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Benjamin Franklin John Adams Thomas Jefferson - deist and a skeptic, but a profound theologist - elite education - democrat

- supported peoples’ rights to vote - dismissed slavery (even though he owned and breaded slaves = hypocrite) - 1769 – Virginia’s House of Burgesses (lower house) - 1774 – some review of the rights of British in America - influenced by John Locke – chapter 5 - primacy of individual rights - placing of these rights in the context of popular sovereignty “the God who gave us life gave us liberty at the same time…” - peoples’ desire for a republic – commitment to place the selfish and separate interests aside for res publica 1770s – economic recession 1765-1773 – England – very poor crops Rule of law – biggest course in creating the civility of the colonies They believed that the law was noble


Sept 5 – 26 oct 1774 – only Georgia did not send representative to this Congress 15 representatives from 12 colonies – passed a series of resolutions that called for defying of the Coercive Acts, tax resistance, army weaponry


Declaration and Resolves – condemned British interference in American matters First congress – voted by colonies rather than individual colonists

new Hampshire. new York. the lower houses were directly elected Same with the upper houses . new jersey. Georgia.Exception: Maryland .- Feb. 15 1775 – Massachusetts – in a state of rebellion Congress – may 1775 How to create a national army considering that the first shots were already fired. Pennsylvania etc First to adopt a strong executive Constitution in Massachusetts – popular reference – rejected Elections for a constitutional convention – final draft of the Massachusetts constitution in 1780 Proved a model for all the under-state constitutions Legislative assemblies – in all but two states. 4th 1776 – all the colonies formally adopted the declaration “The Unanimous Declaration of The Thirteen Colonies of America” All states had to make themselves sovereign - - Connecticut and Rhode Island Already had some sort of constitutions Some changes had to be made Taxation Seize so aspects of sovereignty Massachusetts – adopted a new charter of its own in 1775 and would lead other states to the same action – Virginia. they had 2 chambers In all the colonies. Congress agreed to raise 6 companies of men – nucleus June 17. n Carolina.congress issued a formal declaration of the causes and necessity for taking up arms Mentioned nothing of independence - June 10 1776 – “Common Sense” – Thomas Pain – English Journalist moved to Pennsylvania “colonies must continue as independent states with no connections to Britain what so ever” June 11 1776 – congress appointed a committee to draft a declaration of independence Committee of correspondence – foreign office led by Benjamin Franklin – get in touch with possible allies Half a million slaves by the time of the declaration July 2nd.

gun. but it invested many money and lost all its account in the banks of Europe – French revolution 5 weeks later Biggest long term losers – native Americans Lived on the coast of the Mississippi river Instinct was to stay neutral at the beginning of the colonization period - .british made their first offer of terms which Americans rejected Washington’s army survived another winter France – agreed to help the Americans – get back French speaking regions in Canada – main motivation . built American fleet. 4.1776-1777 – continental congress adopted the Articles of Confederation 1. 3.surrendered after battle of Saratoga.sent supplies. sent generals to train soldiers etc France also persuaded spain and the Netherlands to help in the war The key battle of the entire revolutional war – 1781 – battle of Yorktown – led by general Cornwallis – lost by the british (poorly equipped with artillery and men) Birtish still controlled new York. The first constitution of all the 13 states Primary consent – congress controls war and foreign policy while the state controls the rest (internal police) Military front – confusing – Washington – war of endurance British tried to seize new York city Unsuccessful Burgoyne. 2. savanna and Charlestown 1782 – lord north resigned (british prime-minister) – new government wanted piece with the Americans Piece conference in paris – delegate – Benjamin franklin – both architect and hero Franklin – proposed a 4 point plan which became the basis of the agreement 4 points were Outright independence of the united states and withdrawal of all birtish forces Canada would remain british and a definitive boundary would be drawn between Canada and the 13 states Agreement on the boundaries of all the 13 states Freedom of fishing for everyone of the coast of Newfoundland (eastern peninsula of Canada) - 1782 nov 30 – franklin – separate peace treaty with the british (screwed france) Revolutionary war marked adam smith’s idea – capitalist economy governed by the invisible hand of the market The war was a complete disaster for Europe’s old monarchies True loser of American war was france – not only did it get nothing from the peace agreement .

- Signs of the westward migration – destroying territories occupied by the native tribes .