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FIRST ARHEOINVEST CONGRESS

Interdisciplinary Research in Archeology
IAŞI th th 10 -11 JUNE 2011 http://arheoinvestcongress.uaic.ro

GEOARCHAEOLOGY
IDENTIFICATION TECHNIQUES OF CIRCULAR ARCHAEOLOGICAL STRUCTURES USING SATELLITE IMAGES AND AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY. CASE STUDY: NOVEL CIRCULAR FORTIFICATIONS FROM TIMIȘ COUNTY
Dorel MICLE1, Liviu MĂRUIA1, Adrian CÎNTAR1, Leonard DOROGOSTAISKY2, Andrei STAVILĂ1, Cristian FLOCA1
1

West University of Timișoara, Faculty of Letters, History and Theology, History Department 2 Alcatel-Lucent Romania, Timişoara

Keywords: remote sensing, satellite images, aerial photography, archaeological site, aerial photo interpretation.

Satellite remote sensing represents the acquisition of information from a distance, in the form of conventional photographic images (in analogic format) or as raster images (in digital format) based on the interaction between objects found on the Earth’s surface and the sensors of electromagnetic radiation (radiated by the Sun). The detection of electromagnetic radiation is done photographically (photographs) or electronically (spectral imagery). Remote sensing in archaeology is still based, in most cases, on aerial techniques of low altitude prospection, on visible wavelengths and on those closer to infrared. The information is gathered in a digital format that can be amplified, rectified and reclassified using a large array of algorithms and specialized software. Archaeologists tend to increasingly choose remote sensing as a technique of exploration of sites with a minimal disjointing from the surrounding geographical context. These procedures allow for new methods of 3D cartography of prehistoric and historical sites to be developed, as opposed to the traditional 2D approach. Standard black and white aerial photography is usually employed for the purpose of archaeological exploration and site analysis better than images acquired by the infrared scanner, by radar or by colour photography. However, the real benefit of experimentation through remote sensing techniques lies in the use of different instruments and in comparing and correlating the results. Remote sensing can be an identification technique, since the computer can be programmed to search for distinctive “signatures” or for the energy emitted by a site or for known features in areas where such research was not employed. Such “signatures” are useful for the recognition of features or patterns. Features such as: elevation, distance from water sources, distance between sites or settlements, transportation corridors and routes can be used to predict the locations of potential archaeological sites. The study is based both on the analysis of satellite images and on the analysis of air photographs, in the perimeter of the Timiș County, using as case study the circular fortifications identified through this method, belonging to several historical eras, that have not been previously published. Our study presents the methods and techniques for processing the images acquired, and the subsequent field identification and survey using the total station. The features of these circular archaeological sites are emphasized, their fortification system, and other geomorphologic markers that can be useful for a non-invasive archaeological analysis, as part of a more complex study of landscape archaeology.

GEOARCHAEOLOGY

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FIRST ARHEOINVEST CONGRESS
Interdisciplinary Research in Archeology
IAŞI th th 10 -11 JUNE 2011 http://arheoinvestcongress.uaic.ro

Fig. 1. Corneşti - circular fortifications.

USE OF GIS TECHNIQUES AND TOPOGRAPHIC INSTRUMENTS TO MONITOR THE GEOMORPHOLOGIC PROCESSES AFFECTING ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES
Gheorghe ROMANESCU
“Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University of Iaşi, Faculty of Geography and Geology, ARHEOINVEST Platform

Key words: GIS, topographic instruments, ravine, Cucuteni village.

Even though the active geomorphological processes taking place in Romania are closely monitored by specific institutions, the equipment used is, unfortunately, often inadequate, and this leads to substandard results. The most intense processes are furrowing and landfalls. These often occur in areas with an argillaceous substrate and on surfaces lacking forest vegetation. In this category we can include the Moldavian Plateau and the Transylvanian Depression. By using the GIS techniques and modern topographic instruments, many of the answers expected from dynamic geomorphology will be accurate, and the data bank will be much

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GEOARCHAEOLOGY

In most of the studies. rudimentary and dated methods were used.uaic. Vasile COTIUGĂ2. For the morphologic analysis and the dynamic of versant geomorphologic processes. which were based on wood or metal markers. In order to accurately monitor the current geomorphologic processes. Andrei ASĂNDULESEI2. We first needed to sketch out a model of unintrusive investigation of Gumelniţa tells. IDENTITY IN DIVERSITY. from anthropic causes. 1.FIRST ARHEOINVEST CONGRESS Interdisciplinary Research in Archeology IAŞI th th 10 -11 JUNE 2011 http://arheoinvestcongress. as well as after the diggings. we mention the following: the Leica 3D Scanner and the Leica Total Station. 3D laser scanning. Department of Science. delimitation ditches. Eugen PARASCHIV1 2 National History Museum of Romania. electronic equipment. Three years of geomorphological processes measurement allowed for the elaboration of models for tracking the ravine’s advancement. Carmen BEM3. PHOTOGRAMMETRY. but they were not always rigorous. internal structure. Cristi NICU2. a wide array of modern methods and techniques was used. Cătălin NICOLAE1. Fig. ARHEOINVEST Platform 3 Institute for Cultural Memory. with its destructive character. Bogdan VENEDICT2. during the carrying out of the investigation. Gumelniţa tell. we need to make use of satellite imagery analysis. 3D LASER SCANNING AND MAGNETOMETRIC ANALYSIS ON GUMELNIŢA TELLS OF MUNTENIA (ROMANIA) Cătălin BEM1. more commonly in Romania. Archaeology. magnetometry. 2010. etc. This generally takes place from natural causes and. Map elaborated according to the data obtained from the 3D scan of the Băiceni-Cucuteni ravine. They were successfully tested by monitoring the ravine from Cucuteni (Iași county). on its own. Bucharest “Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University of Iaşi. aerophotogrammetrry.ro improved. on for predicting further developments. aerial photographs. Among the most accurate topographic instruments used to monitor these processes. The elaborated maps constitute the basis for the accurate interpretation of processes that are being increasingly observed. GEOARCHAEOLOGY 21 . Bucharest 1 Key words: Chalcolithic. inherently affects the tells.

it is still difficult to properly characterize the complexity of the Gumelniţa–Karanovo VI phenomenon. The study concentrated on tells – man-made knolls created by a long and successive habitation of the same location. were directed especially to the discovery of burnt habitation remains – very rich in their archaeological inventory. The pluristratified stations from Stoeneşti . around 3900 BC.2 and 4. and is rectangularly delimited by the ditch(es) of some palisade(s). when possible. Those from Bucşani and Udupu developed on low spits from the narrow meadow of Neajlov and from the large meadow of Teleorman. It is noteworthy that the same way of boundary delimitation – at least the one using exterior 22 GEOARCHAEOLOGY . They each belong to the Gumelniţa A1 (N3) level. As most of them were dug in anthropic sediments and were covered shortly after that. The stratigraphy of the tell from Bucşani-Pod includes three important moments of Gumelniţa habitation. belonging to the Gumelniţa B1 (N1) level. the landscape. ovens. and also by the grade of contemporary anthropic degradation. around 4400 BC and to the Gumelniţa B1 (N1) level. carried out according to strict deadlines. Without a coherent strategy for investigating this phenomenon. the perturbations created by the daily variations of the Earth’s magnetic field and the background noise produced by the existence of some massive geological formations) (Fig.ro After more than 100 years of archaeological studies. while the tell from Bucşani is. Bucşani-Pod and Udupu are differentiated by their location. Thus. 3D scanning (Fig. In the tell from Bucşani Pod (Fig. They are considered the most important habitations of the Gumelniţa communities. etc. 1-2). or from around 3900 BC. the immediate link of the tell with its geomorphological bases were often unquantified.uaic. They are often mistaken fo the effective remains of the habitation – burnt dwellings. and is superposed by the first-level curves of the raised-relief topographic maps. actual landscape. from a stratigraphic point of view. of not more than 2. dimensions. for more than five hundred years (ca. the Stoeneşti tell is located on an extension of the terrace of the Câlniştea brook. fireplaces. The Udupu tell has a maximum height of 3.8 m in height from the actual level of the meadow. A conjugated analysis of aero-photometrical data (Fig.FIRST ARHEOINVEST CONGRESS Interdisciplinary Research in Archeology IAŞI th th 10 -11 JUNE 2011 http://arheoinvestcongress. and. The Bucşani tell is close to the actual village. creating a structure which might be described as a dam. Their degree of conservation is directly linked to the impact of contemporary anthropic factors.7 m. There are two categories of boundary delimitation works: 1. foundation. The tell from Udupu has not been studied so far. to their exterior (including the small tell adjoining the base of the larger Stoeneşti tell). The tell from Stoeneşti dominates the meadow from its height of eleven metres. our study was also based on a characterization of these elements. The effective habitation area concentrates on the surface. 3). They are the foundation of some fences. 5). 4) and magnetometry (removing. They are separated by alluvial sediments or by periods of abandonment marked by important pluvial activity. the studies. while the one from Udupu is far from any actual anthropic intervention. The internal structure. we stressed some different aspects of the comparison between different tells. In the beginning.Măgura Tangâru. Only seasonal sheepfolds neighbour it. archaeological investigations confirmed the magnetometric maps obtained in three different sessions. dug on a generally rectangular contour. type of previous study.5 m. The tell from Stoeneşti was studied in the 1930s and at the end of the 1950s. The Bucşani tell has been systematically investigated since 1998. and its surfaces are in direct proportion to these values. wide ditches. dug on a quasi-circular contour and left opened. their identification on the magnetometric maps is quite difficult. The maximum stratigraphic amplitude is between 3. Consequently. 4550-3900 BC). All of them have at least one bounding ditch at the basis of the actual hill. with the excavated sediments deposited along one of the sides. proved that the three tells which are so different today have a similar internal structure. at first sight. 2 narrow and deep ditches. The tell from Stoeneşti is relatively isolated from the actual settlement. filled shortly after the digging.

Over time. this caused repeated and extensive “swarmings” of some parts of the communities.Măgura Tangâru. Elements of the 3D laser scanning.Măgura Tangâru.ro ditches – also appeared at the dawn of the Gumelniţa civilization (around 4500-4400 BC) and at its end (around 3900 BC). which will found new settlements where the same pattern was applied and manifested itself.Măgura Tangâru. Fig. This may well have been one of the causes for the proliferation of Gumelniţa tells. any defensive scenario is out of the question at this moment. it would appear that the settlement’s initial limits forbade horizontal expansion and development.uaic. Obviously. the exterior ditch was dug at the base of the terrace on which the first inhabitants settled. Fig. the space enclosed by the resulting perimeter was subsequently occupied by constructions – totally (as it appears to have happened at Udupu) or partially (as it is the case of the tell from Bucşani). We also have to stress the fact that in the case of the large tell from Stoeneşti . Udupu tell. Stoeneşti . GEOARCHAEOLOGY 23 . In the case of the ditches acting as foundations for palisades or fences. Fig.FIRST ARHEOINVEST CONGRESS Interdisciplinary Research in Archeology IAŞI th th 10 -11 JUNE 2011 http://arheoinvestcongress. Aerial photo with change of the RGB for make the anomalies more visible. on a level which is around 6 m lower than the place where the first buildings were raised. 2. 1. 4. We should also mention the fact that all the ditches were dug before the stratigraphic development of the tells. 3. Magnetometric map of the Udupu tell. Since most of them were small in size. Stoeneşti . Fig. Air photo.

THE EVALUATION OF THE HABITATION CONDITIONS Vasile BUDUI1. Bucşani . To acquire the site’s features. using the following sources: topographical maps and layouts. orthophotomaps and field work.2 geographical information system. habitation conditions. a special attention was paid to an interdisciplinary approach that sought to identify the landscape features with potential for human habitation. THE KOMARIV COMMUNITY FROM ADÂNCATA.uaic. Faculty of History and Geography 2 Bukovina Museum. The reconstruction of the separation ditches or the tracks and foundation ditches for the palisades (the red. we proceeded with the geographical analysis of the region. blue and green parts were researched during the archaeological dig. Komariv culture. Suceava Keywords: Adâncata.Pod tell. In the period from 2000 to 2005. we made use the ArcGIS 9. while the dark grey parts correspond to the magnetometric information. 5. the red contours show the position of the buildings at the upper level). GIS .FIRST ARHEOINVEST CONGRESS Interdisciplinary Research in Archeology IAŞI th th 10 -11 JUNE 2011 http://arheoinvestcongress. Bogdan-Petru NICULICĂ2 1 “Ştefan cel Mare” University of Suceava. tumulus necropolis. To this end.ro Fig. which allowed us to analyse the spatial distribution of the geomorphometric parameters 24 GEOARCHAEOLOGY . Since we were dealing with the only Komariv necropolis from Romania which has been thoroughly investigated. systematic archaeological excavations were carried out in the tumular necropolis from Adâncata (Suceava county).

Laboratoire Archéologies et Sciences de l'Antiquité – Protohistoire européenne. Olivier WELLER2 2 1 Laboratoire Chrono-Environnement.ro (altitude. The pedological investigations revealed that the forest once spread across the entire field. land use and landscape perception during the Late Prehistory. LAST RESULTS AND PERSPECTIVES Robin BRIGAND1. population density and diachronic evolution. the presence of the Bt horizon (clay illuviation). natural resources. slope. The final goal was to evaluate how the territories were constituted and to compare their human dynamics. In order to understand the settlement patterns. the nature of settlement and its chronological framework. Paris Keywords: Moldavia. the Romanian north-eastern territories’ organization and their dynamics. different qualitative indicators regarding the precision of the topographic mapping. This presentation plans to expand the issues addressed by the previous research. and also brought forth the soil profile’s forest morphology. The paper aims to extend a collective research initiated by the French-Romanian projects dedicated to investigating the impact of salt springs in Moldavia (Romania) on the Neolithic and Eneolithic settlement patterns. ethnology. dealing with archaeology. Neolithic. aspect) and to compile the solar radiation factor. salt. GEOARCHAEOLOGY 25 . UMR 6249. The first goal was to explore. For each county. more specifically in its central part (Neamț county). as well as of the quality and dating of the archaeological material. Chalcolithic. more specifically the kernel density estimation and viewshed analysis. Porcul and Grigoreşti. a similar spatial analysis methodology was used on a regional scale. that is. Besançon CNRS-Universités Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne et Paris 10-Nanterre. favoured habitation of the area. UMR 7041. with reference to the natural resources and the available archaeological databases on settlement patterns. which enhanced the habitation potential by flanking the settlement with two confluent creeks. as well as to create a series of topographical profiles of the Adâncata site. The second goal was to focus on natural indicators and their relative attractiveness in order to define their relation with the economic development by chronological periods. settlement pattern. was to examine how and why salt resources were controlled and structured in the Eastern Carpathians’ piedmont. The quasi-horizontal surface with a slight southern exposure. the obvious objective was to create a model of the evolution pattern of the areas where traces of human occupation and activity are to be found. Aiming to characterize the evolution of the human influence and of the modes of the territorial conquest. paleoenvironmental reconstruction and geomatics. we used methods of spatial analysis and spatial information processing. Taking into consideration the subsequent results compiled for Neamț County.FIRST ARHEOINVEST CONGRESS Interdisciplinary Research in Archeology IAŞI th th 10 -11 JUNE 2011 http://arheoinvestcongress. for each prehistoric settlement. The investigated region has the general appearance of a plateau. The main goal was to obtain. SETTLEMENT DYNAMICS DURING LATER PREHISTORY IN MOLDAVIA (ROMANIA). as well as with easy access to water. food and wood resources.uaic. an exhaustive archaeological database was built using most recent previous published repertories. slightly fragmented by a hydrographic network composed of one or two HortonStrahler ranges. The main objective of these successive programs. in a Geographic Information System. in terms of spatial dimensions and thematic scope.

100 A. as well as the vestiges of the ancient Histrian harbour. 26 GEOARCHAEOLOGY . Faculty of Geography and Geology. and Roman-Byzantine periods. these limits largely included the real boundaries of the Histrian territory. ARHEOINVEST Platform Keywords: Histria. traces of iron and clay exploitations. In 2007. copper and iron mines. Laberius Maximus. Greco-Roman time. Faculty of History. From an integrative perspective and with methods specific for the interdisciplinary study. fortified settlements.uaic. sanctuaries. farms. part of the Exploratory Research Projects Program . the famous inscription discovered at Histria in 1914. as well as the exploitation of the resources in that area. and charted: stone quarries. In this exceptionally significant epigraphic document. . the project approaches the Chorothesy. resources.to accomplish a habitation typology with regard to the functionality of the main categories of settlements on the Histrian territory. the governor of Moesia. The establishment of the visibility limits of the boundaries of this territory is of particular importance for the debate on the Histrian territory. registered. was accepted for financing. ARHEOINVEST Platform “Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University of Iaşi. . M. and in north to the Danube Delta. The research has allowed for the identification of 84 ancient settlements. The following types of resource exploitation sites were identified. The new analysis of this epigraphic document aims at a holistic approach of the issues concerning the spatial organization of the Histrian territory in the Greco-Roman period.to identify the natural resources in the Histrian territory in the Greek and Roman period. from a diachronic perspective. the research project The Captation Area of the Resources of the Histrian Territory in Greco-Roman Time. Roman. hinterland. established the boundaries of the Histrian territory on October 25. An ecochronological Approach from the spatial Perspective of the Histrian Territory. and a few Roman aqueducts that supplied water to the town. The surveys and systematic archaeological research have confirmed the fact that during the Hellenistic and Roman periods the territory of the town – chora – stretched in the west and south as far as the Calabeus River in Chorothesy.FIRST ARHEOINVEST CONGRESS Interdisciplinary Research in Archeology IAŞI th th 10 -11 JUNE 2011 http://arheoinvestcongress. . Hellenistic.2007-2010.D. To the north and west. The main objectives of the project were: .to determine the size of the natural catchment area and to highlight the dynamics of the natural resources’ exploitation in the Histrian territory from the Greek to the Roman period. Gheorghe ROMANESCU2 2 1 “Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University of Iaşi.ro INTERDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH IN THE TERRITORY OF HISTRIA Octavian BOUNEGRU1. necropoleis.to ascertain the role played by the Histrian natural resources in the implementation of the human habitat. which explains to a great extent the direct control Histria had over the resources of the area and confirms the biunivocal relation existing in a Greek colony between the town and its hinterland. and aqueducts on the Histrian territory from the Greek.

The soil resistivity method was one of the first geophysical methods to be applied with success in archaeological investigations. Decebal nr.uaic. the creation of a report and result dissemination.the medieval citadel. “Iuliu Paul” Systemic Archaeology Institute Keywords: archaeogeophysics. Of the several available methods. An attempt to corelate the results with the stratigraphy from the 1980’s campaigns will also be presented.Malu Roşu. The paper will also showcase an illustrative project. METHODOLOGICAL CASE STUDIES IN ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES FROM ROMANIA Călin ŞUTEU “1 Decembrie 1918” University of Alba-Iulia. If the equipment. of the recording strategy. from a technological point of view. standards. It includes a presentation of the main phases of the survey.ERT (also known as electrical profiling) stands out. Alba county.). while also aiming at amending the relationship between ERT specialists and archaeologists. a discussion will be held on the topic of standardized recording of a geophysical survey. either for systematic or salvage archaeology. stratigraphy. has already been standardised as a consequence of its widespread international use. etc. and we hereby present few projects that helped us to establish a more adequate methodology for ERT use in archaeological applications. Alba Iulia – Str. Finally. The addition of a magnetometrical profile with the same coordinates as the ERT survey. several archaeological projects that were carried out over the past years will be presented (e. with refinements only going into improving the quality of the collected data. method. when it comes to establishing a strategy and interpreting and using the data. In this respect.ro ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY TOMOGRAPHY. namely a study on the defensive system of the fortified settlement from Teleac. we can state that improvements could be made. Although relatively simple. the tumulus burials from Okland. and the use of topographical corrections are discussed in relation to the interpretation of the data. with references to well-known European heritage institutions such as English Heritage and the Institute for Field Archaeologists. 8. To illustrate these aspects. GEOARCHAEOLOGY 27 . especially as a result of advancements in technology and software. The main presented aspect concerns the usage of a combined method for an optimum characterization of detected anomalies. Several suggestions towards establishing and applying a standard in Romanian practice will be advanced. as well as of the overall preparation of the project. Electrical Soil Resistivity Tomography. since 1946. Apaţa . We consider our approach valuable since it is meant to ensure the improvement of the effective quality of the provided ERT services.FIRST ARHEOINVEST CONGRESS Interdisciplinary Research in Archeology IAŞI th th 10 -11 JUNE 2011 http://arheoinvestcongress. the electrical soil resistivity tomography . Sultana . Drobeta Turnu Severin .Severin medieval citadel. particularly in regard to the manner in which ERT is integrated into complex archaeological projects. Geophysical investigation is increasingly becoming one of the most desired steps to be included in the strategies of the Romanian archaeological projects. we cannot say the same when it comes to the field and laboratory methodology. this method has known in recent years many variations and improvements in its usability for archaeological purposes.g.

History Department Keywords: GIS. ROMANIA Liviu MĂRUIA1. History and Theology.ro Fig. producing 265 analytic records for diverse archaeological complexes. 28 GEOARCHAEOLOGY . Petru HORAK1. landscape archaeology. Dorel MICLE1. THE ANALYSIS OF THE VIEWSHEDS OF THE MEDIEVAL FORTIFICATIONS FROM THE LIPOVA HILLS. this geographical unit is currently part of the following counties: Timiș. The area has been only slightly explored from an archaeological point of view. 1. the Lipova Hills are a morphostructural part of the greater unit of the Western Hills. medieval fortress. historical geography. nine of which are medieval fortifications that constitute the topic of the present study. Faculty of Letters. between 2006 and 2010 numerous field surveys were carried out as to identify and map new archaeological sites. Lavinia BOLCU1 1 West University of Timișoara. From a geographical point of view.FIRST ARHEOINVEST CONGRESS Interdisciplinary Research in Archeology IAŞI th th 10 -11 JUNE 2011 http://arheoinvestcongress.uaic. They constitute clearly individualized geomorphological units through their deposit structure. Electrical Resistance Tomography . Oana BORLEA1. Arad and Hunedoara. visibility area. N-E BANAT. thus. their location at the base of mountainous areas and through their altitude.ERT survey at the Medieval citadel of Apaţa-Cetate. From an administrative point of view. viewsheds.

The present study attempted. our work aimed at identifying. These observation positions can be detailes such as pointed objects (points). to detect the original landscape inhabited by the respective communities. Different geomorphographic factors were analysed. All the sites identified through systematic archaeological field research were afterwards georeferenced. The observation points can be set at a specified elevation. interpreting and integrating some terrain realities into the generic context of historical geography. and the VIEWSHED procedure for determining the cells visible from one or more points. This type of investigation of geographical micro-units offers complex information that can constitutre the base of detailed. above all.FIRST ARHEOINVEST CONGRESS Interdisciplinary Research in Archeology IAŞI th th 10 -11 JUNE 2011 http://arheoinvestcongress. researching. The use of modern interdisciplinary investigation methods and techniques gives substance to the validity of such an approach. GEOARCHAEOLOGY 29 . This type of analysis (intervisibility) renders a visualization which highlights the areas that are invisible from one or more observation points. for example the height of the trees. 1. and the array of values for the surface can be modified with custom values. The ArcGIS package also contains the HNTRLAND procedure to determine the area dominated by one or more vantage points.ro As a whole. whose Z values represent the visibility (often coloured green) or invisibility (often coloured red) and also observation points (often colored blue) and the image is then rendered. among them the viewsheds (areas of visibility) of these fortifications. The results are very interesting.uaic. linear objects (lines) or area objects (polygons). as a base component of the cultural landscape. the dispute on centre and periphery). targeted investigations for the future. Fig. before it was altered during the modern and contemporary ages. A thematic coverage was produced. mapped and GIS-processed. Aerial map of intervisibility areas of the medieval fortifications. particularly when we discuss the issue of fortification system or when we attempt to determine the area of authority for a fortified point (cf.

Radu BALAUR3. with the gap between them filled with clay and rocks) and a ditch adjoining to the front. Department of Science. and radiocarbon analyses). fortress. I will attempt a brief review. 30 GEOARCHAEOLOGY . Coherent ideas about life. the hill has witnessed human habitation since the end of the 2nd millennium BC. I have paid particular attention to previous research on the type and structure of these kind of discoveries dating from the beginning of the Middle Bronze Age in the area of study and I tried to revaluate my own researches on the archaeological site of Siliştea. Department of Science. Ştefan CALINIUC2. This contribution is setted on my observations from the field and on the contribution of a young and training team from the Arheoinvest Platform. Thraco-Getae. Felix-Adrian TENCARIU2. The fortification’s southern boundary is marked by the interfluve’s steep hillslope.uaic. 12 ha. Vasile COTIUGĂ2. Andrei ASĂNDULESEI3. Faculty of Geography and Geology. To expand and diversify the observations. ARHEOINVEST Platform 2 1 Keywords: Saharna Mare. northern and western ones by a man-made defensive work composed of a palisade (a “wall” of two rows of timber. eastern and south-eastern sides. Cristi NICU3 State University of Moldova. On this occasion. Chişinău “Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University of Iaşi. which will illustrate the current archaeological research avatars. The rocky hill from Saharna Mare.ro FROM SHOVEL TO NON-INVASIVE SCIENCES. Faculty of History. magnetometric prospections. MAGNETOMETRIC PROSPECTIONS IN THE THRACO-GETAE FORTRESS FROM SAHARNA MARE. Gheorghe ROMANESCU4. Felix-Adrian TENCARIU3. relationships of these communities and the landscape are less rather inconsistent. situated at 1 km south-west of the current Saharna village. With a surface area of ca. Andrei ASĂNDULESEI2. INVESTIGATING A BRONZE AGE SITE IN WESTERN MOLDAVIA Neculai BOLOHAN1. multidisciplinary approach. Faculty of History. has been archaeologically attested at this location. Vlad RUMEGA1 2 1 “Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University of Iaşi. while the eastern. constitutes the high terrace of the Dniester’s right bank. Bogdan VENEDICT3. with lofty and steep flanks on its northern. settlements. ARHEOINVEST Platform Keywords: Early/Middle Bronze Age. Români commune. a rocky path from the archaeological shovel up to the multidisciplinary approach. Aurel ZANOCI1. Silviu GANIA2. as is clear from the material published until recently. Cristi NICU2. REZINA DISTRICT.FIRST ARHEOINVEST CONGRESS Interdisciplinary Research in Archeology IAŞI th th 10 -11 JUNE 2011 http://arheoinvestcongress. REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA Ion NICULIŢĂ1. ARHEOINVEST Platform 4 “Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University of Iaşi. geomagnetic researches. in 2008 I turned to non-invasive investigations techniques in Archaeology (mapping. Neamţ county. A semi-oval “stronghold” measuring 60x64 m and dated to the 10 th-8th century BC. The Early and Middle Bronze Age in the area located east of the Carpathians was investigated mainly by pottery found in a cluster of settlements and funerary findings. ARHEOINVEST Platform “Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University of Iaşi. ARHEOINVEST Platform 3 “Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University of Iaşi.

as well as the existence of other magnetometric anomalies which may represent other various archaeological complexes. Saharna Mare .magnetic field map.uaic.6 m. The resulting magnetometric map highlights the paths of the archaeologically identified fortifications. that was built from a wooden case with a core (emplecton) made from a mixture of dirt. in the central area and on the flanks. The defensive system was composed of a “wall” stretching for ca.ro Towards the 8th-6th century BC. gravel and rocks. Fig. that was again rebuild during the 5th-4th century. the entire area in question was magnetometrically surveyed. more complex and sturdy fortification system.FIRST ARHEOINVEST CONGRESS Interdisciplinary Research in Archeology IAŞI th th 10 -11 JUNE 2011 http://arheoinvestcongress. was dug parallel to the “wall”. 1. 5. The defensive potential of the fortress was augmented by three bastion positioned in front of the defensive line. To the exterior of the south-western side. GEOARCHAEOLOGY 31 . following the partnership signed with the ARHEOINVEST Research Platform from the “Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University of Iași. as to trace the path of the fortification works that were archaeologically attested and to identify new archaeological complexes. During the 2010 campaign. sand. forcing the erection of a newer. 15 m wide at the top and 6 m at the bottom. a ditch. 385 m and with a width of ca. the inhabited area from Saharna Mare witnessed a considerable widening when it expanded to the central and north-eastern parts of the promontory.

The artefacts or the materials used to produce them appear to have come from a variety of sources. All of the knapped lithic tools (approximately 400) were analysed macroscopically. the artefacts were compared to geological samples of known origin. while also taking into account the impact of this activity on the environment. Timişoara 3 "1 Decembrie 1918" University of Alba-Iulia Keywords: Romania. the amount of wood necessary for construction and on the salt requirements of some Pre-Cucuteni-CucuteniTripolye communities from settlements with known numbers of dwellings and inhabitants. environment. In addition to these samples. The nearest are at least 80 to 100 km away. raw materials. anthropic impact. salt. The study advances several estimates on the size of the harvested areas. Neolithic. To help determine possible sources of the raw materials which were used to produce the artefacts. The objective of the study was to determine the origin of several knapped lithic artefacts at six Late Neolithic sites near Timişoara (Romania). we emphasized the estimates about the total amount of salt necessary for the human communities from settlements which had demographic estimations. lithic artefacts. built near these sources with the purpose of assuring a more efficient exploitation. Banat.ro THE EXPLOITATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES AND THEIR IMPACT ON THE ENVIRONMENT IN THE PRE-CUCUTENI-CUCUTENI-TRIPOLYE CULTURAL COMPLEX Constantin PREOTEASA History and Archaeology Musem of Piatra-Neamţ Keywords: Pre-Cucuteni-Cucuteni-Tripolye cultural complex. PROVENANCE OF NEOLITHIC STONE ARTEFACTS FROM THE BANAT REGION. on the size of the harvested area. ROMANIA Otis CRANDELL1. Faculty of Biology and Geology 2 Banat Museum. We reviewed the different estimates made by specialists – accompanied by our observations – on the total amount of wood necessary for building.FIRST ARHEOINVEST CONGRESS Interdisciplinary Research in Archeology IAŞI th th 10 -11 JUNE 2011 http://arheoinvestcongress. rocks and metals) by the human communities of the Pre-Cucuteni-Cucuteni-Tripolye cultural complex. implicitly. Some were also thin sectioned for microscopic analysis. for several settlements with a well-known or an approximate number of habitation complexes. This presentation will look at the artefacts found at the sites and compare them to the 32 GEOARCHAEOLOGY . The present study focuses on the exploitation of natural resources (wood. Our approach considers the temporary settlements and the extraction points of different raw materials such as salt. At the same time. Rock samples were collected from sources in Caraș-Severin and Mehedinți counties. Florentina MARŢIŞ2. 3 1 “Babeş-Bolyai” University of Cluj-Napoca. clay and flint. and for their effectives of domestic animals (with conventional average estimates).uaic. but also for fuel and. the artefacts were also compared to rock samples in the Lithotheque of “Babes-Bolyai” University which came from other locations in Romania. Some of them appear be over 500 km away. natural resources.

the river’s catchment area.FIRST ARHEOINVEST CONGRESS Interdisciplinary Research in Archeology IAŞI th th 10 -11 JUNE 2011 http://arheoinvestcongress. George BODI2 1 “Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University of Iaşi. Faculty of Geography and Geology. ARHEOINVEST Platform 2 Institute of Archaeology of Iaşi Keywords: archaeological site. the riverbed’s sediments. PNII-IDEI project Nr. which displays in the investigated area a riverbed channel that is much meandered and in which processes of bank and in-depth erosion are present. Finally. c: sources of high quality materials further away. floodplain. b: nearest raw materials sources. Cucuteni culture. and influenced by. The Hoiseşti archaeological site is located on a concave bank of a meander loop in the Bahlui floodplain. land use and GEOARCHAEOLOGY 33 . these meanders are continuously adjusting to. From a geomorphological point of view. floodplains are characterized by processes of river erosion. Fig. d: examples of artefacts. meandering. the quantity of solid and liquid discharge. IAŞI COUNTY Dan LESENCIUC1. GEOMORPHOLOGICAL PROCESSES AND HUMAN ACTIVITIES WITH IMPACT ON THE ACHAEOLOGICAL SITE FROM HOISEŞTI. Overview maps. Particularly the bank erosion induces a strong dynamic that triggers frequent horizontal movements.uaic. the modelling agent is the Bahlui River. we will consider the cultural implications of these discoveries. a: Neolithic sites where the artefacts were found. Hoiseşti. river erosion. associated with depositing ones. Therefore. In our case. the banks’ slope. Acknowledgements: This study was financially supported by CNCSIS-UEFISCSU. Daniel CONDORACHI1. 2241/2008 (Romanian Ministry of Education and Research). 1.ro sources where they likely came from.

accumulation units formed in the interior of dwelling structures. anthropic activities. transformation and redistribution. a noticeable process is the appearance of microrelief landforms. After the regularization of the river’s discharge. MICROMORPHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF THE ANTHROPIC SEQUENCES FROM TELL TYPE SETTLEMENTS IN MUNTENIA Constantin HAITĂ National Museum of Romanian History. at least until the middle of the 20th century when the first hydrotechnical work took place. The study is basically an observation of all sedimentary features (texture. The analysis of such anthropogenic deposits from the composition of the studied archaeological structures or from areas located outside.FIRST ARHEOINVEST CONGRESS Interdisciplinary Research in Archeology IAŞI th th 10 -11 JUNE 2011 http://arheoinvestcongress. . The strong meandering process in the Hoiseşti area is evidenced by the presence of “gooseneck” meanders. sedimentary and soil forming processes. to the stereomicroscope and polarized light microscopy. in waste or transit areas. The main types of identified sedimentary units are: . The interpretation of these sedimentary units in the micro-stratigraphic context enables both the understanding of human activity and the main stages in the site’s evolution.natural units formed under the action of physical-chemical and pedological agents. until its base is cut-off as a result of the loop’s downstream migration. As the Bahlui River evolved as part of a normal hydrographical network. Sedimentary strata from tell type settlements in Muntenia are characterized by a fine and complex stratigraphy and an excellent degree of conservation of mineral and organic constituents and other sedimentary features. This was caused by the strong erosion of the two opposing curvatures of a loop. Bucharest Keywords: micromorphology. porosity. National Centere for Pluridisciplinary Researches. the meandering process was quite strong.units of transformation under the influence of anthropogenic or natural agents. They correspond to the interaction of the three main categories of processes that create sedimentary deposits in the archaeological context: accumulation.units of construction attributed to different materials prepared for the construction or fitting out of anthropogenic structures. resulting in a shrinkage of the archaeological site’s area. . homogeneity. 34 GEOARCHAEOLOGY . and previously impregnated with synthetic resin. and degree of compaction) as to identify and rank the diagnosis features which can be attributed to the main anthropogenic. nature of constituents.uaic. Microscopic analysis is performed on thin sections of sediment and soil samples taken in their undisturbed and actual orientation. . sedimentary fabric. from the macroscopic analysis in the field. the lateral erosion of the concave banks was strongly diminished. Alongside the meanders’ horizontal movement. Micromorphological research involves different scales of observation. as the influence of their action since the accumulation until present. allows the interpretation of sedimentary fabrics (considered as the total organisation of the units) in terms of human activities and associated environmental conditions. such as islets and abandoned meanders. colour. zone of activity.ro other human activities. resulting in significantly reduced rates of meander migration. evolving into self-captured meanders via strangulation. structure.

Geographic Information System (GIS) has become a tool with multiple uses in archaeology. and from research which inferred the site’s functions (exploitation of renewable raw materials. At the same time. hypsometric map. mapping information can be used in visualizing. data from previous interdisciplinary research of the paleo-ecosystem (palynological and archaeozoological investigations).FIRST ARHEOINVEST CONGRESS Interdisciplinary Research in Archeology IAŞI th th 10 -11 JUNE 2011 http://arheoinvestcongress. salt exploitation. all belonging to the A phase of the Cucuteni culture. In terms of topography. the Thraco-Getae. Cucuteni culture. Chişinău Keywords: fortifications. and by dividing the area according to the Thyssen polygons model. Our analysis was based on this technology. Mihail BĂŢ State University of Moldova. that is. and was individually applied to some Cucutenian settlements whose exact locations (GPS coordinates) are known from previous archaeological investigations. The analysis can generate. etc. to this point arbitrarily fixed by archaeologists. We then further attempt to determine the settlements’ boundaries. to determine the area of control and influence of a main central settlement over the rest from inside the polygon. we notice that the settlements were not scattered. in regard to the exploitation of salt during the Neolithic. Thyssen polygons. We analyzed the settlements from Preuteşti-Haltă. Their traces are attested by several archaeological sites. Dan CĂRĂMIDĂ “Mihai Băcescu” Technical College of Fălticeni Keywords: GIS. Hăbăşeşti. soil analysis. This information is then correlated with the available archaeological data. but concentrated in “clusters” GEOARCHAEOLOGY 35 . particularly by civilian settlements (over 400 in number) and fortifications (about 113).) was used. etc. presence of raw materials near the site.3rd centuries BC. etc. IN THE EASTERN CARPATHIANS Elena DELEANU. focusing on the site’s subsistence area (5 km radius-wide in the case of agricultural settlements) and the adjoining ecosystem (reconstructed from paleobotanical and archaeozoological data. it presents the opportunity to augment the geographical info or other various data we have on a settlement or a grave field.). by taking into account the size and the importance of the archaeological discoveries. THE SPREAD OF THRACO-GETAE SITES IN THE MIDDLE DNIESTER BASIN Aurel ZANOCI. Thus. as to allow a social interpretation of the settlement in question. The generated maps are then processed according to a complex sitecatchment algorithm. GIS equipment and software being capable of delivering complex geographical information. civil settlements. topographical reality. detail or complete geographical interpretations of a site. managing and analyzing data obtained from archaeological investigations of a particular site or of a wider area. surface orientation in relation to the Sun. tool production.ro USING GIS IN THE ANALYSIS OF CUCUTENI SETTLEMENTS CULTURE.uaic. Preuteşti-Cetate. In the 6th . in terms of 3D mapping. Likewise. spatial arrangement. the area east of the Carpathians was inhabited for the most part by Thraco-Getae communities.

Spreading of Thraco-Gatae sites in the Middle Dniester basin. this seems to be the largest concentration of sites not only in the Dniester basin. 36 GEOARCHAEOLOGY . where 27 fortifications and about 54 civil settlements were mapped (Map 1). Răut. but also throughout the whole area inhabited by the Thraco-Getae.uaic. At this moment. in the area between the localities of Vertiujeni (47° 59' 36" North. If on the left bank the sites are concentrated close to the river. Currently. They are usually concentrated in river basins (Dniester. and Ţipova (47° 36' 18" North. on the right side they are spread over a distance of up to 18 km west of the river. Map 1.ro comprised of several fortifications and many open settlements. The monuments are located along the banks of Dniester.) or at the border between the steppe and the forest-steppe.FIRST ARHEOINVEST CONGRESS Interdisciplinary Research in Archeology IAŞI th th 10 -11 JUNE 2011 http://arheoinvestcongress. both on its right and left sides. 28° 58' 46" East) in the Rezina District. 28° 32' 24" East) in the Floreşti District. etc. ten such “clusters” were identified in the above-mentioned territory. Prut. One such case is to be found in the Middle Dniester basin.

it became apparent that the fortifications which constitute this line of defence were placed on elevated positions dominating the long. Rezina. Curatura. at Saharna-La Şanţ. Saharna-Hulboaca and Buciuşca). Among the “clusters” of the Middle Dniester region. three open settlements were identified in the fortress’ environ. Then. rivers). Saharna Mică. where there was a permanently inhabited small “stronghold” (175×60 m) with a larger adjoining enclosure (307×254 m) that is practically devoid of traces of habitation. our attention is drawn to the manner in which the fortifications were positioned.5 km from the fortified centres. Mateuţi. At the same time. some smaller “nests” consisting of one to three fortifications (e. composed of four bulwarked facilities (Raşcov. etc. The second is on the right bank. URTIM 2009 . is located on the left bank of the river and close to the water. an intensive colour oversaturation was performed. also near the water. Stroieşti and Ofatinţi). Caterinovca. We can also observe a preference for establishing civilian settlements near water sources (the Dniester. for example. the computer screen becomes a special sensor GEOARCHAEOLOGY 37 . specifically of the Dacian sanctuaries from the Orăștie Mountains. in case of necessity. In batches of satellite images.ro Concerning this “cluster”. The third line of defense. was exemplified. and consists of ten fortifications (Vertiujeni. Ţahnăuţi. by its employment in the investigation of several archaeological sites from Romania. narrow lowlands which connected the riverbed with the lands to the west. Nonetheless. URTIM 2009. was situated at a distance of several kilometres from the Dniester. They are arranged in “three defensive lines”.uaic. at a distance of about 0. Dacian Sanctuaries. New York Keywords: Google Earth Pro. This is attested. Saharna-La Şanţ. Saharna Mică. Glinjeni-La Şanţ. consisting of 13 fortifications (Cunicea. Thus. The usefulness of the procedure. and. Regular satellite-images provided by dedicated software such as Google Earth Pro are analysed using an original technique that permits pertinent results even from images with low quality. it can be inferred that the small “nests” represented the living space of a tribal community.AN ORIGINAL PROCEDURE TO ANALYZE SATELLITE IMAGES IN ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESEARCH Timotei URSU Salamandra Communication. Saharna Mare.1 to 1. the fortresses could serve as a refuge for communities living in nearby civil settlements. in the Southern Carpathians.). sewage pits and a fairly rich and diverse archaeological inventory. the first one. etc. are observed. can be attributed to a major Thraco-Getae polity from the Middle Dniester region. for example. as attested by the remains of dwellings. Japca. ancillary buildings. it was determined that they were permanently inhabited. As a result of archaeological investigations conducted in a series of fortifications. Thus. Saharna-La Şanţ) and several other civilian settlements.FIRST ARHEOINVEST CONGRESS Interdisciplinary Research in Archeology IAŞI th th 10 -11 JUNE 2011 http://arheoinvestcongress. Saharna Mare. satellite image. An explanation of the technique follows. which produces quality data to be used in archaeological work. the population could take refuge in the large accommodation. with a focus range between 8 to 30 m from the soil. Most fortresses are found in the basins of the Ciorna River or of other brooks. Ciorna. Alcedar. After mapping. which spreads over an area of about 600 km². Open settlements are located around the fortifications. Cogâlnic. all right-bank tributaries of the Dniester. Saharna-Revichin. using the filters for “night” and “day” (UV and IR). and that the “clusters” of sites.g.

Basically. but which have not yet been archaeologically identified (Fig. Marsigli as existing in the eastern part of the town. rocks. roads. Faculty of Social Sciences Keywords: Romula. developed by cadastral engineer Mănăstiriceanu Ghiţă in 1840 (Fig. Romula (Reşca .50 . According to some researchers it was the capital of Dacia Malvensis.7 m to 40 x 22 m). due to the fact that area was almost entirely superposed by modern constructions. topographic plan.uaic.7-300 micrometres). TOPOGRAPHY IN SUPPORT OF ARCHAEOLOGY AT ROMULA Lucian AMON University of Craiova. at the moment. These wavelengths from the spectrum of sunlight. Olt County) was an important urban centre of the Roman province of Dacia. and due to the fact that all ground structures and features (soil. the spectrum of visible light reflected by Earth’s surface). diggings. reflected by de Earth’s surface. translating the results to other programs for the best resolution and clarity of the pictures.F. On its basis we put 38 GEOARCHAEOLOGY . Ghiţă Mănăstiriceanu. We are referring to the plan of the Reşca estate. Since an archaeological investigation is currently very difficult to be carried. bottom of lakes. URTIM 2009 can not differentiate between old and recent human traces. 1/b). the use of a little-known topographic plan turns out to be.2.FIRST ARHEOINVEST CONGRESS Interdisciplinary Research in Archeology IAŞI th th 10 -11 JUNE 2011 http://arheoinvestcongress. while at the same time “ignoring” some surface structures. but it can offer archaeologists a useful image of the “underground reality”.50 m.Dobrosloveni village. 1. The effect is due to the differences present in the texture of the soil. pits) that are buried at a depth between 0. the URTIM 2009 method uses image visualisation software. fortification. A controversial issue concerns the location of the two Roman camps.e. The old sanctuary made of calcar from Sarmizegetusa.) have distinct temperatures which will be registered as a different colour-radiation. The URTIM 2009 method produces new images on the basis of UV electromagnetic radiation (with a wavelength shorter than that of visible light) and IR radiation (with a wavelength of 0.ro which can reveal more than the limited data offered by the satellites’ sensors that capture information in the form of visible radiation (i. reported and outlined at the end of the 17th century by L. Fig. in quadrilaterals areas (ranging from 5 x 2. etc. the only method applicable. 1/a). will reveal traces of past human activities (structures.

UNDERWATER ARCHAEOLOGY RESEARCH IN MAZOTOS (CYPRUS).ro forward an original location in the south-eastern part of the village for one of the fortifications. Faculty of History. The task of this presentation is the description of three different models of underwater projects carried out in Cyprus and Greece. PROSPECTION AND CONSERVATION METHODS Ana-Maria BUŞILĂ “Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University of Iaşi. Further investigations are needed in order to confirm this hypothesis. our knowledge of the ancient trade. searoutes. ARHEOINVEST Platform Keywords: Underwater archaeology. For the Romanian Black Sea coast. This fortification was the only one identified and investigated by archaeological excavations. GEOARCHAEOLOGY 39 . in which the cities along the coast where involved throughout history. Land discoveries and historical sources have proved the intense seaborne trade. Underwater archaeology has already completed almost half a century of systematic fieldwork around the Mediterranean.FIRST ARHEOINVEST CONGRESS Interdisciplinary Research in Archeology IAŞI th th 10 -11 JUNE 2011 http://arheoinvestcongress. and is located at a distance of about 407 m from the so-called city centre’s fortress.30 m. almost square.40 x 144. Mănăstiriceanu (b). navigation and shipbuilding has been significantly enriched especially as a result of the excavation of wrecks dated to different historical periods.uaic. a b Fig. Since 1960. The Roman camp seems to be of a rectangular. prospection methods. shape. in an area which has not been sufficiently researched from archaeological point of view. which can be implemented accordingly to the surveys or excavations of the underwater sites along the Romanian Black Sea shoreline. STYRA AND MODI (GREECE). 1. connections with Mediterranean island or its mainland suggest maritime activity. with its sides measuring 161. conservation methods. The location of the fortifications from Romula in Marsigli’s layout (a) and the topographical survey made by G.

it is possible that the purpose of the discovered fortification was to 40 GEOARCHAEOLOGY . Faculty of Science Keywords: Neolithic. The Lumea Nouă site is located in the northeastern area of Alba Iulia. there is evidence of unusual funerary practices. Eneolithic. geospatial analysis. 2002 and 2008. no definite correlation between the distribution of the archaeological complexes and the funerary discoveries can be made. 100 people have been unearthed and investigated.uaic. 3D modelling has become an indispensable tool in archaeological research. Department of History. 3D modeling and reconstruction. the funerary complex displaying some particular mortuary practices. of ca. suggests the existence of a circular-concentric plan for the settlement. 1961 and 1963. Lumea Nouă. Tudor BORŞAN3 1 “1 Decembrie 1918” University of Alba-Iulia. 1976. The defensive system. consisting of three ditches built by the Foeni communities. gathered from the topographical data. The resulting geospatial image offers us some relevant conclusions: the investigated funerary space is located approximately in the middle of the site. from the spatial topo-archaeological and 3D modelling perspective. Several archaeological campaigns have been conducted here between 1942 and 1947. The human skeletal remains were not found in anatomical connection. 3D modelling and reconstruction has been increasingly used to presenting and capitalising from the results of archaeological research.FIRST ARHEOINVEST CONGRESS Interdisciplinary Research in Archeology IAŞI th th 10 -11 JUNE 2011 http://arheoinvestcongress. Marius BREAZU2. i. a moment which coincides with the beginning of the Eneolithic in Transylvania. Petreşti and Coţofeni cultural groups and the archaeological cultures. on the second terrace of the Mureş River. using cartographic and topographic information. A GEOSPATIAL ANALYSIS Mihai GLIGOR1. Last year's research has shown that the most intense habitation belongs to Foeni communities. therefore from the advanced period of the evolution of the Foeni cultural group. mainly using the following methods: (1) the archaeological analysis of the geomorphology of the area. The scope of this paper is to analyse the funerary discoveries from Lumea Nouă. by compiling the topographic plan. (2) the analysis of the spatial distribution of the funerary discoveries. mostly skulls. to spatial analysis. The Lumea Nouă site suggests a habitation protected by fortifications.ro POSTERS FUNERARY SPACE AND MORTUARY PRACTICES IN THE ALBA-IULIA . the horizontal and vertical stratigraphy. in its middle flow section.LUMEA NOUA SITE. mortuary practices. The archaeological context did not contain traces of violent actions. In past years. Foeni. 1995 and 1996. and the anthropological analyses. funerary space. to whom we also assign one of the remarkable discoveries made during the 20032005 campaign. Department of Environment. Roşia Montană 3 “1 Decembrie 1918” University of Alba-Iulia. The human remains. Some of the skulls presented round-shaped clogging fractures. From the reconstruction of the habitat or of artefacts.e. Human habitation from the Middle Neolithic to the Late Eneolithic has been archaeologically documented. The findings belong to the Vinča. The anthropological analysis confirmed the presence child and adult female and male remains. by looking at the shape and track of the ditches. Arheology and Museology 2 Roşia Montană Gold Corporation. The AMS dates offer a timeframe between 4600 and 4500 calBC.

grinding) of the stonewall. Acknowledgement. and to estimate the combined effects that geological and anthropogenic factors have on the monument. (b) processes with cyclic evolution (with a succession of very fast and slow acting steps) – probably determined by the infiltration waters (from the city network and the sewerage system). Department of Geology 2 “Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University of Iaşi. the building material and binder are corroded. macroscopically visible.FIRST ARHEOINVEST CONGRESS Interdisciplinary Research in Archeology IAŞI th th 10 -11 JUNE 2011 http://arheoinvestcongress. Ion SANDU2 1 “Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University of Iaşi. THE EFFECTS OF GEOLOGICAL AND ANTHROPOGENIC FACTORS ON PATRIMONIAL WORKS FROM IAŞI – RÂPA GALBENĂ Mihai BRÂNZILĂ1. The research methodology included: (i) field studies and investigations. built in 1898-1900. 3D model allows the reconstitution of the site’s geomorphological features. degradation. (ii) depending on the manner of evolution and the effects they produce. under project number POSDRU/89/1. salt depositing in the cracks of the wall.development and implementation of postdoctoral research ”. differential thermal analysis. architectural and practical importance for the Iaşi municipality. continuous evolution – probably caused by the groundwater. ARHEOINVEST Platform 3 Romanian Academy . two types of weathering processes of building materials can be differentiated: (a) processes with slow. optical microscopy) performed on the building materials (different types of sandstones and calcareous stones) and the binder used for consolidation. has a special historical.5/S/61104 with the title „Social sciences and humanities in the context of global development . etc.. The results of the studies show the following: (i) the degradation processes.. etc. the slow flow phenomena of waves. Faculty of Geography and Geology.uaic. the stuffing materials behind the walls. (iv) the use of different types of building materials accelerated the evolution of the degradation process – the most intense weathering processes have been GEOARCHAEOLOGY 41 . Dumitru BULGARIU1.. pluvial water from the parcel system on top and at the bottom of the ensemble. co-financed by the European Social Fund. The studies performed between 2005 and 2010 aimed to identify the main causes and dynamics of the degradation processes. (iii) geological context of the perimeter favoured the apparition and the evolution of degradation processes – geological formations in this area belong to the Sarmatian (bluish ash clay) and to the Quaternary (dusty diluvia clay).3. This work was made possible through the financial support of the Sectorial Operational Programme for Human Resources Development 2007-2013. salts deposits and some weathering products of the building materials. the active surface subsidence.Iaşi Branch. such as an old riverbed. pluvial waters. affect the structure and aesthetic qualities of the monument in different manners: the deterioration (cracking. (ii) chemical and physical-chemical analysis (IR spectrometry. geological and anthropogenic factors. (iii) theoretical and experimental modelling of physical-chemical weathering processes of the building materials (sandstones and calcareous). etc. exposure to various pollutants.ro delineate and protect the funerary space. Collective of Geography Keywords: Râpa Galbenă Ensemble of Iaşi. The Râpa Galbenă Ensemble historical monument. Regular consolidation and restoration works have only temporary limited the development and expansion of new and previous degradation processes which continuously affect the ensemble.

FIRST ARHEOINVEST CONGRESS Interdisciplinary Research in Archeology IAŞI th th 10 -11 JUNE 2011 http://arheoinvestcongress. 42 GEOARCHAEOLOGY .uaic. The results of the experimental studies and the field investigations provide important information for the future consolidation and restoration works of the Râpa Galbenă Ensemble.ro observed at the area of contact between different types of sandstones and limestones that were used in the previous consolidations works.