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INTRODUCTION An organization able to be described as management structure that determine relationships between functions and positions, and subdivides

and delegates roles, responsibilities, and authority to carry out defined tasks in a section or department. Organizations able to be seen regardless in large or small scale and old or new concept, organization should be solid, permanent, and orderly structured. Modern organizations are more structured and hierarchical as compared to conventional one. Organizations are observed to exist with various structures. As pointed out by Mohr (1982, pp. 102103), the early theorists of organizational structure, Taylor, Fayol, and Weber had seen vital of structure for effectiveness and efficiency and assumed if there is no any issue rise on the current structure , people could fashion and adapt accordingly. Meanwhile in the 1930s, the rebellion began which defined as human relations theory, no more people should be treated as the artifact, but rather an advocacy of the creation of a distinguish sort of structure, one in which the requirements, knowledge, and opinions of employees might be given greater recognition towards an organization. Nevertheless, a different view arose in the 1960s, recommending that the organizational structure is "an externally caused phenomenon, an outcome rather than an artifact." (Mohr, L. B, 1982). This explains organization may build by the influenced of the environment regardless specific or general issue. In the 21st century, organizational theorists such as Lim, Griffiths, and Sambrook (2010) are proposing that organizational structure development is very much dependent on the management strategies and the workers as a limitation by the power and authority distribution between them, and influenced by their environment and the outcome. In the new centuries, many organizations are designed as hierarchies, with each manager reporting to one and only one manager at the next higher level. Within the hierarchical structure, there is substantial variation in the number of levels and in the set of activities grouped together. The several groupings are pertaining to organization such as functional, product, matrix, geography and customer. For instance, other organizations may apply a matrix structure in which each low-level manager reports to two or more superiors. PENGENALAN Sesebuah organisasi yang mampu boleh digambarkan sebagai struktur pengurusan yang menentukan hubungan antara fungsi dan kedudukan, dan subdivides dan mengagihkan peranan, tanggungjawab, dan kuasa untuk menjalankan ditakrifkan tugas dalam seksyen atau bahagian. Organisasi boleh dilihat tidak kira dalam skala yang besar atau kecil dan konsep lama atau baru, organisasi hendaklah kukuh, tetap dan teratur tersusun. Organisasi moden adalah lebih berstruktur dan digunapakai berbanding konvensional satu. Organisasi akan diperhatikan wujud dengan pelbagai struktur. Menegaskan oleh KSM (1982, ms 102103), ahli-ahli teori yang awal daripada struktur organisasi, Taylor, Fayol dan Weber telah dilihat penting struktur untuk keberkesanan dan kecekapan dan diandaikan jika tiada

apa-apa isu kenaikan pada struktur semasa, orang boleh fesyen dan menyesuaikan diri dengan sewajarnya. Sementara itu pada tahun 1930-an, dan pemberontakan bermula yang ditakrifkan sebagai teori perhubungan manusia, tidak ada orang yang lebih patut dianggap sebagai artifak, tetapi agak untuk sokongan penubuhan distinguish jenis struktur, satu di mana keperluan, pengetahuan, dan pendapat pekerja mungkin diberi pengiktirafan yang lebih meluas ke arah sebuah organisasi. Walau bagaimanapun, satu pandangan yang berbeza timbul pada tahun 1960an, mencadangkan bahawa struktur organisasi adalah "satu fenomena luaran disebabkan, hasil daripada artifak yang." (KSM, L. B, 1982). Ini menjelaskan organisasi boleh membina dipengaruhi persekitaran tanpa mengira khusus atau umum isu tersebut. Dalam abad ke-21, ahli-ahli teori organisasi seperti Lim, Griffiths dan Sambrook (2010) yang mencadangkan bahawa pembangunan struktur organisasi banyak bergantung kepada strategi pengurusan dan pekerja sebagai had oleh pengagihan kuasa antara mereka, dan dipengaruhi oleh persekitaran mereka dan pencapaian. Dalam abad-abad yang baru, banyak organisasi direka seperti hierarki, dengan setiap Pengurus yang melapor kepada Pengurus yang satu dan hanya satu di peringkat yang lebih tinggi. Dalam struktur hirarki, terdapat perbezaan yang ketara dalam bilangan peringkat dan set aktiviti-aktiviti yang dikumpulkan bersama-sama. Beberapa kumpulan berkaitan dengan organisasi seperti fungsian, produk, matriks, geografi dan pelanggan. Sebagai contoh, organisasi lain boleh memohon matriks struktur di mana setiap Pengurus peringkat rendah melapor kepada Ketua dua atau lebih. In the 21st century, parts of organizations are not purely employed hierarchical structures, many management are still prone to practice the existence of the flat community structure within their organizations (Butler Jr., J.K., 1986, p.5). For functional hierarchy, departments were distributed into styling, engineering, manufacturing, research, public relations, and personnel division (Sloan 1963, p. 190). TYPES OF ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE Generally, organizational structures are able to be described based on the type of departmentalization. It means the different organizational units which the division of system and organization that is responsible to resolving the duties given. Differentiation of task or activity into separate segments is called departmentalization. Briefing about grouping tasks in different departments or it can be defined as division of work. The functions reflect the nature of the business. The advantage of this type of grouping is obtaining efficiencies from consolidating similar specialties and people with common skills, knowledge and orientations together in common units. There are several types of departmentalization that being applied in most of the organization in Malaysia which are functional, product, matrix geographical and consumer. Each type of departmentalization will be described as below:

Departmentalization by function organizes by a group of people who have similar skills which has its own functions and objectives to be performed. The functions reflect the nature of the business. The advantage of this type of grouping is obtaining efficiencies from consolidating similar specialties and people with common skills, knowledge and orientations together in common units. Functional departmentalization indicates grouping activities by functions performed. Activities can be grouped according to function (work being done) to pursue economies of scale by placing employees with shared skills and knowledge into departments for example human resources, IT, accounting, manufacturing, logistics, marketing, and engineering. Functional departmentalization can be used in all types of organizations. Figure 1.0 illustrates departmentalization by function.

SUMMARY This study attempts to explain organization structure based on rationalization coordination of interactions among activities. Many organizations are designed as hierarchies, with each manager reporting to one and only one manager at the next higher level. Therefore, the function of organization structure is work arrangement by division or management to individual or grouping intended for achievement of an organizations objectives. The important potency to accomplish organizational structure is organizational strategies, size of organization, technology and environmental factor. Combination between people, hierarchies and system may recognize as a departmentalization. Departmentalization can be described as a distribution of work and employees to different organizational units that are responsible for resolving the duties given. There are few types of departmentalization had been applied by variety of companies. It can be observed through their types of organization chart. As above mentioned, those types of structure are functional, geographical, matrix and product base. Functional structure is the most common type departmentalization whereby it is quite straight forward in coordinating the interactions between top management and each specific department representative which is normally department managers. This typical structure allows one company to have in depth knowledge and skills on each function. However, there is still some limitations if they are facing with global and environment changes which it might slow the response time on it. Depending on the types of businesses, some companies able covers certain region, meanwhile the others cover all areas of market demand. For the companies that apply geographical structure, most likely they will determine the regions either by cardinal directions or by name of the states. Cardinal point of directions such north, south, east and west are normally being applied by major players. It is much easier for them to monitor and track performance and market demand analysis instead of by product or services itself. Matrix structure presents complex design of hierarchy whereby the authority and responsibility of manager is bigger than the functional structure. Those companies that apply matrix structure are more fragile and flexible in terms of reporting matters. Even though, staff works in the different department, they are able to cross report to another department. This structure is normally applied within production department by the maintenance people. For those who applied this structure are able to create huge network within multidisciplinary department. However, management of this company has to ensure that their staffs are self driven to carry out major tasks and deal with the multi cross-sectional network. Product structure is normally applied by those companies who have numbers of products as their bullet to succeed. In order to penetrate current global changes, certain companies have to survive to run their businesses. Varieties of product almost certainly have variety of margin and able to analyze market trend which one is worth to be sold and vice versa.

Limitation on product structure is the companies have to spend their time on market analysis and determining thoroughly the market trend as well as their benefits on it. However, in order to fulfill customer demand, an organization is required to study the market trend and observe the best in class or multinational company best practices. They might assist new born company and developing company to take a step further in establishing their own businesses. RINGKASAN Kajian ini cuba menerangkan struktur organisasi berdasarkan rasionalisasi penyelarasan interaksi antara aktiviti. Banyak organisasi direka seperti hierarki, dengan setiap Pengurus yang melapor kepada Pengurus yang satu dan hanya satu di peringkat yang lebih tinggi. Oleh itu, fungsi struktur organisasi adalah aturan kerja oleh pihak pengurusan untuk individu atau grouping dimaksudkan atau bahagian bagi pencapaian objektif sesebuah organisasi. Penting potensi untuk mencapai struktur organisasi adalah strategi organisasi, saiz organisasi, teknologi dan faktor alam sekitar. Kombinasi antara penduduk, hierarki sistem boleh mengiktiraf sebagai satu departmentalization. Departmentalization boleh diterangkan sebagai pengagihan kerja dan kakitangan unit organisasi yang bertanggungjawab untuk menyelesaikan tugas-tugas yang diberikan. Terdapat beberapa jenis departmentalization telah telah digunakan oleh pelbagai syarikat. Ia boleh dilihat melalui mereka jenis carta organisasi. Seperti yang dinyatakan di atas, jenis-jenis struktur adalah matriks berfungsi, geografi, dan asas produk. Struktur fungsian adalah departmentalization jenis yang paling biasa di mana ia adalah agak lurus ke hadapan dalam menyelaraskan interaksi antara pengurusan atasan dan wakil setiap Jabatan khusus yang kebiasaannya Pengurus Jabatan. Struktur khas ini membolehkan sebuah syarikat untuk mempunyai pengetahuan mendalam dan kemahiran setiap fungsi. Walau bagaimanapun, masih terdapat beberapa sekatan jika mereka sedang berhadapan dengan global dan persekitaran perubahan iaitu ianya mungkin lambat respon masa di atasnya. Bergantung kepada jenis perniagaan, sesetengah syarikat yang mampu merangkumi rantau tertentu, manakala yang lain meliputi semua bidang permintaan pasaran.Bagi syarikat-syarikat yang berkenaan struktur geografi, kemungkinan besar mereka akan menentukan kawasan sama ada oleh Kardinal arahan atau nama Syarikat. Titik Cardinal arahan-arahan tersebut Utara, Selatan, Timur dan Barat yang biasanya yang diguna pakai oleh pemain utama. Ia adalah lebih mudah bagi mereka untuk memantau dan menjejaki prestasi dan pasaran permintaan analisis bukannya oleh produk atau perkhidmatan itu sendiri.Struktur matriks membentangkan Reka bentuk kompleks hierarki di mana kuasa dan tanggungjawab Pengurus adalah lebih besar daripada struktur fungsian. Syarikat-syarikat yang berkenaan struktur matriks adalah lebih rapuh dan fleksibel dari segi perkara yang dilapor. Walaupun, kakitangan yang bekerja di Jabatan yang berbeza, mereka akan mampu merentas laporan ke Jabatan lain. Inistruktur biasanya diguna pakai dalam bahagian pengeluaran oleh orang-orang penyelenggaraan. Bagi mereka yang menggunakan struktur ini akan mampu mencipta rangkaian yang besar dalam pelbagai disiplin Jabatan.

Walau bagaimanapun, pengurusan Syarikat ini perlu memastikan kakitangan mereka sendiri didorong untuk menjalankan tugas-tugas utama dan berurusan dengan pelbagai rangkaian hirisan lintang.Struktur produk biasanya diguna pakai oleh Syarikat-syarikat tersebut yang mempunyai bilangan produk sebagai peluru mereka untuk berjaya. Untuk menembusi pasaran semasa perubahan global, syarikat-syarikat tertentu perlu bertahan untuk menjalankan perniagaan mereka. Jenis produk hampir pasti mempunyai pelbagai margin dan mampu menganalisis trend pasaran ialah bernilai untuk dijual dan sebaliknya.Had atas struktur produk adalah syarikatsyarikat perlu menghabiskan masa mereka di analisis pasaran dan menentukan benar-benar trend pasaran serta faedah mereka di atasnya. Walau bagaimanapun, untuk memenuhi permintaan pelanggan, organisasi perlu mengkaji arah aliran pasaran dan memerhati yang terbaik dalam kelas atau amalan terbaik Syarikat multinasional. Mereka mungkin membantu syarikat yang baru lahir dan Syarikat yang sedang berkembang untuk mengambil satu langkah tambahan dalam menubuhkan perniagaan mereka sendiri.