You are on page 1of 7

UNIVERSITY OF MUMBAI OUTLINE OF THE RESEARCH PROPOSAL TO BE SUBMITTED TO THE UNIVERSITY OF MUMBAI FOR THE APPROVAL OF THE TOPIC

OF THE THESIS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTRATE OF PHILOSOPHY (Ph.D.) IN (ZOOLOGY) FACULTY OF SCIENCE

Title of the proposal

Ginger, Garlic and potato extracts induced biochemical and microbiological studies on Nutritional value and preservation of Labeo rohita and Catla catla. Mrs. Alfiya Bohra M.Sc. : Dr. Nisar Shaikh , Head and Associate Professor, G. M. Momin Womens College, Bhiwadi , Dist. Thane. : G.M.Momin womens college ,Bhiwandi, Dist: Thane.

Name of the candidate : Basic qualification of the candidate : Name &Designation of Research Supervisor

Place of Research Work

Date of Submission of Proposal

: __________________________________

Signature of Candidate

:___________________________________

Signature of Research Supervisor

:___________________________________

INDEX Sr. No 1 2 3 4 5 6 Contents Introduction Research/Rational Hypothesis Aims and Objectives Materials and Methods Expected Results / Outcomes References Page No 3 4 5 5 6 7

Ginger, Garlic and Potato extract induced biochemical and microbiological studies on nutritional value and preservation of Labeo rohita and Catla catla

INTRODUCTION:
In biology the term FISH refers to any animal with a backbone that has gills throughout life and has fins. Fishes are the most diverse groups of living vertebrate with more than 24600 species currently known (Nelson, 2006) Fishes are the important source of food for human worldwide. Fish is the high source of high quality protein and contains many vitamins, minerals and fats which are vital for functioning of body. Spoilage of fish either enzymatic or bacterial decrease its nutritional value and make it unfit for human consumption (Man CMDand Jones, 1999) .In living fish mucus on its body prevent its microbial flora to degrade it. Mucus provides first line of defense and prevents colonization of various parasites, bacteria and fungi. Mucus contains several protective components such as, lectins, lysozymes, immunoglobulins, complement proteins, several proteases, dermaseptin, ceratotoxin, magainin,etc which binds with parasites and dissolve their membranes like detergents. As soon as fish is caught and it died, its deterioration starts. Fish undergoes several autolytic changes. Autolytic means self digestion. It has been known for many years that there are at least two types of fish spoilage: Bacterial and Enzymatic (Selvamani and R.K.Mahadevan, 2008) .Enzymatic changes related to fish freshness preceded and were unrelated to change in the microbiological quality .In some species the enzymatic changes precede and therefore predominates the spoilage of chilled fish. In some species autolysis contributes to varying degree to the overall quality loss in addition to microbially-mediated processes. Enzymatic changes-In dead fish proteolytic enzymes stops working and low molecular weight peptides and free amino acids produced by the autolysis of proteins accelerate the growth of bacteria providing superior growth environment for such microbes. Cathepsins are acid proteases usually found packaged in tiny sub macroscopic organelles called lysosomes. When fish is dead they are released from lysosomes into tissues and cause spoilage. Bacteriological changes Microorganisms are found on all the outer surfaces (skin and gills).The flesh of healthy live or newly caught fish is sterile as the immune system of fish prevents the bacteria from growing in the fish .When the fish dies immune system collapses and bacteria are allowed to proliferate freely and cause spoilage of fish. Microflora of the fish consisting of Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Moraxella, Vibrio, Photobacter, Photobacterium Bacillus, Micrococcus, Clostridia and lactobacillus (R.MacRac, R.K.Robinson and M.J. Sadler, 1993)
3

The first sensory changes of fish during storage are concerned with appearance and texture. The characteristic taste of the species is normally developed the first couple of days during storage in ice.The most dramatic changes is onset of rigor mortis. Immediately after death the muscle is totally relaxed and the limp elastic texture usually persist for some hours, where after the muscles will contract. When it becomes hard and stiff the whole body becomes inflexible and the fish is in rigor mortis . This condition usually lasts for a day or more and then rigor resolves .The resolution of rigor mortis makes the muscle relax again and it becomes limp, but no longer elastic as before rigor (C.K Rathore 2011). Spoilage of fish can be prevented or rather delayed with the help of several methods and therefore studying biochemical parameters such as estimation of protein, carbohydrates and fats content of fish will provide as useful information in comparing nutritional value of fish and with the help of this information we can find out several methods to preserve its nutritional value and increase its shelf life.

RATIONAL/RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS:
Biochemical parameter (protein, fats, and carbohydrates content) of fish is important in order to compare its nutritional value and to discover method to increase its shelf life. Ginger extract can be used to increase shelf life of dead fish as it has antioxidants, antiseptic and bacteriostatic property which delays onset of deterioration of fish. Ginger contains spectra of biologically active compounds such as curcumin, 6 gingerol, 6 shagols, zingiberene,bisabolene and several types of lipids that confer on it , property of being antioxidant. Similarly Garlic extract can be used to increase shelf life of dead fish as it contains antibiotic, antifungal and antioxidants, example allicin, pytoncide , phytoalexin respectively. Similarly Potato extract can also be used to increase shelf life of dead fish as it also has antioxidants present in it such as chlorogenic acid, 4-0-caffeoylquinic acid, 5-0-caffeoylquinic acid etc. The present Research will investigate the shelf life and nutrional value of both fishes in ginger,,garlic and potato extracts .

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES


The aim of the present study is to analyze the effect of nutritional value on Labeo rohita and Catla catla with reference to natural preservative such as ginger, garlic and potato extracts. The proposed project will also be helpful in understanding of 1 An alternative source of preservation other then icing, salting and canning. 2. Focus on effect in nutritional value of fishes when preserved in natural preservatives. 3. Suitability of ginger, garlic and potato extracts for Research studies.

MATERIALS AND METHODS


1. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN Common fresh water fish Labeo rohita and Catla catla will be considered as they are easily available, rich in protein and easy to handle in laboratory. The live fish will be collected from Varala Lake, Bhiwandi, and kept in glass aquaria for acclimatization under laboratory condition. The fish will be regularly fed and water of glass aquaria will be changed after every 24 hours, during entire period of acclimatization. After the acclimatization the fishes will be divided into different groups for control and experimental studies.

2. BIOCHEMICAL STUDIES
For the biochemical studies both the fishes will be sacrificed, the tissue of interest will be collected and processed for the study of biomolecules such as proteins, carbohydrates, fats 3. MICROBIOLOGICAL STUDIES Harmful and spoilage causing microbes will be selected from the fish body and gills and cultured in the laboratory using selective and differential media and microbial counts will also be studied.

4. HAEMATOLOGICAL STUDIES The hematological indices such as CBC counts, ESR, cell morphology will be analyzed and compare with the control.

5. HISTOPATHOLOGICAL STUDIES The fish tissues (muscles, gills) will be collected and fixed in appropriate fixative for histopathological analysis 6. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS The data collected during the entire experiment will be analyzed statistically using SPSS software version 16.0 .The data will be statistically analyzed for One Way ANOVA followed by the post hoc test, dunnet t-test

EXPECTED RESULTS/ OUTCOMES:


Biochemical study of fishes in different conditions is significant in disclosing its nutritional value in three natural preservatives.Comparitive studies on biochemical parameters in Ginger,,garlic and Potato extracts give us a better method to maintain nutritional value of fishes by delaying its microbial spoilage and enzymatic degradation and increases their shelf life.

REFERENCES
A.G Zapata,A.Chiba(1996) : Cells and tissues of immune system of fish pp 1 -5 Fisheries Management volume -1 pp 9-10 . The role of sea food in bacterial food borne diseases pp 1651-1660. Labeo rohitain fish base. Fish spoilage bacterial problems and solution current opinion in biotechnology pp 262-266. Microbiological spoilage of fish and fish products Food spoilage interaction between food spoilage bacteria.

C.K Rathore (2011) F.Feldhusen (2000)

: :

Froese Rainer and Pauly Daniel (2013) Gram and Dalgaard (2002)

: :

Gram and Huss (1996)

Gram L , Ravn L (2002)

Idris GL and Omojowo FS (2010)

Effect of different concentration of ginger on fish. Freezing effects on food quality pp 113-114. Integrated Principles of zoology. Antioxidative and antifungal effects of natural preservatives on shelf life of fish Shelf life evaluation of foods pp 110-113 publisher Inc New York Biology 7th editinon Food mirobiology pp 27-34 Fishes of the world (4 Ed ) John Willey Chemical and nutritional quality of fermented fish silage containing potato extract , formalin or ginger extract, food chemistry volume 50, issue 4 pages 383 388. Roles played by bacterial and autolytic enzyme in the production of volatile sulphides pp 89-94. Sherris medical microbiology 4th edition. Encyclopedia of food science, food technology and nutrition,volume- 8. Fish and fishery culture volume -1 pp 24-32 Protein quality and amino acid profiles of fish

Jeremiah Lester E (2003) Jr Eleveland P; Hickman (2001) Kumolu-Johnson ,CANdimell (2011)

: : :

Man CMD and Jones AA(1999)

N.A Campbell and J.B.Reece(2005) N.J.Russell (2002) Nelson Joseph (2006) Oyedapo Fagbenro , Kim jauncey(1994)

: : : :

R.A Herbert and J.W.Shewan(1976)

Rayn KJ ,Ray CG(2004) R.Mac Rac ,R.K.Robinson (1993)

: :

Selvamani and R.K mahadevan (2008) UsydusZ and Szlinder Richert (2009)

: :