Radiation,


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from the Output Result menu. Go to Edit menu, and choose Output Result/Radiation... Set up the values as shown to the right, and press OK.

2.1.4.4.

Mesh Settings

In Mesh menu choose option Mesh Mode. The Mesh Mode dialog box opens. Select Advanced option and press OK. In Mesh menu, go to Mesh Settings, choose uniform mesh size, set it to 0.06m and press OK. Choose Select/Selection Level/Face, than choose Select/Select by Single Click to be able to select face of the body. Select the face of the reflector. Right click on the selected face and in the opened box choose Set Local Mesh Size and set it to the value lambda/2. Press OK. This will define local mesh size of the reflector. The value of lambda/2 is chosen in order to achieve good modeling of the reflector geometry.

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2.1.5.

Run the Analysis

The running time of the analysis depends on the input data and the hardware of the computer. Once the analysis is started, it can be interrupted by pressing Ctrl+C or Ctrl+Break. Go to Run menu and choose EM Simulation. The program pops up the window shown below. Press Yes in order to save the project.

The simulation starts by displaying the status window.

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When the simulation is completed, the program displays notification window. Press OK to close it.

2.1.6.

Viewing the Results

The Graph option gives 2-D and 3-D plots of the results. 3-D graphs can be rotated, magnified, and so forth. Select Graph in the Output menu and Graph menu opens as shown in the figure. Select Radiation in the Graph menu. The Graph screen appears. Click the dB button to display the gain of the antenna in decibels.

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Further graph manipulation is explained in detail in WIPL-D Pro Manual.

2.2.

Example 2: Patch Antenna Fed by Coaxial Cable

The following example includes modeling of a patch antenna in its basic form: a flat plate over a finite ground plane. The center conductor of a coax serves as the feed probe.

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2.2.1.

Configuring the Model

The new project patch_antenna is configured as it is described in 2.1.1.1-2.1.1.6. The related settings are shown in figures below.

The size of the patch is 111.243x101.13 mm. The size of the finite ground is 126.243x116.13 mm. The dielectric constant and loss tangent of the substrate are 2.2 and 0.0003, respectively. The substrate thickness is 1.5 mm. The list of the defined symbols is shown in figure below.

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2.2.2.

Drawing the Model

In the Draw menu, choose Solid/Cuboid. The drawing mode is activated. Press Tab on the keyboard to switch to keyboard input of the parameters and define: o Cuboid position: Enter -aOut/2 and -bOut/2 in the X and Y fields and press Enter. Switching between the fields is done by Tab or by positioning the cursor on the field. o Opposite base corner: Enter aOut/2 and bOut/2 in X and Y fields and press Enter. o Cuboid height: Enter the symbol Hsub in the Z field and press Enter. Continue drawing and define the next cuboid with the following parameters: o Cuboid position: -a/2 and -b/2, o Opposite base corner: a/2 and b/2, o Cuboid height: Hsub.

In the Draw menu, choose Solid/Cylinder and define the first cylinder: o Cylinder base center: (0,Ycoax,0), o Base radius: Rin, o Height: Hsub. Continue drawing and define the second cylinder with the following parameters:
2-20 Quick Tour WIPL-D Pro CAD

o o o

Cylinder base center: (0,Ycoax,0), Base radius: Rin, Height: -Lin.

Continue drawing and define the third cylinder: o Cylinder base center: (0,Ycoax,0), o Base radius: Rout, o Height: -Lout. Press Esc to exit the drawing mode.

Hold Ctrl and select the first and the second cylinder in Project Tree. Perform operation Unite Simplify (Modify/Boolean/Unite Simplify). As result, a new body is created. Perform Unite of the new body and the third cylinder. Perform Unite Simplify of the two cuboids. Perform Unite of all created bodies. Choose Select/Selection Level/Face, than choose Select/Select by Single Click to be able to select face. Choose X Cutting Plane (Cutting Planes/X) from View menu and select the face shown in figure below. Right-click in 3D View and choose the option Delete. Turn off X Cutting Plane option by clicking View/Cutting Planes/X one more time.

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2.2.3.

Assigning the Excitation

This antenna is fed by the coaxial cable excited by a short wire. Go to Draw menu and choose Curve/Line. The drawing mode is activated. Press Tab on the keyboard to switch to keyboard input of the parameters and define: o First line point: Enter 0, Ycoax, -Lout in the X, Y and Z fields and press Enter. o Second line point: Enter the symbols 0, Ycoax and -Lin in the X, Y and Z fields and press Enter. Press Esc to exit the drawing mode. Use a combination of Orbit and Pan viewing manipulations and X Cutting Plane (Cutting Planes/X) from View menu in order to be able to see the created wire in 3D View. Click and hold the mouse button while dragging it to inspect the model. Mouse wheel zooms the model in and out. Select the wire in Project Tree. Properly selected wire will be displayed in yellow. Choose option Set Wire Radius from the context menu. Enter the symbol Rfeed in both Vertex fields and press OK.

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Now the generator on the previously defined wire should be set the same way as it is described in 2.1.3.

2.2.4.

Define Wire-to-Plate Junction

Two wires having a common node and two plates having common nodes (that define a common edge of a plate) are automatically considered to be connected. However, the wire-to-plate junction must be specified for the structure under consideration. This junction is completely determined by the node on the wire situated on the plate. Choose Select/Selection Level/Vertex, than choose Select/Select by Single Click to be able to select vertex. Choose the first line point, right-click in 3D View and choose Draw Junction/Vertex List. Alternately, choose the option Junction/Vertex List from Draw menu.

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Choose the second line point, right-click in 3D View and choose Draw Junction/Vertex List. To verify that the junctions are properly defined, press Ctrl+J on the keyboard. The junctions should be marked like in the figure below. Press Ctrl+J again to remove the mark. Note: All created junctions are listed in table that opens by choosing the option Junctions in Edit menu, or by using the toolbar shortcut . A new junction can be created by using Add and specifying type of junction and vertices that belong to it.

2.2.5.

Assigning the Domains

Right-click Domains item in Project Tree and select Add.

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Define a new domain (dielectric) as shown below.

Click on the body in Project Tree. Its subtree is shown in the bottom section of Project Tree. Right-click the region shown in figure below, choose Set Domain Specs option and set its domain as dielectric.

Right-click the region shown in figure below, choose Set Domain Specs option and set its domain as free-space.

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Turn off X Cutting Plane option by clicking View/Cutting Planes/X. Choose Select/Selection Level/Face, than choose Select/Select by Single Click. Select the faces that represent the patch and the ground. Right-click in 3D View and choose Set Domain option. In set Domain dialog box specify Composite metallic boundary box as shown and click OK.

2.2.6.

Half Model

Go to Modify menu and make sure that the option Keep Solids is unchecked. Go to Modify/Crop Plane and choose the X+ option, which will remove model parts positioned on the negative side of X plane.

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2.2.7.

Simulation Settings

Symmetry properties, simulation options and the output results are explained in 2.1.4.1-2.1.4.2. The settings are shown in figures below.

Mesh settings are defined as follows: In Mesh menu choose option Mesh Mode. The Mesh Mode dialog box opens. Select User Controlled option and press OK. In Mesh menu, go to Mesh Settings, choose adaptive algorithm and accept the value of Wavelength that is calculated by the program. Set the Mesh Growth Speed parameter to 10. Due to edge effect, Automatic Edging should be defined. Choose Specify in Automatic Edging field. In the Automatic Edging dialog box that opens, click Add and specify the parameters as shown below.
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2.2.8.

Viewing the Results

After running the analysis as it is described in 2.1.5, select Output/Graph/Y,Z,S to see the graph of S11 parameter. Click the dB button to display the magnitude of S11 in decibels. Go to Range menu. In Function field, define zero as Maximum and -20 as Minimum and press OK.

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3. Preview of the Model


3.1. Viewing the Model

WIPL-D Pro CAD offers easy insight into model. This can be done using different view manipulations and viewing modes of the program. View manipulation allows the user to change model position, viewpoint, and displayed size in 3D View, while it does not change any real dimension of the model. Several viewing modes help user to highlight the model on the screen, and to behold the results of model settings (symmetry, output results).

3.1.1.

Orbit, Pan and Zoom

In WIPL-D Pro CAD three following view manipulation can be performed: Orbit Pan Zoom Orbit view manipulation changes the viewpoint of the model. It is activated through the View menu, via keyboard shortcut O or by using shortcut from the Manipulate toolbar. When pressing and holding left mouse button, any mouse movement will be transformed into a change of model orientation in 3D View. While Orbit mode is active, holding the Ctrl key down will activate Pan view manipulation, and scrolling the mouse middle button up and down will turn on Zoom Camera manipulation (zoom in and zoom out). This enables quick access to the main manipulators without the need to switch modes in the menu or toolbar. In addition, holding down the middle (or third) mouse button over an object
WIPL-D Pro CAD Preview of the Model 3-1

will orbit the camera around the selected point. Pan manipulation changes the position of the model in 3D View. It is activated through the View menu, via keyboard shortcut P or by using shortcut from the Manipulate toolbar. When pressing and holding left mouse button, any mouse movement will be transformed into simple translation of the model in current 3D View. Zoom view manipulation magnifies the model in 3D View. There are four different zoom modes: Zoom Camera, Zoom To Window, Zoom To Extents, and Zoom To Selection. Zoom manipulations are activated through the View menu or by using shortcuts respectively from the Manipulate toolbar. All options are activated by pressing and holding left mouse button and/or mouse move in 3D View. Zoom Camera option increases or decreases displayed size of the model for a certain amount which depends on the mouse movement. It is activated by pressing and holding left mouse button while moving the mouse in 3D View. Upward mouse movement results in zoom-in, while downward movement results in zoom-out. Zoom Camera can also be used by rotating the mouse wheel where backward rotation is interpreted as zoom-in and forward rotation as zoom-out. Zoom To Window option fits on the screen only the part of the model previously framed by zoom window. It is activated by choosing View>Zoom>Zoom To Window from the menu or by pressing shortcut in the Manipulate toolbar. The manipulation is done by pressing and holding left mouse button while moving the cursor to make a red selection rectangle, from the upper left corner toward the bottom right corner.

Zoom To Extents manipulation displays the entire model so that it fits entire 3D view Surface. It is activated by choosing View>Zoom>Zoom To Extents from the menu or by pressing shortcut in the toolbar. Zoom To Selection manipulation only fits selected parts of the model on the entire 3D View surface. It is activated by choosing View>Zoom>Zoom To Selection from the menu or by pressing shortcut in the Manipulate toolbar.
3-2 Preview of the Model WIPL-D Pro CAD

3.1.2.

Coordinate Projection

Coordinate Projections are used to set the positive or negative X, Y or Z projection of the model or the Isometric projection. This is done by selecting appropriate command from the View>Coordinate projection menu or by selecting one of the icons from the Coordinate projection toolbar .

3.1.3.

Cutting Planes

Cutting planes facilitate operations involving selection of interior parts of the model. They create a cross-section of the model in a specified plane and effectively hide everything on the negative side of the plane. Up to three cutting planes can be created in 3D View. The starting position of the planes can be perpendicular to x-axis, y-axis and z-axis of the global coordinate system. The position and orientation of the planes can be altered later , until they are turned off. Cutting planes are created by choosing View>Cutting Planes>X|Y|Z from the menu, via keyboard shortcuts Ctrl+Shift+X, Ctrl+Shift+Y and Ctrl+Shift+Z or by using the toolbar shortcuts . The parts of the model which are not visible because of the cutting plane still exist in the model and can be selected from Project Tree. Also, all usual commands can be performed on these parts. Arrows associated with the cutting plane can be used to translate and/or rotate the plane, thus revealing different interior parts of the model. The key benefit of the cutting planes is that all interior model parts which are visible through the cutting plane can be selected in the standard way, by using mouse. Cutting planes can be used in combination with Hide and Transparency commands. Cutting planes are removed with the same commands that were used for creating them.

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3.1.4.

Transparency and Hide

Some model parts are very often not visible from outside. Therefore, it is useful to see through the exterior parts of the model. Transparency and Hide commands are available from the View menu or the context menu in 3D View. After a right mouse button click on the model, the underlying model part is selected, depending on the Selection Level, and the two commands become available. Transparency command will make a certain part of the model transparent The part will not be removed and all the actions over it can be undertaken as if it was fully colored. This also means it is impossible to select an interior model part through a transparent part in 3D View.

The transparency on a model part can be revoked from the same context menu brought up after a right click on that model part. Hide command will remove the selected part from 3D View temporarily. The part will still be displayed in Project Tree, but it will be annotated as inactive (with a black square icon) and no action will be possible on it. The work with the model continues as if the hidden part does not exist.

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Hide command is canceled by choosing option Unhide from right-click menu on the hidden part in Project Tree. Another option to cancel the effects of the Hide and Transparency commands is to choose the Show All command. In case the user wants to make all parts of the model visible and non-transparent, Show All should be chosen from right-click menu in 3D View when there is no selected geometry. Other option is to select bodies with at least one unhidden face, and to choose Show All from the context menu. In that case, only the faces of the selected bodies will become visible and non-transparent.

3.1.5.

Show Vertices

Show Vertices options, available from View menu, or from the context menu on 3D View, is used to show body vertices. This option can make easier drawing of primitives easier when the drawing mode Snap to Vertex is enabled (see 4.2).

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3.1.6.

Show Curves as Wires

Curve primitives are used either to create new bodies (solid or sheet) by using the sweep option, or they represent the wires with defined radius. For easier manipulation of the model, the wires are, by default, shown as thin red lines. If user wants to see a more realistic representation of the wire with its actual radius, it can be done by selecting option View>Show Curves As Wires, the keyboard shortcut W , or Show Curves As Wires from the right-click context menu in 3D View. The option can be used both ways interchangeably.

3.1.7.

Paint Model by Domains

All model parts, except wires, are colored in cyan. Wires are colored in orange. By default, they are considered made of perfect electric conductor (PEC) material. Materials with other properties (dielectric materials) are, colored differently (in red, yellow, blue, purple, orange, etc.). The selected model parts are painted in yellow. To have a material with properties other than PEC, painted in different colors, Paint Model by Domains option should be checked in the View menu or in the right-click menu in 3D View.

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3.1.8.

Visible Domains

Checking the domain specifications of the structure is possible by using the option Visible Domains from the View menu bar or from the right-click context menu in 3D View. Also, the keyboard shortcut Ctrl+D can be used. This command colors only the plates belonging to the selected domain, or the domains complementary to it, in 3D View window. Plates that do not belong to the selected domain are transparent. The command is canceled by choosing option Show All from right-click menu in 3D View when there is no selected geometry.

3.1.9.

Mark Entities

The entities possible to mark/unmark from the View menu in WIPL-D Pro CAD are: Junction (keyboard shortcut Ctrl+J) Concentrated loadings (keyboard shortcut Ctrl+T) Generators (keyboard shortcut Ctrl+C) Marking these entities displays the entity name and a specific mark in 3D View.

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3.1.10.

Symmetry Visualization

One way to view outcome of previously adjusted symmetry options is to choose Symmetry option from the View menu, or press S on the keyboard.

3.1.11.

Output Settings Visualization

In WIPL-D Pro CAD it is possible to see the outcome of previously adjusted output settings related to the near field (View>Output Settings>Near field) or radiation pattern directions (View>Output Settings>Radiation Sphere).

3.2.

Configuring the Model

WIPL-D Pro CAD Configure menu provides several commands used to configure the model. These commands allow the user to set various options for the program and currently open project.

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3.2.1.

Model Units

The modeling kernel keeps record of the model dimensions as real numbers, regardless to the actual length units. WIPL-D Pro CAD enables specifying the model data interpretation, i.e. in what length units the model is defined. This is done by choosing Configure>Units from the menu, which displays the Units dialog box. Currently chosen units are shown in the Length/Coordinate, Wire Radius, Frequency and Field combo boxes. A new unit can be selected from the list of available units. The new choice is accepted upon pressing the OK button. If Keep Model Dimensions option is checked the units are changed and the dimensions of the model stay the same but only expressed in chosen units. If not, the units are changed but the dimensions of the model have changed only the dimension unit. For example, if the wire length is 10mm, by changing the units to meters, its length will be 0.01m in case Keep Model Dimensions option was checked. Otherwise, the length will be 10m. It is very important to mention that the modeling space in WIPL-D Pro CAD is limited by Bounding Box to 1000x1000x1000 units in range of [-500,500] units per axis x, y and z. It means that a user should configure Units dialog box with respect to this range. In case a drawn primitive has one or more parameter values out of this range, program converts to larger units with respect to the greatest value entered. Example: The user intends to draw a wire of 600 mm along positive part of z-axis and Length/Coordinate unit is set to mm. After drawing primitive, program automatically changes Length/Coordinate unit to centimeters (cm), displaying the warning shown below.

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3.2.2.

Render Mode

Rendering is the process of generating an image from a model. The result is a photorealistic or realistically shaded image of a three-dimensional wireframe or solid model. The 3D model is accompanied by viewpoint, texture, lighting, and shading information. Following render modes are available from Configure>Render Mode submenu: Shaded with Lines - displays shaded surfaces of the geometry with body edges and wires colored in blue. This option can be activated also by choosing the toolbar shortcut . Shaded - displays shaded surfaces of the geometry with no edges or wires visible. Triangulated - displays shaded surfaces of the geometry and the underlying tessellation (faceting); this mode is particularly useful for import of mesh file formats such as stereolithography files (*.stl). Contours - displays only the contour lines of bodies. This option can be activated also by choosing the toolbar shortcut .

Shaded with Lines

Shaded

Triangulated

Contours

3.2.3.

Cutting Planes Options

Cutting Planes viewing mode allows two options related to the display of
3-10 Preview of the Model WIPL-D Pro CAD

section plane. Fill Cross Sections - colors in black the interior of the body that lies in the section plane. Mark Cutting Lines - colors in white all edges that lie in the section plane.

3.2.4.

Visual Effects

Submenu Configure>Visual Effects contains four options: Viewing Projection - allows switching between Orthographic and Perspective viewing projections. Effects are shown in figures below.

Orthographic

Perspective

Continuous Orbit - rotates model continuously in 3D View. Lights - impacts the colors of faces in 3D View making them more natural to human eye.
WIPL-D Pro CAD Preview of the Model 3-11

Shadow - turns on the shadow in 3D View.

3.2.5.

Project Tree Visualization

Project Tree visibility can be turned on/off alternately by choosing Configure>Project Tree or by using the keyboard shortcut T.

3.2.6.

Toolbar Configuration

Configure>Toolbar submenu enables user to configure toolbars that are visible at all time. Option Configure>Reset Toolbars restores the original toolbar configuration shown in figure in chapter 1.1.

3.2.7.

Open Path

User is able to define the directory in which the project files are to be placed when opening or saving it (Configure>Open Path). It can be the one that is last used (Last used), or it can be another one, defined by user (Default).

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4. Primitives
The first step in solving electromagnetic problem is to make an appropriate model suitable for further EM analysis. The model represents the geometry made from available built-in primitives. In WIPL-D Pro CAD there are five different types of built-in primitives: wire primitives, surface primitives, solid primitives, reflector object, helical/spiral object.

4.1.

Drawing Primitives

All primitives are created by specifying their defining parameters in two ways: by mouse click, using the Snap Mode options as described in 4.2, by inputting the values with keyboard into the Edit Box placed under the working area. When creating a primitive, the drawing mode is automatically activated. The input of the primitive parameters is done with mouse, by default. The keyboard input is switched to by using the Tab key. In the Edit Box, switching between parameters is done by using Tab, or by clicking the desired field. Returning to a previously defined parameter can be done by Shift+Tab. Drawing of the primitive is completed by pressing Enter or Shift+Enter (depending on the primitive) but the drawing mode is still enabled, so that user is able to create the primitives of the same type continuously. Drawing mode is disabled, or stopped before the drawing is completed, by pressing Esc.
WIPL-D Pro CAD Primitives 4-1

Mouse position Edit Box

4.2.

Snap mode

If the drawing mode is done with mouse, the user can define parameters of the primitive by using snap modes (Draw/Snap Mode). Two snap modes are available and they can be used at the same time or separately: Snap to Vertex - enables user to specify points by using existing vertices from 3D View, Snap to Grid - enables user to specify points in xOy-plane by using the grid. Some of parameters of the primitive are defined in active working plane. By default, this plane is xOy plane. However, by using Snap to Vertex mode, the user sets the active plane of the drawn primitive parallel to the xOy plane at height that corresponds to the z coordinate of the first selected vertex. In the following text, this plane will be referred to as the active working plane.

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4.3.

Curve Primitives

Curve primitives in WIPL-D Pro CAD can be used as stand-alone model parts or they can be used for making some complex surfaces as a result of sweep manipulations (see 7.4). There are six different types of curve primitives: Line Loop , , , , , Polyline Elliptic Arc

NURBS Curve

Fitted Spline . The curve primitives consist of edge entities, and they are all easily made by defining values for specific parameters and setting the wire radius. The body created by using the curve primitives is, by type, a wire body. All wire bodies are labeled with in Project Tree.

4.3.1.

Line

Line is the simplest wire primitive that represents a finite straight line bounded by its beginning and ending point. Line is created by using the toolbar shortcut , or by choosing Draw>Curve>Line and specifying (with keyboard or the mouse): the first point (the start of the line), the second point (the end of the line).

4.3.2.

Polyline

Polyline is a wire primitive that represents a connected finite series of straight line segments, therefore it can have more than one edge. Polyline is created by using the toolbar shortcut , or by choosing Draw>Curve>Polyline and specifying points that represent the boundaries for
WIPL-D Pro CAD Primitives 4-3

the straight wire segments (with keyboard or the mouse). If the polyline has n segments, n+1 points (vertices) should be specified: 1st polyline point (the start point of polyline and the start of 1st segment), 2nd line point (the end of the 1st segment line and the start of the 2nd segment), 3rd line point (the end of the 2nd segment line and the start of the 3rd segment), and (n+1)th polyline point (the end of the nth polyline and entire wire polyline). Creating wire polyline is finished by pressing Shift+Enter on the keyboard or double-clicking in 3D View. It is allowed that the first point and the last point of the polyline coincide. In that case, closed polyline is created. Self-intersecting of segments is not allowed.

4.3.3.

Loop

Loop is a wire primitive that represents a closed circle-shaped curve. Loop is created by using the toolbar shortcut , or by choosing Draw>Curve>Loop and specifying (with keyboard or the mouse): the loop center (two coordinates in the active working plane) and the radius of the loop.

4.3.4.

Elliptic Arc

Elliptic Arc is a wire primitive that represents a closed/open curve of elliptical shape. Elliptic Arc is created by using the toolbar shortcut , or by choosing Draw>Curve>Elliptic Arc and specifying (with keyboard or the mouse):

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larger ellipse axis (the two coordinates in the active working plane), the smaller semi-axis length, arc start angle, arc stop angle.

4.3.5.

NURBS Curve

NURBS Curve represents one of the two wire parametric polynomial curves in WIPL-D Pro CAD. NURBS (Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines) curve is mathematical representations of curve that approximates specified control points. NURBS Curve is created by using the toolbar shortcut , or by choosing Draw>Curve>NURBS Curve and specifying (with keyboard or the mouse): the first point location (the start point of the NURBS), control points, the last point location (the end of the NURBS).

4.3.6.

Fitted Spline

Fitted Spline is the second type of wire parametric polynomial curves in WIPL-D Pro CAD. It represents interpolated curve that matches perfectly specified point with the usage of a third degree polynomial for interpolation. Fitted Spline is created by clicking choosing Draw>Curve>Fitted Spline specifying (with keyboard or the mouse): or and

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the first point location (the start point of the Fitted Spline), control points, the last point location (the end of the Fitted Spline).

4.3.7.

Wire Radius

In case the curve primitive is used as a stand-alone model part it will be considered as wire and the user should specified its radius (wire radius). Wire radius is set to 6 mm, by default. Another value of wire radius can be specified for the whole wire body or individually for each of its edges. This can be done by selecting the wire body or its edge and by choosing one of the following options: command Set Wire Radius from the context menu, command Set Wire Radius from Modify>Set Properties drop-down menu, or the toolbar shortcut . If some of these options is performed on a selected wire edge the Define Wire Radii dialog box (shown in figure) opens and the user is able to define constant or variable radius (i.e. cylindrical or conical wire). Choosing Set as default option, the defined values for radii will be used for all new wire bodies, until a new value is specified. If the wire radius is specified for a selected wire body, two cases should be considered: case of wire body that consists of only one edge, case of wire body that consists of more than one edge. In case of wire body that consists of only one edge, the wire radius is set through the same Define Wire Radii dialog box as it is explained above. In case of wire body that consists of more than one edge, Wire Radius dialog box (shown in figure below) is opened and user is able to define only constant radius (e.g. cylindrical wire). Choosing Set as default option, the defined values for radius will be used for all other wire bodies until the new value is specified.
4-6 Primitives WIPL-D Pro CAD

Preview of the real wire radii is explained in 3.1.6. The value for wire radius is returned to default in one of two ways: by using option Clear Wire Radius from the context menu obtained by right-clicking on the wire body in Project Tree, by using option Clear Wire Radii from Modify>Set Properties drop-down menu on a selected wire body.

4.4.

Surface Primitives

In WIPL-D Pro CAD there are six different types of surface primitives: Circle Ellipse Quad , , , Rectangle , ,

Regular Polygon

Irregular Polygon . The body created by using the surface primitive is, by type, a sheet body. All sheet bodies are labeled with in Project Tree.

4.4.1.

Circle

Circle primitive represents geometrical model of whole circle. Circle is created by using the toolbar shortcut , or by choosing Draw>Surface>Circle and specifying (with keyboard or the mouse): the center of the circle (the two coordinates in the active working plane), the radius of the circle.

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4.4.2.

Ellipse

Ellipse primitive represents a geometrical model of whole ellipse. Ellipse is created by using the toolbar shortcut , or by choosing Draw>Surface>Ellipse and specifying (with keyboard or the mouse): the elliptic arc center (the two coordinates in the active working plane), the larger ellipse axis (the two coordinates in the active working plane), the smaller semi-axis length.

4.4.3.

Quad

Quad primitive represents geometrical model of bilinear quadrilateral. Quad is created by using the toolbar shortcut or by choosing Draw>Surface>Quad and specifying (with keyboard or the mouse): the 1st point (the three coordinates in the Cartesian coordinate system), the 2nd point (the three coordinates in the Cartesian coordinate system), the 3rd point (the three coordinates in the Cartesian coordinate system), the 4th point (the three coordinates in the Cartesian coordinate system). Note: The quad is the only 2D primitive that is not necessarily planar and that does not need to be specified in the active working plane.

4.4.4.

Rectangle

Rectangle primitive represents geometrical model of rectangle, a quadrilateral with four 90-degree angles.

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Rectangle is created by using the toolbar shortcut , or by choosing Draw>Surface>Rectangle and specifying (with keyboard or the mouse): the 1st point (the two coordinates in the active working plane), the diagonal point (the two coordinates in the active working plane).

4.4.5.

Regular Polygon

Regular Polygon primitive represents a geometrical model of regular polygon, i.e. polygon that is equiangular and equilateral. Regular Polygon is created by using the toolbar shortcut , or by choosing Draw>Surface>Regular Polygon and specifying (with keyboard or the mouse): the center of the polygon (the two coordinates in the active working plane), the radius of the circumscribed circle of the polygon, the number of segments The default number of segments is set to 8.

4.4.6.

Irregular Polygon

Irregular Polygon primitive represents a geometrical model of simple (not selfintersecting) irregular polygon. It is created by using the toolbar shortcut , or by choosing Draw>Surface>Irregular Polygon and specifying as many points as there are sides of the polygon (n) (with keyboard or the mouse): the 1st point (the two coordinates in the active working plane), the 2nd point (the two coordinates in the
WIPL-D Pro CAD Primitives 4-9

active working plane), the 3rd point (the two coordinates in the active working plane), the nth point (the two coordinates in the active working plane). By default, the nth point is connected with the 1st point, so for the purpose of correct definition, the first point and the last specified point should not match. Otherwise, the program will report the irregular definition as shown in the figure.

4.5.

Solid Primitives

Solid primitives in WIPL-D Pro CAD can be used as a stand-alone model parts or they can be used for making some complex surfaces as a result of Boolean operations. There are five different types: Sphere Cuboid Cylinder Cone Flare , . , , ,

The body created by using the solid primitive is, by type, a solid body. All solid bodies are labeled with in Project Tree.

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4.5.1.

Sphere

Sphere primitive represents geometrical model of sphere in three-dimensional space. Sphere is created by using the toolbar shortcut , or by choosing Draw>Solid>Sphere and specifying (with keyboard or the mouse): the center of the sphere (the two coordinates in the active working plane), the radius of the sphere.

4.5.2.

Cuboid
model of a rectangular

Cuboid primitive represents geometrical parallelepiped. Cuboid is created by using the toolbar shortcut , or by choosing Draw>Solid>Cuboid and specifying (with keyboard or the mouse): the position of the cuboid (the two coordinates in the active working plane), the opposite base corner (the two coordinates in the active working plane),

the height of the cuboid. If the height of the cuboid is defined with negative value, the Cuboid is placed beneath the working plane (along negative part of z coordinate).

4.5.3.

Cylinder

Cylinder primitive represents geometrical model of a right circular cylinder. It is created by using the toolbar shortcut , or by choosing Draw>Solid>Cylinder and specifying (with keyboard or the mouse):

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the center of the cylinder (the two coordinates in the active working plane), the radius of the circular cylinders base, the height of the cylinder. If height of Cylinder is defined with negative value, the Cylinder is placed beneath the working plane (along negative part of z coordinate).

4.5.4.

Cone

Cone primitive represents geometrical model of frustum of a right circular cone. It is created by using the toolbar shortcut , or by choosing Draw>Solid>Cone and specifying (with keyboard or the mouse): the center of the cone (the two coordinates in the active working plane), the radius of the first circular cones base, the radius of the second circular cones base, the height of the cone. If the radius of the second circular cones base is set to zero, a right circular cone is obtained instead of a frustum.

4.5.5.

Flare

Flare primitive represents geometrical model of frustum of a pyramid. It is created by using the toolbar shortcut , or by choosing Draw>Solid>Flare and specifying (with keyboard or the mouse): the first base corner (the two coordinates in the active working plane),

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the opposite first base corner (the two coordinates in the active working plane), the top base size (the two coordinates in the active working plane), the height of the flare. If the top base size coordinates correspond to the center of the base, a pyramid is obtained instead of a frustum.

4.6.

Reflector Object

Reflector object represents the geometrical model of a generalized reflector. By using the toolbar shortcut , or by choosing Draw>Reflector, drop-down menu is opened with the following options: Paraboloid Hyperboloid/Ellipsoid .

4.6.1.

Paraboliod

Paraboloid primitive represents geometrical model of a part of the paraboloid. Paraboloid is created by using the toolbar shortcut Draw>Reflector>Paraboloid and specifying (with keyboard or the mouse): the focal distance (the z coordinate), the aperture radius, the reflector center offset (the two coordinates in the active working plane). , or by choosing

4.6.2.

Hyperboloid/Ellipsoid

Hyperboloid/Ellipsoid primitive represents geometrical model of a surface


WIPL-D Pro CAD Primitives 4-13

of the revolution of the hyperbola or ellipse. Hyperboloid/Ellipsoid is created by using the toolbar shortcut , or by choosing Draw>Reflector>Hyperboloid/Ellipsoid and specifying (with keyboard or the mouse): the focal distance (the z coordinate), minimum distance from, the aperture radius, the reflector center offset (the two coordinates in the active working plane).

4.7.

Helical/Spiral Object

Helical/Spiral object represents the geometrical model of a generalized helix. By using the toolbar shortcut , or by choosing Draw> Helical/Spiral Object, drop-down menu is opened with the following options: Helix Spiral General Helix

4.7.1.

Helix

Helix primitive represents geometrical model of a helix. Helix Settings dialog opens by using the toolbar shortcut , or by choosing Draw>Helical/Spiral Object>Helix. List of parameters: Profile: o Profile type: Wire (by default) Thin Strip Thick Strip o Wire radius/Strip angle: The value for wire radius (if profile type is wire) or the value for strip angle (if profile type is
4-14 Primitives WIPL-D Pro CAD

Thin Strip or Thick Strip) Strip thickness: The value for strip thickness - enabled only if profile type is Thick Strip

Handedness: o RHC o LHC Multiplicity: o Unifilar (by default) o Duofilar o Quadrifilar Height: o Total height (by default) o Pitch Angle

After choosing the type of spiral the following parameters should be specified: Radius, Number of turns, The total height of the helix or the pitch angle (in degrees) depending on the previously selected option for the Height parameter in Helix Settings page.
WIPL-D Pro CAD Primitives 4-15

Once the parameters for spiral type are specified they are valid until the end of the Draw session.

Profile type: Wire

Profile type: Thin Strip

Profile type: Thick Strip

4.7.2.

Spiral

Spiral primitive represents geometrical model of a generalized spiral, a planar curve that winds around a fixed center point at a continuously increasing distance from the point. Spiral Settings page opens by using the toolbar shortcut , or by choosing Draw>Helical/Spiral Object>Spiral. List of parameters: Profile: o Profile type: Wire Thin Strip Thick Strip o Wire radius/Strip angle: The value for wire radius (if profile type is wire) or the value for strip angle (if profile type is Thin Strip or Thick Strip), Spiral type: o Archimedean (by default) o Logarithmic Handedness: o RHC (by default) o LHC
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Multiplicity: o Unifilar o Duofilar (by default) o Quadrifilar

After specifying the type of spiral that is going to be made, these three parameters should be specified: start radius, end radius, number of turns. Once the parameters for spiral type are specified they are valid until the end of the Draw session.

Profile type: Wire

Profile type: Thin Strip

Profile type: Thick Strip

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4.7.3.

General Helix

General Helix primitive represents geometrical model of a generalized helix. General Helix Settings page opens by using the toolbar shortcut , or by choosing Draw>Helical/Spiral Object>General Helix. List of parameters: Profile: o Profile type: Wire (the default) Thin Strip Thick Strip o Wire radius/Strip angle: The value for wire radius (if profile type is wire) or the value for strip angle (if profile type is Thin Strip or Thick Strip) Strip thickness: The value for strip thickness enabled only if profile type is Thick Strip

Spiral type: o Archimedean (by default) o Logarithmic Handedness: o RHC (by default) o LHC Multiplicity: o Unifilar o Duofilar (by default) o Quadrifilar Height param: o Total height (by default) o Pitch Angle After specifying the type of helix that is going to be made, these three parameters should be specified: start radius (the numerical value),
4-18 Primitives WIPL-D Pro CAD

end radius, number of turns, the total height of the helix or the pitch angle (in degrees) depending on the previously selected option for the Height parameter in Helix Settings page. Once the parameters for helix type are specified, they are valid until the end of the Draw session.

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5. Coordinate Systems and Grid


In WIPL-D Pro CAD model is created by simple drawing of its components in the 3D working area. The coordinate system were the primitives are created is Cartesian coordinate system (CS). In order to allow user proper flexibility to generate geometric model, two coordinate systems are defined: Global Coordinate System (Global CS) , Local Coordinate System (LCS).

Global CS

Local CS

Visibility of coordinate systems in 3D View is adjusted by using Draw/Coordinate Systems/Visibility or the keyboard shortcuts Ctrl + C, Ctrl + L for displaying Global CS or active Local CS, respectively. The small coordinate system that is fixed in the left bottom corner of 3D View shows orientation of Global CS. Both coordinate systems can be displayed in 3D View with or without a grid. Grid option enables usage of the grid while creating a structure or working with it. Grid is a two-dimensional structure made up of a series of intersecting vertical
WIPL-D Pro CAD Coordinate Systems and Grid 5-1

and horizontal axes placed into the working xOy plane.

5.1.

Working Coordinate System (WCS)

Coordinate Systems table lists the existing coordinate systems in project. It is opened by using the toolbar shortcut , or by choosing Draw>Coordinate Systems>List of Coordinate Systems.

Global Coordinate System is fixed and cannot be changed. The user can modify the existing LCS or define another one. Only one LCS at a time can be active and it is called Working Coordinate System (Working CS). Adding a new LCS is done by using the Add command. In Add/Edit Coordinate System dialog box that opens, the new LCS is specified by defining its name and the positions of its origin, x-axis and y-axis with regard to the Global CS. The specified parameters of an existing LCS can be modified through the same dialog box by selecting LCS from the list and choosing the Edit command.

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All operations and manipulations with objects in 3D View are done with regard to the Working CS. However, output and symmetry settings, are done with regard to the Global CS. In some cases, it is much easier to do manipulations on a working coordinate system instead of applying the various manipulations on the model. The available manipulations are: Rotate Working CS Move Working CS in GCS Align Working CS The parameters of the active LCS (Working CS) are automatically updated if some of these manipulations are performed in 3D View.

5.1.1.

Move Working CS in GCS

Move Working CS in GCS operation enables user to change the Working CS by translating it with regard to the Global or Working CS. The Translation Vector dialog box opens using the toolbar shortcut , or by choosing Draw>Coordinate Systems>Move Working CS in GCS.

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5.1.2.

Rotate Working CS

Rotate Working CS operation enables user to change the Working CS by rotating it with regard to the Global or Working CS. The rotation parameters are specified in the Rotate WCS dialog box that opens by using the toolbar shortcut , or by choosing Draw>Coordinate Systems/Rotate Working CS.

5.1.3.

Align Working CS

Draw>Coordinate System>Align Working CS command lists five options used to align working coordinate system. Align Working CS to Vertex (the toolbar shortcut Working CS to selected vertex,
5-4 Coordinate Systems and Grid

) - aligns

WIPL-D Pro CAD

Align Working CS to 3 Points (the toolbar shortcut Working CS to three selected points,

) - aligns

Align Working CS to Edge (the toolbar shortcut CS to selected edge,

) - aligns Working

Align Working CS to Face (toolbar shortcut to selected face.


WIPL-D Pro CAD Coordinate Systems and Grid

) - aligns Working CS

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Align Working CS to Global Coordinates (the toolbar shortcut aligns Working CS to the Global CS coordinates.

)-

5.2.

Grid Settings

To turn on the grid preview, option Draw>Grid>Visibility has to be checked. Alternately, the user is able to turn on/off the grid preview by pressing G on the keyboard. The grid lines are placed into xOy plane. Parameters of the grid can be set in Grid Setting dialog box opened by selecting Draw>Grid>Settings Grid resolution is specified by defining the size of grid (the distance between auxiliary lines in the grid) for each axis into the X-axis and Y-axis fields. Parameter Perpendicular defines the resolution for the auxiliary line. When the structures are created with mouse and Snap to Grid mode is active (4.2) only the grid nodes can be selected.
5-6 Coordinate Systems and Grid WIPL-D Pro CAD

Checking Adaptive Grid Display option enables adaptive change of the grid resolution when zooming options are performed.

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6. Selecting Model Parts


Selection of model parts is one of the basic actions on the model. It is a prerequisite for most of model operations as well as for defining the attributes of the selected entities (domain specification, local mesh settings, etc.). The selected part is highlighted (painted in yellow) in 3D View to provide user feedback. Model parts can be selected from 3D View and from Project Tree.

6.1.

Selection from 3D View

Before selecting a model part, it is important to know which Selection Level is currently active. The Selection Level assignment is necessary to the selection mechanism in order to determine which of the model parts under the cursor should be selected. The Selection Level is specified through the Select>Selection Level menu, through the context menu as shown in the figures below or by using the toolbar shortcuts . For instance, while this level is set to Body, no face can be selected in the model. Mixed level selections (e.g. a face and a body selected at the same time) are not allowed.

There are two selection modes: Select By Single Click and Select By Window, which can be activated from the Select menu or from the Selection modes toolbar or through the keyboard shortcuts Shift+V and Shift+W ,
WIPL-D Pro CAD Selecting Model Parts 6-1

respectively. Select By Single Click enables selection of a single model part by clicking the left mouse button over it. Multiple selections and de-selections are possible by holding Ctrl or Shift keys while clicking on different parts. Select By Window enables selection of all the model parts which are enclosed by the selection window. The selection window has rectangular shape and is created by clicking on a certain position of the 3D View, dragging the mouse to a new position and releasing it. The selection mechanism behaves in two alternative ways depending on the Based on Visibility option (Select>Based on Visibility). If this option is checked, only visible parts enclosed by the selection window are selected. This means that interior parts or parts on the back-side of the model will not be selected. If Based on Visibility is unchecked, all parts enclosed by the selection window, regardless of their visibility in 3D View, will be selected.

Based on Visibility (Checked)

Based on Visibility (Unchecked)

In 3D View, the user is able to see the attributes of an item displayed in status bar by selecting it or by positioning the cursor over it. Selection and de-selection of all model parts can be done by choosing the options Select All and Deselect all from Select menu or the keyboard shortcuts Ctrl+A and Shift+Ctrl+A. Alternatively, de-selection of all model parts can be done by clicking in an empty area in 3D View. It is also possible to select faces by their names using option Select>Select Faces by Names. The Mark Faces dialog box opens as shown below. In Faces field, the user should type the number of the face which is to be selected. In case of multiple selection, tags should be comma-separated or dash-separated in case of selecting a range of faces. If Complement check box is checked, all faces will be selected except the ones that are specified. Plates that are not selected are transparent. The transparency is canceled as it is described in 3.1.4.
6-2 Selecting Model Parts WIPL-D Pro CAD

6.2.

Selection from Project Tree

Unlike selection from 3D View, Selection Level is automatically adjusted when selection is performed from Project Tree. This is possible since selection is done by a left mouse button click on a certain item in the tree or subtree, whose type is known in advance. The result of the selection is: Selected part is highlighted in 3D View, Selected part is written in bold font in the subtree, The body to which the selected part belongs is written in bold in the top section of Project Tree. This is illustrated in the figure below. Multiple selections and de-selections can be done by holding the Ctrl key while selecting parts or the Shift key while selecting a range. If the selected part is a region, all the faces enclosing that region will, in fact, be selected. The valid Selection Level when selecting regions is Face, and it will be set automatically.
WIPL-D Pro CAD Selecting Model Parts 6-3

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7. Operations on the Model


For almost every model, some kind of operation needs to be performed in order to guarantee the correct material assignment and meshing. WIPL-D Pro CAD provides various Boolean operations and manipulations to be used for making an appropriate model.

7.1.

Boolean Operations

Boolean operations involve the combination of two or more bodies so as to create a new body as the result. Basic Boolean operations are Unite, Unite Simplify, Subtract and Intersect, while Imprint is a combination of Copy and Subtract.

7.1.1.

Unite

Union of two or more bodies results in a body encompassing all the parts of the participating bodies. Unite is performed by first selecting all the bodies and then choosing Boolean>Unite from Modify or context menu, or by using the toolbar shortcut . For example, a cylinder is immersed into a cube, as shown with a cutting plane. Two bodies exist each for themselves, with one region each. There is a geometry clash, since it is unclear as to which body the intersecting part belongs to. After Unite operation of the two bodies, all parts of both bodies are kept in the resulting body. The result is a body with three regions (outer part of the cylinder, inner part of the cylinder and the rest of the cube) and there are no
WIPL-D Pro CAD Operations on the Model 7-1

geometry clashes.

7.1.2.

Unite Simplify

Simplified Union of two or more bodies results in a body encompassing all the parts of the participating bodies except the common parts. Unite Simplify is performed by first selecting all the bodies and then choosing Boolean>Unite Simplify from Modify or context menu, or using the toolbar shortcut . For example, a cylinder is immersed into a cube, as shown with a cutting plane. Two bodies exist each for themselves with one region each. There is a geometry clash, since it is unclear as to which body the intersecting part belongs to.

After Unite Simplify operation of the two bodies, all parts of both bodies except the common ones are kept in the resulting body. The result is a body with one region (cube with the outer part of the cylinder is preserved, while the inner part of the cylinder is erased) and there are no geometry clashes.

7.1.3.

Subtract

One or more bodies, which are called tool bodies, can be subtracted from a
7-2 Operation on the Model WIPL-D Pro CAD

single body, which is called a target body. The result is a body containing only those parts of the target body that didnt belong to any of the tool bodies. Subtract is performed in two steps. In the first step, all tool bodies need to be selected and then, the operation is initiated by choosing Modify>Boolean>Subtract from the menu or using the toolbar shortcut . The Subtract dialog box (shown in the figure to the right) appears giving info about the next step and offering the possibility to cancel the operation with no effect to the model. The next body that is selected is considered to be the target body for the operation. For example, a cylinder is immersed into a cube, as shown with a cutting plane. Two bodies exist independently, with one region each. There is a geometry clash, since it is unclear as to which body the intersecting part belongs to.

After the Subtract operation in which the cylinder is subtracted from the cube, the resulting body is a cube with a cylindrical hole. There are no geometry clashes in the model now.

7.1.4.

Intersect

Intersection of two or more bodies results in a body encompassing only the common parts of the participating bodies. Intersect is performed by first selecting all the bodies and then choosing Boolean>Intersect from Modify or context menu, or using the toolbar shortcut . For example, a cylinder is immersed into a cube, as shown with a cutting plane. Two bodies exist independently, with one region each. There is a geometry clash, since it is unclear as to which body the intersecting part belongs to. After Intersect operation, only the inner part of the cylinder is left, since it was common to both bodies.

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7.1.5.

Imprint

One or more bodies, which are called tool bodies, can be imprinted onto a single body, which is called a target body. The result consists of two bodies: the tool body which is not changed, and the target body without the part that was common to tool and target bodies before the operation. In other words, the tool body is first copied, and then its copy is subtracted from the target body. Imprint is performed in two steps. In the first step, all tool bodies need to be selected, and the operation is initiated by choosing Boolean>Imprint from Modify or context menu or using the toolbar shortcut . The Imprint dialog box appears giving info about the next step and offering the possibility to cancel the operation, with no effect to the model. The next body that is selected is considered to be the target body for the operation. For example, a cylinder is immersed into a cube, as shown with a cutting plane. Two bodies exist independently, with one region each. There is a geometry clash, since it is unclear as to which body the intersecting part belongs to.

After Imprint, there are two bodies with one region each, but the cylinder is complete, while the cube has a hole in which the cylinder is located. The geometry clash is resolved.

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7.1.6.

Split Wires by Bodies

Split Wires by Bodies operation divides the wire by the bodies that have intersection with that wire. It is performed by first selecting the wire that should be divided and the bodies and then choosing Boolean>Split Wires by Bodies from Modify or context menu, or using the toolbar shortcut . This results is new wires that have starting or ending point, or both, at the intersection of selected wires and bodies. For example, a wire passes through the plate as shown below. After Split Wires by Bodies operation, the wire is split into two new wires.

7.2.

Transformations

Model transformations help the user to save effort and reduce errors by automating the modification of models where possible.

7.2.1.

Rotate

Rotate Body operation enables the user to rotate one or more selected bodies around one of the three axes in either working coordinate system or global coordinate system (explained in 5) for arbitrary rotation angle. The operation is performed in three steps: the bodies are selected in the first step, Transformation>Rotate Body command is chosen from Modify or context menu, or the toolbar shortcut is used in the second step which brings the program in rotation mode, and the rotation is performed in the final step. After choosing the command Modify>Transformation>Rotate Body or
WIPL-D Pro CAD Operations on the Model 7-5

using the toolbar shortcut , the Rotate Body dialog appears. The rotation is done in coordinate system which is specified in System drop-down menu, around the axis defined in the Axis drop-down menu, by the angle in Degrees entered in the Rotation angle filed. The rotation will be applied only after the Apply button on the dialog has been clicked. The dialog box can be closed with the Close button, which does not affect the model.

The rotation mode is automatically turned off when the Rotate Body dialog is closed. Alternatively, uncheck the Modify>Transformation>Rotate Bo dy menu command to turn the rotation mode off while the Rotate Body dialog is still active.

7.2.2.

Translate

Translate Body operation enables the user to translate one or more selected bodies to a new location in the model, either by typing in the translation vector explicitly or by dragging bodies by the mouse. The operation is performed in three steps: the bodies are selected in the first step, Transformation>Translate Body command is chosen from Modify or context menu, or toolbar shortcut is used in the second step which brings the program in translation mode, and the translation is performed in the final step. After choosing the command Modify>Transformation>Translate Body from the menu or using the toolbar shortcut , the Translation Vector dialog appears. The translation vector can be entered in the dX, dY, and dZ fields. The translation will be applied only after the Apply button on the dialog has been clicked. The dialog box can be closed with the Close button, which does not affect the model.

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Operation on the Model

WIPL-D Pro CAD

Alternatively, the selected body can be dragged by the mouse to a new location. The contents of the dX, dY, and dZ fields will be automatically updated as the body is moved by the mouse.

The translation mode is automatically turned off when the Translation Vector dialog is closed. Alternatively, uncheck the Translate Body command in Modify>Transformation menu to turn the translation mode off while the Translation Vector dialog is still active.

7.2.3.

Scale

Scale Body operation enables the user to scale one or more selected bodies by all three dimensions at the same time. The operation is performed in three steps: the bodies are selected in the first step, Transformation>Scale Body command is chosen from Modify or context menu, or the toolbar shortcut is used in the second step which brings the program in scale mode, and the scaling is performed in the final step. After choosing the command Modify>Transformation>Scale Body or using the toolbar shortcut , the Scale Selection dialog appears. The multiplying constants for scaling per x, y and z-axis can be entered in X Scale, Y Scale and Z Scale field. By default, all values for multiplying constants are set to 1. The scaling will be applied only after the OK button on the dialog has been clicked. The dialog box can be closed with the Cancel button, which does not
WIPL-D Pro CAD Operations on the Model 7-7

affect the model.

7.2.4.

Mirror

Mirror Body operation enables the user to mirror one or more selected bodies with respect to a chosen mirror plane. The operation is performed in three steps: the bodies are selected in the first step, Transformation>Mirror Body command is chosen from Modify or context menu, or the toolbar shortcut is used in the second step which brings the program in mirror mode, and the mirroring is performed in the final step. After choosing the command Modify>Transformation>Mirror Body or using the toolbar shortcut , the Mirror Plane dialog appears where the user defines X, Y or Z mirror plane. The result of this operation is original body reflected in the specified mirror plane.

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7.3.

Copy Options

Copy operations create an exact copy of selected bodies or faces. The result of these operations is always a body, meaning that a copy of a face will be a new body consisting of one face.

7.3.1.

Copy Body or Face

Copy Body or Face is performed in two steps. The first step involves selecting bodies or faces that are to be copied. The second step performs the operation in one of three ways: choosing Modify>Copy>Copy Body or Face from the menu, choosing Copy>Copy on Position from the context menu, using the toolbar shortcut . The location of the copy is the same as of the original, so care must be taken not to leave any overlapping bodies in the final model prior to meshing.

7.3.2.

Multiple Copy

Multiple Copy operation creates multiple copies of the selected bodies or faces that can be translated, rotated and scaled per all three dimensions, at the same time. The operation is performed in three steps: the body or face is selected in the first step. In the second step Multiple Copy command is chosen from the context menu or Modify>Copy drop-down menu, or the toolbar shortcut is used, which opens Multiple Copy dialog box and the multiplication is performed in the final step. In Multiple Copy dialog box the following parameters can be specified:
WIPL-D Pro CAD Operations on the Model 7-9

Number of copies - defines number of copies of selected body or face; if the number is zero, the original is rotated, moved and scaled, Rotate field - specifies rotation angles of copies in degrees per axes (referent body is always previously copied body), Translate field - specifies translation vector of copies (referent body is always previously copied body), Scale field - specifies constants for scaling copies per each of the three axes (referent body is always previously copied body). The multiplication will be applied only after the OK button on the dialog has been clicked. The dialog box can be closed with the Cancel button, which does not affect the model.

7.3.3.

History Copy

History Copy option enables the user to copy a body that does not exist independently in Project Tree, but is a part of another, independent body. This body was used once, during the creation of model, in order to form another body by using Boolean operations. The only function applicable to it is the History Copy offered in the menu obtained by right-click on it in Project Tree. It returns one copy of body in the position where it was before the new body was created.

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7.4.

Sweep

Sweep operation is used to ease the modeling of solid or sheet bodies with complex geometry by sweeping one body along the other. Sweeping takes two parts of input, a profile (wire or sheet body) and a path (wire body). It is performed in three steps. First, the profile is selected. Then, the type of sweep (Parallel or Normal) is chosen from the Sweep Type dialog box obtained either by selecting Modify>Sweep or by clicking . In the final step, a wire path is chosen.

Parallel sweep type sweeps the profile along the path, keeping its orientation in the coordinate system constant. Normal sweep type sweeps the profile along the path keeping the same orientation of the profile with regard to the path.

Parallel sweep (profile - line, path - loop)

Normal sweep (profile - loop in xOz plane, path - loop in xOy plane)

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In addition, the profile and the path can be removed automatically after the sweeping is finished. In that case, the user should check the option Delete Sweep Profile Path from the Modify menu before starting the sweeping procedure.

7.5.
7.5.1.

Body Repair Tools


Sew Faces

Sew faces operation unites faces whose edges boundaries coincide. The sewn faces can belong to a single body or to different bodies. In both cases the result of Sew faces operation is a new body with no gap between sewn faces. This option is used in situations when it is not possible to obtain new body by uniting the existing bodies because the common edges are corrupted (usually after import from another CAD file), or when there are gaps between faces of the same body that are consequence of Boolean operation and body transformation accuracy.

Sewing faces of different bodies

Sewing faces of a single body

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Sew Faces operation is performed by first selecting faces that are to be sewn and then choosing Repair>Sew Faces from the Modify or context menu or using the toolbar icon . The selected faces are sewn in case the distance of their coincided edges is within a given tolerance. The tolerance is specified in Modify>Repair>Sewing Tolerance.

7.5.2.

Removing Model Parts

Removing model parts (model disfeaturing) is usually performed when the imported model can be simplified in order to facilitate the EM simulation. This is particularly interesting in case of complex models with a lot of mechanical detail that do not influence the EM fields. Three commands (Remove Hole, Remove Feature and Remove Blends) are used for this purpose, and they are described over the next sections. 7.5.2.1. Remove Hole

Remove Hole command is useful for removal of cylindrical or polygonal holes where both loops of the hole are connected by a single face. The face that makes up the hole should be selected prior to choosing the Repair>Remove Hole command from Modify or context menu.

Regardless of the type of the hole, the effect of the command is the same. The body from which the hole is removed is healed. 7.5.2.2. Remove Feature

A feature that can be removed is an isolated part of the model that is connected to the rest of the model by one or more loops, and has no discontinuities itself (all the faces that form a feature must be directly or indirectly connected). All loops must belong to the same body. An example of a complex detail is shown in the figure below. Although it consists of a cuboid and two cylinders, the feature is connected to the rest of the model with a single loop. A feature like this one is removed by first selecting one of the faces that form the feature and then selecting the face that needs to be
WIPL-D Pro CAD Operations on the Model 7-13

healed over the loop after the feature removal. After the selection is done, the feature is removed by choosing Repair>Remove Feature from Modify or context menu.

The same command can be used for removing features connected to the rest of the model with more than one loop. This enables the user to also remove complex tunnel/cavity structures on the inside of the model. Since the feature has two loops, one on the upper side of the rectangular body and the other on the lower side, three selections should be performed. First, one of the faces that form the feature is selected then both sides of the rectangular body that need to be healed after the feature removal. After selections, choosing Repair>Remove Feature command from Modify or context menu removes the feature and heals the body.

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7.5.2.3.

Remove Blend

Remove Blend command is useful for removal of one or more blend faces. The faces supplied must all come from the same body. The blend faces are removed in two steps. First, the blend faces that belong to the same body are selected. After selection, choosing Repair>Remove Feature option from Modify or context menu will remove the blend faces. An example of how it works is shown in figure below.

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7.6.

Explode Body

Explode Body operation replaces a selected body with a set of new bodies where each body consists of a single face or edge that belonged to the original body. Explode Body is performed by first selecting bodies that are to be exploded, then choosing Modify>Explode Body from the menu or using the toolbar shortcut .

7.7.

Delete Body or Face

Delete Body or Face command deletes the selected body/face from the model. It is performed by first selecting the face or body that is to be deleted (either from Project Tree or 3D view) and then choosing one of four following options: command Delete Body or Face from the Modify menu, selecting Delete from context menu obtained by right click in 3D View or Project Tree, using the Delete key on the keyboard, using the toolbar shortcut . After that, the dialog box will appear. By selecting Yes, the body or face will be deleted and by selecting No, the model will stay intact.

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7.8.

Crop by Plane

Model can be cropped along a coordinate plane by choosing Modify>Crop by Plane from the menu, and then choosing X+, Y+ or Z+ to select the plane or by using the toolbar . After this command, only parts of the model that are located on the positive side of the chosen coordinate plane will be kept, while the rest will be discarded. The discarded parts no longer exist in the model. The effect of the Crop by Plane command is displayed in the figure below. The resulting model is open, without any faces along the cropping plane, thus suitable for application of symmetry in EM simulation. This command can alternatively try to keep solid bodies that are cropped by closing them up with flat faces lying on the cropping plane. The option which controls the behavior of Crop by Plane command is Modify>Keep Solids.

Keep Solids (unchecked)

Keep Solids (Checked)

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8. Domains
The domain consists of all regions made of the same material. Material is represented by its electric properties: relative permittivity, relative permeability and conductivity. 0th domain consists of all entities made of perfect electric conductor (PEC). The default domain corresponds to vacuum.

8.1.

Defining Domains

All existing domains are shown in the Domains table, that can be opened from the Main menu by selecting Edit>Domains or from the Edit toolbar by using the icon .

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Domains

8-1

The domain table has Domain1 that corresponds to vacuum and it cannot be changed or deleted. By clicking the Add button, the Add/Edit Domain dialog box appears, and the following properties of the new domain can be specified: the real part of the relative permittivity, the imaginary part of the relative permittivity, the real part of the relative permeability, the imaginary part of the relative permeability and the conductivity (expressed in S/m). Specified domain can be edited or removed using Edit or Remove button.

8.2.

Assigning Domains to the Model

Domains can be specified on region, face and wire parts of the model. The domain is assigned to a region by right mouse click on the appropriate Region in subtree. The Set Domain Spec drop-down menu pops-up, whose selection brings up the Set domain dialog box where one of the dielectric domains can be chosen as the specification for the selected region. The domains assignment is propagated onto all faces that envelop the selected region. The color of all these faces will be changed in 3D View, giving feedback about the result of the action.

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Domains

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Domain assignment on faces is performed in a similar way. One of the following options will bring up the Set Domains dialog box: Right-click on a face in 3D view and click on the Set Domain option, Right-click on a face in Model Tree and click on the Set Domain option, Using the toolbar shortcut or choosing Modify/Set Properties/Set Domain after selecting face either in 3D View or in the Model Tree. A face is a boundary between two domains, which are entered in fields 1st and 2nd. Composite metallic boundary check box should be checked only in case when a metallic (PEC) face is dividing two non-PEC domains. This kind of face is modeled by a double electric current sheet, each immersed in one of the two domains. For more details about domains, see WIPL-D Pro Users Manual.

A wire belongs to one domain only, and it is considered immersed in that domain. A domain is assigned to a wire by Right-clicking on a wire in 3D view and clicking on the Set Domain option, Right-clicking on a wire in Model Tree and clicking on the Set Domain option, Using the toolbar shortcut or choosing Modify/Set Properties/Set Domain after selecting face either in 3D View or in the Model Tree. This opens the Set Domain dialog box in which the domain surrounding the wire is specified.

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Domains

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In subtree, the icons near the regions and faces with the defined domain specifications are colored in red. Domains specification can be reverted to default (vacuum) by choosing option Clear Domain Specs either from right mouse click on face or body in Project Tree or 3D View, or by choosing Modify/Set Properties/Clear Domain Specs after selecting a face or a body.

8.3.

Domain Attributes Syntax

Domains can be specified on Region, Face, and Wire parts of the model. The specifications are saved as attributes of these model parts, following certain syntax. In case of regions and wires, the domain attributes are of the syntax D_i, where i is the order number (name) of the domain. Examples: D_0 - region filled with PEC, D_1 - free-space region, or a wire surrounded by free-space, D_2 - dielectric region, or a wire immersed in a dielectric region. In case of faces, the domain attributes are of the syntax D_i_j or M_i_j, where i and j are the order numbers (names) of domains. The letter M is used if the face is metallic or composite metallic boundary surface, letter D is used if it is a dielectric boundary surface. Examples: D_1_2 - a boundary surface between dielectric domain 2 and free-space. WIPL-D Pro 3D EM Solver domain syntax is (1,2); M_1_0 - a boundary surface between PEC and free-space or an infinitesimally thin metallic plate surrounded by free-space. WIPL-D Pro domain syntax is (1,0); M_1_2 - a composite metallic boundary surface between dielectric domain 2 and free-space. WIPL-D Pro 3D EM Solver domain syntax is (-1,-2).

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9. Loadings
By default, wires and metallic plates are considered to be composed of perfect electric conductor. Real material properties of wires and metallic plates (e.g., finite conductivity) can be taken into account by adding distributed loadings over wires and plates. These loadings are defined through the Distributed Loadings editor. Lumped elements inserted at the junction of a wire with other wires or plates are modeled by concentrated loadings. These loadings are defined through the Concentrated Loadings editor. The Loadings editors are opened by choosing Edit>Loadings menu or by using the toolbar shortcuts and in the Edit toolbar. More detailed explanation on loadings can be found in WIPL-D Pro Users manual.

9.1.

Distributed Loadings

The Distributed Loadings dialog box opens by selecting Distributed in the Edit>Loadings menu or by choosing the toolbar shortcut in the Edit toolbar.
WIPL-D Pro CAD Loadings 9-1

New loading can be specified, or existing can be changed or removed using Add, Edit and Remove buttons.

After choosing Add button, the Add/Edit Distributed Loading dialog box opens where the loading is specified. Alternatively, it can be opened directly from Project Tree by right mouse click on the option Distributed in the Loading item. The Add/Edit Distributed Loading dialog box consists of three tabs: Skin, Srfc and RLC: Skin - used to specify skin effect losses with conductivity , that is frequency dependent, Srfc - used to specify surface impedance in RS + jX S format, selecting

R S and X S , that are constant in selected frequency range and RLC - used to specify distributed loadings with R, L and C elements in parallel or series configuration. Zero value means that the element is nonexistent. Distributed loading can be removed by choosing option Clear Distributed Loadings either from context menu opened by right mouse click on face or body in Project Tree or 3D View, or by choosing Modify/Set Properties/Clear Distributed Loadings after selecting face or body.
9-2 Loadings WIPL-D Pro CAD

Distributed loadings can be specified on wire or face by choosing one of the following options: right-click on a wire (face) in 3D view and click on the Set Distributed Loading option, right-click on a face in Model Tree and click on the Set Distributed Loading option, using the toolbar shortcut or, choosing Modify/Set Properties/Set Distributed Loading after selecting face either in 3D View or from the bottom section of Project Tree. After that, Set Distributed Loadings dialog box opens and loading is assigned to the body by choosing the appropriate definition.

In subtree, the wires and faces over which the distributed loadings are added are labeled as shown below.

9.2.

Concentrated Loadings

A concentrated loading is a one-port element inserted at the junction of a wire connected to other wire or plate. It can model lumped elements such as resistors, inductors, capacitors, or their combinations. It represents a special case of
WIPL-D Pro CAD Loadings 9-3

distributed loading, when the loading is distributed over a surface or length whose dimensions are much smaller than the wavelength. The Concentrated Loadings dialog box opens by choosing Concentrated in the Edit>Loadings menu or by using the toolbar shortcut in the Edit toolbar. New loading can be specified, or existing can be changed or removed using Add, Edit and Remove buttons.

After choosing Add button the Add/Edit Distributed Loadings dialog opens where the loading should be specified. In the Vertex1 and Vertex2 edit fields, the user can enter the number of the first and the second wire vertex. The R+jX and RLC tabs specify: R+jX - the impedance in R + jX format, with R and X that are constant in the selected frequency range. RLC - the impedance with R, L and C elements in parallel or series configuration. The user can also specify the concentrated load by selecting wire vertices either in 3D View or from the bottom section of Project Tree. In that case, Concentrated Loadings dialog box explained above opens: by right mouse click in 3D view and click on the Draw Concentrated Loading option or, by right mouse click on selected vertices in bottom section of the Project Tree and click on the Draw Concentrated Loading option.
9-4 Loadings WIPL-D Pro CAD

The only difference is that the Vertices section is disabled now, because the position of concentrated load is predefined by previous selection. In 3D View, concentrated loadings are displayed as shown in 3.1.9.

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10. Excitations
The next step in solving EM problem is to define the excitation for the model. There are three types of excitations that could be defined: Generators - in case of solving antenna problems, Waves - in case of solving scattering problems, Field generators - in case of models that are excited by antenna which radiation pattern is known.

10.1. Generators
Before Generators are defined as type of excitation, Operation mode should be set to ANTENNA (one generator at a time) or to ANTENNA (all generators) Operation mode dialog box, which opens by selecting Operation option in Edit menu, is shown in the figure below.

Generator is defined between the two consecutive vertices of a wire. In WIPL-D Pro CAD, there are two types of generators: the delta generator - for wires with a radius-to-length ratio between 1/100
Excitations 10-1

WIPL-D Pro CAD

and 1/30. TEM frill generator - for wires with a radius-to-length ratio greater than 1/30. After setting excitation type, the Generators dialog box opens by choosing Edit>Excitation>Generators or by using the toolbar shortcut . It lists all existing generators with their defining parameters (position, voltage and type). New generator can be specified, or existing can be changed or removed using Add, Edit and Remove buttons.

After choosing Add button the Generator Settings dialog box opens. In the Vertex1 and Vertex2 edit fields one can enter the number of the first and the second wire vertex. The voltage of the generator is specified in the Voltage section by entering numerical values for its real and the imaginary part. These are the parameters that should be defined in order to create the delta generator. If TEM frill generator is being created TEM frill box should be checked and two additional parameters, the first and the second frill radius, should be specified in the Radius1 and Radius2 dialog boxes. If the values of radii are set to zero, then the generator is delta generator regardless the TEM frill box is checked. After pressing OK button in the Generator Settings dialog box the new generator appears in the Generators dialog box.
10-2 Excitations WIPL-D Pro CAD

The user can also specify a new generator by first selecting wire vertices either in 3D View or from the bottom section of Project Tree. In that case Generator Settings dialog box that is explained above opens: by right mouse click in 3D view and click on the Draw Generator option or, by right mouse click on selected vertices in bottom section of the Project Tree and click on the Draw Generator option. The only difference is that the Vertices section is disabled now, because the position of the generator is predefined by previous selection. When the generator is created, apart from the Generators table, it also appears in Project Tree under Excitations>Generators list where it is possible to remove it by choosing option Remove in right-click menu. Left mouse click on it marks it in 3D View (so as option described in 3.1.9) and enables its editing from the properties table in the bottom section of Project Tree.

10.2. Waves
Before Waves are defined as type of excitation, Operation mode should be set to SCATTERER (bistatic RCS) or to SCATTERER (monostatic RCS) Operation mode dialog box, which opens by selecting Operation option in Edit menu, is shown in the figure below.

After setting excitation type, the Waves dialog box opens by choosing Edit>Excitation>Waves or by using the toolbar shortcut . It lists all existing waves with their defining parameters (Direction, Ephi and Etheta). New wave can be specified, or existing can be changed or removed using Add, Edit and Remove buttons.
WIPL-D Pro CAD Excitations 10-3

After choosing Add button the Add/Edit Waves dialog box opens. The direction of the wave is completely determined by the and angles of arriving entered in Phi and Theta fields. The complex electric field vector in the coordinate origin is completely determined by its and -complex components specified in Ephi and Etheta sections. After pressing OK button, the new wave appears in the Waves dialog box. It also appears in Project Tree under Excitations>Waves list where it is possible to remove it by choosing option Remove in rightclick menu. Left mouse click enables its editing from the properties list in the bottom section of Project Tree. Alternately, a new wave can be added by right-clicking the Wave item in Project Tree. Also, the existing wave can be removed by right-clicking it in Project Tree and choosing option Remove, or it can be edited from the subtree. In 3D View the defined wave is represented with a three-arrow marker. The green arrow represents the direction of the wave. The red arrow represents the
10-4 Excitations WIPL-D Pro CAD

vector sum of real parts of and -components, while the blue arrow shows the vector sum of imaginary parts of these components.

Three-arrow marker

10.3. Field Generators


Field generators are used in case when the user wants to excite the structure by using an antenna, which has a known radiation pattern that is measured, simulated or analytically represented.

10.3.1.

Defining Excitation Type

Before Field Generators are defined as type of excitation, Operation mode should be set to ANTENNA (one generator at time). Operation mode dialog box, which opens by selecting Operation option in Edit menu, is shown in the figure on the right below. After setting operation mode to one generator at time, excitation type should be set to Field Generators. Excitation type submenu opens by positioning the mouse on the Excitation option in the Edit menu. After this Field Generators option should be selected. After selecting this type of excitation, Generators will be disabled. Once excitation type is set, field generators should be entered.
WIPL-D Pro CAD Excitations 10-5

10.3.2.

Defining Field Generators

After setting excitation type to Field Generators, dialog box for Field Generators settings opens. This dialog box is shown in the figure below.

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The dialog box consists of six sections. In what follows these sections will be explained one by one.

10.3.3.

Radiation Pattern

This section is used for specification of radiation pattern of one antenna element. There are two ways for specifying this radiation pattern: by typing analytical equations and by importing a .ra1 file. 10.3.3.1. Analytical specification

The section consists of four edit fields, one field for each component of electric field, as it is shown in the figure below.

Expressions for field components should be entered into the corresponding fields. Syntax in these expressions is the same as the syntax in the Symbols table. Symbols reserved for and angles are $phi and $theta, respectively. Note that and , in these expressions, are given in radians. 10.3.3.2. Imported

Radiation pattern created in WIPL-D Pro or in some other way, but in format of WIPL-D .ra1 file can be imported in this section.

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10.3.4.

Array Dimension

This section is used for specifying number of antenna array elements and distances between them. Array dimension can be specified in two ways: by specifying values in edit fields or by importing proper file.

In the first case, Nx, Ny and Nz, the numbers of array elements along x, y and z-axis, respectively, and dx, dy and dz, distances between the array elements, should be set. This way, rectangular array with uniform distances between elements will be defined. If some other shape of the array is needed, the second way of defining array should be used. By ticking on Custom Defined X,Y,Z check box import of .fgc file will be allowed. At the same time, edit fields for entering number of elements and distances between elements along x, y and z-axis will be disabled. A .fgc file is an ASCII file containing data about number of elements and positions of elements within the array. Number of elements, N, is written in the first row of this file. The next N rows contain three data each, x, y and z coordinates of the corresponding element. All coordinates are separated by space sign. Note that coordinates in .fgc file are given in meters.

10.3.5.

Array Position

Antenna array defined in previous section can be rotated and translated by using settings from this section.

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In this section array can be rotated in Azimuth, Elevation and Tilt, and translated for vector (X0,Y0,Z0). Default f for tilt rotation is x-axis. Elevation angle is measured starting from xOy plane.

10.3.6.

Magnitude and Phase

Section for setting magnitude and phase of array elements is shown in the figure below.

Magnitude and Phase can be specified by setting the values directly in the edit fields or by importing excitation matrix from the .fgi file. If the first way is used, all elements will have the same value for magnitude and phase, i.e. values entered in the edit fields will be applied on all elements. Nevertheless, if it is necessary to set different values of amplitude and phase for different array elements, .fgi file has to be used. By ticking on Custom Defined Mag/Phase check box import of .fgi file will be allowed. At the same time, edit fields for entering magnitude and phase will be disabled. A .fgi file is an ASCII file consisting of N rows, where N is the number of elements in the array. In the case of a uniform array it is Nx*Ny*Nz, whilst in the case of custom defined antenna array dimensions it is the number from the first row of .fgc file. Each row consists of two numbers separated by space. The first number is the magnitude and the second number is the phase of one array element. The data in the n-th row in .fgi file correspond to the element whose position is defined in the (n+1)-th row of .fgc file. Note that phase in this file is given in degrees.

10.3.7.

Consider Array as Single Excitation Check Box

Analytical equations or radiation pattern defined in the first section correspond to each element separately. If radiation pattern of all elements working together is the result of interest, check box Consider array as single excitation should be checked. After checking this check box, Main Beam Direction section will be enabled.
WIPL-D Pro CAD Excitations 10-9

10.3.8.

Main Beam Direction

Main Beam Direction section with checked user specified check box is shown in the figure below.

If it is necessary to define more than one direction of the main beam, or at least to change main beam direction of already defined array, user specified check box has to be checked. By checking this box, fields for entering directions of the main beam will be enabled. To set the number of directions over and , type values in the fields Nphi and Ntheta. Start and stop values for these angle coordinates should be entered in the fields Phi1, Phi2, Theta1 and Theta2. If it is necessary to set non-uniform values of main beam directions, .fgd file has to be used. By ticking on Custom Defined Directions importing of .fgd file will be allowed and edit fields for entering main beam direction parameters will be disabled. A .fgd file is an ASCII file consisting of N+1 rows, where N is the number of directions and it is written in the first row. Each next row consists of two numbers separated by arbitrary number of space sings. The first number is the angle and the second number is the angle. Note that phi and theta in this file is given in degrees.

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11. Model Verification and Validation


In WIPL-D Pro CAD, it is possible to check the model in various ways. The user can verify physical dimensions of the model, view the number of structure elements as well as to use the built-in checker of proper modeling.

11.1. Measuring Distance


The user is able to inspect the dimensions of the model by the Measure Distance command. Measure Distance command is activated by choosing Inspect>Measure Distance from the menu, or by pressing the toolbar shortcut . The application is now in the measure distance mode. This mode can be turned off by using the same commands. The measure distance mode is active regardless of the chosen selection level (see 6.1). However, the most useful is measuring of distance between two vertices. In order to measure that distance the Vertex Selection Level should be turned on. The distance between two vertices in the model is measured by clicking on one of them, then dragging the mouse to the other and releasing it there. A dimension line is drawn between the two points and the distance is displayed in a Note (white box encircled with a red line). The Note can be moved by clicking on it and then dragging it by the mouse.
WIPL-D Pro CAD Model Verification and Validation 11-1

The Note can be edited or deleted by right-clicking on it and choosing Edit Note or Delete Note from the context menu.

11.2. Model Information


The number of structure elements (primitives and junctions) that are used to build model is listed by choosing Inspect>Info option.

11.3. Model Validation


WIPL-D Pro CAD model can be checked for: irregular symmetry specification, irregular domain specifications, by using Inspect>Validate option or the keyboard shortcut F8. The Validation report window appears displaying information about inconsistencies in the model. In case there are no inconsistencies, this feature will display a dialog similar to the one shown at right.
11-2 Model Verification and Validation WIPL-D Pro CAD

Otherwise, WIPL-D Pro CAD will report suspicious symmetry specifications and/or domain specifications. Furthermore, it will offer the user to delete the faces with irregular domain specification since these would cause an error during the meshing process. For example, the two cuboids shown below are overlapped with one face and have the same domain specifications. After performing Unite operation on them (see 7.1.1) validation report displays warning of irregular domain specification for the face that emerged from the overlapped faces.

Note: Faces with irregular domain specifications are most often either unnecessary in the model or they are a result of user error during material assignment.

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12. Specifying Mesh


Meshing is a process in which the model is subdivided into a mesh of basic geometrical elements. WIPL-D Pro 3D EM Solver uses quadrilateral meshing, where the surfaces of the model are divided into a collection of bilinear quad surface patches. The form of the EM solution is specified using surface current basis functions on the patches whose weighting coefficients are to be determined (unknowns in a system of linear equations). The program determines which orders of current expansions to use on patches in the model by analyzing the electrical size of each patch at the reference frequency. The order of expansions are therefore adaptive and different on patches throughout the model (so called mixed orders). WIPL-D Pro 3D EM Solver allows coarse mesh, where maximum size of the patch is two by two wavelengths (2 by 2). The mesh needs to be fine enough not to introduce large discrepancies from the original geometry that would result in inaccurate EM simulation. The user can specify the desired size of the mesh patches in WIPL-D Pro CAD, either on the entire model (global mesh settings) or only on some selected faces (local mesh settings).

12.1. Mesh Process Overview


Setting the mesh parameters consists of five steps: Specifying meshing mode, Specifying meshing algorithm, Specifying global mesh parameters,

Specifying size of local mesh on faces and/or edges. The mesh process consists of three stages. In the first stage, a triangular mesh is generated from the 3D model. During this stage, all faces of the model are
WIPL-D Pro CAD Specifying Mesh 12-1

meshed according to specified global or local mesh size parameters. The growth speed is also taken into account, allowing faster or slower transition from the finemeshed parts of the model towards the coarse-meshed parts. In the second stage, triangular mesh can be simplified by removing excess details (Mesh defeaturing) or by enlarging mesh elements wherever possible (Mesh coarsening (decimation)). When a fully connected triangular mesh is obtained, a re-meshing algorithm is executed in the final stage. The aim is to replace the triangular mesh with quadrilateral mesh. The size of the mesh is determined with respect to the Stop frequency that is specified in the Frequency dialog box, or with respect to the Reference frequency, if it is defined.

12.2. Meshing Mode


There are two meshing modes in WIPL-D Pro CAD: Auto mode (the default mode) and User Controlled. When a new project is opened, the auto mode is set by default. Meshing mode can be changed by choosing one of the two options from Mesh Mode dialog box. Mesh Mode dialog box opens by choosing Mesh>Mesh Mode option or by using the keyboard shortcut F11. The Mesh Mode dialog is shown in the figure to the right. If Auto mode is selected all the relevant parameters for meshing are set to the default value based on the operating frequency and cannot be changed. The operating frequency has to be set before starting mesh procedure. If the operating frequency is not defined and the user tries to run mesh, the frequency setting dialog will open and frequency parameters should be specified. When the frequency is defined correctly, the meshing procedure starts. If the meshing procedure is unsuccessful (or it returns unsatisfying results), the model is too complex for Auto Mode. In that case, the user should change meshing mode to User Controlled Mode and to specify the mesh settings manually.

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12.3. Mesh Settings for User Controlled Mode


After setting the User Controlled Mode, Mesh Settings dialog opens in one of the three ways: by selecting Settings, Mesh>Mesh

by using the toolbar shortcut , or, by clicking the Mesh item in Project Tree. The following parameters can be specified: Meshing Algorithm, Mesh Size, Mesh Growth Speed, Mesh Defeaturing, Mesh Coarsening (Decimation), Angular Tolerances, Wire Radius at Segmentation, Automatic Edging. The Meshing Algorithm can be set to adaptive or uniform. The adaptive algorithm uses the defined wavelength and Angular Tolerance in order to shape properly the geometry of the model. The wavelength is a parameter according to which the sizes of patches in final mesh are determined. If the surface is flat, it will ideally be meshed into patches of size 2 by 2. The uniform meshing allows the user to set the desired size of patches (expressed in length units) on the entire model by defining the Mesh Size. The value of Angular Tolerance has no effect to this algorithm. The models meshed by using both algorithms are shown in figures below. The size of cube is 1x1x1 m. The radius of a half-sphere is 0.05m. It can be
WIPL-D Pro CAD Specifying Mesh 12-3

noticed that the adaptive algorithm approximates geometry of the model more precise but with more elements than the uniform.

Adaptive mesh algorithm Wavelength = 1m

Uniform mesh algorithm Mesh Size = 1m

Operating frequency does not have to be predefined for performing User Controlled meshing. However, if the User Controlled algorithm is specified, after defining frequency parameters, the user whether or not to accept the changing of the mesh size according to Reference Frequency and Max Patch Size defined in Frequency dialog box.

The Mesh Growth Speed can be set between Slow (0) and Fast (10). The importance of this parameter is evident wherever there are parts of the model which are relatively small compared to other parts of the model. The Slow mesh growth speed represents a slow transition from fine mesh elements to coarse.The mesh process is slower, and final mesh has a larger number of elements. The Fast mesh growth speed means a fast transition from fine mesh elements to coarse. The mesh process is fast, and final mesh has a small number of elements. At Default, the mesher attempts to increase the edge of every next mesh cell by a factor of 2, when transiting from a fine to a coarse mesh area.

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Mesh growth speed = 2

Mesh growth speed = 5

Mesh growth speed = 7

Mesh growth speed = 10

Mesh Defeaturing is an algorithm which removes un-necessary details thus simplifying the final mesh and speeding-up the EM simulation. The user needs to specify the size which is to be considered as small so that the features smaller than this threshold can be removed. In fact, a single node replaces two nodes being closer than the threshold, and the triangles that were formed by the eliminated edge are eliminated from the mesh. The threshold is determined as the maximum model size multiplied by the Mesh Defeature tolerance (Fraction of Model), specified by the user. In the figure below is shown an example of model (cube with small half-sphere on it) where Mesh Defeaturing option is used to remove small and unnecessary details that would not affect the simulations results. In the first case, the tolerance has default value (0.000001) and the half-sphere is meshed with a lot of small quads. In the second case the tolerance is increased to 0.01 and the sphere is ignored (neglected) because its dimension is smaller than 0.01*Maximum_model_size.

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Mesh Defeature tolerance = 0.000001

Mesh Defeature tolerance = 0.01

Mesh Coarsening (Decimation) is a procedure aimed at decreasing the number of mesh elements as much as possible, so that the power of higher order method of moments simulation in the 3D EM solver can be exploited to the full extent. This option is turned on by checking the Optimize for simulation speed checkbox. Click the Advanced Options button to display the Mesh Coarsening Options dialog box in which the control parameters for this procedure can be specified.

Surface Curvature Tolerance is the maximum angle between normals of adjacent triangles for which the procedure attempts to join the triangles into a larger one. We recommend to keep this parameter at 3-5, in order to maintain good geometry approximation. Model edges coarsening offers the option not to do any coarsening of the edges (model edge geometry is kept in its original form) or to
12-6 Specifying Mesh WIPL-D Pro CAD

coarsen the edges which form an angle at most equal to Line tolerance. The user is advised to set this tolerance to be lower than the Surface curvature tolerance. Maximum target element size enables the user to limit the maximum size of mesh elements, during the coarsening procedure, to a specified value. The default settings are recommended. In that case, the mesher will not go beyond 2*wavelength for adaptive algorithm, while the limit for uniform algorithm is defined mesh size. Number of passes of coarsening algorithm enables the user to limit the number of passes that the coarsening algorithm makes during the procedure. The option Until convergence achieved is recommended and checked by default. Angular Tolerances field includes two parameters: Quad Remeshing and Curve Segmentation. As it is mentioned above, the first step in the meshing procedure is the generation of a triangular mesh. Once the triangular mesh is created, the meshing procedure continues with merging the triangles into quads. Quad Remeshing parameter serves as a criterion for determining if the two triangles with two common nodes will be merged or not. If the angle between the two triangle normals is less than the one specified by this parameter, the triangles will be merged. Curve Segmentation parameter is used for determining the number of segments on a curve or edge. In this role, it defines the critical angle between normals of the two neighboring segments of a curve or edge. If the angle between the segments is less than specified, the two segments will form a new one. Example meshes with Quad Remeshing and Curve Segmentation are displayed in figures below. These parameters are valid only if the User Controlled meshing algorithm is defined.

Quad Remeshing of 45

Quad Remeshing of 30

Curve Segmentation of 30

Curve Segmentation of 30

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Wire Radius at Segmentation enables the user to specify wire radius for all wire bodies presented in the model but only if the radius is not previously defined (see chapter 4.3.7). Wire radius can be set to automatic value of wavelength/50, or it can be specified. However, if the radius is previously defined as it is explained in 4.3.7 the setting in Wire Radius at Segmentation section will be neglected. Automatic Edging enables automatic meshing along the edges when the edge effect is a critical parameter for an accurate analysis. Clicking the Specify button displays the Automatic Edging dialog box that lists existing control parameters. The parameters can be specified, edited or removed (Add, Edit, or Remove). Add/Edit Automatic Edging dialog box consists of the Domains and Algorithm combo boxes and two Maximum Edge Width edit fields. Maximum Edge Width [m] - defines the maximum width of the edge strip in m (or other length unit). If the selected edge width exceeds the maximum allowed by the geometry of the selected plate then the Maximum Edge Width [%] criterion is used. Maximum Edge Width [%] - defines the maximum width of the edge strip in percent of the maximum dimension of the plate for which edging is performed. Recommended value is 50-65. Domains - specify the domains of the plates for which the edging is performed. If All is selected then all the plates at the boundary of two domains are meshed. Algorithm - defines algorithm for edging (Advanced or Classic). For more details about automatic edging, see WIPL-D Pro Users Manual.

12.4. Local Mesh Size


Setting the local mesh parameters allows the user to have desired sizes of patches on certain parts of the model. This can be very useful, if the user wishes to have fine mesh on part of the model (e.g. around a feeding area), while keeping a rather coarse mesh on the rest of the structure. The user defines a desired size of the local mesh on faces and edges by using Modify>Set Properties>Set Local Mesh Size command or by using the toolbar shortcut upon selecting the desired model part. Alternatively, Set Mesh Size command can be chosen from the context menu obtained on mouse right-click in 3D View or in Project Tree.

12-8

Specifying Mesh

WIPL-D Pro CAD

Set Local Mesh Size dialog box appears and user is prompted to set this parameter (in currently valid length units), as in Fig. 11-12. Local mesh size can be specified on Face and Edge model parts. As the result of this action, a local mesh size attribute is added to the selected model part. Also that value can be set for the default value for this parameter by clicking Set as default button. An example of using this feature is illustrated in figures below. By applying the uniform mesh algorithm with mesh size of 1 m on the entire model and growth speed 5, the cube is adequately meshed, but the half-sphere is not accurately represented. With the local mesh size set four times smaller on the half-sphere than on the cube (0.05 m), the curvature of the half-sphere is preserved while the mesh on the cube is smaller and it has more elements.

Uniform mesh algorithm; mesh size = 1 m, growth speed = 5

Uniform mesh algorithm; mesh size = 1 m, growth speed = 5, local mesh size on halfsphere= 0.05 m

Uniform mesh algorithm; mesh size = 1 m, growth speed = 5, local mesh size on half-sphere= 0.025 m

Uniform mesh algorithm; mesh size = 1 m, growth speed = 10, local mesh size on half-sphere= 0.05 m

WIPL-D Pro CAD

Specifying Mesh

12-9

If the local mesh size is decreased two more times, the half-sphere is more accurately meshed, but the cube has more elements than it is necessary for its accurate representation. The best solution, in this case, is to use local mesh size of 0.05 m, but to increase growth speed to 10 in order to have as less elements as it is possible and still have enough accurate representation of the whole model. In subtree, the faces and edges with defined local mesh size are labeled as shown below.

If the user wants to delete specified local mesh sizes, this can be done by using Clear Local Mesh Sizes command either from Modify>Set Properties menu or from the context menu obtained by right-click on edge or face in 3D View or Project Tree. This command effectively removes all local mesh specifications from the selected model parts.

12.5. Create and Show Mesh


Creating meshed structure is possible in three ways: by choosing Mesh>Create Mesh, by using the keyboard shortcut F6, or, by using the toolbar shortcut . This command converts the model into WIPL-D Project (i.e. IWP file). WIPL-D Pro CAD will display the status window of the mesh process (see the figure below) and notify the user when the conversion is completed.

12-10

Specifying Mesh

WIPL-D Pro CAD

WIPL-D Pro 3D EM Solver automatically opens the converted project and the user can inspect the final mesh of the converted project in the Preview window of the EM Solver. After the conversion of the model into WIPL-D Project, the user can: proceed work in WIPL-D Pro (to make changes in the project and run the simulation). Further work will not affect the .wcm file, or, use WIPL-D Pro only to inspect the meshed model and check for errors by using EM Solvers topological checker. (For more details about topological checker, see WIPL-D Pro Users Manual). After that, the user can proceed with work in WIPL-D Pro CAD (to make changes in the project and run the simulation). If the user wants to see the meshed structure before simulation starts, but not to do anything in WIPL-D Pro interface, a way to do that is by choosing option Mesh/Show Pre-Simulate Mesh.

WIPL-D Pro CAD

Specifying Mesh

12-11

13. More Options with WIPL-D Pro CAD


Additional functionality available in WIPL-D Pro CAD is conversion of 3D models created in various solid modeling tools to WIPL-D Pro simulation-ready projects. This enhances the interoperability of our cutting-edge EM solver, providing its fast and accurate simulation technology without the cost of redrawing existing CAD models.

13.1. CAD File Import


A CAD file is imported by choosing File>Import. The following file types and their versions are supported (subject to licensing): Parasolid Part Files (*.x_t; *x_b; *.xmt_) Acis Files (*.sat) Catia V4 Part Files (*.model; *.session; *.exp) Catia V5 Part Files (*.CATPart; *.CATProduct; *CATShape) IGES Part Files (*.igs, *.iges) ProE Files (*.prt; *.prt*; *.xpr; *.xpr.) ProE Assemblies (*.asm; *.asm.*; *.xas; *.xas.) Solidworks (*.sldprt, *.sldasm) STEP Part Files (*.stp; *.step) UG Part Files (*.prt) WIPL-D Pro Geometry Files (*.iwp)

WIPL-D Pro CAD

More Options with WIPL-D Pro CAD

13-1

After choosing the file, the Units Conversion dialog box appears. WIPL-D Pro CAD tries to determine what the valid length units are in the CAD file, and displays them in the Source field. The user should now select which units will be used for the imported model in the Destination field.

13.2. CAD File Export


In addition to converting the model into a WIPL-D project, the user can export the model into other geometry HOOPS, picture file formats. Use File>Export As option to save the model in desired formats. Geometry files that can be chosen are: Parasolid Part File [text] Parasolid Part File [binary] Autodesk DWF Universal 3D Stereolithography Alias Wavefront PLY PDF Postscript HPGL2 CGM HOOPS files that can be chosen are: ParaHOOPS Stream File HOOPS Stream File HOOPS Metafile HOOPS 3D Stream control HOOPS Animation File Picture files that can be chosen are:
13-2 More Options with WIPL-D Pro CAD WIPL-D Pro CAD

JPEG BMP TIFF GIF EMF Enhanced Metafile

13.3. History List


WIPL-D Pro CAD enables the user some sort of advanced options of model editing by modifying History List. History List contains the list of all entries that are currently logged in the history file. The history file keeps a record of every command that was done in the project, but only directly on the model. Therefore, commands related to creating symbols, defining symmetry, operation mode and frequency range are neither recorded nor listed. History List dialog box opens from the Edit menu. The user is able to insert a new command or to edit or remove the existing ones.

Insert new command is done through Add Command dialog box opened by the Insert button. In case one of the listed commands was selected prior to adding a new one, the new command will be inserted before it. Otherwise, the command will be placed at the bottom of History List.

WIPL-D Pro CAD

More Options with WIPL-D Pro CAD

13-3

Editing the existing commands is perhaps the most useful feature of History List. By pressing the Edit button, the user is able to change parameters of old commands in Edit Command dialog box. For example, this option is helpful in situation when the changes of some parameter are too complicated to be done from the bottom section of Project Tree because of the structure complexity.

Remove button enables the user to remove existing commands. However, many of the listed commands are interconnected. These commands are possible to remove only by removing or editing all other commands that they are connected to. When the user tries to delete a linked command, the program pops up a warning about the first command listed below that depends on it.

After pressing the OK button another box pops up, offering two possibilities:

13-4

More Options with WIPL-D Pro CAD

WIPL-D Pro CAD

Back to previous state, or Open History List. If the user chooses Back to previous state option, removing the command is canceled and History List stays opened but without any changes. By choosing Open History List option, History List opens, but now it contains all commands except the removed. In the back of History List dialog box, the model is changed in 3D View according to the new state. However, the OK button in History List dialog box stays disabled until all linked commands are removed or edited. At the moment when the changes are done so that the remaining list of commands is valid, the OK button is enabled and the History List can be changed. The user is able to cancel operation removal and go back to the unchanged model by using the Cancel button.

Besides the fact that History List represents a powerful tool to correct the existing model, the user should keep in mind that the changes done by using it are permanent. Implemented Undo and Redo operations from Edit menu apply only to commands listed in History List. This means that these operations can only do the switch from one model state to another. Therefore, the changing of History List is recommended to advanced users only. Note: History List does not record commands for creating symbols. In case a symbol is used in modeling, the only way to enable removing it from symbols list is to remove or edit every command in History List that depends on it. In this sense, editing commands means replacing the symbol with some numerical value or other symbol.

WIPL-D Pro CAD

More Options with WIPL-D Pro CAD

13-5

14. Frequently Used Shortcuts

Shortcut Keys Ctrl+N Ctrl+O Ctrl+S Ctrl+P Ctrl+Q Ctrl+Z Ctrl+Y O P Alt+Z Z Y X
WIPL-D Pro CAD

Menu File File File File File Edit Edit View View View View, Coordinate Projection View, Coordinate Projection View, Coordinate Projection

Function New Project Open Project Save Project Print Exit Undo Redo Orbit Pan Zoom Camera positive xOy positive xOz Positive yOz
14-1

Frequently Used Shortcuts

Shift+Z Shift+Y Shift+X Home Ctrl+Shift+X Ctrl+Shift+Y Ctrl+Shift+Z Ctrl+H Ctrl+U W Ctrl+D Ctrl+T Ctrl+E Crtl+J S Ctrl+L Ctrl+C B E
14-2

View, Coordinate Projection View, Coordinate Projection View, Coordinate Projection View, Coordinate Projection View, Cutting Plane View, Cutting Plane View, Cutting Plane View View View View View, Mark Entities View, Mark Entities View, Mark Entities: View Draw Draw Select, Selection Level Select, Selection Level

Negative xOy. Negative xOz Negative yOz Isometric X plane Y plane Z plane Hide Show All Show Curves As Wires Visible Domains Concentrated Loads Mark Entities: Generators Mark Entities: Junction Symmetry Local Coordinate System Global Coordinate System Body Edge
WIPL-D Pro CAD

Frequently Used Shortcuts

F V Shift+V Shift+W Ctrl+A Shift+Ctrl+A Delete F8 F11 F9 F6 F7 F2 F3 F4 F5 T

Select, Selection Level Select, Selection Level Select Select Select Select Modify Inspect Mesh Mesh Mesh Run Configure, Render Mode Configure, Render Mode Configure, Render Mode Configure, Render Mode Configure

Face Vertex Select by Single Click Select by Window Select All Deselect All Delete Body or Face Validate Mesh Mode Mesh settings Create Mesh Run EM simulation Shaded With Lines Shaded Triangulated Contour Project Tree

WIPL-D Pro CAD

Frequently Used Shortcuts

14-3

15. Index
Continious Orbit Visual Effects, 3-11 Coordinate Projection, 3-3 Isometric, 3-3 X, 3-3 Y, 3-3 Z, 3-3 Coordinate Systems Global CS, 5-1 Local CS, 5-1 visibility, 5-1 Working CS, 5-2 Copy Body or Face, 7-9 History Copy, 7-10 Multiple Copy, 7-9 Options, 7-9 Crop by Plane, 7-17 Keep Solids, 7-17 Cuboid, 4-11 Cutting Planes, 3-3 options, 3-10 Cylinder, 4-11

3
3D View, 1-4

A
Assembly, 1-7

B
Bodies General, 1-7 Solid, 1-7, 4-10 Surface, 1-7, 4-7 Wire, 1-7, 4-3 Boolean Operations, 7-1 Imprint, 7-4 Intersect, 7-3 Split Wires by Bodies, 7-5 Subtract, 7-2 Unite, 7-1 Unite Simplify, 7-2

C
Circle, 4-7 Concentrated Loadings, 9-3 Mark Entities, 3-7 Cone, 4-12

D
Delete Body or Face, 7-16 Distributed Loadings, 9-1

Domains assigning, 8-2 attributes syntax, 8-4 defining, 8-1

E
Edge, 1-6 Edging automatic, 2-27, 12-8 Elliptic Arc, 4-4 Excitation Generators, 10-1 Waves, 10-3 Explode Body, 7-16 Export CAD File, 13-2

General Helix, 4-18 Helix, 4-14 Spiral, 4-16 Helix, 4-14 Hide, 3-4 History Copy, 7-10 List, 13-3 Horn Antenna example, 2-5 Hyperboloid/Ellipsoid, 4-13

I
Import CAD File, 13-1 Imprint. See Boolean Operations Intersect. See Boolean Operations Irregular Polygon, 4-9 Isometric Coordinate Projection, 3-3

F
Face, 1-6 Field Generators Defining, 10-6 Fin, 1-6 Fitted Spline, 4-5 Flare, 4-12 Frequency define range, 2-4

J
Junction creation, 2-23 Mark Entities, 3-7

G
General Helix, 4-18 Generators Mark Entities, 3-7 Grid settings, 5-6

K
Keep Solids. See Crop by Plane

L
Lights Visual Effects, 3-11 Line, 4-3 Loadings Concetrated, 9-3 Distributed, 9-1

H
Helical/Spiral Object

Loop, 1-6, 4-4

M
Measuring Distance, 11-1 Mesh Coarsening (Decimation), 12-6 Create, 12-10 Growth Defeaturing, 12-5 Growth Speed, 12-4 Local Mesh Size, 12-8 Mode, 12-2 Process Overview, 12-1 Show, 12-10 Meshing Mode Advanced, 12-2 Auto, 12-2 Mirror Transformation, 7-8 Model Information, 11-2 Transformations, 7-5 Validation, 11-2

SCATTERER (monostatic RCS), 10-3 Orbit, 3-1 Output Settings Radiation, 2-14 Visualization, 3-8

P
Pan Camera, 3-2 Paraboliod, 4-13 Polyine, 4-3 Project Tree tool, 1-4 visualization, 3-12

Q
Quad, 4-8

R
Radius at segmantation, 12-8 Wire, 4-6 Redo, 13-5 Reflector Object Hyperboloid/Ellipsoid, 4-13 Paraboliod, 4-13 Reflector Object, 4-13 Region, 1-6 Regular Polygon, 4-9 Removing Model Parts Remove Feature, 7-13 Remove Hole, 7-13 Render Mode Contours, 3-10 Shaded, 3-10 Shaded with Lines, 3-10 Triangulated, 3-10

N
NURBS Curve, 4-5

O
Open New Project, 2-2 Path, 3-12 WIPL-D Pro CAD, 2-1 Operation Mode ANTENNA (all generators), 2-3 ANTENNA (one generator at time), 2-3 SCATTERER (bistatic RCS), 10-3

Repair Tools, 7-12 Removing Model Parts, 7-13 Sew Faces, 7-12 Results Viewing, 2-16, 2-28 Rotate Transformation, 7-5

Symbols defining, 2-4 Symmetry Options, 2-12 Visualization, 3-8

T
Tolerance Angle, 12-7 Surface Curvature, 12-6 Toolbar Configuration, 3-12 Transformations Mirror, 7-8 Rotate, 7-5 Scale, 7-7 Translate Rotate, 7-6 Transformation, 7-6 Transparency, 3-4

S
Scale Transformation, 7-7 Selecting Model Parts from 3D view, 6-1 from Project Tree, 6-3 Selection by Single Click, 6-1 by Window, 6-1 level, 6-1 Shadow Visual Effects, 3-12 Show Curves as Wires, 3-6 Vertices, 3-5 Simulation Options, 2-13 Run, 2-15 Snap Mode to Grid, 4-2 to Vertex, 4-2 Sphere, 4-11 Spiral, 4-16 Split Wires by Bodies. See Boolean Operations Subtract. See Boolean Operations Sweep Delete Profile Path, 7-12 Normal, 7-11 Parallel, 7-11

U
Undo, 13-5 Unite. See Boolean Operations Unite Simplify. See Boolean Operations Units, 3-9

V
Vertex, 1-6 Show, 1-6 Viewing Model, 3-1 Results, 2-16, 2-28 Visible Domains, 3-7 Visual Effects, 3-11 Continious Orbit, 3-11

Lights, 3-11 Shadow, 3-12 Viewing Projection, 3-11 Visualization Output Settings, 3-8 Symmetry, 3-8

X
X Coordinate Projection, 3-3

Y
Y Coordinate Projection, 3-3

W
Wire Bodies, 4-3 Radius, 4-6 Working CS Align, 5-4 Coordinate Systems, 5-2 Move in GCS, 5-3 Rotate, 5-4

Z
Z Coordinate Projection, 3-3 Zoom, 3-1 Camera, 3-2 To Extents, 3-2 To Selection, 3-2 To Window, 3-2

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