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MATERIALS IN PRACTICE

PROF.DR. SERVET TURAN

COMPOSITE MATERIALS

ANADOLU UNIVERSITY DEPT. OF MATERIALS SCIENCE & ENGINEERING

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MATERIALS

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ISSUES TO ADDRESS...

What are the classes and types of composites? Why are composites used instead of metals, ceramics, or polymers? How do we estimate composite stiffness & strength? What are some typical applications?

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Composite Materials
Recommended Texts Strong Solids (Third Ed.) A. Kelly and N.H. MacMillan, Oxford Science Publications Introduction to composites. D. Hull, Cambridge University Press Introduction to Metal Matrix Composites. T.W. Clyne & P.J. Withers, Cambridge University Press

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COMPOSITES
The word composites has a modern ring!!! But the idea is almost older than the wheel In ancient world, straw and horse hair was used to reinforce mud bricks in 3000BC Paper, wood, bone, muscle and concrete are composite materials and all natural But, the composite industry is very new It has grown very fast in the last 50 years Teamwork and Synergy in Materials

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COMPOSITES
The composite idea is that two or more distincly different materials combine together to form a new material which possesses properties that are superior to the properties of the individual components The word COMPOSITE means that a materials system composed of two or more micro- or macro constituents that differ in form and chemical composition and which are essentially insoluble in each other. The constituents retain their identities, i.e.., they do not dissolve or merge into each other, although they act in concert. Normally, the components can be physically identified and exhibit an interface between each other. Alloys are not composite materials Concrete, wood are examples for composites
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Advantages
High strength and stiffness Low weight ratio Resistance against enviroment and chemicals Material can be designed in addition to the structure

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COMPOSITES
Many of modern technologies require materials with unusual combinations of properties that cannot be met by metals, ceramics or polymers This is especially true for aerospace, underwater and transport applications E.g., aircraft engineers are searching for materials that have low densities, are strong, abrasion and impact resistance and are not easily corroded Difficult to expect one material to meet all these properties E.g., strong materials are relatively dense
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Application of Composite Materials


Straw in clay construction by Egyptians Aerospace industry Sporting goods Automotive Construction Transportation Marine Electrical / Electronic Consumer Products Defense

Application of Composite Materials

Application of advanced composite materials in Boeing 757-200 commercial aircraft.

Application of Composite Materials


Use of composite materials increases
Boeing 7E7 Dreamliner: 50% of the aircraft structure is to be composite materials (from %20 -Aviation Week, December 2003)

http://www.aeat.co.uk/ndt/qtnews/nov96/a330.gif

COMPOSITES
Many composite materials are composed of just two phases; one is termed the matrix, which is continuous and surrounds the other phase often called the dispersed phase The properties of composites are a function of the properties of the constituent phases Their relative amounts And the geometry of the dispersed phase i.e., shape of the particles Particle size, distribution and orientation of the dispersed phase
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TERMINOLOGY/CLASSIFICATION
Composites:
--Multiphase material w/significant proportions of ea. phase.

woven fibers

Matrix:
--The continuous phase --Purpose is to:
transfer stress to other phases protect phases from environment

0.5mm
cross section view

--Classification: MMC, CMC, PMC metal ceramic polymer

Dispersed phase:
--Purpose: enhance matrix properties.
MMC: increase y, TS, creep resist. CMC: increase Kc PMC: increase E, y, TS, creep resist.

0.5mm
D. Hull and T.W. Clyne, An Materials, 1996

--Classification: Particle, fiber, structuralIntroduction to Composite

TERMINOLOGY/CLASSIFICATION

http://www.netcomposites.com/education.asp?sequence=3
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COMPOSITE BENEFITS
CMCs: Increased toughness
Force
particle-reinf

PMCs: Increased E/
ceramics

fiber-reinf un-reinf

103 E(GPa) PMCs 102 10 1

metal/ metal alloys

Bend displacement 10-4 ss (s-1) MMCs: 10-6

6061 Al

.1 G=3E/8 polymers .01 K=E .1 .3 1 3 10 30 Density, [Mg/m3]

Increased creep resistance

10-8

(MPa) 10-10 20 30 50 100 200

6061 Al w/SiC whiskers

Adapted from T.G. Nieh, "Creep rupture of a silicon-carbide reinforced aluminum composite", Metall. Trans. A Vol. 15(1), pp. 139-146, 1984. Used with permission.

10

CLASSIFICATION OF COMPOSITES (i) In terms of matrix material

COMPOSITES

Metal Matrix Polymer matrix


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CLASSIFICATION OF COMPOSITES Composite Classifications


MMC Metal Matrix Composite CMC Ceramic Matrix Comp. PMC Polymer Matrix Comp.

Dispersed Phase (DP)


Function = To Enhance the Matrix Properities
MMC: increase s y, TS/s u, creep resistance CMC: increase Kc (fracture toughness) PMC: increase E, s y, TS/s u, creep resistance

Classes: Particle, fiber, structural


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CLASSIFICATION OF COMPOSITES (ii) In terms of reinforcing COMPOSITES

Fiber reinforced
Continous (aligned) Discontinous (short) Aligned

Particulate reinforced
Large particles
Disper. Strengthened

Structural
Laminates Sandwich Panels

Rand. oriented
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Methods of reinforcing

Schematic illustration of methods of reinforcing plastics (matrix) with (a) particles, and (b) short or long fibers or flakes. The four layers of continuous fibers in illustration (c) are assembled into a laminate structure.

Forms of reinforcing phase Fibers


cross-section can be circular, square or hexagonal Diameters --> 0.0001 - 0.005 Lengths --> L/D ratio
100 -- for chopped fiber much longer for continuous fiber

Particulate
small particles that impede dislocation movement (in metal composites) and strengthens the matrix For sizes > 1 m, strength of particle involves in load sharing with matrix

Flakes
flat platelet form
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COMPOSITES
Fiber

Whisker

Particulate

Laminate

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PROPERTIES OF REINFORCING MATERIALS

Fiber Material Properties

Steel: density (Fe) = 7.87 g/cc; TS=0.380 GPa; Modulus=207 GPa Al: density=2.71 g/cc; TS=0.035 GPa; Modulus=69 GPa
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Typical Properties of Reinforcing Fibers


TABLE 9.2 Density 3 Type Relative cost ( kg/m ) Boron 2600 Highest Carbon High strength 3000 275 1900 Low High modulus 2000 415 1900 Low Glass E type 3500 73 2480 Lowest S type 4600 85 2540 Lowest Kevlar 29 2800 62 1440 High 49 2800 117 1440 High Note: These properties vary significantly depending on the material and method of preparation. Tensile strength (MPa) 3500 Elastic modulus (GPa) 380

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FIBER STRENGTH

Fibers - Glass
Most widely used fiber Uses: piping, tanks, boats, sporting goods Advantages
low cost Corrosion resistance Low cost relative to other composites:

Disadvantages
Relatively low strength High elongation Moderate strength and weight

Types:
E-Glass - electrical, cheaper S-Glass - high strength

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Fibers Aramid (kevlar, Twaron


Uses:
high performance replacement for glass fiber

Examples
Armor, protective clothing, industrial, sporting goods

Advantages:
higher strength and lighter than glass More ductile than carbon

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Fibers - Carbon
2nd most widely used fiber Examples
aerospace, sporting goods

Advantages
high stiffness and strength Low density Intermediate cost Properties:
Standard modulus: 207-240 Gpa Intermediate modulus: 240-340 GPa High modulus: 340-960 GPa Diameter: 5-8 microns, smaller than human hair
Fibers grouped into tows or yarns of 2-12k fibers
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Fibers - Carbon
Types of carbon fiber
vary in strength with processing Trade-off between strength and modulus

Intermediate modulus
PAN (Polyacrylonitrile)
fiber precursor heated and stretched to align structure and remove non-carbon material

High modulus
made from petroleum pitch precursor at lower cost much lower strength

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Fibers - Others
Boron High stiffness, very high cost Large diameter - 200 microns Good compressive strength Polyethylene - trade name: Spectra fiber Textile industry High strength Extremely light weight Low range of temperature usage Ceramic Fibers (and matrices) Very high temp. applications (e.g. engine components) Silicon carbide fiber - in whisker form. Ceramic matrix so temp. resistance is not compromised Infrequent use
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Types of Composites
Matrix phase/Reinforceme nt Phase Metal Metal Ceramic Polymer Powder metallurgy parts combining immiscible metals Cermets, TiC, TiCN Cemented carbides used in tools Fiber-reinforced metals Cermets (ceramicmetal composite) SiC reinforced Al2O3 Tool materials Brake pads

Ceramic

Fiberglass

Polymer

Kevlar fibers in an epoxy matrix Fiber reinforced metals Auto parts aerospace Rubber with carbon (tires) Boron, Carbon reinforced plastics

Elemental (Carbon, Boron, etc.)

MMCs
Metal Matrix Composites

CMCs
Ceramic Matrix Comps.

PMCs
Polymer Matrix Comps

Types of Composites
The cheapest of all composites are the particulate composites e.g., aggregate+cement concrete & the concrete is cheaper than the cement itself Polymers can be filled with sand or glass particles, increasing the stiffness and wear resistance and often reducing the price Hard metal-tungsten carbide particles in cobalt is the basis of the heavy-duty cutting tool industry
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PARTICLE REINFORCED COMPOSITES


Particle-reinforced Examples: -Spheroidite matrix: ferrite () steel
(ductile) 60m matrix: -WC/Co cemented cobalt (ductile) carbide

Fiber-reinforced

Structural
particles: cementite (Fe3C) (brittle) particles: WC (brittle, hard)
Adapted from Callister 6e. (Fig. is copyright United States Steel Corporation, 1971.)

Vm: 10-15vol%!

600m particles: C (stiffer) 0.75m

Adapted from Callister 6e. (Fig. is courtesy Carboloy Systems, Department, General Electric Company.) Adapted from Callister 6e. (Fig. is courtesy Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company.)

-Automobile matrix: rubber tires

(compliant)

PARTICLE REINFORCED COMPOSITES


o Rule of mixtures - The statement that the properties of a composite material are a function of the volume fraction of each material in the composite.

o Cemented carbides - Particulate composites containing hard ceramic particles bonded with a soft metallic matrix. o Electrical Contacts - Materials used for electrical contacts in switches and relays must have a good combination of wear resistance and electrical conductivity. o Polymers - Many engineering polymers that contain fillers and extenders are particulate composites.

PARTICLE REINFORCED COMPOSITES


Particle-reinforced Fiber-reinforced
Structural

Elastic modulus, Ec, of composites:


-- two approaches.
E(GPa) 350 Data: Cu matrix 300 w/tungsten 250 particles 200 150

upper limit: rule of mixtures Ec = VmEm + VpEp lower limit: 1 Vm Vp = + Ec Em Ep


20 40 60 80 100 vol% tungsten
Adapted from Callister 6e. (Fig. is from R.H. Krock, ASTM Proc, Vol. 63, 1963.)

(Cu)

(W)

Application to other properties:

-- Electrical conductivity, e: Replace E by e. -- Thermal conductivity, k: Replace E by k.


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CONCRETE (COMPOSITES )
Concrete is a common large-particle composite in which both matrix and dispersed phases are ceramic materials An aggregate of particles that are bound together in a solid body by some type of binding medium, i.e., cement

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CONCRETE (COMPOSITES )

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PARTICLE REINFORCED COMPOSITES

Microstructure of tungsten carbide20% cobalt-cemented carbide (1300). (From Metals Handbook, Vol. 7, 8th Ed., American Society for Metals, 1972.)

PARTICLE REINFORCED COMPOSITES

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The effect of clay on the properties of polyethylene.

PARTICLE REINFORCED COMPOSITES

Microstructure of an aluminum casting alloy reinforced with silicon carbide particles. In this case, the reinforcing particles have segregated to interdendritic regions of the casting ( 125). (Courtesy of David Kennedy, Lester B. Knight Cost Metals Inc.)

DISPERSION-STRENGTHENED COMPOSITES A special group of dispersion-strengthened nanocomposite materials containing particles 10 to 250 nm in diameter is classified as particulate composites. Dispersoids - Tiny oxide particles formed in a metal matrix that interfere with dislocation movement and provide strengthening, even at elevated temperatures.

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DISPERSION-STRENGTHENED COMPOSITES

Electron micrograph of TD-nickel. The dispersed ThO2 particles have a diameter of 300 nm or less. (From Oxide Dispersion Strengthening, p. 714, Gordon and Breach, 1968. AIME.)

DISPERSION-STRENGTHENED COMPOSITES

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FIBRE REINFORCED COMPOSITES

There are around 6.000 carbon fibres

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EXAMPLES OF DIFFERENT FORMS OF FIBRE WEAVES

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FIBER REINFORCED COMPOSITES


Particle-reinforced Fiber-reinforced Structural Aligned Continuous fibers

Examples:

matrix: (Mo) (ductile)

-- Metal: '(Ni3Al)-(Mo) by eutectic solidification.


From W. Funk and E. Blank, Creep deformation of Ni3Al-Mo in-situ composites", Metall. Trans. A Vol. 19(4), pp. 987-998, 1988.

2m

fibers: (Ni3Al) (brittle)

FIBER REINFORCED COMPOSITES


Particle-reinforced Fiber-reinforced Aligned Continuous fibers
--Glass w/SiC fibers formed by glass slurry Eglass = 76GPa; ESiC = 400GPa.

Structural

fracture surface

From F.L. Matthews and R.L. Rawlings, Composite Materials; Engineering and Science, 2000.

FIBER REINFORCED COMPOSITES


Particle-reinforced Fiber-reinforced Discontinuous, random 2D fibers Example: Carbon-Carbon
--process: fiber/pitch, then burn out at up to 2500C. --uses: disk brakes, gas turbine exhaust flaps, nose cones.
(b)

Structural

C fibers: very stiff very strong C matrix: less stiff view onto plane less strong fibers lie in plane

(a)

Other variations:
--Discontinuous, random 3D --Discontinuous, 1D
Adapted from F.L. Matthews and R.L. Rawlings, Composite Materials; Engineering and Science,

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FIBER REINFORCED COMPOSITES

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FIBER REINFORCED COMPOSITES

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WHISKER REINFORCED COMPOSITES

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FIBER REINFORCED COMPOSITES

Two failure modes in ceramic-ceramic composites: (a) Extensive pull-out of SiC fibers in a glass matrix provides good composite toughness (x20). (From Metals Handbook, American Society for Metals, Vol. 9, 9th Ed., 1985.) (b) (b) Bridging of some fibers across a crack enhances the toughness of a ceramic-matrix composite (unknown magnification). ( From Journal of Metals, May 1991.)

FIBER REINFORCED COMPOSITES

(a) Cross-section of a tennis racket, showing graphite and aramid (Kevlar) reinforcing fibers. Source: J. Dvorak, Mercury Marine Corporation, and F. Garrett, Wilson Sporting Goods Co. (b) (b) Cross-section of boron fiber-reinforced composite material.

Effect of Fiber Type on Fiber-Reinforced Nylon

Source: NASA.

Fracture Surfaces of Fiber-Reinforced Epoxy Composites


(a) (b)

(a) Fracture surface of glass-fiber reinforced epoxy composite. The fibers are 10 m (400 in.) in diameter and have random orientation. (b) Fracture surface of a graphite-fiber reinforced epoxy composite. The fibers, 9 m-11 m in diameter, are in bundles and are all aligned in the same direction. Source: L. J. Broutman.

Tensile Strength of Glass-Reinforced Polyester

The tensile strength of glass-reinforced polyester as a function of fiber content and fiber direction in the matrix. Source: R. M. Ogorkiewicz, The Engineering Properties of Plastics. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1977.

CHARACTERISTICS OF FIBER REINFORCED COMPOSITES


o Many factors must be considered when designing a fiber-reinforced composite, including the length, diameter, orientation, amount, and properties of the fibers; the properties of the matrix; and the bonding between the fibers and the matrix. o Aspect ratio - The length of a fiber divided by its diameter. o Delamination - Separation of individual plies of a fiber-reinforced composite.

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COMPOSITES
But high stiffness is not always what you want Cushions, packaging and crash padding require materials with moduli lower than those of any solid This can be done with foams-composites of a solid and a gas Many natural materials are cellular: wood & bone Cellular materials permit an optimisation of stiffness, strength & energy absorption These natural & man-made foams or cellular materials are widely used as packaging, padding and insulator materials
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COMPOSITE SURVEY: Structural


Particle-reinforced Fiber-reinforced

Structural

Stacked and bonded fiber-reinforced sheets


-- stacking sequence: e.g., 0/90 -- benefit: balanced, in-plane stiffness

Sandwich panels
-- low density, honeycomb core -- benefit: small weight, large bending stiffness
face sheet adhesive layer honeycomb
Adapted from Fig. 16.17, Callister 6e. (Fig. 16.17 is from Engineered Materials Handbook, Vol. 1, Composites, ASM International, Materials Park, OH, 1987.

Adapted from Fig. 16.16, Callister 6e.

WOOD (COMPOSITES )
Wood consists of strong & flexible cellulose fibers surrounded and held together by a stiffer material called lignin

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WOOD (COMPOSITES )

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CELLULAR (COMPOSITES )

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SOME EXAMPLES OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS

(a) plywood is a laminar composite of layers of wood veneer, (b) fiberglass is a fiber-reinforced composite containing stiff, strong glass fibers in a softer polymer matrix ( 175), and (c) concrete is a particulate composite containing coarse sand or gravel in a cement matrix (reduced 50%).

Matrix Materials
Functions of the matrix
Transmit force between fibers arrest cracks from spreading between fibers
do not carry most of the load

hold fibers in proper oreintation protect fibers from environment


mechanical forces can cause cracks that allow environment to affect fibers

Demands on matrix
Interlaminar shear strength Toughness Moisture/environmental resistance Temperature properties Cost
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Matrix Materials
Every type of composite has a different purpose to be produced Polymers have a low stiffness and are ductile Ceramics & glasses are stiff and strong, but are catastrophically brittle So in fiber reinforced polymer composites, we exploit the great strength of the ceramic while avoiding the catastrophe: the brittle failure of fibres leads to a progressive not a sudden failure Fracture toughness will also increase
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Fiber-Reinforced Systems and Applications


o Advanced Composites - The advanced composites normally are polymermatrix composites reinforced with high-strength polymer, metal, or ceramic fibers. o Metal-Matrix Composites - These materials, strengthened by metal or ceramic fibers, provide high-temperature resistance. o Ceramic-Matrix Composites - Composites containing ceramic fibers in a ceramic matrix are also finding applications.

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Matrices-polymeric
Thermosets
cure by chemical reaction Irreversible Examples
Polyester, vinylester
Most common, lower cost, solvent resistance

Epoxy resins
Superior performance, relatively costly

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Matrices-thermoplastics
Formed by heating to elevated temperature at which softening occurs
Reversible reaction Can be reformed and/or repaired - not common Limited in temperature range to 150C

Examples
Polypropylene
with nylon or glass can be injected-- inexpensive

Soften layers of combined fiber and resin and place in a mold -- higher costs

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POLYMER MATRIX COMPOSITES


PMCs consist of a polymer resin and fibers These are the most commonly used type of composites in the light of their room temperature properties, ease of fabrication and cost Fiberglass; is simply a composite consisting of glass fibers contained within a polymer matrix and produced in the largest quantities out of composites Carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP): extensively used in sports and recreational equipment (fishing rods, golf clubs) Aramid (Kevlar) fiber reinforced polymer composites

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POLYMER MATRIX COMPOSITES

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Strength and Stiffness of Reinforced Plastics

Specific tensile strength (tensile strength-to-density ratio) and specific tensile modulus (modulus of elasticity-to-density ratio) for various fibers used in reinforced plastics. Note the wide range of specific strengths and stiffnesses available.

Example of Advanced Materials Construction

Cross-section of a composite sailboard, an example of advanced materials construction. Source: K. Easterling, Tomorrows Materials (2d ed.), p. 133. Institute of Metals, 1990.

Matrices-others
Metal Matrix Composites - higher temperature
e.g., Aluminum with boron or carbon fibers

Ceramic matrix materials - very high temperature


Fiber is used to add toughness, not necessarily higher in strength and stiffness

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CERAMIC MATRIX COMPOSITES


As discussed in ceramics, CMs are inherently resilient to oxidation and deterioration at elevated temperatures But CMs have low fracture toughness that is they are brittle The fracture toughness of ceramics have been improved significantly by the development of a new generation of ceramic matrix composites Transformation toughening: partially stabilised zirconia dispersed in Al2O3 or ZrO2 SiC Whisker reinforced composites
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CERAMIC MATRIX COMPOSITES

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METAL MATRIX COMPOSITES


As the name implies, the matrix is a ductile metal The reinforcement may improve specific stiffness, specific strength, abrasion resistance, creep resistance, thermal conductivity and high temperature properties Advantages of MMCs over PMCs include higher operating temperatures, nonflammability and greater resistance to degredation by organic fluids But, MMCs are much more expensive than PMCs which restrict ther widespread use Most widely used MMC is so called CERMETs
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METAL MATRIX COMPOSITES

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METAL MATRIX COMPOSITES

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METAL MATRIX COMPOSITES

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METAL MATRIX COMPOSITE MATERIALS & APPLICATIONS


TABLE 9.3 Fiber Graphite Matrix Aluminum Magnesium Lead Copper Aluminum Magnesium Titanium Aluminum Lead Magnesium Aluminum, titanium Superalloy (cobalt-base) Superalloy Applications Satellite, missile, and helicopter structures Space and satellite structures Storage-battery plates Electrical contacts and bearings Compressor blades and structural supports Antenna structures Jet-engine fan blades Superconductor restraints in fission power reactors Storage-battery plates Helicopter transmission structures High-temperature structures High-temperature engine components High-temperature engine components

Boron

Alumina

Silicon carbide Molybdenum, tungsten

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Types and General Characteristics of Composite Materials


TABLE 9.1 Material Fibers Glass Graphite Boron Aramids (Kevlar) Other fibers Matrix materials Thermosets Thermoplastics Metals Ceramics Characteristics High strength, low stiffness, high density; lowest cost; E (calcium aluminoborosilicate) and S (magnesia-aluminosilicate) types commonly used. Available as high-modulus or high-strength; low cost; less dense than glass. High strength and stiffness; highest density; highest cost; has tungsten filament at its center. Highest strength-to-weight ratio of all fibers; high cost. Nylon, silicon carbide, silicon nitride, aluminum oxide, boron carbide, boron nitride, tantalum carbide, steel, tungsten, molybdenum. Epoxy and polyester, with the former most commonly used; others are phenolics, fluorocarbons, polyethersulfone, silicon, and polyimides. Polyetheretherketone; tougher than thermosets but lower resistance to temperature. Aluminum, aluminum-lithium, magnesium, and titanium; fibers are graphite, aluminum oxide, silicon carbide, and boron. Silicon carbide, silicon nitride, aluminum oxide, and mullite; fibers are various ceramics.

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HOMEWORK TD-Nickel Composite


Suppose 2 wt% ThO2 is added to nickel. Each ThO2 particle has a diameter of 1000 . How many particles are present in each cubic centimeter?

Cemented Carbides
A cemented carbide cutting tool used for machining contains 75 wt% WC, 15 wt% TiC, 5 wt% TaC, and 5 wt% Co. Estimate the density of the composite.

APPLICATIONS OF COMPOSITES In designing transportation systems, weight is as important as strength So, they are used in car, aircraft, train & etc. In designing sport equipment, weight is more important than price So, the composites are used for all sorts of sports equipment

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Costs of composite manufacture


Material costs -- higher for composites
Constituent materials (e.g., fibers and resin) Processing costs -- embedding fibers in matrix not required for metals Carbon fibers order of magnitude higher than aluminum

Design costs -- lower for composites


Can reduce the number of parts in a complex assembly by designing the material in combination with the structure

Increased performance must justify higher material costs


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MANUFACTURING FIBERS & COMPOSITES Chemical vapor deposition: Method for manufacturing materials by condensing the material from a vapor onto a solid substrate. Carbonizing: Driving off the non-carbon atoms from a polymer fiber, leaving behind a carbon fiber of high strength. Also known as pyrolizing. Filament winding: Process for producing fiberreinforced composites in which continuous fibers are wrapped around a form or mandrel. Pultrusion: A method for producing composites containing mats or continuous fibers.
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MANUFACTURING FIBERS & COMPOSITES

2003 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning is a trademark used herein under license.

Methods for producing (a) boron and (b) carbon fibers


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MANUFACTURING FIBERS & COMPOSITES

2003 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning is a trademark used herein under license.

A scanning electron micrograph of a carbon tow containing many individual carbon filaments (x200).
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MANUFACTURING FIBERS & COMPOSITES


2003 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning is a trademark used herein under license.

The effect of heat-treatment temperature on the strength and modulus of elasticity of carbon fibers.

PRODUCTION OF COMPOSITES Fibres run through liquid epoxy with a suitable binder Cover it with backing paper Weave the fibers into different forms Then put the layers on top of each other Finally, layers are pressure bonded to each other Other composites production are very similar to Metal or Ceramic production Fiber reinforced composites are produced with special way
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PRODUCTION OF COMPOSITES

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MANUFACTURING FIBERS & COMPOSITES

2003 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning is a trademark used herein under license.

Production of fiber tapes by encasing fibers between metal cover sheets by diffusion bonding.

MANUFACTURING FIBERS & COMPOSITES

Photomicrographs of two fiber-reinforced composites: (a) In Borsic fiber-reinforced aluminum, the fibers are composed of a thick layer of boron deposited on a small-diameter tungsten filament ( 1000). ( From Metals Handbook, American Society for Metals ) (b) In this microstructure of a ceramic-fiberceramic-matrix composite, SiC fibers are used to reinforce a Si3N4 matrix. The SiC fiber is vapor-deposited on a small carbon precursor filament ( 125). (Courtesy of Dr. R.T. Bhatt, NASA Lewis Research Center.)

MANUFACTURING FIBERS & COMPOSITES

2003 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning is a trademark used herein under license.

Producing composite shapes in dies by (a) hand lay-up, (b) pressure bag molding, and (c) matched die molding.

MANUFACTURING FIBERS & COMPOSITES

2003 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning is a trademark used herein under license.

Producing composite shapes by filament winding


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MANUFACTURING FIBERS & COMPOSITES

2003 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning is a trademark used herein under license.

Producing composite shapes by pultrusion

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MANUFACTURING FIBERS & COMPOSITES

2003 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning is a trademark used herein under license.

Techniques for producing laminar composites: (a) roll bonding, (b) explosive bonding, (c) coextrusion, and (d) brazing.
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MANUFACTURING FIBERS & COMPOSITES

2003 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning is a trademark used herein under license.

In the corrugation method for producing a honeycomb core, the material (such as aluminum) is corrugated between two rolls. The corrugated sheets are joined together with adhesive and then cut to the desired thickness.
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MANUFACTURING FIBERS & COMPOSITES

2003 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning is a trademark used herein under license.

Schematic diagram of an aramid-aluminum laminate, Arall, which has potential for aerospace applications.
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MANUFACTURING FIBERS & COMPOSITES

2003 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning is a trademark used herein under license.

(a) A hexagonal cell honeycomb core, (b) can be joined to two face sheets by means of adhesive sheets, (c) producing an exceptionally lightweight yet stiff, strong honeycomb sandwich structure.

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PROPERTY
Static Properties
Stiffness Longitudinal Strain Transverse Strain Notch Sensitivity Environmental Sensitivity

FIBER-REINFORCED EPOXY
Linear when loaded in the fiber direction. Non-linear when loading the matrix (eg., shear). Typical fiber failure strains of approx. 2%. Weak matrix so add transverse reinforcement. Low for (static) strength. Good for fatigue-best for blades. Resin-dominated properties susceptible to elevated temperatures and/or humidity.

METALS
Linear to yield point, then nonlinear in the plastic region. Typical failure strains of approx. 1%. Strong (isotropic). Good for (static) strength. Low for fatigue. Relatively insensitive.

Durability
(Fatigue) Highly resistant. Moderately resistant.

Damage Tolerance
Impact Sensitivity Damage Growth Fracture Strength Impact causes resin cracking or fiber fracture. Slow damage growth of delaminations at typical design strains. Relatively low compared to ductile materials. Not a consideration. Metals plastically deform. Continuous crack growth at design strains. Relatively high for ductile materials.

Physical Properties
Density Thermal Expansion Poissons Ratio Conducivity Thermal Electrical Low. Depends upon layup. Fiber ;- low, Resin;- high. Depends upon layup. Low, depends upon layup. Low. Carbon;-conductive, F/G/Kevlar/Quartz;-non-conductive. High. High;-Isotropic. Not direction sensitive. High. High. High.

MICROSTRUCTURE OF A COMPOSITE
Scanning electron micrograph of the fracture surface of a silver-copper alloy reinforced with carbon fibers. Poor bonding causes much of the fracture surface to follow the interface between the metal matrix and the carbon tows ( 3000). (From Metals Handbook, American Society for Metals)

IMPORTANT NOTE Composite properties are less than that of the fiber because of dilution by the matrix and the need to orient fibers in different directions.
Composites are generally anisotropic materials Anisotropy countered by stacking together differently oriented laminae to form laminates

Anadolu University

Materials Science & Engineering

SUMMARY
Composites are classified according to:
-- the matrix material (CMC, MMC, PMC) -- the reinforcement geometry (particles, fibers, layers).

Composites enhance matrix properties:

-- MMC: enhance y, TS, creep performance -- CMC: enhance Kc -- PMC: enhance E, y, TS, creep performance Particulate-reinforced: -- Elastic modulus can be estimated. -- Properties are isotropic. Fiber-reinforced: -- Elastic modulus and TS can be estimated along fiber dir. -- Properties can be isotropic or anisotropic. Structural: -- Based on build-up of sandwiches in layered form.
Anadolu University Materials Science & Engineering