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TOMONGHA (1) – reported RABILAS (2) – reported REYES (3) LIBRADILLA (4) FERRER (5) – reported GIER (6) SO (7) – reported ABELLA (8) DANDAN (9)
Industrial Electronics Lecture MWF 11:00 – 12:00pm
Engr. Romar Batulan Instructor
Thus. the charges follow a straight (line-of-sight) path. When no magnetic force is present current flow is uniform. which we call a Hall element. (from our knowledge on current. no potential difference is generated. Shown in figure 1 is a conductor carrying current. thus there is no potential difference across its output. But when the magnetic field is absent. holes and ions or a combination of the three) When a magnetic field is present which is not in the direction of the current. a potential difference or a voltage (Hall voltage) is generated which is perpendicular to the directions of the magnetic field and the current. This principle is what we call Hall-Effect. it is the movement of electricity.THEORY BEHIND THE HALL-EFFECT Hall-effect takes place or comes about the nature of current in a conductor. the charges undergo or experience a force called Lorentz force which causes the movement of the current to change thus a potential difference is generated. when a current-carrying conductor is placed near a magnetic field. ILLUSTRATION ON HOW HALL-EFFECT WORKS Hall-Effect Principle (No magnetic field) Figure 1 illustrates the principle of Hall-effect when there is absence of magnetic field. To make it simple. thus it contains charges such as electrons. Figure 1 .
These applications includes: Current sensing By sensing the current provided to a load and using the device's applied voltage as a sensor voltage it is possible to determine the power dissipated by a device. If the quantity (parameter) to be sensed incorporates or can incorporate a magnetic field. a Hall sensor will perform the task. APPLICATION (Specific location in an application where Halleffect sensors are applied) Hall effect sensors can be applied in many types of sensing devices. When the conductor carrying –current is placed near a magnetic field. This force disturbs the flow of current resulting to a potential difference across the output. This voltage is known as Hall voltage. .FIGURE 2 Hall-effect Principle (Magnetic Field is Present) Figure 2 illustrates the principle of Hall-effect when magnetic field is present. Lorentz force takes place.
As there are no moving parts involved within the sensor or magnet. This effectively shields and exposes the Hall chip to the permanent magnet's field respective to whether a tab or window is passing though the Hall sensor. the sensor and magnet may be encapsulated in an appropriate protective material. the windows and tabs pass through the air gap between the permanent magnet and semiconductor Hall chip. This signal is used by the engine computer or ECU to control ignition timing. etc. The principles of such systems have been extended and refined to offer more than anti-skid functions. Electric motor control Some types of brushless DC electric motors use Hall effect sensors to detect the position of the rotor and feed that information to the motor controller. typical life expectancy is improved compared to traditional electromechanical switches. the transistor is turned on providing a circuit to ground through the signal output wire. A metal rotor consisting of windows and tabs is mounted to a shaft and arranged so that during shaft rotation. meaning that rather than a voltage being produced at the Hall sensor signal output wire. For ignition timing purposes. forming the Hall effect sensor. speed sensing. Many automotive Hall effect sensors have a built-in internal NPN transistor with an open collector and grounded emitter. This application is used in brushless DC motors. Wheel rotation sensing The sensing of wheel rotation is especially useful in anti-lock brake systems. the metal rotor will have a number of equal-sized tabs and windows matching the number of engine cylinders. now providing extended vehicle handling enhancements. A stationary permanent magnet and semiconductor Hall effect chip are mounted next to each other separated by an air gap.Position and motion sensing Hall effect devices used in motion sensing and motion limit switches can offer enhanced reliability in extreme environments. Automotive ignition and fuel injection Commonly used in distributors for ignition timing (and in some types of crank and camshaft position sensors for injection pulse timing. Additionally. This produces a uniform square wave output since the on/off (shielding and exposure) time is equal. This allows for more precise motor control . Its use as an ignition timing device in various distributor types is as follows.) the Hall effect sensor is used as a direct replacement for the mechanical breaker points used in earlier automotive applications.
creating thrust. replacing the traditional mechanical levers with contactless sensing. which now use Hall Effect joysticks to control hydraulic valves.Industrial applications Applications for Hall Effect sensing have also expanded to industrial applications. A large potential is established between the end of the thruster where neutral propellant is fed and the part where electrons are produced. once they get into orbit or farther out into space. Neutral propellant is pumped into the chamber and is ionized by the trapped electrons. Cranes. Open/Close Detection Portable computers and flip or jack-knife style phones and other portable devices with a rotating hinge and clam shell design have historically used mechanical switches to indicate an open or closed position. atoms are ionized and accelerated by anelectric field. Backhoe Loaders. Diggers. and thus are extremely energetic allowing them to ionize neutral atoms. A radial magnetic field established by magnets on the thruster is used to trap electrons which then orbit and create an electric field due to the Hall effect. Spacecraft propulsion A Hall effect thruster (HET) is a relatively low power device that is used to propel some spacecraft. . Scissor Lifts. In the HET. etc. so electrons trapped in the magnetic field cannot fall down the potential. Such applications include. Then positive ions and electrons are ejected from the thruster as a quasineutral plasma. Mining Trucks. Knowing whether the device is open or closed is essential for applying power to sleeping circuitry and returning to the sleep mode to conserve power.
or cam gear so that the sensor can generate a trigger pulse as the crankshaft rotates. rotor. The purpose of the shutter blade is to disrupt the flux lines (from the magnet) that will be passé to the Hall-effect sensor. two Halleffect sensors are mounted on the outer wall of the cylinder. shutter blades are mounted on the distributor shaft. The Magnetic Piston To indicate that a pneumatic piston has fully extended or retracted.Few examples on Hall-effect application: Automotive Ignition System In an automotive ignition system. crankshaft pulley. This signal is then used for ignition timing. .
The basic analog output device can be converted into a digital output sensor with the addition of a Schmitt trigger circuit.Note: The Magnetic Piston is a prime mover and an electrical generator in a single device that uniquely may be powered by any pressure source or any heat source. Although this is a complete device. additional circuit functions were added to simplify the application. Digital output sensors The Digital output sensor has an output that is just one of two states: ON or OFF. Printed Cover Some computer use Hall-effect device to detect if the cover is open or close. . DIFFERENT TYPES OF HALL-EFFECT SENSORS Analog output sensors Analog sensors provide an output voltage that is proportional to the magnetic field to which it is exposed.
pdf http://en.wikipedia.aspx?ID=IAU7607 http://en. when the output of the amplifier falls below the reference point.The Schmitt trigger compares the output of the differential amplifier with a preset reference. the Schmitt trigger turns on. When the amplifier output exceeds the reference. the output of the Schmitt trigger turns off.wisc-online.org/wiki/Hall_effect .com/objects/ViewObject.com/sensing/prodinfo/solidstate/technical/chapter2.wikipedia. Reference: http://content.org/wiki/Hall_effect#Applications http://www. Conversely.honeywell.
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