You are on page 1of 1

A 6/A 6M

X3.4.6 Heat input. X3.5 Though it is widely believed that low CE steels are immune to weld cracking problems, failure to consider these factors and others have resulted in weld or base metal HAZ (heat affected zone) cracks in such steels.13 X3.6 It is important to note that carbon equivalence is only a qualitative assessment of potential welding problems, and should never be solely relied on to ensure weld integrity. The proper use of welding specications, coupled with the knowledge of actual construction conditions, must also be used.


X4.1 Suggested minimum inside bend radii for cold forming are referenced to Group Designations A to F inclusive as dened in Table X4.1. The suggested radii listed in Table X4.2 should be used as minimums in typical shop fabrication. Material that does not form satisfactorily when fabricated in accordance with Table X4.2 may be subject to rejection pending negotiation with the steel supplier. When tighter bends are required, the manufacturer should be consulted. X4.2 The bend radius and the radius of the male die should be as liberal as the nished part will permit. The width across
TABLE X4.1 Group Designations for Cold Bending
Specication A 36/A 36M A 242/A 242M A 283/A 283M A 514/A 514M A 529/A 529M A 572/A 572M

TABLE X4.2 Suggested Minimum Inside Radii for Cold BendingA

Thickness (t), in. [mm] Group DesignationB A B C D E F Up to in. [20 mm]

Over 34 in. [20 mm] To 1 [25 mm, incl.] 1.5t 1.5t 1.5t 1.5t 1.5t 2.25t

Over 1 in. [25 Over 2 in. [50 mm] To 2 in. [50 mm] mm], incl. 1.5t 1.5t 2.0t 2.5t 3.0t 4.5t 1.5t 2.0t 2.5t 3.0t 3.5t 5.5t

1.5t 1.5t 1.5t 1.5t 1.5t 1.75t


Group DesignationA B C A B F C B C D E B C C B B D E F C D C B C D F F C D E B

A Values are for bend lines perpendicular to the direction of nal rolling. These radii apply when the precautions listed in X4.2 are followed. If bend lines are parallel to the direction of nal rolling, multiply values by 1.5. B Steel specications included in the group designations may not include the entire thickness range shown in this table.

A 573/A 573M A 588/A 588M A 633/A 633M A 656/A 656M

A 678/A 678M A 690/A 690M A 709/A 709M

A or B C or D any 50 [345] or 55 [380] 42 [290] 50 [345] 55 [380] 60 [415] or 65 [450] 58 [400] or 65 [450] 70 [485] any any 50 [345] 60 [415] 70 [485] 80 [550] A or B C or D

the shoulders of the female die should be at least eight times the plate thickness. Higher strength steels require larger die openings. The surface of the dies in the area of radius should be smooth. X4.2.1 Since cracks in cold bending commonly originate from the outside edges, shear burrs and gas cut edges should be removed by grinding. Sharp corners on edges and on punched or gas cut holes should be removed by chamfering or grinding to a radius. X4.2.2 If possible, parts should be formed such that the bend line is perpendicular to the direction of nal rolling. If it is necessary to bend with the bend line parallel to the direction of nal rolling, a more generous radius is suggested (112times applicable value given in Table X4.2 for bend lines perpendicular to the direction of rolling). X4.3 References: X4.3.1 Holt, G. E., et al, Minimum Cold Bend Radii ProjectFinal Report, Concurrent Technologies Corporation, January 27, 1997. X4.3.2 Brockenbrough, R. L., Fabrication Guidelines for Cold Bending, R. L. Brockenbrough & Associates, June 28, 1998. X4.3.3 Both of these references are available from American Iron and Steel Institute, 1101 17th Street NW, Washington, DC 20036-4700.

A 710/A 710M A 808/A 808M A 852/A 852M A 871/A 871M A 945/A 945M

36 [250] 50 [345] or 50W [345W] 70W [485W] or HPS70W [HPS485W] 100 [690] or 100W [690W] A

60 [415] or 65 [450] 50 [345] or 65 [450]

A Steels having a ratio of specied minimum tensile strength to specied minimum yield strength of 1.15 or less are in Group F; other steels are in Groups A to E inclusive, which are grouped on the basis of their having similar specied values for minimum elongation in 2 in. [50 mm]. B Grade designations are not applicable for this specication.