Absorption and Transmission of light and the Beer-Lambert Law

Lecture 21 www.physics.uoguelph.ca/~pgarrett/Teaching.html

n ( x ) = Ψc .3.Review of L-20 • Ring wave functions (circumference ) Ψs .0 = • Energy levels 2 2 sin cos 2πnx 2πnx n =1.n ( x ) = Ψc .… 1 ( n =0 ) n 2h 2 En = 2me 2  ¡ ¢  £ ¢¤    ¡ ¥ ¦§ ©      ¡ ¨ ¨ ¤ .2.

Review of L-20 • Energy levels in a ring molecule 25h 2 2me 2 16h 2 2me 2 9h 2 2me 2 4h 2 2me 2 h2 2me  ¡ ¢  £ ¢¤    ¡ n=5 n=4 n=3 n=2 n=1 cos solution £ ¨ ¨ 2 n=0 ¥ ¦§ ©      ¡ sin solution .

absorbed.Absorption and Transmission • Consider a beam of light on a material – It can be scattered. or transmitted incident light absorbed transmitted • Transmitted light • Absorbed light scattered – Light emerges propagating in the same direction as the incident light – Energy from light is absorbed in the volume of the material • Scattered light – Light emerges in a different direction from the incident light  ¡ ¢  £ ¢¤    ¡ ¥ ¦§ ©      ¡ ¨ ¨   .

Promotion of an e− to an excited state  ¡ ¢  £ ¢¤    ¡ ¥ ¦§ ©      ¡ ¨ ¨   . or it can scatter from the molecule. … (like billiard balls) ex. atom. it must match available energy states in the atoms or molecules.Absorption and Transmission • Absorption and scattering take place at the molecular and atomic level – For energy from light to be absorbed. or electrons.

Cross sections • Light incident upon a material may or may not be removed from the incident beam • Probability that the light is removed from the incident beam is related to the cross section σ – Cross section σ is like an effective area of the atom or molecule – σ can be larger or smaller than the geometric cross section – σ takes into account the absorption and scattering of light B2 Stealth bomber of the US has a radar cross section smaller than that of hummingbird  ¡ ¢  £ ¢¤    ¡ ¥ ¦§ ©      ¡ ¨ ¨ ¡ .

Beer-Lambert Law • Consider light incident on a material with area A and thickness dx and concentration of molecules C ( i.e. # / cm3 ) • Number of molecules illuminated by light of incident intensity Ix is CAdx • Total “effective” area that the molecules present is σCAdx • Probability of light being absorbed or scattered out of the beam in thickness dx is thickness dx dI CA − x Ix = A dx area A • where dIx is the change in intensity across dx  ¡ ¢  £ ¢¤    ¡ ¥ ¦§ ©     ¨ intensity Ix  ¡ ¨  .

Beer-Lambert Law dI x CA • We have − = dx Ix A • Now integrate both sides dI x =− I0 I x I x 0 Cdx I ln (I ) − ln (I 0 ) = ln = − Cx I0 I = I 0e − Cx = I 0e − x • The coefficient µ=σC is the linear attenuation coefficient – If we ignore scattering. we can equate the linear attenuation coefficient with the linear absorption coefficient  ¡ ¢  £ ¢¤    ¡ ¥ ¦§ ©      ¡ ¨ ¨   .

I (λ ) = I 0 (λ ) e  ¡ ¢  £ ¢¤    ¡ ¥ ¦§ ©      ¡ ¨ ¨ − (λ ) x   .Beer-Lambert Law • The Beer-Lambert Law I = I 0e − Cx = I 0e − x • The intensity of light decreases exponentially with depth in the material • Linear attenuation coefficient µ usually expressed in units of cm−1 • µ is a function of wavelength µ=µ(λ) – So Beer-Lambert Law is also a function of λ. i.e.

Transmittance I (λ ) • Transmittance is defined as T = I 0 (λ ) • A quantity called absorbance A is defined as A = log A = x log(e ) = 0.4343 x I 0 (λ ) I 0 (λ ) = log I (λ ) I 0 (λ )e − x = log(e x ) • This definition includes both absorption and scattering • A further definition is the extinction coefficient ε = 0.4343 so  ¡ ¢  £ ¢¤    ¡ A = Cx ¥ ¦§ ©      ¡ © ¨ ¨   .

… light source tungsten lamp – produces white light +UV+IR  ¡ ¢  £ ¢¤    ¡ monochromator diffraction grating – extracts a very narrow wavelength band ¥ ¦§ ©      ¨ sample detector measures light intensity compared to light incident on sample interchangeable ¡ © ¨ © . Atot = A1 + A2 + A3 + Atot = ε1C1 x1 + ε 2C2 x2 + • A specialized device to measure the intensity of light as a function of wavelength is the spectrophotometer – Come in various varieties – absorption. each with their own x.Absorbance and the extinction coefficient • Absorbance is useful since it can be summed for layers of different materials. σ. C. fluorescence. etc.

Absorption spectrum • Absorption spectra for chlorophyll  ¡ ¢  £ ¢¤    ¡ ¥ ¦§ ©      ¡ ¨ ¨ ©¤ .

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