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SISTEM INSTALASI PENGOLAHAN LUMPUR IPAM BADAK SINGA
Poppy Sri Lestari1) and Mindriany Syafila2) Department of Environmental Engineering FTSL-ITB, Jl. Ganesha 10 Bandung 40132
email@example.com 2) firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Badak Singa is one of Water Treatment Plant in Bandung’s Municipality Water Companies (PDAM Bandung). In processing its drinking water, residue is produce. The residue contains such materials as muddiness-causing sludge to the raw water, organic and non-organic solidity, alga, bacteria, viruses, colloids, and other chemical substances either naturally formed or as coagulant precipitated during the process of producing drinking water. Residue coming from the process of producing drinking water, until recently is still flown to the public water supply (Cikapundung River). This residue disposing activity has affected not only the Cikapundung River’s biota but also its aesthetic aspect. Currently, Indonesian Government has issued Regulation No. 16, 2005, in which under item 3 of the article 9, it is stipulated that the waste produced from any processing must be treated before it is drained. Thus, we need sludge treatment system which doesn’t only fulfill the regulation, but also decrease the influence for Cikapundung River, and increase quality of the environment. The units for sludge treatment are going to be made. There are three processing steps, those are thickening, conditioning, and dewatering. The best alternative option is done by considering treatment effectiveness and present value annual cost. From these considerations, the sludge treatment system with gravity thickener, chemical conditioning, and belt filter press is chosen. The sludge treatment system can fulfill economical aspect and availability of land. The total cost for building the sludge treatment system is about 5.7 billion rupiahs. Key words: Badak Singa, residue, sludge treatment system, belt filter press Abstrak : Badak Singa merupakan salah satu Instalasi Pengolahan Air Minum dari Perusahaan daerah yang mengolah air minum di Kota Bandung (PDAM Bandung). Dalam hasil pengolahan air minum ini tentu dihasilkan residu berupa lumpur yang mengandung material-material seperti material penyebab kekeruhan pada air baku, padatan organik dan anorganik, alga, bakteri, virus, koloid, dan bahan-bahan kimia baik itu yang secara alami terdapat pada air baku atau bahan kimia yang ditambahkan sebagai koagulan dan terpresipitasi di proses. Residu dari pengolahan air bersih IPAM hingga saat ini masih dibuang kembali ke perairan umum (Sungai Cikapundung). Pengaruhnya terhadap Sungai Cikapundung dapat dikategorikan menjadi dua yaitu pengaruh estetika dan pengaruh terhadap biota air di dalamnya. Saat ini, Indonesia telah memiliki peraturan khusus tentang residu dari IPAM. Peraturan yang berlaku saat ini di Indonesia yaitu Peraturan Pemerintah Nomor 16 Tahun 2005. Pada pasal 9, ayat 3, disebutkan bahwa limbah akhir dari proses pengolahan wajib diolah terlebih dahulu sebelum dibuang ke pembuangan akhir. Oleh karena itu, diperlukan suatu sistem pengolahan lumpur di IPAM Badak Singa ini, yang selain dapat memenuhi peraturan yang berlaku, juga diharapkan dapat mengurangi pengaruhnya terhadap sungai Cikapundung, serta dapat meningkatkan kualitas lingkungan di sekitarnya. Direncanakan unit-unit pengolahan lumpur yang akan digunakan terdiri dari tiga tahapan proses, yaitu thickening, conditioning dan dewatering. Pemilihan alternatif terbaik dilakukan dengan melihat efektifitas pengolahan dan present value annual cost. Dari pertimbanganpertimbangan ini maka dipilih sistem pengolahan lumpur yang terdiri dari gravity thickener, chemical conditioning dan belt filter press yang memenuhi baik aspek ekonomi maupun ketersediaan lahan. Total biaya yang diperlukan untuk membangun sistem pengolahan lumpur ini adalah sekitar Rp.5,7 milyar. Kata kunci: Badak Singa, residu, sistem pengolahan lumpur, belt filter press
This mud is called sludge. The volume of raw water that goes to the water treatment installation of Badak Singa WTP is 1. There are various kinds of sludge produced as a result of the process of producing drinking water. such as alumina (Al2O3). Table 1 contains data of volume rate of raw water in SW2-2 . Based on above–mentioned background. The residue contains such materials as muddiness-causing sludge to the raw water. brick (batako). and other such as fertilizer. 1991). This residue disposing activity has affected not only the Cikapundung River’s biota but also its aesthetic aspect. The sludge coming from the pre-sedimentation tank can then be drained to the river because it contains only particles in sand grain and gravel size. it is stipulated that the waste produced from any processing must be treated before it is drained. For example. type of treatment. The second one is the objective of reducing the negative effects resulted form its drinking water production. Residue coming from the process of producing drinking water. in which under item 3 of the article 9. and economic cost. The first is the objective of meeting the required regulation about waste treatment. The third is the objective of improving the environmental quality around the company. colloids. it is expected that Badak Singa Water Treatment Plant can achieve three objectives.400 – 1. and other value added materials. SiO2.600 litter/second. Public Law 92–500 and the Water Pollution Control Act Amendment 1972 categorize sludge resulted from the process of producing drinking water as industrial waste (Kawamura. four accelators and four flocculation-sedimentation tanks. The residue resulted from drinking water treatment installation system can be formed into. By designing its sludge treatment installation system. This sludge is categorized as chemical waste because it contains inert. 16. until recently is still flown to the public water supply (Cikapundung River). and MgO. it is necessary that Badak Singa Water Treatment Plant design a sludge treatment installation system to reduce the sludge in its drinking water production. as landfill. viruses. They contain such substances. residue is produce. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN Generally. As with the sludge coming from both the accelators and flocculationsedimentation tanks is alum mud. amount of sludge produced. The concern towards the regulation about residue coming from the process of producing drinking water in developed countries has recently been increasing. Indonesian Government has issued Regulation No. 2005. one time period construction should be applied since the capacity of its long-term drinking water will not change. mud is resulted. Sludge from Badak Singa WTP comes from pre-sedimentation tank. which can be benefited other purposes. Currently. the lifetime of a sludge treatment installation unit of a water company depends on the sludge treatment installation system the company uses. alga. CaO. among others: the characteristics of sludge. and other chemical substances either naturally formed or as coagulant precipitated during the process of producing drinking water. which has to be treated before it is drained. For example. There are several factors that influence a sludge treatment installation system.INTRODUCTION Badak Singa is one of Water Treatment Plant in Bandung’s Municipality Water Companies (PDAM Bandung). it can be used as a mixture in soil or clay liner. They are. Fe2O3. what is know. In relation with the sludge treatment installation unit of Badak Singa WTP. In processing its drinking water. cake shape. organic and non-organic solidity. In the process of producing drinking water. bacteria.
28 1.59 20. PAC Dosage and Muddiness of Raw Water Season Rainy Season Month Okt Nov Des Mei Juni Juli PAC Dosage (mg/l) 19.01 449.76 Dry Season Average Maximum The turbidity rates and maximum are fluctuated during a year 2007.509.97 30. Table 2. while it is the dry seasons. the design will use the average turbidity without considering the seasons.12 27. total hardness. Average Turbidity of Badak Singa WTP (2007) 1600 1400 Turbidity (NTU) Turbidity (NTU) 3500 Maximum Turbidity of Badak Singa WTP (2007) 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 5 10 15 day 20 25 30 October Novem ber Decem ber May June July 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 0 5 10 15 day 20 25 30 October Novem ber Decem ber m ay June July Figure 1.569.93 97. Before the processing at the Badak SW2-3 .547.93 66. It was assumed that the data represented one year water production.511.84 1.77 116.67 Turbidity Max. nutrient substance. 2007) Season Rainy Season Month Oct Nov Dec May June July Q (litter/second) 1. the maximum turbidity is happened in July.80 1. alkalinity.23 Dry Season Average Maximum Raw water that goes to the water treatment installation of Badak Singa WTP contains little mineral. and low sulfate.33 211.three months both in rainy season and dry season in the year 2007.87 1. chloride.23 1. Table 1.575. Until.85 99. the characteristics of raw water from water treatment installation unit of Badak Singa WTP in which PAC dosage is added and muddiness of the water on the site are shown in the Table 2 below.63 146.64 1. Thus.94 300.15 30.97 17.44 1.590.527.01 184. treatment is not needed.97 Turbidity Rates (NTU) 75. From the Figure 1. or they are below the minimum standard.97 56.99 69. we can see that in Badak Singa Water Treatment Plant. (NTU) 157. Turbidity of Badak Singa WTP (2007) The quantity of sludge from the water treatment for drinking is also influenced by additional dose of coagulant and muddiness of raw water. Raw Water Quantity of Badak Singa WTP(PDAM Bandung. Based on the secondary data.590.11 16. Toxic substance and crude metal are the least amount among the materials contained in the raw water.18 132.87 14.
In this case.Wprased SS = b TU Wprased = Y/Yo x Q x SS x 1.091 × 4. Commercial alum has a molecular weight of 594 and contains two moles of aluminum. 1999.89) (Cornwell.Singa WTP.164 x 4. The mixture that is used to be met is about 30.9. The calculation of sludge float amount uses the equations such as below (Cornwell. The determining of b value is to compartmentalize the SS value against muddiness.2 (Cornwell et all. Metcalf & Eddy. 1999 in the Letterman.4 % Al2O3) SS = suspended solid of raw water (mg/L) b = suspended solid ratio and the turbidity among 0.000 L/m3 x 10-6 mg/Kg x 86. 1991): W (1) Qsludge = ρ w SslPs W = 8. and therefore. until the determining of b value is 0.1987) TU = raw water turbidity (NTU) Wprased = production of sludge in pre-sedimentation tank (Kg/day) A = additional chemical matters. The PAC dose conversion to be solid will depend on kind of PAC that is used. clay or active carbon of powder (mg/L) SW2-4 . 1 mg/L of aluminum will produce 4. That amount equals to 16.9 percent of Al2O3. alum is about 9.89 mg of solids (132/27).400 s/day Y nv = 1 − 1 + Yo Q / As −1 / n (2) (3) (4) (5) Explanation: Qsludge = sludge generation amount (m3/day) W = sludge production (lb/hari) ρw = water density (Kg/m3) Ssl = sludge specific gravity Ps = % solid that is produce Q = influent discharge (mgd) Al = dry alum faded dose (mg/L) (as 16.34 Q (0. The b coefficient has a value among 0. PAC consists of PAC solution and Al2O3. such as polymer. raw water must go through reservoir tank and pre-sedimentation tank first until the sludge that will be processed is faded sludge.1 percent aluminum (54/594). The most used coagulant in the drinking water treatment is alum. until 1 mg of PAC (as PAC) will produce 0. 1987).8Al + SS + A) . Therefore.. The resulting aluminum hydroxide species (Al2O3 . 3H2O) has a molecular weight of 132. and the amount of float must be reduced by SS sludge in pre-sedimentation tank.7-2. until the average and maximum SS value is actually smaller than the muddiness value recorded at field.89). each with a molecular weight of 27.44 mg/L of inorganic aluminum solids (0. Coagulant that is used in Badak Singa WTP is Poly Aluminum Chloride (PAC).8 mg of solid (0.4 percent of aluminum. or 1 mg/L of alum added to water will produce approximately 0. 1999 in the Letterman.2 (Cornwell. 1999). The consideration is based on the muddiness at field which has high deviation standard. the value is just a muddiness value.7–2. The important thing in the calculation of sludge float is the SS value (suspended solid) correlated with muddiness value.
then the sludge volume reduction will impact to the reduction of pipe and pump size. The condition of tank is assumed really good (n = 1/8) = the coefficient for tank condition is really good = surfacing loading (m/s) = speed under surface loading (m/s) By using the equation 1-5. the controlling of sludge is only done in some parameters related to design need.396 740 30. The Sludge Generation of Badak Singa WTP Capacity Average Maximum Q raw water (mgd) 35.68 Wsludge (kg/hari) 7.21 25 31.14 Qsludge (m3/hari) 237. drying or incinerating The purposes of volume reduction are: • Reducing the capacity of tank and the amount of equipments needed • Reducing the amount of chemical for conditioning • Reducing the amount of heat for digestion • Reducing the amount of fuel for incineration. 1999) Thickening is the treatment process for increasing solid concentration of sludge by separating the part of its water fraction.876 432 73. Table 3.97 30.48 The sludge that is produced from WTP is primary sludge from SS sediment.844 260 9.995.656 0. Sludge Characteristic of Badak Singa WTP No.584 0.3 ALTERNATIVE SYSTEM The sludge treatment units that will be used consist of three processing steps. This SS is a floc that is produced after additional coagulant such as PAC in flocculation and accellator unit.119. The controlling result of WTP sludge characteristic can be seen in Table 4.31 PAC dosage (mg/L) 20. Parameter 1 pH 2 Temperature 3 TS 4 TDS 5 TSS 6 VSS/TSS 1 unit sedimentasi 2 unit Accelator Unit O C mg/L mg/L mg/L Sed1 I 6. digestion.332 0.3 Acc III 6. those are thickening. Thickening (Metcalf & Eddy.3 Sed II 6.58 Wprased (kg/hari) 5. conditioning. Otherwise. in the small installation.36 488.33 36.22 25 17. SW2-5 . and dewatering 1.90 190.884.Y/Yo n Q/As v = the isolation efficient in pre-sedimentation.15 16. Table 4.225.24 13. The volume reduction that is have through the thickening is really important for the next step of sludge treatment such as dewatering. the minimum pipe size with minimum flow rate in the pump will be the limit until the thickening will not be needed.97 Turbidity (NTU) 87. we find the sludge generation amount like in Table 3. In the large installation where sludge has to move in the far distance.07 25 73.06 25 9. Thus.816 484 17.444 0.3 Acc2 I 6.
The use of chemical to condition sludge for dewatering is economical because of the increased yields and greater flexibility obtained. the alternative must be dewatering unit which consists of centrifugation. * Gravity Thickener Conditioning Belt Filter Press * Gravity Thickener Conditioning Solid Bowl Centrifuge * Gravity Thickener Sand Drying Bed All alternatives will use gravity thickener unit for thickening. the process happened in Gravity Thickener unit can be described as the isolation process of water from sludge by thickening solid through sedimentation process. Gravity Thickener Gravity thickener is a first step that is commonly used in the residue treatment process. Conditioning is done before the mechanical dewatering process. This movement directs the sludge to the draw-off pipe near the bottom. there are three alternatives of sludge treatment system. the sludge normally enters the thickener near the center of the basin and is distributed radially. Thus. the scraper is located at the thickener bottom and rotates slowly. The operational variable consists of sludge volume ratio. o Sludge dewatering is required prior to landfilling in monofills to reduce leachate production at the landfill site. The settled water exits the thickener over a peripheral weir. 1999) Conditioning is useful to decrease the water content of sludge. For tanks equipped with a scraper mechanism. Generally. the water Company exclusively uses gravity thickener (Cornwell. FeCl3. center of the basin. which is volume in sludge blanket SW2-6 .2. a sludge blanket put on thickener to defend sludge concentration. 3. removal of the excess moisture may be required to render the sludge odorless and nonputrescible. alum and organic polymer. For continuous flow thickeners. Conditioning (Metcalf & Eddy. One of the methods that commonly used is chemical conditioning. They may be operated as continuous flow or as batch “fill-and draw” thickeners. o Dewatering is required before composting to reduce the requirements for supplemental bulking agents or admendments. Although there are some kinds of thickener at market. o In some cases. In the operation. o Dewatered sludge is generally easier to handle than thickened or liquid sludge. Chemical conditioning results in the coagulation of the solids and release of the absorbed water. 1999) Dewatering is a physical (mechanical) unit operation used to reduce the moisture content of sludge for one or more of the following reasons: o The costs for trucking sludge to the ultimate disposal site become substantially lower when sludge volume is reduce by dewatering. and the thickened sludge is drawn from the basin. The slow rotation of the scraper mechanism also prevents bridging of the sludge solids. belt filter press and sand drying bed. Gravity sludge thickeners are generally circular settling basins with either a scraper mechanism in the bottom. This is because the consideration of alum sludge characteristic such as flock which is easier to be settled than to be filled by using thickener flotation unit. Dewatering (Metcalf & Eddy. 1999 in the Letterman. or trough. Based on kinds and characteristic of sludge that will be processed. o Dewatering is required normally prior to the incineration of the sludge to increase the energy content by removal of excess moisture. The chemicals that commonly used for conditioning are lime. or equipped with sludge hoppers. 1999).
The gravity thickener that is designed and operated well can produce 2–6 % of alum sludge. sludge cake conveyor. The application of belt filter press to dewater the alum sludge has done in the United States. Every chemical reagent has different efficiency level in the making of flock and its size. and to minimize the dewatering time (process cycle times). to increase sludge structure to ease drying and dismissal of water. and mechanically applied pressure to dewater sludge. to increase recovery solid from the process (for example. method and type of chemical conditioning. For safety. usually with polymer. Conditioning is commonly used for the dewatering process mechanically. to reduce the solid fraction amount that is gone during the separation of water from solid). Typically. width of belt. The capital and land use for this system generally smaller than for pressure filter sludge system (Metcalf & Eddy. configuration of machine. Belt Filter Press Belt Filter Press is continuous-feed sludge-dewatering devices that involve the application of chemical conditioning. conditioning tank. A typical belt filter press consists of a chemical conditioning stage. The precise of sludge conditioning will be the critical consideration to get the best result of dewatering. One of the conditioning ways is to add chemical matter or chemical conditioning. The depth of sludge blanket is among 2–8 feet (0. The dewatering process starts after the feed sludge has been properly conditioned. The dosage of polymer will be determined by the type of sludge that will be treated. which induces dewatering pressure onto the sludge. and supporting system (wash water pump and air compressor). The main aims of conditioning is to increase the characteristic of sludge physic until water can be easily separated from sludge. Gravity thickener equals to sediment tub which has a function of increasing sludge solid content by separating liquid. Here. 1 or 2 minutes are necessary to allow for the filtrate separation in the drainage stage. the polymer adding equipment. and a compression dewatering stage (Cornwell. the partially dewatered sludge enters the compression dewatering stage. 1999).5-20). belt filter press. as seen in the Table 5. For example. Belt filter presses use a combination of gravity draining and mechanical pressure to dewater sludge. reagent non organic can produce granular flocks while polyelectrolyte produces more volume flocks.4 m). The compressive and shear forces acting on the sludge increase over the length of this dewatering stage. The final sludge cake is removed from the belts by blades. Both belts operate under a specific tension. The slurry enters the gravity drainage stage. Some variables that influence effectiveness of equipment are characteristic of sludge.divided by volume thickened sludge per day (among 0. The concentration level has variation from 2–3 times of solid concentration at sludge in influent. 1999 in the Letterman. the sludge is “sandwiched” between two porous cloth media belts which travel in an S-shape path over numerous rollers. The S-shape path the sludge follows creates shear forces. 1991). Readily drainable water passes through the belt as the slurry travels over the full length of the dewatering stage. which assist in the dewatering process. SW2-7 . a gravity drainage stage. 1985). where it is evenly distributed onto a moving porous belt. The system will result cake with solid concentration among 30–40 % with good conditioning previously. gravity drainage.6–2. center of belt. Chemical Conditioning The dewatering process often depends on conditioning process. press that is used. The solid concentration must be reached less than 10 % (Qasim. The chemical water that is used is reagent non organic or polyelectrolyte. Following gravity drainage. The Belt filter press system consists of sludge-feed pumps. and speed of belt. ventilation is needed to make H2S and other gas out.
The solid-bowl centrifuge (also called scroll or decanter centrifuge) is a horizontal unit that utilizes a scroll conveyor inside the centrifuge bowl.5 2–8 Solid bowl Centrifuge 0.5–2. 1991) Type of sludge Primary Primary and waste activated Primary and trickling filter Waste activated Anaerobically digested primary Anaerobically digested primary and air waste activated Aerobically digested primary and air waste activated Polymer dose (Kg polymer/1. decanting. Secondary free water can be removed by decanting once a supernatant layer has formed. Following residuals application to the drying bed. and Rolan (1980) proposed the following classification categories: 1. SW2-8 . rω2 may be 1. Several variations on sand drying beds are currently in use. which may require several days. 1999 in the Letterman. the applied force is rω2. These are conventional rectangular beds with sidewalls and a layer of sand or gravel with underdrain piping.5–8. and evaporation are the primary mechanisms for dewatering. The Dosage of Polymer of various sludge for Dewatering Belt Filter Press and Solid Bowl Centrifuge (Metcalf & Eddy. Water remaining after initial drainage and decanting is removed by evaporation over a period of time necessary to achieve the desired final solids concentration. but they have since been used to dewater residuals from water treatment plants. The water is directed from the central axis of the centrifuge toward the centrifuge’s large end where it is discharged. where r is the distance of the particle from the axis of rotation and ω is the rotational speed. free water is allowed to drain from the residuals into a sand bottom from which it is transported via an underdrain system consisting of a series of lateral collection pipes. This process continues until the sand is clogged with fine particles or until all the free water has been drained. The scroll rotates at a slightly different speed than the bowl and conveys the dewatered sludge to the small end of the centrifuge where it is discharged. Decanting can also be utilized to remove rainwater that would otherwise hinder the overall drying process. The basic physical principle of centrifugal force is that a moving body tends to continue in the same direction. In modern centrifuges. In centrifugation. Sand drying beds. 1999). Centrifugation enhances settlement of the solids.Tabel 5. In conventional settling tanks. Drainage (percolation). The water exits through adjustable weirs (level rings). The unit is fed continuously with the solids settling against the bowl wall.500 to 4. solid-bowl decanter centrifuge.000 Kg solid) Belt Filter Press 1–4 2–8 2–8 4–10 2–5 1. which also control the pool depth (Cornwell. Sand Drying Bed Sand drying beds were initially developed for dewatering municipal wastewater biosolids. These are built with or without the provisions for mechanical removal of the dried residuals and with or without a roof or greenhouse-type covering.5 2–5 5–8 3–5 2–5 - Centrifugation Centrifugation of sludge is basically a shallow-depth settling process enhanced by applying centrifugal force.000 times the value of g. the solids are acted on by the force of acceleration due to gravity (g). The major type of centrifuge used for the dewatering of water plant sludge is the scroll-discharge.
controlled formation of cake. The parameter of comparison is equivalent annual cost which is counted according to Present Value Annual Cost. is the interest level which is determined and to be the annual cost that is calculated based on the economical project period. the shrinkage value which is the part of the benefit that has to be eliminated every year as long as the economical project or equipment period. These have a center sand drainage strip.675. it means all the cost for construction (fixed cost) and for the operational and maintenance (variable cost) from each of the sludge treatment alternatives has been covered.2. With calculating all the factors above.691 Alternative II 3. o Return On Investment (ROI).772. The Equivalent Annual Cost is the totaling of: o Depreciation.997. and provisions for mechanical cleaning. The paved bottom beds are referred to as solar drying beds. and maintenance of the sludge treatment unit (these must fulfill economical aspect). until the donation reflects the amount of investment. o The existence does not give bad influence to the environment generally and the WTP area particularly.730 25. Paved rectangular beds.891.932. The alternative which has the smallest Present Value of Annual Cost is the most economical alternative. 3. so it is multiply first with the discount rate which is depend on the discount factor values.637. with or without heating pipes.520 6. and workers to develop the sludge treatment unit o Fee for development.091.520 5. Tabel 6. STUDY RESULT AND DISCUSSION The three treatment alternatives above are based on the consideration such as. The depreciation is a fictive cost. These incorporate provisions for an initial flood with a thin layer of water followed by introduction of liquid residuals on top of the water layer. buried in the paved section and with or without covering to prevent rain incursion. not included the calculation of capital cost value. The values of discount factor depend on the project. o Lands. which compares three treatment alternatives according to the amount of first investment and also fee for operating and maintaining that it’s needed. is the annual cost that has to be expended because the activity of a project is calculated based on the economical project period.467 SW2-9 . 1 Discount rate = (1 + i ) t The most economical alternative is the alternative which has the smallest Equivalent Annual Cost.561. the same level of investment can be redone. The purpose of the shrinkage is to maintain the investment level. The treatment alternative is based on annual cost. then the value is taken from investment value (capital cost). with Present Value Equivalent Annual Cost for all the sludge treatment alternatives is shown in the Table 6.523 Alternative III 8.512. o Variable Cost.250 44. Drying beds with a wedge-wire septum. materials. As the investment will fall of prices in the future.000 13.980 36.407. until we can compare all three annual costs. until if the economical project period is over. Recapitulation of Total Present Value Annual Cost Analysis Cost (Rp) Construction/investment cost Operational & maintenance cost Total Present Value Annual Cost Alternative I 3. so that the depreciation is added to annual cost to calculate the cash flow.203. Because the depreciation is the annual cost that has to be paid.525.920. operation. The estimation of annual investment.427.881. operational and maintenance cost.
Wastewater Treatment Plant. M. and Reuse. sludge composition which is a sludge primer and technical aspect such as land availability. New York: John Willey & Sons. Water Quality and Treatment . A. 1999. and C. New York: College Publishing. Gould.000 m2 which can be considered as the selected alternative. operational and maintenance. From the Table 7 below. R.A Handbook of Community Water Supplies (5th Edition) USA: McGraw-Hill. Vandermeyden. also material supplying and worker in the construction and operational the treatment units. References Government Regulation Number 16 Year 2005 about Developing of Drinking Water Supplying System Metcalf and Eddy. Disposal.348 Table 8. The land that is available is about 6. Singapore: McGraw-Hill. The other consideration include treatment loading aspect such as large amount of sludge float. and Operational. 1985. technical. M. Cornwell. until only the alternative with requirement of land under 6. Table 7. Planning.. R. Until. SW2-10 . Water Treatment Plant Waste Management. conditioning and belt filter press that will be used as sludge treatment system for Badak Singa Water Treatment Plant. it is concluded that alternative I is the most economical alternative. 1991. so high energy required Moderately high suspended-solids content in centrate The machine is so loud CONCLUSION From the result of calculation of economical aspect. Bishop. Susumu. 1991) Belt Filter Press Less complex mechanically and easier to maintain Minimal effort required for system shutdown High-pressure machine are capable of producing very dry cake Environment : Less noisy Solid Bowl Centrifuge Skilled maintenance personnel required Continuous system. Kawamura. The Necessity of Land for each Alternative Alternative of the Unit Belt Filter Press Solid Bowl Centrifuge Sand Drying Bed unit m2 m m 2 2 The necessity of land 402 175 8. Integrated Design of Water Treatment Facilities. Letterman. D. Then we have to compare between them which one is comply not only with the limitation land and economical aspect but also other technical consideration and the environment as shown in Table 8. Denver: CO:AWWARF. And the smaller one is the Solid Bowl Centrifuge. which consist of gravity thickener. Inc. we can see that only the Belt Filter Press and Solid Bowl Centrifuge that can comply with the limitation of land. Inc. construction implementation technical ease. Syed R. Design. the selected alternative is alternative I. G.From the calculation is obtained that the alternative I has the smallest Total Present Value Equivalent Annual Cost.D. Qasim. 1987. 1991. environment and operational consideration. Wastewater Engineering Treatment: Treatment. The most important aspect beside the economical aspect is the availability of land.000 m2. The Comparison between Belt Filter Press and Solid Bowl Centrifuge (Metcalf & Eddy.
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