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(E)GPRS Radio Networks Planning Theory

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DOCUMENT DESCRIPTION Title and version Reference Target Group Technology and SW release Related Service Items Service Item number Author Date Approver (E)GPRS Radio Networks - Planning Theory v4.0 Radio, Tranmission, E2E GERAN - S14 (RG10)

Pal Szabadszallasi Villa Salomaa

CHANGE RECORD This section provides a history of changes made to this document VERSION 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 DATE 17.06.2005 18.12.2006 16.12.2008 02.06.2009 EDITED BY Pal Szabadszallasi Pal Szabadszallasi Pal Szabadszallasi Pal Szabadszallasi SECTION/S COMMENTS

Copyright © Nokia Siemens Networks. This material, including documentation and any related computer programs, is protected by copyright controlled by Nokia Siemens Networks. All rights are reserved. Copying, including reproducing, storing, adapting or translating, any or all of this material requires the prior written consent of Nokia Siemens Networks. This material also contains confidential information which may not be disclosed to others without the prior written consent of Nokia Siemens Networks.

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Table of contents
1.
1.1 1.2 1.2.1 1.2.1.1 1.2.1.2 1.2.1.3 1.2.1.4 1.2.1.5 1.2.2 1.3 1.3.1 1.3.2 1.3.3 1.3.4 1.3.5

Introduction ....................................................................................... 7
(E)GPRS Dimensioning, Planning and Optimization Structure........................................8 Data hardware and site solutions....................................................................................8 BSC and PCU variants ...................................................................................................8 PCU2 Plug-in Unit Variants and Hardware Architecture..................................................9 PCU2 Software Architecture.........................................................................................10 PCU1 and PCU2 Software Differences on Air Interface................................................11 PCU2-E ........................................................................................................................12 Mixed PCU configuration and asymmetrical PCU setup ...............................................12 BTS variants.................................................................................................................13 Data features................................................................................................................13 S10 / S10.5ED..............................................................................................................13 S11 / S11.5...................................................................................................................14 S12...............................................................................................................................14 S13...............................................................................................................................15 S14...............................................................................................................................15

2.
2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4

(E)GPRS Modulation ...................................................................... 16
GMSK and 8-PSK Modulation ......................................................................................16 Modulation Block Diagrams ..........................................................................................17 Back-off in EGPRS .......................................................................................................18 Burst Structure .............................................................................................................20

3.
3.1 3.1.1 3.1.2 3.1.2.1 3.1.2.2 3.1.2.3 3.1.3 3.1.4 3.1.5 3.2 3.2.1 3.2.2

Coding Schemes ............................................................................ 22
Protocol Architecture ....................................................................................................22 Physical Layer ..............................................................................................................23 RLC/MAC Layer ...........................................................................................................23 Radio Link Control ........................................................................................................23 Medium Access Control................................................................................................23 RLC/MAC Header Formats...........................................................................................23 Logical Link Control ......................................................................................................28 SNDCP Layer ...............................................................................................................29 IP, TCP/UDP and Application Layer .............................................................................29 RLC/MAC Coding Schemes .........................................................................................31 GPRS Coding Schemes (CSs) .....................................................................................31 EGPRS Modulation and Coding Schemes (MCSs).......................................................34

4.
4.1 4.1.1 4.1.2 4.1.3 4.1.3.1 4.1.3.2 4.1.3.3 4.1.3.4 4.1.3.5 4.1.3.6 4.1.3.7

(E)GPRS Procedures...................................................................... 37
TBF Establishment .......................................................................................................37 Channel Request and Packet Immediate Assignment ..................................................37 DL TBF Assignment .....................................................................................................38 UL TBF Assignment .....................................................................................................40 Channel Request - Packet Access Procedure (CCCH / PCCH)....................................40 EGPRS Packet Channel Request.................................................................................41 Dynamic and Extended Dynamic Allocation on UL with and without USF4 ...................42 UL TBF ASSIGNMENT, MS on CCCH, 2 phase access...............................................43 UL TBF ASSIGNMENT, MS on CCCH, 1 phase access...............................................44 EGPRS UL TBF ASSIGNMENT, MS on PCCCH with 2 phase access.........................46 EGPRS UL TBF ASSIGNMENT, MS on PCCCH with 1 phase access.........................46

............................................................................................................1...............3 6......................................1..83 Territory Upgrade Request in PCU2 ........................................................................................................3 Establishment of EGPRS UL TBF when DL TBF is ongoing.............59 TRXSIG Load .................................2 6.....................................68 C1 and C2 ...1.....................................................48 (E)GPRS Data Transfer DL .................1..................................3 5...............60 TRXSIG Load Components........2.................................................................................2.......3........76 BTS Selection.62 BCSU Load ...........................................1..................................................................................................................................... Measurement and Analysis......................................................72 NCCR Benefits .......8 4....................2...................60 Abis Protocols ............................................................................................................1 6....................84 Channel Scheduling ........................83 Downlink RX Lev Received First Time Reallocation ...........2...............3.........60 TRXSIG Load Theory .....3 6.....3 6...........................................80 Uplink Rx Lev Reallocation.............4..................................................................3.........1.................................3 5................................2........................1 5..........................................................................................................2...................................1 5.....1...65 Signaling Load with DTM Usage.1.1...73 NCCR Functionality .....................................................1 6.....1 4.....................................3...............................................................................................................................................................................................2.1 4....56 5.........................2 4..........55 TBF Release in PCU2 ............................................ 57 Air Interface Signaling Load..........59 SDCCH ........................................2..................................................48 (E)GPRS Data Transfer UL ........................................................................................................................................................................................3..................................... 4................2 6...4 4..................58 Random Access Channel ...........3..............................................................................................2........3 6......3....................................................................................................................................................2 6..............................................1 6........................88 ........................77 Initial BTS Selection ............................................2 5.........................................................5 6..................................................................................2...................................................................................74 Signaling Flow ......................2....... NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks..........1 5.............................................................................2 5..............2.......3 4...................................................54 Packet TBF Release Content .............................55 Abnormal Releases .........2 4.. All rights reserved.......................1 6..............2 6..........77 BTS Selection for Reallocating TBF........................................1.85 Priority based Quality of Service...........85 Channel Allocation.2 5............82 Downlink Rx Lev Reallocation .2..........................................................................................2 6........ 5....2......................................4...........1 4.....................69 Network Controlled Cell Reselection..........................1 6............................3.......................2......................3.............4..58 Paging Channel........................86 TBF Scheduling .....................2 4.................................................87 QoS Information Delivery............2 5...........................75 BLER Limits are Needed for the Quality Control Function in PCU2 ....2...............................3..................1.................. 6........................53 TBF Release ...3....4 (E)GPRS Accessibility ....1..2................................................................................................................1 5.............................................................................3 4..........................52 RA/LA Update (Inter PAPU or inter SGSN).....................65 Reporting Suit 184 Report ........................4 4.............3..48 Mobility with Cell-reselection .65 BSC RAW Measurement Results .........................................................................................................4 Resource Allocation in BSS ....................................................1.......................3.........................4 6....4/169 Managed Services.57 Common Control Channels ....1............................3 6............66 6..................................................................50 Inter PCU Cell-reselection (Intra BSC)...........50 Intra PCU Cell-Reselection.............3.68 C31/C32 .......73 Target cell selection...............1 5.......................................................3..............................83 BTS Selection in PCU2.......................... 67 Cell Reselection...1.............................47 (E)GPRS Data Transfer......2 4.......2 6...................................1...................................1...........1................................51 RA/LA Update (intra PAPU)......1 6...............................................58 Access Grand Channel..........................3....2 5.......4 6.................................1..................................1 5..................5 6......................

...............................................6...................................................121 EGPRS Link Adaptation with Incremental Redundancy .................................................................3 6........................1....................................................3 7.2 7...........................128 Link Adaptation Procedure ......3....................................................................112 TBF Release Delay Extended (S11 onwards)........................... 6.......109 GPRS DL/UL Penalty and Threshold.................................6...4 6......................1 7......3...........................................1........89 DL Dual Carrier ...........2 7.............................................1.........141 MCS Selection Based on BLER Limits ...........................................................................................2 7..........................................94 (E)GPRS in DFCA ...................114 EUTM in PCU2 .1 7...................106 Measurement Results............97 Receiving End .......................109 PRE_EMPTIVE_TRANSMISSIO ............................................................................................................................1 7........................1...119 Link Adaptation Algorithm Used in Uplink Direction .................6...........................3.....................118 GPRS Link Adaptation (S11) .....................................5 7..................................1....1 7.........1 7........................2 7.................115 BS_CV_MAX.............7 6.................................................................................................7 7.........................................3.....3.......................124 Link Adaptation Introduction ...............6 7...............................................................................1............4 7...........................................147 Synchronization .................................................... 7........6...............1.2........94 Gb over IP ..........126 Bit Error Probability.............................................3 7.....5 7.......................1 7.3 7.........................3......5 6................................6........110 DL_TBF_RELEASE_DELAY .......107 Mixture of Signal Level and Interference.......................2 7.....2 7........................101 Simulation Results........1.147 GPRS and EGPRS Dynamic Allocation.......2 7..92 Flow Control on Gb.............1 7.........................3 7...................1....... NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks......4.......4.....................94 Applicable for both PCU2-E / PCU2-D..........1 7......................................................................................................................................6.....93 PCU2-D.................3........................................2..................................110 DL_TBF_RELEASE_DELAY in PCU2 ..........................................99 Impact of Interference Level ...................93 PCU2-E .6.......................146 Multiplexing ...................................................................................................................................7............6...98 Measurement Results................................................4 7.147 ....................................8 Nokia HLR QoS Settings ..........2........................................................2 7.......1 7.............................................6....3 7................................................................................................................................................................. All rights reserved.2 7............................109 Acknowledge Request Parameters.................2.............................96 Impact of Coverage Level.......................92 Gb interface capacity for PCU2-D and PCU2-E...............................6........................101 Spectrum Efficiency and Frequency Reuse ......115 GPRS and EGPRS Link Adaptation......3.......................................................2..................................7...................................1..1.3 7......2......................................109 (E)GPRS DL/UL Penalty and Threshold ..............................2..............................................3.1 7...3.........................5 ED)...................................................................................................................................1...................5 6................................................................................................................4 7...........................7........................................................112 Release of uplink Temporary Block Flow...................... 96 GSM Network Performance........1 6........................................110 TBF Release Delay Parameters (S10.....................6.........................................1........................3 7..................................................7 7.................113 TBF is Not Continued based on EUTM...............3.........................................................................................1 7...2.........113 TBF is Continued based on EUTM ..5 7...........................................................124 MCS Selection...........6....................2 7..............4.....134 Incremental Redundancy in EGPRS............................107 TSL Utilization Improvement.............................3 7..............................2.............................................................................................................6......................................6 6.....................96 Signal Strength Requirements ..........................118 GPRS Link Adaptation with CS1-4 (PCU2)...............145 EGPRS LA in PCU2 .............1 (E)GPRS Timeslot Data Rate ...............................................94 7............................................................147 Dynamic Allocation on UL.............5/169 Managed Services..............................111 Release of downlink Temporary Block Flow .......................111 UL_TBF_RELEASE_DELAY ....2 7...........6 7................1 7..........1.................................2 6..............................................6..............3......3.........

.....................154 Upgrade .......166 Cell-reselect Hysteresis .................... 7.....2................................158 DLDC .....................1............7............................. All rights reserved..............................2 9.........................1 8.........................3............................................1......................................3.......................164 Routing Area Update ........2 8.............................................................1 9...........................................1 8...........1 9..2 7..............1......................................................................2................1..................................3 8........................................................................4 Mobility .164 Location Area Update.....................................2 8..1 9................4 8...................161 Benchmark Results ..........................1....................1........1 8..........................................1.....................148 GPRS and EGPRS Extended Dynamic Allocation with/without USF4...................1................151 CSW Territory......................................................2.....................168 .......................1............................ 160 Intra/Inter PCU Cell Re-selection..156 Average Window Size ..............................1 9.......................6/169 Managed Services.148 GPRS and EGPRS Dynamic Allocation with USF4.7..................................154 Downgrade .....3.. 9......................................150 PSW Territory.....3 8.3 8..............2 9.................1 9...................3 7...............................161 Data outage...........1 8.....150 Dedicated (E)GPRS Capacity................1...........................................................2 9...1...................2...... NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks........................1.......................................................................................1.........................................................................3 9..........7...............................................2................................3...................................1.........................2 9........................................2 8.....................1.....2.........................159 9...............................................................163 LA /RA Cell-reselection.......1.........................4 (E)GPRS Territory Settings.........1.................................................. 150 Timeslot Allocation between Circuit Switched and (E)GPRS Services..150 Default GPRS Capacity .......2 8.............167 Network Assisted Cell Change .................................................................1 8...........................................2..........................................................3 9....................................................................160 BSS and Data Outage .............................................1......................................1...................................164 Data outage (LA/RA Update) ...............151 Free Timeslots..........................149 8...4 GPRS and EGPRS Dynamic Allocation without USF4............................1.............1..............164 Benchmark Results .... 8....1 8.156 Multislot Usage................................................155 Multislot TSL Allocation for Using max Capability of Mobile..........1...........................................................164 Data Outage ............................................................2.....2...................155 Territory Upgrade and Downgrade S10 Changes ................................................................2 9.......................................2......1................................................................................................................151 Additional (E)GPRS Capacity .............................3 8..............................................152 Territory Upgrade/Downgrade – Dynamic Variation of Timeslots.........160 BSS Cell-reselection outage..........................158 High Multislot Class (HMC)........................

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1.

Introduction
The (E)GPRS Radio Networks – Planning Theory document was prepared to provide the basic theoretical knowledge for (E)GPRS Radio Network dimensioning, planning and optimization. The (E)GPRS Radio Networks planning document set structure listed below: • • • (E)GPRS Radio Networks – Planning Theory (E)GPRS Radio Networks – Dimensioning and Planning Guidelines (E)GPRS Radio Networks – Optimization Guidelines

The Planning Theory gives the theoretical knowledge while “Dimensioning and Planning Guidelines” and “Optimization Guidelines” contain all the practical information for daily planning and optimization activities. The materials listed above are based on S10.5 ED, S11, S11.5, S12, S13 and S14 BSS software releases; moreover both PCU1 and PCU2 with PCU2-E are taken into account. The detailed Abis, EDAP, PCU and Gb planning theory are not included in this document. For more information pls. see the latest guidelines on the links below: GSM Access: https://sharenet-ims.inside.nokiasiemensnetworks.com/Open/358201395 MW Radio Transmission (and Mobile Backhaul) https://sharenet-ims.inside.nokiasiemensnetworks.com/Open/369066809 GERAN Radio https://sharenet-ims.inside.nokiasiemensnetworks.com/Open/357448144 The 3GPP specifications can be found at the following intranet location: http://www.3gpp.org/specification-numbering

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1.1

(E)GPRS Dimensioning, Planning and Optimization Structure
The general way of (E)GPRS radio dimensioning, planning and optimization procedure is listed below: (E)GPRS Dimensioning and Planning • • • • • Operators’ business plan investigation Operators’ BSS network structure audit (with core network) Deployment plan preparation Capacity calculations based on deployment plan Parameter setting

(E)GPRS Optimization • • • • Configuration and feature audit BSS and E2E Performance measurements GSM network optimization (E)GPRS network optimization

All the points above are described in (E)GPRS Radio Networks - Dimensioning and Planning Guidelines and (E)GPRS Radio Networks - Optimization Guidelines. (E)GPRS Radio Networks - Dimensioning and Planning Guidelines: https://sharenet-ims.inside.nokiasiemensnetworks.com/Open/358168893 (E)GPRS Radio Networks - Optimization Guidelines: https://sharenet-ims.inside.nokiasiemensnetworks.com/Open/358173597

1.2
1.2.1

Data hardware and site solutions
The following sessions describe the PS related hardware elements in the BSS chain.

BSC and PCU variants
Nokia Packet Control Unit (PCU) is a Plug-in unit in a Base Station Controller (BSC). PCU hardware is embedded in BSCs in every BCSU (BSC Signaling unit). The Nokia PCU product family consists of following products:

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PCU variant PCU

BSC Type BSCE, BSC2, BSCi, BSC2i

Release BTS TRX Radio TSLs Abis 16 kbps channels Gb 64 kbps channels BTS TRX Radio TSLs Abis 16 kbps channels Gb 64 kbps channels BTS TRX Radio TSLs Abis 16 kbps channels Gb 64 kbps channels BTS TRX Radio TSLs Abis 16 kbps channels Gb 64 kbps channels BTS TRX Radio TSLs Abis 16 kbps channels Gb 64 kbps channels BTS TRX Radio TSLs Abis 16 kbps channels Gb 64 kbps channels

BSS11 64 128 256 256 31 64 128 256 256 31 64 128 256 256 31 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 2 x 64 2 x 128 2 x 256 2 x 256 2 x 31 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A

BSS11.5 ownwards 64 128 128 256 31 64 128 128 256 31 64 128 256 256 31 128 256 256 256 31 2 x 64 2 x 128 2 x 256 2 x 256 2 x 31 2 x 128 2 x 256 2 x 256 2 x 256 2 x 31

PCU-S

BSCE, BSC2, BSCi, BSC2i

PCU-T

BSCE, BSC2, BSCi, BSC2i

PCU2-U

BSCE, BSC2, BSCi, BSC2i

PCU-B

BSC3i

PCU2-D

BSC3i

Table 1 PCU product family

The PCU-S is the first and PCU-T the second evolution of PCU variant having more memory and higher CPU clock rate. 1.2.1.1 PCU2 Plug-in Unit Variants and Hardware Architecture In the PCU2 solution, there are two PCU2 plug-in unit variants which implement the new hardware architecture. PCU2-D is used for BSC3i, which includes two logical PCU2 units, and PCU2-U is used for the older BSC versions. For more information on the PCU2 plug-in unit variants, see the PCU2 hardware plug-in unit descriptions in BSC/TCSM documentation. PCU2 introduces more processing capacity for both PowerQuicc II (PQII) and digital signal processors (DSP) with external memory and hardware architecture enhancements to create a basis for new packet data related functionalities. The functionalities include enhancements in following areas: • Enhanced processing capabilities for PQII and DSPs with external memory and a higher DSP-level Abis channel connectivity to fully support the software architecture enhancements Actual traffic and O&M information separated on different paths between PQII and DSPs

with its modular decomposition and restructured task management. With PCU2.2 PCU2 Software Architecture The new software architecture. uses the hardware architecture changes to provide a basis for the new packet data related functionalities. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. The tasks include radio link control (RLC). as well as Abis L1 processing. Figure 2 Restructured task management in PCU2 The PCU2’s new software architecture introduces enhancements in the following areas: • The RLC. Scheduler.2.1. and Quality control functionalities implemented on the DSPs improve the RTT and balances load between PQII and DSPs. scheduling. quality control. . the DSPs only take care of the Abis L1 processing. With PCU1.10/169 Managed Services. the DSPs take care of more tasks than in PCU1. Figure 1 Main hardware blocks in the PCU1 and PCU2 variants 1. All rights reserved.

Improved end user service perception: The PCU2 software architecture implements RLC on DSPs and. • The asynchronous data transfer of LLC PDUs. These differences have influences to radio resource allocation and scheduling. It also gives the possibility to reach a higher throughput per subscriber when the GPRS coding schemes 3 and 4 are used. the BTS resources are increased from 64 to 128.11/169 Managed Services. throughput and cell change times.e. The new GPRS link adaptation algorithm enables the support for the GPRS coding schemes 3 and 4 (CS3&CS4). Recommended number of EDAP’s is in PCU2 is 1-8. too Utilization of USF granularity 4 in the PCU2 BTS selection differences . 2. which is used instead of the synchronous transfer of RLC/MAC blocks between PQII and DSP. All rights reserved. which enable a more efficient use of EDAPs. Increased BTS and TRX resources: with PCU2. there are multiple differences concerning to Air interface. improves on its part the end user experience for example in downloading web pages. The use of uplink state flag (USF) granularity 4 improves the use of the radio interface resources in a situation where the GPRS and EGPRS mobiles are in the same radio time-slot (RTSL). Dynamic Abis improvements. depending on the radio conditions. active and idle RTTs. and the TRX resources extended from 128 to 256. 4 or 8. that is. reduces the load in the PQII – DSP interface and provides faster PQII – DSP transactions.2. The recommended number of EDAP’s in PCU1 is 1. round-trip time. The most important differences are: • • • New GPRS link adaptation algorithm in the PCU2 that can use CS-3 and CS4. The active RTT measures delay from the data transfer point of view has an impact for example on the duration of file downloads experienced by the end users as well as on services with fast interaction requirements.3 PBCCH/PCCCH GPRS support for InSite BTS PCU1 and PCU2 Software Differences on Air Interface Due to different feature set and software architecture between PCU generations.1. BTS selection improvements in case of Common BCCH / Multi BCF cell Dynamic Abis improvements • • • • • • • PCU2 doesn’t provide support for following functionalities available with PCU1: • • 1. consequently providing more flexibility to the segment concept used with MultiBCF Control and Common BCCH. The idle RTT measures delay from the access point of view. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. gives benefit to application level delays i. the impact to TCP startup.

4 PCU2-E PCU2-E overcomes limitations of PCU2-D in terms of capacity and cost: • • increase in the number of channels served by a single logical PCU by factor of 4: from 256 to 1024 usage of the newest components made it possible to reduce cost per unit (and to increase its capacity significantly at the same time!) o further CPU clock frequency and memory increase are required to achieve the desire capacity PCU2-E CPU/memory: 1. All rights reserved.2. .1. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. 1.12/169 Managed Services.5 Mixed PCU configuration and asymmetrical PCU setup Different amount of PCUs can be installed in different BCSUs of the same BSC or different PCU HW variants can be installed in the same slots of different BCSUs.33GHz / 1GB o Usage of PCU2-E is mandatory in order to reach target Flexi BSC capacity figures in terms of PS data traffic • Max Flexi BSC configuration with 5 PCU2-E per BCSU and 6 active BCSU per BSC allows to control 30 720 Abis channels = 1024 Abis channels / PCU x 5 PCU/BCSU x 6 BCSU/BSC 30 720 Abis channels corresponds to controllable Abis bandwidth of 491 Mbps • PCU2-E can be also freely used in the remaining BSC3i types (660/1000/2000) • cost reduction is a prime reason to install PCU2-E in previous BSC3i types o • mixture of PCU2-E and PCU2-D is possible within BSC3i (see next slides for details) due to connectivity limitation PCU2-E can not reach its max possible capacity in previous types of BSC3i o PCU2-E can handle up to 512 Abis channels in BSC3i 660/1000/2000 • Flexi BSC can be equipped with either PCU2-E (recommended) or PCU2-D or both (in mixed configuration) 1. • Inter DSP TBF reallocation and cell change in the PCU2 The detailed description of the most important differences can be found in the relevant chapters below in this document.2.1.

e.Dimensioning and Planning Guidelines: https://sharenet-ims.13/169 Managed Services. S10 / S10.inside.com/Download/362650970 BSS 10045 Dynamic Abis Allocation https://sharenet-ims.3 1.nokiasiemensnetworks. • • PCU can be installed and activated according to actual traffic needs with granularity 1 in every BCSU separately each active BCSU can have different number of PCU (depending on actual traffic requirements). EDGE Detailed description of GPRS and EGPRS dimensioning and planning is available in (E)GPRS Radio Networks . Mixed PCU configuration in such context is a new functionality that leads to “asymmetrical” PCU configuration. it may happen that some BCSU have no PCU units while the other ones have some PCU installed different PCU types can be mixed in the same BSC/BCSU (restrictions concerning the same BCSU track exist -> see previous slide) BCSU which is marked as primary spare one must be equipped with the number of PCU sufficient to replace any of the active BCSU • • 1.Optimization Guidelines https://sharenet-ims. i.inside.2.com/Download/362642110 Detailed description of GPRS and EGPRS optimization is available in (E)GPRS Radio Networks . All rights reserved.2 No MetroSite Ok CS1 – 2* MCS1-9 UltraSite Ok CS1-2* MCS1-9 FlexiEDGE Ok CS1-2* MCS1-9 *CS1-4 with PCU2 **Insite is not supported by PCU2 1.5ED releases: BSS 10091 Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolution.2 BTS variants TALK GSM GPRS EGPRS Ok CS1 – 2 No InSite** Ok CS1 – 2 No PrimeSite Ok CS1 .nokiasiemensnetworks.1 Data features The next sessions describe the most important PS features on S release basis.com/Open/358201395 BSS 10074 Support of PCCCH/PBCCH . NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks.3.nokiasiemensnetworks.inside.5ED The following features are implemented with S10/S10.

Support for PBCCH/PCCCH is no longer supported from S13 onwards. BSS 10084 Priority Class Based Quality of Service With Priority Based Scheduling.3. The concept of ‘Priority Class’ is based on a combination of the GPRS Delay class and GPRS Precedence class values.inside. All rights reserved.inside.14/169 Managed Services. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. The description of priority based QoS is available in (E)GPRS Radio Networks Optimization Guidelines https://sharenet-ims.com/Download/362650970 1.nokiasiemensnetworks.Optimization Guidelines: https://sharenet-ims. an operator can give users different priorities. After that packets with a higher priority are sent before packets that have a lower priority. This means that users can.5 The following features are implemented with S11/S11.com/Download/362650970 1. for example.nokiasiemensnetworks. only the experienced service quality changes.inside. .nokiasiemensnetworks. send and receive e-mail during an ongoing phone call.3.5 releases: BSS 11112 Network Controlled Cell Reselection (NCCR) BSS 11506 Network Assisted Cell Change (NACC) BSS 115171 Dynamic Abis Enhancements BSS 11088 GPRS Coding Schemes CS3 and CS4 BSS 30065 GPRS Resume BSS 11151 Extended Uplink TBF BSS 11156 EGPRS: Channel Request on CCCH The detailed description of below listed features are (E)GPRS Radio Networks Dimensioning and Planning Guidelines: https://sharenet-ims.2 S11 / S11.com/Download/362642110 (E)GPRS Radio Networks . There will be no extra blocking to any user. Packets will be evenly scattered within the (E)GPRS territory between different time slots. Higher priority users will get better service than lower priority users.3 S12 The following features are implemented with S12 release: BSS 20088 Dual Transfer Mode (DTM) Dual Transfer Mode (DTM) provides mobile users with simultaneous circuit-switched (CS) voice and packet-switched (PS) data services.

1.inside.2.3.3.inside.7.4 S13 The following feature is implemented with S13 releases: BSS20094 Extended Cell for GPRS/EDGE More information is available in extended cell range and Long Reach timeslot planning guidelines: https://sharenet-ims.com/Download/372797524 BSS 20084 High Multislot Classes (HMC) More information about HMC is available in the (E)GPRS Radio Networks Optimization Guidelines: https://sharenet-ims.nokiasiemensnetworks. All rights reserved. The Planning Theory of DTM can be downloaded from the following link: https://sharenet-ims.nokiasiemensnetworks.com/Download/369783353 Information about DTM planning is available in DTM – Planning guidelines: https://sharenet-ims.15/169 Managed Services. .com/Download/362650970 BSS 20089 Extended Dynamic Allocation (EDA) More information about EDA is available in Chapter 7.nokiasiemensnetworks. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks.inside.com/Open/389927588 1.nokiasiemensnetworks.inside.5 S14 The following features are implemented with S14: BSS21161 SDCCH and PS Data Channels on DFCA TRX BSS21228 Downlink Dual Carrier Additionally PCU2-E is available if S14 is implemented.

and the burst structure with back-off are described below in this chapter. (There is an additional 22.0.0) (1. offering high power efficiency. It means that the amplifier must be operated in the linear region in case of 8PSK since distortion is to be avoided.0) (0.16/169 Managed Services. 2. (E)GPRS Modulation (E)GPRS uses not only GMSK but 8PSK (8 Phase Shift Keying) modulation as well. The saturation means that even if the input signal level is increased.1 GMSK and 8-PSK Modulation GSM system is using GMSK (Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying).1) (1. 8-PSK. producing a 3bit word for every change in carrier phase. see the lower part of Figure 3. The differences between GMSK and 8-PSK.0. All rights reserved. has a varying envelope.0) Figure 3 Modulation scheme for GMSK and 8-PSK .1. 2. no increasement will be seen in the output power. The advantage of the constant envelope modulation is that it allows the transmitter power amplifiers to be operated in a non-linear (saturated) mode. in the form used in EDGE.0) (0.1) (0.1) T ime (1.1) E nvelope (amplitude) 8PSK (1.1.1. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks.5 deg rotation to avoid zero crossing.1.0. This effectively triples the data rate offered by GPRS. the block diagram of modulators. as shown on upper part of Figure 3.) E nvelope (amplitude) GMSK Time (0.0. a constant-envelope modulation scheme.

8-PSK modulation . 2.17/169 Managed Services. +1 Gaussian prefiltering for frequency pulses frequency modulator local oscillator Figure 4 GSM . All rights reserved.GMSK modulation Gray mapping to 8PSK constellation 3 bits per symbol rotation by k3pi/8 Linearized Gaussian Filter for Dirac pulses I &Q Figure 5 EDGE . NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. differential encoding -1.2 Modulation Block Diagrams The Figure 4 and Figure 5 show that GMSK and 8-PSK modulation arrangements are completely different.

Figure 6 Phase state vector diagram in 8-PSK So the position of the information is there on the yellow dots of the dark blue circle above in Figure 6 (yellow dots: where the phase and amplitude of the signal is containing the information). This ‘back-off’ is shown in Figure 7.18/169 Managed Services. This “overshoot” is required to ensure smooth and continuous transition between phase-states (as shown by the yellow trace above). 2-6 dB less (back-off) to avoid saturation in amplifier. The area between the dark blue circle and red circle is the room for overshooting. It means that the mean output power has to be app. thus the mean output power in amplifier must be at least this amount down on the saturated output power to achieve linearity. . All rights reserved. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks.3 Back-off in EGPRS This varying envelope generates peak-mean power difference that is 2-6 dB for 8PSK. 2.

If the entire TRX is set to second highest output power. 1800 MHz: 4dB). . NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. – 900 MHz: 6dB. BTS equipment is less likely to be in saturation than MS equipment. and in the link budget presented a 2dB back-off is assumed for BTS and the full 4dB for MS. Pout Envelope (amplitude) Compression point GMSK Time Pin Envelope (amplitude) Back Off= 2 dB Time 8PSK => Peak to Average of ≅ 2-4 dB Figure 7 Back-off in power amplifier In practice. etc. All rights reserved. The amount of MS back-off also depends on the used system frequency (different output power. there is no difference between the average power of 8-PSK and GMSK signals.19/169 Managed Services. Therefore the back-off for the two sets of equipment may be different. different PA characteristics. The UltraSite 2 dB APD and mobiles’ 4-6 dB applies only when the transmitter is set to maximum output power.

Annex B identifies the following GMSK/8-PSK burst structures for transmitted power level versus time.4 0 -2 -6 (***) -20 (147 symbols) -30 (**) (*) 10 8 10 2 2 22 10 8 10 7056/13 (542. The first figure below (Figure 8) shows the time mask for normal duration bursts at GMSK modulation.8) µs 10 µs 8 µs 10 µs t Figure 8 GMSK Burst dB +4 +2. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. The blue “envelope” shows a conceptual example of the appearance of a normal burst. dB +4 +1 -1 -6 (**) .20/169 Managed Services.05. 2. The second figure (Figure 9) shows the time mask for normal duration bursts at 8-PSK modulations.30 (***) (147 bits) (*) 10 µs 8 µs 10 µs 7056/13 (542.8)µs t (µs) Figure 9 8-PSK Burst The following figure (Figure 10) shows an example of GSM/EDGE BCCH TRX with a 3TSL EDGE mobile active on the downlink 5 normal bursts in GMSK (Average Power Decrease (APD)=0 dB) and 3 normal bursts in 8-PSK (APD=2 dB).4 Burst Structure 3GPP TS 05. All rights reserved. .

the cell selection.21/169 Managed Services. Note that the average power remains constant since both GMSK and 8-PSK are operating in the linear range of the PA. The power budget margins for handover are around 4/6 dB. the mobiles have a certain inaccuracy when performing neighbor measurements so the impact of average power differences in GMSK and 8PSK will be probably minor. in areas with very low cell overlap. . NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. This is due to the fact that the signal level measured by the MS at some instances in time will be affected by the possibly lower mean power level of the 8-PSK modulation and by the power fluctuation resulting from the 8-PSK modulation characteristics. If the operator decides to allow 8-PSK modulation on the BCCH carrier in certain cells. TSL0 BCCH GMSK TSL1 TCH GMSK TSL2 TCH GMSK TSL3 TCH GMSK TSL4 TCH GMSK TSL5 PD TCH 8-PSK/ GMSK TSL6 PD TCH 8-PSK/ GMSK TSL7 PD TCH 8-PSK/ GMSK P(dB) t(us) Figure 10 5 normal bursts in GMSK (APD=0 dB) for voice and 3 normal bursts in 8PSK (APD=2 dB) for data Note that the average power decreased by 2 dB during the last three bursts due to APD of 2 dB. This has the following key impacts on EDGE service: 1) “Slightly” lower throughput near cell edge or in poor C/I environment. Moreover. The extent of the performance degradation is dependent upon the measurement schedule in each particular MS as well as upon the used average power decrease (APD) and the current 8-PSK load. cell reselection and handover procedures involving these cells will be somewhat sub-optimal. so the reduced output power due to 8-PSK can modify this measurement results). 2) 2 dB lower signal level to neighboring cells or GSM phones evaluating neighbors. Additionally. All rights reserved. some coverage loss effects may have to be taken into account by the operator when selecting network parameters (the measurement of the cell for neighbor decision is based on the average value of TSLs’ signal level. and/or carefully selecting the values of involved network parameters. the impact on the above-mentioned procedures may be minimized. By limiting the maximum number of 8-PSK slots simultaneously allowed on the BCCH carrier. This means the signal strength in the neighbor EGPRS cell has to be 4/6 dB larger than the serving cell in order to perform the handover.

1 Protocol Architecture The following figure shows the different protocols between the different network elements of a (E)GPRS networks. LLC and SNDCP layers are (E)GPRS specific layers. The RLC/MAC. Coding Schemes The following subsections describe the protocol architecture used by (E)GPRS and the coding schemes for GPRS. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. 3. As it can be seen from Figure 11. IP N-PDU SN-DATA PDUs LLC Frames RLC Blocks RLC/MAC Blocks TDMA Bursts SNDCP LLC RLC MAC GSM RF Figure 12 Data Blocks segmentation between protocols . HT TP or FT P T CP IP SNDCP LLC RLC/MAC L1/RF MS Um L1/RF DAbis Abis RLC/MAC DAbis BSSGP NS FR Gb SNDCP LLC BSSGP NS FR SGSN GT P UDP IP L2 L1 Gn GT P UDP IP L2 L1 GGSN L1 Gi L2 HTT P or FT P TCP IP L2 L1 WWW/FTP Server BTS BSC / PCU Figure 11 (E)GPRS Protocol Stack The protocols are communicating via Service Access Points (SAP). 3.22/169 Managed Services. but the higher layers are application dependent. The Figure 12 shows the data block segmentation from IP to GSM RF. All rights reserved. GPRS with CS1-4 and EGPRS. the BSS network related protocols are the physical (L1/RF) and RLC/MAC layers.

2.1 Radio Link Control The main tasks of Radio Link Control (RLC) are: • • Reliable transmission of data across air interface Segmentation/de-segmentation of data from/to LLC layer The RLC layer can be operated in both acknowledged and unacknowledged modes.2. It lasts 0. 3.25 bits.2 Medium Access Control The following list shows the main tasks of Medium Access Control (MAC): • • Control of MS access to common air-interface medium Flagging of PDTCH/PACCH occupancy This layer controls MS access to the common air interface and provides queuing and scheduling of the associated signaling.1.3 RLC/MAC Header Formats All the header formats are described below. The main tasks of the physical layer are listed below: • • • • • • Modulation/demodulation (GMSK and 8-PSK) TDMA frame formatting Bit inter-leaving Cell selection/reselection Tx power control Discontinuous reception (DRx) The basic element of air interface in (E)GPRS planning is the timeslot.1.1. and this is defined by the Quality of Service (QoS) profile within the PDP context (reliability class). .1 Physical Layer The physical layer of the (E)GPRS networks is the standard GSM TDMA interface (with new modulation method for higher MCSs of EGPRS). NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks.577 milliseconds (=15/26) which corresponds to 156. 3. 3.2 RLC/MAC Layer This subsection briefly describes the Radio Resource layer (RLC/MAC) since this layer is responsible for most of the important BSS related functionalities. 3.1.1.23/169 Managed Services. 3. Four TDMA TSLs are needed to convey one RLC/MAC block as it can be seen in the Figure 12 above. All rights reserved.2. Therefore the appropriate functionality of the GSM network is basic requirement to provide good (E)GPRS service.

All rights reserved. where the value '111' (USF=FREE) indicates that the corresponding uplink Radio block contains PRACH. bit 4 0 1 S/P RRBP field is not valid RRBP field is valid Table 2 S/P bit Relative Reserved Block Period (RRBP) field specifies a single uplink block in which mobile station shall transmit either a Packet Control Acknowledgement message or a PACCH block to the network. The USF field is three bits in length and eight different USF values can be assigned. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. Figure 13 DL RLC/MAC format Detailed field description: Uplink State Flag (USF) field is sent in all downlink RLC/MAC blocks and indicates the owner or use of the next uplink Radio block on the same timeslot. . The following figure shows the downlink GPRS RLC block with MAC header. Supplementary/polling (S/P) bit is used to indicate whether the RRBP field is valid or not.24/169 Managed Services. The mobile station shall only react on RLC/MAC block containing a valid RRBP field. except on PCCCH.

In this version of the protocol. In the uplink direction. The BSN is 7 bits in length and is encoded as a binary number with range 0 to 127. bit 1 0 1 Final block indicator Current block is not last RLC data block in TBF Current block is last RLC data block in TBF Table 3 FBI bit Power reduction (PR) fields indicate the power level reduction of the current RLC block. The payload Type field is present in both downlink and uplink MAC header. Reserved. this value is reserved. the RLC/MAC block contains an RLC/MAC control block that includes the optional first octet of the RLC/MAC control header. Payload Type field shall indicate the type of data contained in remainder of RLC/MAC block.25/169 Managed Services. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. . bit 87 00 01 Payload Type RLC/MAC block contains an RLC data block RLC/MAC block contains an RLC/MAC control block that does not include the optional octets of the RLC/MAC control header In the downlink direction. The encoding of the payload type field is shown below. All rights reserved. The following figure shows the uplink RLC block with MAC header. For the downlink and uplink TFI the field is 5 bits in length and are encoded as a binary number with range 0 to 31. Block Sequence Number (BSN) field carries the sequence absolute Block Sequence Number (BSN’) modulo 128 of each RLC data block within the TBF. Final Block Indicator (FBI) bit indicates that the downlink RLC data block is the last RLC data block of the DL TBF. The coding of PR field depends on downlink power control mode – mode A and B defined in BTS_PWR_CTRL_MODE bit sent in assignment messages. the mobile station shall ignore all fields of the RLC/MAC block except for the USF field 10 11 Table 4 Payload Type field Temporary Flow Identity (TFI) field in RLC data blocks identifies the Temporary Block Flow (TBF) to which the RLC data belongs.

The mobile station shall set the SI bit in all uplink RLC data blocks.. bit 1 0 1 Retry (R) bit MS sent channel request message once MS sent channel request message twice or more Table 5 Retry bit The Stall indicator (SI) bit indicates whether the mobile's RLC transmit window can advance (i. The mobile station shall send the same value for the R bit each uplink RLC/MAC block of the TBF. The TLLI Indicator (TI) bit indicates the presence of an optional TLLI field within the RLC data block.e. bit 2 0 1 Stall indicator MS RLC transmit window is not stalled MS RLC transmit window is stalled Table 6 SI bit The Countdown Value (CV) field is sent by the mobile station to allow the network to calculate the number of RLC data blocks remaining for the current uplink TBF. The CV field is 4 bits in length and is encoded as a binary number with range 0 to 15. is not stalled) or cannot advance (i. . All rights reserved. Figure 14 UL RLC/MAC format Detailed field description: Retry (R) bit shall indicate whether the MS transmitted CHANNEL REQUEST message or PACKET CHANNEL REQUEST message one time or more than one time during its most recent channel access. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks.26/169 Managed Services.e. is stalled).

. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. .27/169 Managed Services. All rights reserved. The MCS7. The Downlink RLC/MAC control block together with its MAC header is formatted as shown in Table 11. Bit 8 7 Payload Type RBSN PR 6 5 RRBP RTI 4 S/P TFI 3 2 USF FS 1 AC D MAC header Octet 1 (optional) Octet 2 (optional) Octet M . Octet 21 Octet 22 Control Message Contents Table 11 Downlink RLC/MAC control block together with its MAC header . bit 1 0 1 TLLI indicator (TI) bit TLLI field is not present TLLI field is present Table 7 TLLI indicator bit For EDGE the DL RLC/MAC header will change depends on the MCS used. and MCS5-6 have one RLC/MAC block while MCS7-9 have two RLC/MAC blocks (see Table 13). because the header code rates are different for MCS1-4 and MCS5-9. 8 and 9 have 5 octets header (header type 1) as shown on Table 8. Bit 8 7 6 5 4 TFI RRBP ES/P BSN1 PR BSN1 BSN2 CPS 3 2 USF TFI 1 BSN1 BSN2 Octet 1 2 3 4 5 Table 8 DL RLC/MAC header for EDGE MCS 7-9 Bit 8 7 6 5 4 TFI RRBP ES/P BSN1 PR BSN1 3 2 USF TFI 1 CPS BSN1 Octet 1 2 3 4 Table 9 DL RLC/MAC header for EDGE MCS 5 and 6 (header type 2) Bit 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 TFI RRBP ES/P USF BSN1 PR TFI BSN1 SPB CPS BSN1 Octet 1 2 3 4 Table 10 DL RLC/MAC header for EDGE MCS 1 to 4 (header type 3) There are three header formats.

Octet 21 Octet 22 Control Message Contents Table 12 Uplink RLC/MAC control block together with its MAC header The detailed description of the different header formats can be found in 3GPP 04. format. recovery from detected transmission. Specifically. All rights reserved. LLC shall support: • • multiple MSs at the Um interface. sequence control. LLC includes functions for: • • • • • • • the provision of one or more logical link connections discriminated between by means of a DLCI. to maintain the sequential order of frames across a logical link connection.3 Logical Link Control Logical Link Control (LLC) layer provides a reliable ciphered link between the SGSN and the MS. The purpose of LLC is to convey information between layer-3 entities in the MS and SGSN. format and operational errors on a logical link connection. notification of unrecoverable errors. Bit 8 7 Payload Type 6 5 4 spare 3 2 1 R MAC header Octet 1 Octet 2 Octet 3 . This layer can be operated in both acknowledged and unacknowledged modes. . . and this is defined by the Quality of Service (QoS) profile within the PDP context (reliability class). 3. detection of transmission.1. LLC is considered to be a sub layer of layer 2 in the ISO 7-layer model. This protocol is independent of the underlying radio interface protocols. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. flow control ciphering LLC layer functions provide the means for information transfer via peer-to-peer logical link connections between an MS and SGSN pair. multiple layer-3 entities within an MS.28/169 Managed Services. . and operational errors.60. The Uplink RLC/MAC control block together with its MAC header is formatted as shown in Table 12.

Negotiation of the XID parameters between peer SNDCP entities using XID exchange. Data compression is performed independently for each SAPI. These procedures are independent of the particular network layer protocol in use.5 IP. Along with the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP).4 SNDCP Layer Maps the network level Packet Data Units (N-PDU) on to the underlying Logical Link Control (LLC) layer. TCP/UDP and Application Layer The IP (Internet Protocol). NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. . All rights reserved. The compression method is specific to the particular network layer or transport layer protocols in use. TCP/IP header) at the transmitting entity and decompression at the receiving entity.1..g. Compression of redundant protocol control information (e. Compression of redundant user data at the transmitting entity and decompression at the receiving entity. Multiplexing of N-PDUs from one or several network layer entities onto the appropriate LLC connection.29/169 Managed Services. best-effort delivery of datagrams through an internetwork. and may be performed independently for each PDP context. IP has two primary responsibilities: providing connectionless. Compression parameters are negotiated between the MS and the SGSN. Mapping of SN-UNITDATA primitives onto LL-UNITDATA primitives. 3. Management of delivery sequence for each NSAPI. independently. re-establishment and release of acknowledged peer-to-peer LLC operation. and providing fragmentation and reassembly of datagrams to support data links with different maximum-transmission unit (MTU) sizes. TCP/IP header) Compression of data content (if used) Segmentation/de-segmentation of data to/from LLC layer In details the SNDCP shall perform the following functions: • • • • • • • Mapping of SN-DATA primitives onto LL-DATA primitives. The Internet Protocol (IP) is a network-layer (Layer 3) protocol that contains addressing information and some control information that enables packets to be routed. IP represents the heart of the Internet protocols. Supplementing the LLC layer in maintaining data integrity for acknowledged peer-to-peer LLC operation by buffering and retransmission of N-PDUs.1. Establishment. Segmentation and reassembly. The basic functionality of SNDCP layer is listed below: • • • • Multiplexer/demultiplexer for different network layer entities onto LLC layer Compression of protocol control information (e. • • • 3. IP is documented in RFC 791 and is the primary network-layer protocol in the Internet protocol suite. TCP/UDP (Transmission Control Protocol/ User Datagram Protocol) and application layer’s functionality is described in EDGE_TCP_TWEAK_1_2 document in QP. The output of the compressor functions is segmented to the maximum length of LL-PDU.g.

and checksum fields. Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) provides reliable transmission of data in an IP environment. UDP adds no reliability. application layer protocols for Push to Talk over Cellular (PoC) are RTP and SIP. and multiplexing. request messages and response messages . With stream data transfer. UDP protocol ports distinguish multiple applications running on a single device from one another. these include source and destination ports. delayed. Application-layer protocol defines: • The types of messages exchanged. or error-recovery functions to IP. The UDP packet format contains four fields. Instead. duplicate. UDP headers contain fewer bytes and consume less network overhead than TCP. flow-control. full-duplex operation.30/169 Managed Services. Because of UDP's simplicity. TCP delivers an unstructured stream of bytes identified by sequence numbers. TCP offers efficient flow control. efficient flow control. TCP groups bytes into segments and passes them to IP for delivery. A time-out mechanism allows devices to detect lost packets and request retransmission. including Network File System (NFS). reliability. length. TCP offers reliability by providing connection-oriented. end-to-end reliable packet delivery through an internetwork. the receiving TCP process indicates the highest sequence number it can receive without overflowing its internal buffers. The reliability mechanism of TCP allows devices to deal with lost. UDP is basically an interface between IP and upper-layer processes. TCP corresponds to the transport layer (Layer 4) of the OSI reference model. It does this by sequencing bytes with a forwarding acknowledgment number that indicates to the destination the next byte the source expects to receive. such as in cases where a higher-layer protocol might provide error and flow control. Unlike the TCP. and defines format and sequence of messages. and Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP). Full-duplex operation means that TCP processes can both send and receive at the same time. This service benefits applications because they do not have to chop data into blocks before handing it off to TCP. which means that. Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP). or misread packets. User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is a connectionless transport-layer protocol (Layer 4) that belongs to the Internet protocol family. UDP is the transport protocol for several well-known application-layer protocols. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. For example the Web's application layer protocol is HTTP. Among the services TCP provides are stream data transfer. UDP is useful in situations where the reliability mechanisms of TCP are not necessary. Domain Name System (DNS). Application-layer protocols are one piece of a network application. for example. when sending acknowledgments back to the source. Bytes not acknowledged within a specified time period are retransmitted. All rights reserved.

while PCU2 supports all the four CSs (see the figure below). CS-4 has the highest data rate but no error protection on the user data.2. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks.1 GPRS Coding Schemes (CSs) For error protection each RLC data block is encoded using one of the available channel coding schemes. ETSI has specified four coding schemes of which Nokia supports coding scheme CS-1 and CS-2 only with PCU1.31/169 Managed Services. 3. Modulation and Coding Schemes (MCS) are used for EGPRS both in GMSK and 8PSK modulations.6 21. Error Correction .5 with PCU2 CS1 CS2 CS3 CS4 Payload (bits) per RLC block 181 268 312 428 Data Rate (kbit/s) Data 9. PCU-T. The CS1 and CS2 Coding Schemes (CS) are used for GPRS with PCU (PCU. All rights reserved. So the differentiations of RLC/MAC data rate of the different coding schemes are based on convolutional coding and puncturing. that is.05 13. PCUS.2 RLC/MAC Coding Schemes While the symbol rate is the same for GMSK and 8-PSK modulation the bit rate is different since one GMSK symbol contains only 1 bit but one 8-PSK symbol contains 3 bits altogether. such as the fields in the message and how the fields are delineated The semantics of the fields. Coding scheme CS-1 has the lowest user data rate. If PCU2 (PCU2-U.4 15.4 More Data = Less Error Correction Figure 15 Coding Schemes in GPRS Each of the coding schemes has been developed based on a compromise between error protection and the amount of user data carried. but the highest error protection. PCU-B). the meaning of the information in the fields Rules for determining when and how a process sends messages and responds to messages 3. Coding Scheme PCU1 S11. • • • The syntax of the various message types. PCU2-D) is implemented the CS3 and CS4 will be used as well.

NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks.4 CS-4 USF BCS 20 ms Figure 16 Coding Scheme segmentation in GPRS The detailed segmentation procedure for CS1 and CS2 can be seen in the following figures. CS-1 MAC RLC/MAC Block Size: Block Check Sequence: USF CS-1 181 40 3 1/2 length: 456 0 CS-2 268 16 6 ~2/3 588 132 CS-3 312 16 6 ~3/4 676 220 CS-2 BCS +4 CS-3 Precoded USF: rate a/b convolutional coding puncturing interleaving 57 57 57 Data rate (kbit/s): 456 bits 57 57 57 57 57 9.6 MAC RLC/MAC Block Size: BCS Size: Precoded USF: Data rate (kbit/s): 428 16 12 21.32/169 Managed Services.4 15.05kbit/s Figure 17 RLC/MAC segmentation for CS1 .05 13. All rights reserved. USF 3 Header & Data 181 1/2 rate convolutional coding + 4 tail bits BCS 40 224 bits 6 456 bits 181bits/20ms = 9. The following figure shows the segmentation of an RLC block with MAC header in case of different CSs to/from the GSM TDMA frames.

USF 6 Header & Data 268 1/2 rate convolutional coding BCS 16 294 bits 12 588 bits Puncturing (132 bits) 12 456 bits 268 bits/20ms = 13.4kbit/s Figure 18 RLC/MAC segmentation for CS2 When CS1-4 option is on. the LA algorithm determines for each TBF separately which coding scheme (CS1 – CS4) is used.4kbit/s Figure 19 RLC/MAC segmentation for CS3 . All rights reserved. USF 6 Header & Data 312 1/2 rate convolutional coding BCS 16 338 bits 12 676 bits Puncturing (220 bits) 12 456 bits 268 bits/20ms = 13. If these parameters indicate Link Adaptation.33/169 Managed Services. Dynamic Abis pool and (E)GPRS territories are created and when a TBF is allocated to a TRX which supports EDAP then all GPRS coding schemes (CS1 – CS4) are available for data transfer according to the parameters pcu_cs_hopping and pcu_cs_non_hop. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. The detailed segmentation procedure for CS3 and CS4 can be seen in the following figures.

53 0.0 0. The different data rates per timeslot are presented below: Scheme Code rate Header Modulation RLC blocks Raw Data Code rate per Radio within one Block Radio Block (20ms) 0.6 14. B and C.2 54. 28 and 22 octets respectively.80 A A B A 2x12 2x6 59. That is why there are “bad header. providing different throughputs depending on the amount of redundancy implemented in each coding scheme.6 27.4 44.49 0.92 0.53 GMSK MCS-2 MCS-1 NOTE: 0.0 0. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks.8 29.34/169 Managed Services.36 0.76 0.37 1. Coding schemes CS3 and CS4 are supported only by PCU2. USF 12 Header & Data 428 428bits/20ms = 21.6 11.53 0. In EGPRS MCSs the user data from higher layers and the RLC/MAC header are having different code rates. Different code rates .66 0.2. 3. All rights reserved. bad data” counters. bad data” and “valid header. To ensure successful BCSU switch-over it is not possible to enable CS3 & CS4 if there are PCU1 units on the same slot as PCU2 in any of the BCSUs. It is application software feature requiring a separate license.4 17. Table 13 Coding scheme performance versus Eb/No.6.2. The header code rate is more robust for having the header even in very bad radio conditions.36 1/3 1/3 0.8 13.36 0.2 EGPRS Modulation and Coding Schemes (MCSs) The EGPRS standard defines nine coding schemes MCS1 to MCS9. The MCSs are divided into different families A.2 8.8 8 B C A B C 12 6 the italic captions indicate the padding.53 1 1 8PSK 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 2x592 2x544 2x448 592 544+48 448 352 296 272+24 224 176 Family BCS Tail HCS Data rate payload kb/s MCS-9 MCS-8 MCS-7 MCS-6 MCS-5 MCS-4 MCS-3 1.4 kbit/s BCS 16 Figure 20 RLC/MAC segmentation for CS4 CS3 and CS4 is using modified LA algorithm (more details are available in Section 7.2 22. Each family has a different basic unit of payload: 37 (and 34).53 0.

For families A and B.5 MCS.2 Family B 28 octets 28 octets 28 octets 28 octets MCS. The family concept is used for retransmission only.7 MCS.35/169 Managed Services. All rights reserved.4 Figure 21 MCS Families The following figure shows the RLC/MAC segmentation (convolutional coding and puncturing) to 4 normal GSM bursts.1 Family C 22 octets 22 octets MCS. within a family are achieved by transmitting a different number of payload units within one Radio Block. .3 34+3 octets 34+3 octets Family A padding MCS. only 1 or 2 payload units are transmitted (see Figure 21 below).3 Family A 37 octets 37 octets 37 octets 37 octets MCS. MCS.6 MCS. so the retransmitted RLC/MAC block’s MCS can be the initial MCS or an MCS inside the family. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks.6 34 octets 34 octets 34 octets 34 octets MCS.9 MCS.8 MCS. 1 or 2 or 4 payload units are transmitted. for family C.

NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. All rights reserved.36/169 Managed Services. 3 bits USF 45 bits 612 bits TB 612 bits FBI E Data = 592 bits BCS TB RLC/MAC HCS FBI E Data = 592 bits BCS Hdr. Rate 1/3 convolutional coding 36 bits 135 bits puncturing SB = 8 36 bits 124 bits 612 bits P1 1836 bits puncturing Rate 1/3 convolutional coding 1836 bits puncturing 612 bits P2 612 bits P3 612 bits P1 612 bits P2 612 bits P3 1392 bits Figure 22 MCS9 Coding and puncturing .

the network shall grant one or two radio blocks for the mobile station (within a Multi Block allocation) to send a PACKET RESOURCE REQUEST and possibly an ADDITIONAL MS RADIO ACCESS CAPABILITIES messages on the assigned packet uplink resource if the network allocates resource for the mobile station.37/169 Managed Services. Immediate Assignment Message: The packet uplink resource is assigned to the mobile station in an IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT message sent in unacknowledged mode on the same CCCH timeslot on which the network has received the CHANNEL REQUEST or the EGPRS PACKET CHANNEL REQUEST message.1 Channel Request and Packet Immediate Assignment On receipt of a CHANNEL REQUEST message indicating a packet access. There is no further restriction on what part of the downlink CCCH timeslot the IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT message can be sent. 4. All rights reserved. . Paging (DL) and Immediate Assignment (DL). the network may allocate a temporary flow identity and assign a packet uplink resource comprising one PDCH for an uplink temporary block flow in EGPRS TBF mode or GPRS TBF mode. So before the analysis of signaling situation in Chapter 5 the procedure of • • • TBF establishment Data transfer TBF release should be studied in details. 4. the network shall grant only the single block period on the assigned packet uplink resource if the network allocates resource for the mobile station. On receipt of an EGPRS PACKET CHANNEL REQUEST message. Timer T3141 is started on the network side.18-8.1 TBF Establishment The TBF establishment is triggered by Channel Request (UL).0) Channel Request Message: If the establishment cause in the CHANNEL REQUEST message indicates a request for a single block packet access. (3GPP 04. EGPRS Packet Channel Request Message: If the establishment cause in the EGPRS PACKET CHANNEL REQUEST (EPCR) message indicates a request for a two phase access. but that is not discussed here in this section). 4. (E)GPRS Procedures The knowledge of (E)GPRS procedures can help to analyze the signaling traffic. After GPRS Attach and PDP Context Activation the next procedure is the TBF establishment with Packet Immediate Assignment (attach and PDP context activation also require TBF establishment.1. the network may allocate a temporary flow identity and assign a packet uplink resource comprising one PDCH for an uplink temporary block flow in GPRS TBF mode. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks.

always sent when DL TBF Assignment is from CCCH. Any LLC Frame Figure 23 Paging flow chart DL TBF Assignment. 72005(S9) Max sim. All rights reserved. In Nokia implementation. Any LLC Frame 5. Packet Downlink Assignmnet may be sent if more timeslots are required Packet Control Ack (PACCH) Packet Power Control/Timing Advance Packet Control Ack Packet Power Control/Timing Advance DL RLC MAC /c72077(S9) Figure 24 DL TBF Assignment. 4. GPRS Paging Request 4. Not sent when DL TBF is assigned on PACCH If requested and available Only 1 TCH is allocated first. MS MS on ready state BT S BSC SGSN P-Immediate Assignment TBF per priority 90000(S10) /c72084(S9) packet_immed_ass_msg DL TBF Establ.2 DL TBF Assignment Reason for paging is DL user data or signaling while MS is on STANDBY state. Paging Request 3. MS BSS SGSN 1.1. MS on CCCH The DL TBF assignment is based on the following procedure (Figure 24). DL TBF .72007(S9) Sent on the PDTCH to find out the MS Timing Advance.38/169 Managed Services. EGPRS DL TBF EGPRS DL TBF UNACK 72089(S10) Possibly 72091(S10) Possibly Req 1 tsl DL 72039(S9) Alloc 1 tsl DL 72049(S9) Immediate Assignment (CCCH) P-Immediate Assignment Ack Packet Polling Request /c72085(S9) packet_immed_ass_ack_msg DL RLC MAC /c72077(S9) Packet Polling Request (PACCH) Alternatively. PDP PDU 2. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. MS on CCCH . The terminal has to be paged by the network in the STANDBY state since its position is known only on the Routing Area level.

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DL TBF Assignment when UL TBF is ongoing If there is an UL TBF ongoing, the channel request and immediate assignment is not needed. The DL TBF is allocated by sending Packet Downlink Assignment on PACCH.

MS

BT S

BSC
LLC PDU DL TBF DUR. UL /c72075(S9)

SGSN

New TBF is established in the same mode (GPRS, EGPRS) than the ongoing TBF.

TBF per priority 90000(S10)

DL TBF Establ. 72005(S9)

Max sim. DL TBF .72007(S9)

If UL TBF is EGPRS

EGPRS DL TBF 72089(S10)

EGPRS DL TBF UNACK 72091(S10)

Req x tsl DL 72039(S9)

Alloc x tsl DL 72049(S9)

Packet Downlink Assignment

(PACCH)

DL RLC MAC /c72077(S9)

DL RLC Data Block

DL RLC ACK MSC1…9 /c79000(S10)

or

DL RLC UNACK MSC1…9 /c79001(S10)

Figure 25 DL TBF Assignment when UL TBF is ongoing

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4.1.3

UL TBF Assignment
Depending on the network configuration different establishments procedures are used during the data connection. One phase access may reduce the TBF establishment time when accessing the cell and allows the system to allocate more than 1 RTSL for the UL TBF. When CCCH is in use, the Uplink Establishment offers: • • GPRS: one-phase access is possible, but only 1 TSL can be allocated to the TBF. Timeslot reconfiguration would be needed for multi slot allocation EGPRS: two-phase access is mandatory (in case of EPCR (S11, SX 4.0) implemented on CCCH the one phase access is possible as well)

When PCCCH is in use, the Uplink Establishment offers: • GPRS: one-phase access is possible. Network can allocate more than one TSL to the UL TBF. The gain is obtained from the transmission side due to timeslot allocation. In CCCH case only one TSL is assigned, while in PBCCH case there can be more then one. This explains the increasing importance of the gain as the ping packet size becomes bigger. • EGPRS: one-phase access is possible only if “EGPRS Packet Channel Request” (EPCR) is supported by the network (see Chapter 4.1.3.2). (If EPCR is not supported, then EGPRS is forced to use two-phase access even if working in the PCCCH.)

4.1.3.1

Channel Request - Packet Access Procedure (CCCH / PCCH) The following tables show the packet access procedure on CCCH (3GPP 04.18) and PCCH (3GPP 04.60). The table describes the differences of the Channel Request (S10.5ED)and EGPRS Packet Channel Request (S11) functionality. All the access modes are described in unacknowledged and acknowledged mode (8>= bit or 8< bit).

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Purpose of the packet access procedure User data transfer – requested RLC mode = unacknowledged User data transfer – requested RLC mode = acknowledged and number of RLC data blocks ? 8 (note 1) User data transfer – requested RLC mode = acknowledged and number of RLC data blocks > 8 (note 1) Upper layer signalling transfer (e.g. page response, cell update, MM signalling, etc)

EGPRS PACKET CHANNEL REQUEST supported in the cell EGPRS PACKET CHANNEL REQUEST with access type = 'Two-phase access' EGPRS PACKET CHANNEL REQUEST with access type = 'Short Access' or 'One-phase access' or 'Two-phase access' EGPRS PACKET CHANNEL REQUEST with access type = 'One-phase access' or 'Two-phase access'

EGPRS PACKET CHANNEL REQUEST not supported in the cell CHANNEL REQUEST with establishment cause = 'Single block packet access' for initiation of a two-phase access CHANNEL REQUEST with establishment cause = 'Single block packet access' for initiation of a two-phase access

CHANNEL REQUEST with establishment cause = 'Single block packet access' for initiation of a two-phase access

EGPRS PACKET CHANNEL REQUEST with access type = 'signalling' or CHANNEL REQUEST with establishment cause 'one-phase access'

Sending of a measurement report or of a PACKET CELL CHANGE FAILURE Sending of a PACKET CHANNEL REQUEST with establishment cause = 'Single block packet access' PAUSE message (note 2) NOTE 1: The number of blocks shall be calculated assuming channel coding scheme MCS-1. NOTE 2: Upon sending the first CHANNEL REQUESTmessage the mobile station shall start timer T3204. If timer T3204 expires before an IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT message granting a single block period on an assigned packet uplink resource is received, the packet access procedure is aborted. If the mobile station receives an IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT message during the packet access procedure indicating a packet downlink assignment procedure, the mobile station shall ignore the message.

CHANNEL REQUEST with establishment cause = 'Single block packet access' for initiation of a two-phase access or CHANNEL REQUEST with establishment cause value 'one-phase access' CHANNEL REQUEST with establishment cause = 'Single block packet access'

Table 14 Packet Access Procedure (CCCH)
Purpose of the packet EGPRS PACKET CHANNEL REQUEST EGPRS PACKET CHANNEL REQUEST access procedure supported in the cell not supported in the cell User data transfer – EGPRS PACKET CHANNEL REQUEST PACKET CHANNEL REQUEST with requested RLC mode = with access type = 'Two-phase access' access type = 'Two-phase access' unacknowledged (NOTE 2) User data transfer – EGPRS PACKET CHANNEL REQUEST PACKET CHANNEL REQUEST with requested RLC mode = with access type = 'Short Access' or access type = 'Two-phase access' acknowledged and number 'One-phase access' or 'Two-phase (NOTE 2) of RLC data blocks ? 8 access' (NOTE 1) User data transfer – EGPRS PACKET CHANNEL REQUEST PACKET CHANNEL REQUEST with requested RLC mode = with access type = 'One-phase access' or access type = 'Two-phase access' acknowledged and number 'Two-phase access' (NOTE 2) of RLC data blocks > 8 (NOTE1) Upper layer signalling EGPRS PACKET CHANNEL REQUEST PACKET CHANNEL REQUEST with transfer (e.g. page with access type = 'signalling' or PACKET access type = 'Two-phase access' or response, cell update, MM CHANNEL REQUEST with PACKET CHANNEL REQUEST with signalling, etc) corresponding access type (NOTE 2) corresponding access type (NOTE 2) Sending of a measurement PACKET CHANNEL REQUEST with access type = 'Single block without TBF report or of a PACKET establishment' (NOTE 2) CELL CHANGE FAILURE Sending of a PACKET PACKET CHANNEL REQUEST with access type = 'Single block without TBF PAUSE message establishment' (NOTE 2) (NOTE 3) NOTE 1: The number of blocks shall be calculated assuming channel coding scheme MCS-1. NOTE 2: The format to be used for the PACKET CHANNEL REQUEST message is defined by the parameter ACC_BURST_TYPE. NOTE 3: Upon the first attempt to send a PACKET CHANNEL REQUEST message the mobile station shall start timer T3204. If the mobile station receives a PACKET DOWNLINK ASSIGNMENT message before expiry of timer T3204, the mobile station shall ignore the message.

Table 15 Packet Access Procedure (PCCCH)

4.1.3.2

EGPRS Packet Channel Request SI13 contains the EPCR information. PCU always includes Access Technology Request into EDGE UL assignment. Therefore MS sends Packet Resource Request

The following figure shows the flow chart of One phase access on EGPRS. USF granularity 4 is useful when there is GPRS UL TBF multiplexed in the same timeslot with EGPRS DL TBF.1. MS sends this additional message Packet UL ACK/NACK + TLLI Packet Control ACK or UL TBF ready UL Data Block w/o TLLI Figure 26 EGPRS one phase access on CCCH 4.42/169 Managed Services. USF Granularity 1 means that the mobile station shall transmit one RLC/MAC block. MS responds with Packet Resource Request Immediate Assignment (UL assignment) (Packet Resource Request) (Additional Radio Access capability) UL Data Block + TLLI One Phase Access: If not all RAC info fits in PRR.3 Dynamic and Extended Dynamic Allocation on UL with and without USF4 The number of RLC/MAC blocks to transmit is controlled by the USF_GRANULARITY parameter characterizing the uplink TBF. and optionally the Additional Radio Access Capability (ARAC) message in second one. two-phase One Phase Access: If NW has requested RAC info from MS in Immediate Assignment.3. PCU makes final decision whether used or not. MS requests one-phase access. (PRR) message in first allocated USF.g. (E. All rights reserved. GPRS & EGPRS short access is basically same scenario as GPRS one phase access. PCU2 uses USF Granularity 4 for GPRS MSs in EGPRS territory.one Decision – one-phase vs. USF Granularity 4 means that the mobile station shall transmit four consecutive RLC/MAC blocks. In this case only every fourth DL data block need to be … . Common BCCH (multiband) and EGPRS territory in non-BCCH band => forced 2phase access). NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. Access Technology Request is never included in UL assignment message. One Phase/Short Access SI13 (EPCR Support) MS phase access or short access BSC / PCU EGPRS Packet Channel Request .

UL TBF 72002(S9) /c72082(S9) packet_ch_req /c72084(S9) packet_immed_ass_msg Immediate Assignment (CCCH) Packet Resource Request (PACCH) Including TLLI for contention resolution Packet Uplink Assignment (PACCH) Including TLLI for contention resolution Packet Uplink Assignment TBF per priority 90000 (S10) UL TBF UNACK Max. MultiBlock Allocation may be used only if MS is EGPRS capable (e.1. DL RLC MAC /c72077(S9) Figure 27 UL TBF ASSIGNMENT. MS on CCCH. indicating 2-phase access. In PACKET_UL_ASSIGNMENT.access' Single block P_Channel Required P-Immediate Assignment Cmd NOTE: BTS does not send Imm Ass Ack for Single block Immediate Assignment Packet Resource Request UL RLC MAC /c72076(S9) DL RLC MAC /c72077(S9) UL TBF Establ. The detailed description of Dynamic Allocation with and without USF4 and Extebded Dynamic Allocation with/without USF4 can be found in Section 7. which forces the MS to send a PACKET_RESOURCE_REQ (-> 2-phase access).sim. 2-phase access can be initiated by: • Network: When sending a PACKET_UL_ASSIGNMENT it includes Single or MultiBLock Allocation. the Network shall order the MS to send PACKET_RESOURCE_REQ in the PACKET_UL_ASSIGNMENT. RLC Data block RLC Data Block Packet Uplink Ack/Nack Packet Uplink Ack/Nack (specs) Req X tsl UL 72034 (S9) Alloc X tsl UL 72044(S9) UL RLC CS1 /c72062(S9) or UL RLC CS2 /c72064(S9) The Contention resolution was already done above. The PCU does not immediately send Packet Uplink Ack/Nack (as it does in one phase access for contention resolution) but only after a certain amount of blocks or after Final UL Data Block.7.2. and MS may transmit PACKET_RESOURCE_REQUEST and optionally ADDITIONAL MS RADIO ACCESSS CAPABILITIES. and the other three blocks can be 8-PSK coded. All rights reserved.UL TBF UNACK 72010(S9) Possibly 72012(S9) Possibly More than 1 TCH can be allocated. meaning that EGPRS DL TBF does not utilize 8-PSK coding schemes while a GPRS UL TBF is transferring data on the same timeslot. In PBCCH.cause '2-ph.43/169 Managed Services.g.3. Channel Request (RACH) Establ. If access is granted. 4. MS BT S BSC SGSN • UL TBF ASSIGNMENT. network receives an EGPRS_PACKET_CHANNEL_REQ). 2 phase access. 2 phase access . MS ON CCCH.4 UL TBF ASSIGNMENT. MS on CCCH. GSMK coded. network reserves limited resources on 1 PDCH for the MS. 72000(S9) Max. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. MS: By requiring a 2-phase access in the PACKET_CHANNEL_REQ or EGPRS_PACKET_CHANNEL_REQ. 2 phase access After Channel Request and Immediate Assignment the network sends PACKET_UL_ASSIGNMENT message including Single Block Allocation or MultiBlock Allocation.sim. PCU1 uses always USF granularity 1.

BTS BSC SGSN Channel Request (RACH) Establ.sim. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. in both RLC blocks TLLI shall be included in PACKET_RESOURCE_REQUEST ADDITIONAL_MS_RADIO_ACCESS_CAPABILITIES It applies for retransmission of RLC blocks as well NW responds with TLLI in PACKET_UL_ACK/NACK For an EGPRS TBF the network may respond with PACKET_UL_ASSIGNMENT if resources allocated to the TBF need to be reallocated On network side. Includes the air-if TDMA frame number of the Imm Ass message UL TBF Establ. RACH p-ch. ack /c72085(S9) packet_immed_ass_ack_msg Figure 28 UL TBF ASSIGNMENT. All rights reserved. 4.ass.access' P-Channel Required P-Immediate Assignment Cmd (CCCH) Only 1 TCH can be allocated.cause '1-ph. MS UL TBF ASSIGNMENT.0): . /c72082(S9) packet_ch_req CCCH p.ass.imm. /c72084(S9) packet_immed_ass_msg Sent 6 TDMA frames before the Imm Ass goes to air.1. 1 phase access Contention Resolution Before establishing an UL TBF.18-8. 1 phase access The PACKET_UL_ASSIGNMENT construction contains the following information (3GPP 04. MS on CCCH. and if MCS9-7 is used. the network must assign a TFI to the TLLI. 1 phase access. MS shall then stop T3166 and N3104 and • • MS sends a PACKET_CONTROL_ACK containing the TA index if a valid RRBP is received. MS on CCCH. 72000(S9) Max.UL TBF 72002(S9) Req 1 tsl UL 72034(S9) Alloc 1 tsl UL 72044(S9) Immediate Assignment (CCCH) P-Immediate Assignment Ack CCCH p. MS ON CCCH.5 UL TBF ASSIGNMENT.3. Contention Resolution is completed when the network receives RLC block with TLLI and TFI associated to the TBF On MS side.44/169 Managed Services. Contention Resolution is completed when MS receives PACKET_UL_ACK/NACK with TLLI and TFI. which identifies uniquely the MS (3GPP 04.req.60): • • • • • Until contention resolution the TLLI must be included in every RLC block.imm.

Optionally a request for the mobile station to send its radio access capability information. TFI. Power control parameters. if the medium access method is fixed allocation. USF value. • • • • • • • Temporary flow identity.45/169 Managed Services. Optionally. the EGPRS packet uplink assignment construction also contains: • • • EGPRS modulation and coding scheme. Information whether retransmitted uplink data blocks shall be resegmented or not. the timing advance index (see 3GPP TS 05. the TBF starting time (note: TBF starting time is mandatory if medium access method is fixed allocation). NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. In addition. All rights reserved. if the medium access method is dynamic allocation.10). EGPRS window size to be used within the transmission. Channel coding scheme for RLC data blocks. or the fixed allocation bitmap. Polling bit. Optionally. • .

sim. /c91002 (S10) nbr_of_packet_channel_reqs DL RLC MAC /c72077(S9) /c91021(10) p_ul_ass_msgs_on_pccch SGSN EGPRS Packet Channel Request (PRACH) Establ. MS on PCCCH with 1 phase access .7 EGPRS UL TBF ASSIGNMENT. 72000(S9) Max.3. MS on PCCCH with 2 phase access MS BT S BSC PRACH p-ch req.. RLC Data block RLC Data Block Packet Uplink Ack/Nack Packet Uplink Ack/Nack (specs) or DL RLC MAC /c72077(S9) UL RLC UNACK MSC1…9 /c79003(S10) The Contention resolution was already done above.1.sim.UL TBF 72002(S9) EGPRS TBF if there are resouces EGPRS UL TBF 72088(S10) Possibly Req x tsl UL 72034.sim. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. /c91002 (S10) nbr_of_packet_channel_reqs UL TBF establ. The PCU does not immediately send Packet Uplink Ack/Nack (as it does in one phase access for contention resolution) but only after a certain amount of blocks or after Final UL Data Block.. MS on PCCCH with 1 phase access UL TBF ASSIGNMENT. MS BTS BSC SGSN More than 1 TCH can be requested EGPRS Packet Channel Request (PRACH) Establ.UL TBF 72002(S9) Packet Uplink Assignment (PACCH) Including TLLI for contention resolution Packet Uplink Assignment TBF per priority 90000(S10) UL TBF UNACK Max. All rights reserved.cause '1-ph.46/169 Managed Services. 4. MS on PCCCH with 2 phase access 4. 72000(S9) Max. Figure 29 EGPRS UL TBF ASSIGNMENT.1.UL TBF UNACK 72010(S9) Possibly 72012(S9) Possibly EGPRS UL TBF EGPRS UL TBF UNACK 72088(S10) Possibly 72090(S10) Possibly Req X tsl UL 72034(S9) UL RLC ACK MSC1…9 /c79002(S10) Alloc X tsl UL 72044(S9) EGPRS TBF if there are resouces More than 1 TCH can be allocated. 1 phase access.cause '2-ph. MS ON PCCCH.3.48(S9) Packet UL Assignment Packet UL Assignment (PCCCH) DL RLC MAC /c72077(S9) /c91021(10) p_ul_ass_msgs_on_pccch Figure 30 EGPRS UL TBF ASSIGNMENT.6 EGPRS UL TBF ASSIGNMENT. EGPRS Packet Channel Request PRACH p-ch req.access' Packet UL Assignment (PCCCH) EGPRS Packet Channel Request Packet UL Assignment Packet Resource Request (PACCH) Including TLLI for contention resolution Packet Resource Request UL RLC MAC /c72076(S9) DL RLC MAC /c72077(S9) UL TBF Establ.38(S9) Alloc x tsl UL 72044.access' QoSinformation.

4.UL TBF 72002(S9) UL TBF UNACK Max. DL /c72074(S9) TBF per priority 90000(S10) UL TBF Establ.UL TBF UNACK 72010(S9) Possibly 72012(S9) Possibly EGPRS UL TBF 72088(S10) EGPRS UL TBF UNACK 72090(S10) Possibly Req X tsl UL 72034(S9) Alloc X tsl UL 72044(S9) Packet Uplink Assignment (PACCH) DL RLC MAC /c72077(S9) UL RLC Data Block UL RLC ACK MSC1…9 /c79002(S10) or UL RLC UNACK MSC1…9 /c79003(S10) Figure 31 Establishment of EGPRS UL TBF when DL TBF is ongoing .sim.sim. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks.47/169 Managed Services.3. 72000(S9) Max. EGPRS Packet_DL_Ack/Nack(Channel Request Description) UL RLC MAC /c72076(S9) UL TBF DUR. EGPRS) than the ongoing TBF.8 Establishment of EGPRS UL TBF when DL TBF is ongoing The MS may request UL TBF by including a Channel Request Description IE in a Packet Downlink Ack/Nack message MS BT S BSC SGSN New TBF is established in the same mode (GPRS. All rights reserved.1.

48/169 Managed Services.1 (E)GPRS Data Transfer After TBF establishment the data transfer signaling is conveyed on PACCH. 4.2.not incl.2.) UL RLC MAC /c72076(S9) Downlink Data Packets Downlink Data Packets (PDTCH) DL RLC retransm CS1 /c72068(S9) If NACK received and ack mode used or DL RLC retransm CS2 /c72069(S9) After TBF released DL T BF release counter group Figure 32 (E)GPRS Data Transfer DL 4. It is about every 18 Flowrate per priority blocks but gets adapted /c90005/90006(S10) to radio conditions. Packet Downlink Ack/Nack bytes_in_of_v42bis_in_sndcp /c3010 bytes_out_of_v42bis_in_sndcp /c3011 Data comp 1sec sampling (retransm. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks.2 4.2 (E)GPRS Data Transfer UL . (E)GPRS Data Transfer DL MS BT S BSC DL Data Packets DL TBF ASSIGNME NT SGSN The SGSN encrypts each DL packet according to parameters negortiated in PDP context activation Gtp_packets_sent_in_dl /c3001 Downlink Data Packets Downlink Data Packets (PDTCH) DL RLC block counter Gtp_data_in_bytes_sent_in_dl /c3003 NSCV_passed_data_in_bytes /c3017 bytes_in_of_vjhc_in_sndcp /c3008 Header comp bytes_out_of_vjhc_in_sndcp /c3009 Packet Downlink Ack/Nack (PACCH) PCU controls how often the ack should come (polling in DL data block). All rights reserved.

bytes_in_of_vjhc_in_sndcp /c3008 bytes_out_of_vjhc_in_sndcp /c3009 bytes_in_of_v42bis_in_sndcp /c3010 bytes_out_of_v42bis_in_sndcp /c3011 Figure 33 (E)GPRS Data Transfer UL .49/169 Managed Services. It is about every 20 blocks but can be adapted to radio conditions. Data compr. UL RLC MAC /c72076(S9) UL T BF release counter group RLC blocks per priority 90001(S10) Gtp_packets_sent_in_ul /c3000 Gtp_data_in_bytes_sent_in_ul /c3002 Also if priority changed Header compr. MS BT S UL TBF ASSIGNME NT BSC SGSN DL dummy control block "First data blocks" (PDTCH) "First data blocks" (PDTCH) DL RLC MAC /c72077(S9) There is a dummy DL MAC block before each UL data block UL RLC block counter Flowrate per priority /c90005/90006(S10) 1sec sampling Packet Uplink Ack/Nack (PACCH) Packet Uplink Ack/Nack (FAI=1 when last) DL RLC MAC /c72077(S9) LLC frames The LLC frame is already ciphered Packet control ack (PACCH) LLC ack (window 1-16) Packet control ack P CU controls after how many blocks the ack is sent. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. All rights reserved.

Figure 34 Intra PCU Cell-reselection . NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. a RA update is performed instead of a cell update. shall not be affected by Flush. DL T BF ASSIGNME NT . via BT S1 DL Data Packets DL Data Packets DL Data Packets (PDTCH) PCU buffers LLC pdu's in RLC ACK-mode until all RLC blocks of the LLC pdu are acknowledged. Queued BSSGP signalling. via BT S2 03.60:: "LLC frame of any type.1 Intra PCU Cell-Reselection MS BT S1 BT S2 BSC SGSN T he SGSN encrypts each DL packet according to parameters negortiated in PDP context activation DL T BF ASSIGNME NT . In the Intra-PCU case the NSE is the same. including MS identity" 03. e. MS ON CCCH.18: If MS is in UL data transfer it starts UL TBF in the new cell to transfer data.08). The MS notices a need for a cell change (measurement strategy in 05.3. if the cell change results in RA change. (reliability class 1-3) In RLC UNACK-mode PCU buffers until all RLC blocks of LLC pdu are sent. the MS also checks for a possible RA change. and the new BVCI is served by the same NSE.3 Mobility with Cell-reselection The following mobility related signaling flowcharts are show in this chapter: • • • • Intra PCU cell-reselection Inter PCU cell-reselection (intra BSC) RA/LA Update (intra PAPU) RA/LA Update (Inter PAPU or inter SGSN) 4. too. These will thus go wasted if Cell Change happens.60:: "LLC frame of any type". 4. While doing the neighboring measurement.50/169 Managed Services. the queued data packets are forwarded to the new BVCI. Cell Update is performed. MS ON CCCH. since In the Nokia implementation each PCU represents one and only one Network Service Entity (NSE).g. UL T BF ASSIGNME NT . The MS stops receiving the DL Data Packets and tunes to the new frequency. pages. via BT S2 DL flush /c72059(S9) UL flush /c72058(S9) Flush-LL PDU( Old BVCI+MS TLLI) Flush-LL Ack DL Data Packets T he SG SN does not wait for F lush-LL ack before it forwards new DL Data Packets towards new BVCI DL Data Packets DL Data Packets (PDTCH) In F lush-LL Ack the PCU tells whether the queued data packets were deleted or forwarded to new BVCI If new BVCI is given in Flush-LL. All rights reserved. BSS adds CGI 08.

51/169 Managed Services. via BT S2 03. data is probably lost and retransmissions rely on the LLC layer acknowlegements Figure 35 Inter PCU Cell-reselection (Intra BSC) . via BT S2 DL Data Packets DL Data Packets (PDTCH) In Flush-LL Ack the PCU tells whether the queued data packets were deleted or forwarded to new BVCI In Nokia implementation. All rights reserved. While doing the neighbouring measurement.08). if the cell change results in RA change. the MS also checks for a possible RA change. including MS identity" 03. via BT S1 DL Data Packets DL Data Packets DL Data Packets (PDTCH) The MS notices a need for a cell change (measurement strategy in 05. 4. the inter-PCU cell change is also a inter-NSE cell change. a RA update is performed instead of a cell update. MS ON CCCH.60:: "LLC frame of any type". NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. PCU buffers until RLC/MACack (relaibility class 1-3) UL TBF ASSIGNME NT .60:: "LLC frame of any type. MS ON CCCH.2 Inter PCU Cell-reselection (Intra BSC) MS Cell1 Cell2 BSC SGSN T he SGSN encrypts each DL packet according to parameters negortiated in PDP context activation DL T BF ASSIGNMENT.3. BSS adds CGI DL flush /c72059(S9) UL flush /c72058(S9) Flush-LL PDU( Old BVCI+MS TLLI) Flush-LL Ack DL Data Packets Related to cell1 DL T BF ASSIGNMENT. thus the PCU destroys queued data packets after a Flush that follows inter-PCU cell change. Thus if PCU is sending DL data when MS makes an inter PCU cell change. The MS stops receiving the DL Data Packets and tunes to the new frequency.

Routeing Area Update Request 2.52/169 Managed Services. Security Functions 3.3 RA/LA Update (intra PAPU) MS BSS SGSN 1.3. Routeing Area Update Complete Figure 36 RA/LA Update (intra PAPU) MS BTS First System information message(BCCH) Channel Request (RACH) BSC First System information message [1]. P_Channel Required P-Immediate Assignment Cmd New SGSN Immediate Assignment (CCCH) Cell reselection data Outage Location update request (SDDCH) Location area Update [2]. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. Routeing Area Update Accept 4. All rights reserved. Routing Area Update Request (PDTCH) Routing Area Update Request Routing Area Update Request Routeing Area Update Accept DL T BF ASSIGNME NT Routing Area Update Accept Routing Area Update Accept (PDCCH) Routing Area Update complete (PDCH) Routing Area Update complete Figure 37 RA/LA Update (intra PAPU) in BSS network . 4. Location update request SE CURITY FUNCTIONS AS SE T BY THE OPE RATOR Location Update Accept Location Update Accept Caneel Release (SDCCH) Routing area Update [3].

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4.3.4

RA/LA Update (Inter PAPU or inter SGSN)
MS BSS new SGSN old SGSN GGSN HLR

1. Routeing Area Update Request 2. SGSN Context Request 2. SGSN Context Response 3. Security Functions 4. SGSN Context Acknowledge 5. Forward Packets 6. Update PDP Context Request 6. Update PDP Context Response 7. Update Location 8. Cancel Location 8. Cancel Location Ack 9. Insert Subscriber Data 9. Insert Subscriber Data Ack 10. Update Location Ack 11. Routeing Area Update Accept 12. Routeing Area Update Complete

Figure 38 RA/LA Update (Inter PAPU or inter SGSN)

In case of inter-PAPU RA replace SGSN with PAPU. The flow chart for RA/LA Update from the radio part point of view is included below:

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MS

BT S
UL T BF ASSIGNME NT , MS ON CCCH 1-ph.access

BSC
Routeing Area Update Request
Including TLLI for contention resolution

New SGSN

Start T 3330, 15s (max.5 tries)

Routeing Area Update Request (PDTCH)
Including TLLI for contention resolution

UL RLC block counter
Routeing Area Update Request
New SGSN sends context req to old SGSN. Old SGSN sends response and starts tunneling data to new SGSN . New SGSN sends ‘Update PDP context request’ to GGSN. New SGSN informs HLR about SGSN change by sending ‘Upate location’. HLR sends ‘Cancel location’ to old SGSN.

Packet Uplink Ack/Nack (PACCH)
Including TLLI for contention resolution

Packet Uplink Ack/Nack
Including TLLI for contention resolution

DL RLC MAC /c72077(S9)

Packet control ack (PACCH)

Packet control ack

UL RLC MAC /c72076(S9)

UL T BF release counter group
SE CURITY FUNCTIONS AS SE T BY THE OPE RAT OR

Routeing Area Update Accept
DL T BF ASSIGNME NT

Start T3350, 6s (max.5 tries)

Routeing Area Update Accept

Routeing Area Update Accept

DL RLC block counter

Packet Downlink Ack/Nack (PACCH) Packet Downlink Ack/Nack
UL RLC MAC /c72076(S9)

DL T BF release counter group

Figure 39 RA/LA Update (Inter PAPU or inter SGSN) in BSS network 1/2

MS

BT S

BSC

New SGSN

UL T BF ASSIGNMENT

Routeing Area Update Complete (PDTCH)
Including TLLI for contention resolution

Routeing Area Update Complete
Including TLLI for contention resolution

UL RLC block counter

Routeing Area Update Complete Packet Uplink Ack/Nack
Including TLLI for contention resolution Succ_inter_sgsn_ra_updat /c1019

Packet Uplink Ack/Nack (PACCH)
Including TLLI for contention resolution

DL RLC MAC /c72077(S9)

UL TBF release counter group

Figure 40 RA/LA Update (Inter PAPU or inter SGSN) in BSS network 2/2

4.4

TBF Release
PACKET TBF RELEASE message is sent on the PACCH by the network to the mobile station to initiate release of an uplink or downlink TBF.

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The delayed TBF functionality is described in section 7.3 and section 7.4.

4.4.1

Packet TBF Release Content
The PACKET TBF RELEASE information element contains the following information among others (3GPP 04.60): Global TFI IE This information element contains the TFI of the mobile station's which uplink and/or downlink TBF to be released. Uplink_Release (1 bit field) Downlink_Release (1 bit field) These fields indicate which TBF shall be release, uplink or downlink. Both directions can be released at the same time. 0 1 TBF shall not be released TBF shall be released

TBF_RELEASE_CAUSE (8 bit field) This field indicates the reason for the release of the TBF. This field is encoded according to the following table: bit 4321 0 0 0 0 Normal release 0 0 1 0 Abnormal release All other values are reserved, the same behavior in reception as if 'Abnormal release'. The network may initiate immediate abnormal release of a downlink TBF by transmitting a PACKET TBF RELEASE message to the mobile station on the PACCH. The mobile station shall immediately stop monitoring its assigned downlink PDCHs. If a valid RRBP field is received as part of the PACKET TBF RELEASE message, the mobile station shall transmit a PACKET CONTROL ACKNOWLEDGMENT message in the uplink radio block specified. If there is no on-going uplink TBF, the mobile station in packet transfer mode shall enter packet idle mode.

4.4.2

Abnormal Releases
In Nokia implementation the following abnormal releases can be listed: • • • • TBF Releases due to CSW traffic will occur when during a data session the CS call or SMS is received. TBF Releases due to Flush will occur during a cell change. TBF Release due to no response from MS will occur when the mobile will loose the connection e.g. due to lack of coverage – TBF drop. The TBF release due to suspend.

NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. Reallocation Failure from non-hopping to hopping band. then PCU2 releases the DL TBF by sending PACKET TBF RELEASE. but the TBF is immediately reallocated to EGPRS band. PCU1 does not send PACKET PDCH RELEASE message on the timeslots that were not allocated to any MS. If EGPRS is configured to hopping non-BCCH BTS. PCU2 uses PACKET TBF RELEASE message with following scenarios: • • • • Abnormal release because of N3101/N3103/N3105 counters reaching maximum value for the TBF. then in some cases PCU2 sends Packet TBF release message to the MS to make sure that the MS move to CCCH.060/ PCU2 sends PACKET PDCH RELEASE message on all timeslots of the territory. the PCU releases the EGPRS TBF and establish new GPRS TBF for the MS. If there is congestion in EGPRS territory. Note 1. After initial allocation on non-hopping/BCCH band. See Note1.4. When Channel Request Description IE and FAI=1 is received in PACKET DOWNLINK ACK/NACK from the MS. If the MS has started using new resources and there is no DL PDU at PCU. All rights reserved. /44. /44.56/169 Managed Services.3 TBF Release in PCU2 Network may send PACKET TBF RELEASE message on the PACCH to the mobile station to initiate release of an uplink or downlink TBF. if BTS reallocation to Hopping BTS fails then PACKET TBF RELEASE message is sent to mobile.060/ PCU1 never uses PACKET TBF RELEASE. EGPRS DL TBF may be initially established on non-EGPRS BCCH band. Because the PCU2 can send PACKET TBF RELEASE message to the MS then PCU2 can initiate GPRS DL TBF to the MS immediately. In the same situation the PCU1 does wait 5 seconds until it can initiate GPRS DL TBF to the MS • • PACKET PDCH RELEASE message is sent on PACCH by the network to notify all mobile stations listening to that PDCH that one or more PDCHs will be immediately released and become unavailable for packet data traffic. PCU2 sends PACKET TIMESLOT RECONFIGURE and establish both the UL and DL TBFs. TBF release because of territory downgrade or cell delete or Abis sync loss. Abnormal release because of T3193 timer expiry. 4. . If Uplink/Downlink TBF establishment fails.

All rights reserved. Slow Associated Control Channel (SACCH) and Fast Associated Control Channel (FACCH). The implementation of PBCCH brings additional capacity and features.1 Air Interface Signaling Load The logical channels are split into traffic channels (TCH). The signaling load analysis in BSS network is based on the following items: • • • Air interface signaling TRXSIG on Abis interface BCSU in BSC In the following subsections the above-mentioned items are described from analysis and planning point of view. If the TBF establishment is delayed due to congestion on signaling channels. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks.57/169 Managed Services. The aim of signaling load analysis and planning is to avoid service degradation on (E)GPRS due to overload situation on signaling channels. . TBF establishment and (E)GPRS mobility using the signaling channels and generate additional BSS signaling traffic on top of the CSW signaling load (except for PBCCH usage). too. 5. because the (E)GPRS attach/detach. Synchronization Channel (SCH) and Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH). Common Channels (CCH) and Dedicated Channels (DCH). The signaling traffic analysis is important from CSW point of view as well. but the CCCH channels and SDCCH can limit the (E)GPRS performance. The DCH contains the Stand Alone Dedicated Control Channel (SDCCH). The CCH is further divided to Broadcast Channels (BCH) and Common Control Channels (CCCH). the (E)GPRS performance will be degraded. The following figures show the logical channels for GSM and channels with PBCCH. PDP Context Activation. 5. The BCH channels do not need any planning consideration. (E)GPRS Accessibility The fast access to the network is very important in (E)GPRS functionality. The BCH is downlink channel and contains three logical channels: Frequency Correction Channel (FCCH).

a dedicated signaling resource has to be allocated to the original mobile to continue the process (identification. Cell Broadcast Channel. The IMSI is anyway sent by the MSC to compute the paging group (see below). CBCH.2 Access Grand Channel When the request has reached the system. different configurations are possible. Random Access Channel. PCH. a short message service). PAGING REQUEST comes in 3 types: Type 1 carries 2 identities (IMSI or TMSI) Type 2 carries 3 identities (2 TMSI + 1 TMSI/IMSI) Type 3 carries 4 identities (TMSI). authentication. Paging channel.1.1.1 Common Control Channels The Common Control Channel contains the following channels: • • • • RACH. Common control channels are multiplexed in a 51 slots multiframe with the broadcast channel BCCH. the identity is broadcast in a group of cells (location area). . either its TMSI or IMSI.1. 5. an authentication. they are explained below.1 Paging Channel When the system initiates a communication towards a mobile station (for a call.1.1. Access Grant Channel. 5. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. LOGICAL LOGICAL CHANNELS CHANNELS COMMON COMMON CHANNELS CHANNELS DEDICATED DEDICATED CHANNELS CHANNELS BROADCAST BROADCAST CHANNELS CHANNELS COMMON COMMON CONTROL CONTROL CHANNELS CHANNELS DEDICATED DEDICATED CONTROL CONTROL CHANNELS CHANNELS TRAFFIC TRAFFIC CHANNELS CHANNELS FCCH FCCH SCH SCH BCCH BCCH SDCCH SDCCH SACCH SACCH FACCH FACCH PCH PCH RACH RACH AGCH AGCH TCH/F TCH/F TCH/H TCH/H TCH/EFR TCH/EFR Figure 41 Logical Channels 5.58/169 Managed Services. PCH is a downlink non-dedicated logical channel. AGCH. The information is sending on the Paging Channel. All rights reserved. It includes the subscriber's identity.

SDCCH usage is required for the 5 cases listed below: • • • • • Call set-up (includes MOC.). Each AGCH can carry: • • • 5. All rights reserved. slot number. for congestion reason. The allocation message contains information about the carrier to use: channel number. BTS is not able to send an IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT message on the air-interface. SS activation’s) Answer to paging Emergency call Call re-establishment Other reasons (which includes most commonly. call establishment.59/169 Managed Services.). it will send a DELETE INDICATION to the BSC. etc. If. Accordingly. 5. this message is called IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT REJECT.1. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. . The RACH message is very data content limited with the initial RACH not controlled by the network. A short request (coded on one burst. The SDCCH channel is allocated between the MS and BTS following successful MS RACH and access grant by the BSC.2 SDCCH The SDCCH is a dedicated signaling channel utilized on the air interface between mobile station and base station. the set of these slots is called RACH. frequency hopping description if used and an estimated timing advance. emergency call. RACH is an uplink non-dedicated logical channel.1. shared between mobile stations served by a specific cell.3 1 Immediate Assignment 2 Immediate Assignment Extended Up to 4 Immediate Assignments Reject Random Access Channel When a mobile station has to execute any kind of operation with the system (location update. This allocation is done on a set of downlink slots. it will warn the mobile station and forbid it to retry within a time indication. It is a downlink non-dedicated logical channel. The message is called IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT. it has to establish a contact. location update request or to answer a paging message from the Network. set-up. location updates) The random access by the mobile can be due to call set up. SMS. indicating the overload. which constitute the AGCH. called Access Burst) is sent on a particular slot using a synchronized ALOHA (see GSM recommendation) access type. etc. If BSC is not able to allocate a resource. the access grant procedure is reasonably complex culminating in the initial channel assignment of a dedicated signaling channel.1.

60/169 Managed Services. In addition to A-bis signaling link optimization service the physical layer transmission quality audits could be considered as an offered service module as the physical layer is the foundation for the whole A-bis respectively. 5. Nonoptimized A-bis signaling could easily be the bottleneck in achieving the target performance level. Many of the customer’s end-user service is generating new TRX load to existing network.1 5. 32 kbps or 64 kbps. In case of PBCCH the TRXSIG is not loaded by (E)GPRS signaling anymore. whenever either the radio network is optimized or an upper level end-user service is optimized. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. To ensure that the A-bis signaling links are able to carry the increased signaling traffic it is recommended to offer the A-bis signaling optimization service.2. This dedicated signaling channel is then utilized by the network to control the subsequent network access by the mobile. Also the load profile has been changed due to the changes of the end user behavior compared to the days the network was dimensioned. The signaling load might also have been increased in a given signaling link due to a recent BSS feature activation in the BSS network. [1] The signaling is generated on TRXSIG and data TSLs as PACCH.2.2 TRXSIG Load One TRX signaling channel (also called LAPD channel or D-channel) is defined for each TRX in Nokia BTS. The capacity of a LAPD channel is 16 kbps. All rights reserved. 5. Thus the SDCCH channel is key in achieving successful & efficient RA/LA update in (E)GPRS cell-reselection.1 TRXSIG Load Theory The Abis protocols and TRXSIG load components are described below: Abis Protocols The protocol layers of Abis can be seen in the Figure 42 below: .1.

According to the system documentation of BSC nominal load and call mix.6 * 1000 octets / 21 octets = 29 pages per second. If the situation gets worse and the congestion level of the transmit buffers still very high. the downlink messages putting the highest load on the Abis link in BCCH TRXSIG is paging message. the length of the paging message including Layer 2 header is about 21 octets (vary depends on TMSI or IMSI being used). if the system is running on 50% of entire TRXSIG link capacity is consider running on the limit and it is referring to maximum system capacity. location update. a precaution is needed. As a result of the case studies conducted. In heavy downlink situation normally paging and immediate assignment reject messages are being discarded on the LAPD signaling link to ensure the uninterrupted flow of call signaling traffic which always has the highest priority. The buffer of the LAPD links handling the Abis signaling may overflow especially with the 16 kbit/s Abis links. and traffic margin is given. all the signaling messages on the channels causing the congestion may be discarded. About 60% of maximum system capacity is allocated for paging messages. . Figure 42 Abis protocol layer TRXSIG Load on DL Overload could occur in downlink direction because of high amount of paging. immediate assignment. which roughly equals to 100 000 pages per hour. In theory. Thus the average paging message for 16kbit/s link is calculated as 0.61/169 Managed Services. In order to ensure paging does not overload the TRXSIG link in downlink. etc. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. All rights reserved.

This can lead to failure of any function that is using the signaling connection. When the LAPDm receives a message from the Radio Resources (RR management). measurement results can be averaged out from the BTS before sending to the network with the help of the BMA parameter. From RF signaling planning point of view. 5. the buffer of conveyed messages becomes full on both side of the Abis interface then the signaling messages will be discarded. the TBF establishment needs resources from TRXSIG. CCCH subchannels (RACH. All rights reserved. so the loss of messages for one particular connection stays within reasonable limits. In order to reduce the uplink signaling traffic. The method of discarding messages is random as well. and measurement results are deleted if there are over six messages in the LAPD buffer. if the uplink traffic load is heavy enough and the LAPD buffer is full. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. When the signaling link gets congested. AGCH. The loss of the radio measurement result does not affect the service quality significantly.62/169 Managed Services. These messages come from the LAPD link. TRXSIG is a signaling link located on Abis interface.2 TRXSIG Load Components. the BTS starts to delete messages.2. the load state of the BCSU is checked. Measurement and Analysis The overload of TRXSIG can degrade the (E)GPRS performance. If the load exceeds a certain predefined limit.g. If the load does not exceed the limit. the TRXSIG link is used to transmit those messages that are sent between MS and BSC on the following channels (depending on the channel configuration of the concrete TRX): BCCH TRXSIG is used to download SYS INFO messages to BTS.1. However. If the traffic load gets heavier. a heavy traffic load usually first comes to attention via missing measurement results. other messages will also be deleted. Therefore the first step in accessibility analysis and planning is the TRXSIG load analysis. PCH and CBCH) SDCCH and its assigned SACCH FACCH and SACCH assigned to a TCH . buffer availability is checked and the message is deleted if there is no free space available. L3 messages (including RACH messages) are deleted if there are over 35 messages in the buffer. some reports are lost anyway due to the load on the LAPD link. because e. Before the distribution. In Nokia’s BSS implementation. messages are distributed and handled normally. BTS then sends them continuously on the BCCH. The value of the BMA can vary from 1 to 4. and those are distributed to the RCSPRB (Radio Connection Supervision Program Block) in the BSC that processes them further. It conveys signaling messages (including SMS) between TRX and BSC using LAPD protocols. TRXSIG Load on UL Most of the messages received by the BCSU are radio measurements coming from the MS and access requests. the messages are discarded.

The log files are transferred from the NMS to the Windows PC. This MS power control information is signaled to the mobile via transparent RLC/MAC signaling messages. all of these messages (measurements and MS power control information) are not sent through the TRXSIG link. which are sent using PCU frames.g. (E)GPRS mobile may or may not (this is controlled by the network) send any measurement report. The TRXSIG conveys the e. a derivative of TRAU frames). • • • • • The duration of the measurement period(s) The start time of the measurement(s) The BSCs included in each measurement Agreement who (having necessary operating rights) is responsible for the required file-transfer activities and running the Unix scripts. Different cells have the busy hour in different moment. The load measurement are generated in BSC and based on the following activities: 1. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. Awareness of the other planned work for the same BSS areas 2. All rights reserved. At least the following issues need to be planned and agreed before starting the data collection. First the files are prepared by the Excel macro tool and then they are further processed by the MS Access tool. Data Collection As the Abis signaling link service is flexible and can be anything between a 24h snap shot to continuous trend monitoring the actual tasks need to be planned carefully. Data Analysis The agreed service delivery may contain one or more of the following analysis. but these massages are not related to RF signaling. If the individual LAPD-channel busy hour is not known it is recommended to use at least two weeks continuous data collection period.63/169 Managed Services. So the signaling on PACCH is not transmitted over TRXSIG. Radio Link Layer management and TRX management messages as well. The LAPD-channel potential overload is taking place during the busy hour of the LAPD-channel. These messages are sent using PCU frames. In (E)GPRS the signaling information can be transmitted on TRXSIG channel but also on PACCH traffic channel (16 kbit/s PCU frames. 3. In order to detect the potential overload situations it is essential to collect the data so that the busy hour of each LAPD-channel is covered. • • • • Unavailability analysis Load Analysis Quality Analysis Delay Analysis . Therefore. since the PCU controls the MS power. Data Processing Data processing is done off-line and it is not causing load to the BSS network.

To come in line with the KPI. • Configuration Analysis The data collection period is also agreed and may be a series of consecutive 30 min periods (e. . For example TRANSMITTED TOTAL OCTET COUNT and RECEIVED TOTAL OCTET COUNT should not exceed 1080 000 octets for 30-minutes in case of a 16kbps TRX signaling link applied. 48 periods each 30 min for 24h) or samples of limited consecutive period in given intervals (e. To compliment the KPI.64/169 Managed Services. It reports maximum of DL and UL load in a given D-channel. The detailed description of TRXSIG load measurement and analysis can be found in the link below: https://sharenet-ims. For comprehensive error analysis it is recommended to have consecutive data collection periods covering sufficient time period._ These KPIs are available in LAPD Statistics for Abis Interface report. Abi_4a gives DL D-channel load and abi_5a UL D-channel load. LAPD load and quality KPIs in S13 Abi_6a indicates the LAPD link (D-channel) load.com/Download/368224953 LAPD KPIs The evaluation of KPI can be implemented via MML using the command ZDMF. which gives the Total amount of Traffic Transmitted and Received in number of Octets in 30-minute windows. the amount of data in each direction should not exceed 30% capacity of the existing link capacity otherwise an upgrade is necessary.inside. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks.g. 15:00 to 23:00 every Friday). except by sending people out to measure). The OCTET COUNT figures in ZDMF report do not include the FCS. MML’s command ZDMI is used to interrogate the working condition of the LAPD link.nokiasiemensnetworks. (The transmission quality of the abis links cannot be measured. Abi_1a to abi_3a are used to monitor LADP link and thus the whole Abis line connection quality.g.and Flag fields of the LAPD frame. All rights reserved.

2 Reporting Suit 184 Report . 5. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks.3.3.1 BSC RAW Measurement Results An example of load results can be seen below (Table 16): Table 16 BSC Unit Load Measurement Results from raw BSC measurement file converted with PCBSCS105 program 5. 5.65/169 Managed Services.3 BCSU Load The BCSU handles the LAPD (TRXSIG and OMUSIG) and SS7. The BSC elements’ load measurements register information on the peak and the average load rate of the computer units inside the BSC. All rights reserved.

01 7.52 8. the DL TBF establishment fails and the MS is considered as unreachable. If the PCU receives a data PDU for the MS in this case.07 2.26 7. All rights reserved.02 5.15 6. The PCU may not receive an indication that a DTM MS has left dedicated mode.15 7. • • • .95 5. The following can happen The PCU may not receive an indication that a DTM MS has entered dedicated mode.66/169 Managed Services. For MB the average load should not exceed 50%. The PCU is not able to remove the MS from the IMSI record resulting in a ‘hanging’ record that consumes memory of the PCU. then the DTM coordination will generate a considerable signaling load at the PCUSIG interface In the overload situation the BSC is perhaps not able to handle all the DTM co-ordination messages generated and the message might be discarded. Unit name and index BCSU-0 BCSU-1 BCSU-2 BCSU-3 BCSU-4 BCSU-5 BCSU-6 BCSU-7 BCSU-8 MB-0 MCMU-0 MCMU-1 OMU-0 Average load (%) 0 6.18 Min peak load (%) 1 15 17 17 17 15 14 18 20 19 79 27 32 Max peak load (%) 1 15 17 17 17 15 14 18 20 19 79 27 32 Peak hour (YYYYMMDDHH) 2004120200 2004120215 2004120219 2004120218 2004120215 2004120219 2004120219 2004120215 2004120219 2004120214 2004120214 2004120214 2004120215 Table 17 SD 184 report example 5.71 1. An example can be seen in Table 17.28 8. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. • • When the large majority of the mobiles are DTM capable. The RS 184 report contains the BSC Unit load per hour for each BSC. For processor units the average load of 70% is critical and the average of 60% should not be exceeded.7 7.4 Signaling Load with DTM Usage The signaling load generated by the DTM co-ordination is dependent on the penetration of DTM mobiles.

So the resource allocation is based on the following items below: • • • Cell-Reselection BTS selection and TSL allocation Scheduling The terminal is firstly allocated to a cell. coverage and interference limited). NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. In BSS network further bottlenecks can limit the access to the resources. The (E)GPRS traffic is allocated among: • Cells (Segments) In some of the cases the resource allocations are based on simple and independent measurements (C1.5 Network Controlled Cell Reselection (NCCR) can be used as well based on planning parameters. secondly to a BTS inside segment (if MultiBCF / CBCCH is used) and at the end the allocation is finally based on scheduling. The network resources are usually limited (capacity. .67/169 Managed Services. If the required signaling capacity is provided. as well as in case of QoS or EQoS scheduling. 6. EGENA and PCU allocation algorithm as well. All rights reserved. Resource Allocation in BSS In the previous chapter the accessibility has been investigated from signaling capacity and signaling limitation point of view in the whole BSS chain. From S11. the next step will be to find the most appropriate source for maximizing the user data rate (based on maximized RLC/MAC data rate). C2) while others are using many planning parameters like C31/C32. • TSLs inside BTS The resource allocation among TSLs is based mainly on PCU algorithm (load calculations). • BTSs inside segments The resource allocation inside segment is based on some parameters like GENA. therefore the proper allocation of users among the resources is very important. like EDAP and PCU limitations.

1 Cell Reselection First step in resource allocation procedure is the cell selection (and reselection in mobility). • • • NC0: MS controlled cell reselection.0)) A= received level Average – p1 B= p2-maximum RF Power of the Mobile Station p1= Rxlevel access min (gprsRxLevAccessMin) p2= MS TXPower MAX CCH (gprsMsTxpwrMaxCCH) All values are expressed in dBm. The cell selection and reselection is based on C1.1. C2. NCCR and NACC. NC1: MS controlled cell reselection. ETSI define three network control order parameters. which determine the measurement reporting and network control on the MS. The calculated value of C2 for a non-serving suitable cell exceeds the value of C2 for the serving cell for a period of 5 seconds. the cell is selected autonomously by the mobile using the existing path loss criteria C1 and cell reselection parameter C2. the C2 value for the new cell shall exceed the C2 value of the serving cell by at least CELL_RESELECT_HYSTERESIS dB. 6. in the case of the new cell being in a different location area or. This indicates that the path loss to the cell has become too high. The idea is that the MS compares field strength levels of different cells defined in the idle mode BA list and selects the most appropriate using the C1 criteria: C1 =(a-Max(B. no measurement reporting. C31/C32. in a different routing area or always for a GPRS MS in ready state. for a GPRS MS. and therefore there are no network controlled handovers in GPRS. however. . The network broadcasts on the BCCH the Modified system info 3 and System info 13 parameters related to mobility management. MS sends measurement. POWER_OFFSET is not used. The MS will then check whether: • • The path loss criterion (C1) for current serving cell falls below zero for a period of 5 seconds. The MS calculates the value of C1 and C2 for the serving cell and will re-calculate C1 and C2 values for the neighbouring cells every 5 seconds. NC2: Network controlled cell reselection. which the (E)GPRS mobiles utilize to ensure that they are camped on the cell offering best service in each area (the PBCCH functionality will be described later on in this document). The process for this purpose is called Cell Selection and is based on C1 and C2 comparison.68/169 Managed Services.1 C1 and C2 The Nokia BSS supports network control order NC0. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. If. MS sends measurement reports. All rights reserved. 6.

. C31(s) = RLA(s) .hcsThreshold (s) (serving cell) C31(n) = RLA(n) – hcsThreshold (n) . The C2 parameter was introduced in GSM phase two and designed for use in layered-architecture networks (micro/macro cell/Dual Band). some cells to be packet free if this is the intention... C31 parameter Signal strength threshold criterion (C31) for hierarchical cell structures (HCS) is used to decide whether the cell is qualified for prioritized hierarchical cell selection.temporaryOffset x H(penaltyTime-T) when penaltyTime < 640 or C2 = C1 .2 C31/C32 The C31/C32 parameters will give the possibility to optimize the cell reselection for (E)GPRS without affecting the circuit switched cell reselection behavior. 70 dB) describes how much field strength could have been dropped during this penalty time. The C2 parameter can be utilized together with the C1 parameter to provide the operator with greater traffic management capability. allowing. otherwise the circuit switch signaling channels will be used and consequently C1 and C2.TO(n) * L(n) Where HCS_THR = signal threshold for applying HCS reselection TO(n) = gprsTemporaryOffset (n) * H(gprsPenaltyTime (n) – T(n)) L(n) = 0. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. for example. All rights reserved. In a multi-vendor environment one requirement is that all the vendors should support broadcasting of the C31/C32 parameters. 126 dB) describes an offset to cell reselection. C2 cell reselection is calculated by equation C2 = C1 + cellReselectOffset ..69/169 Managed Services.1. The C31/32 functionality will only be applicable if the PBCCH is allocated. This will allow more flexible use of cell resources. The C2 feature brings associated parameters that are related to microcellular planning. if hcsPriorityClass (n) = PRIORITY_CLASS(s) (neighbor cell) . temporaryOffset (0 . • • • penaltyTime (20 . cellReselectOffset (0 .. 640 s) describes the time delay before the final comparison is made between two cells.cellReselectOffset when penaltyTime=640 6..

T shall be set to the value of PENALTY_TIME (i. All rights reserved. The MS must select the cell having the highest C32 value among those that have the highest priority class among those that fulfill the criterion C31 >= 0. If no cells fulfill the C31>=0 criterion. TO and L as in C31. T is a timer implemented for each cell in the list of strongest carriers.e. . NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. if x >= 0 gprsTemporaryOffset applies a negative offset to C31/C32 for the duration of gprsPenaltyTime after the timer T has started for that cell. except when the previous serving cell is placed on the list of strongest carriers at cell reselection.70/169 Managed Services. The priority classes may correspond to different HCS layers. If PBCCH is not allocated to the cell. if hcsPriorityClass (n) ‡ hcsPriorityClass (s) H(x) = 0. gprsReselectOffset applies an offset and hysteresis value to each cell. T shall be started from zero at the time the cell is placed by the MS on the list of strongest carriers. C32 parameter The cell ranking criterion (C32) is used to select cells among those with the same priority C32(s) = C1(s) (serving cell) C32(n) = C1(n) + gprsReselectOffset (n) – TO(n) * (1 – L(n)) (neighbour cell) Where gprsReselectOffset applies an offset and hysteresis value to each cell. criterions C1 and C2 are used as they are used in current CSW services. if x < 0 1. 1. the MS must select the cell having the highest C32 value. In this case. expired).

. -12.. 108.. -48. 2. 320 (s) with a step size of 10 s 0 to 7 -52. 6. hcsThreshold N (not used) gprsTemporaryOffset 0 .. 12. 2...71/169 Managed Services... All rights reserved. …... 70 dB with a step size of 10 dB 10 . 36 dBm with 2 dBm step for GSM 1800 0 .. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks.. 14 dB Table 18 GPRS parameters . 43 dBm with 2 dBm step for GSM 850 and 900 0 . 14 dB Y/N 0 gprsPenaltyTime 10 hcsPriorityClass gprsReselectOffset 7 0 gprsCellReselHysteresis c31Hysteresis c32Qual raReselectHysteresis 4 N N 4 Y/N 0..48 (dB) 0. 10. 12. 4. 8. 32 dBm with 2 dBm step and 33 dBm for GSM 1900 -110. . -48 dB with 2 dB step 33 dBm for GSM 850 and 900. 12.. Q3 parameter name Range -110…47 dBm MML default -105 gprsRxLevAccessMin gprsMsTxpwrMaxCCH 5 ... 30 dBm for GSM 1800 and 1900. 10. 16. 4. 6.. 8. 10.

time defined by gprsCellReselHysteresis value is subtracted from C32 value for neighbour cells. When N3102 <= 0 is reached. which is basically commanded by Network Control Order 0 (NC0). 5 dBs are subtracted from C32 for neighbour cells. In case of a cell reselection occurred within the previous 15 seconds. When MSs go back to MM Stand By state. MS cell reselection algorithm MS makes cell reselection if path loss criterion (C1) for the serving cell falls below zero. MS can make cell reselection also when it founds a non-serving suitable cell better than the serving cell. When the MS is in ready state. In earlier releases Nokia implemented only MS controlled cell reselection without measurement reports. If c32Qual parameter is set. cell reselection . The best cell is the cell with the highest value of C32 among the cells with the highest PRIORITY_CLASS and fulfill the criterion C31 >= 0 or all cells if there no cell fulfilling the C31 >= 0 criterion. (both in packet idle or in packet transfer mode) Abnormal cell reselection will happen if randomAccessRetry = 1 Going back to the original cell is prohibited by parameter tResel sec if another suitable cell is available.72/169 Managed Services. In NC0. 6. Abnormal Cell reselection Whenever the MS receives PACKET UL ACK/NACK (Packet Ack/Nack is PAN) that allows the advancement of data transmit. If parameter c31Hysteresis is set the GPRS_CELL_RESELECT_HYSTERESIS is subtracted also from C31 neighbour cells. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. More information about cell reselection parameters and its optimization can be found in (E)GPRS Radio Networks – Optimization Guidelines. When there is NCCR in the network cell reselection for MSs in MM Ready state are controlled by the network.1. positive gprsReselectOffset values shall only be applied to the neighbour cell with the highest RLA_P value of those cells for which C32 is compared above. Each time T3182 expires the mobile station shall decrement N3102 by the broadcast value PAN_DEC. When the new cell is from different routing area raReselectHysteresis parameter value is subtracted from C32 for neighbour cells. however N3102 shall never exceed the value PAN_MAX. BSC parameters: • • • An other reason for abnormal cell reselection is MS not being able to read PSI1 in 60 sec. All rights reserved.3 Network Controlled Cell Reselection Target cell to which the cell reselection is done. can be selected by the MS itself or by the network. the mobile station shall increment N3102 by the broadcast value PAN_INC. cell reselection is controlled by MS alone in both MM Ready and MM Standby states whether MS is in Packet Idle Mode or Packet Transfer Mode. the mobile station shall perform an abnormal release with cell reselection.

The NCCR algorithm is based on operator set threshold values. Handover procedure. NCCR is a standard feature for MS and SGSN. . Cell adjacencies and NCO mode are broadcast to MS.2 NCCR Functionality The operator has to set cell adjacencies. is done by MS as in NC0. NCCR algorithm parameters. PCU performs averaging for the measurements and applies NCCR algorithm to averaged measurements. Some operators introduce EGPRS TRXs gradually in GSM networks. i. Network Control Order (NCO) mode and MS reporting period parameters. Quality criterion allows NCCR when the serving cell quality drops even if the signal level is good. 99. so when certain threshold triggers NCCR is started. NCCR support is indicated by setting the Network Control Order to NC2. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks.5 Network Controlled Cell Reselection introduces: o Efficient allocation of EGPRS resources. there may be MSs.3. Quality Control may trigger NCCR. PCU will push EGPRS capable MSs to EGPRS cells and GPRS capable MSs to non-EGPRS capable cells by power budget NCCR criterion. which do not support NCCR and the PCU has to be prepared for that.e. where cell resources are reserved in the target cell before ordering MS cell change is not provided for packet switched services in 3GPP release 4. Once commanded to report neighbour cell measurements MS will send neighbour cell measurements to PCU in a frequency defined by the reporting period parameters. PCU sets MS NCCR context for each MS. Depending on the operator parameter the MS may be commanded to send neighbour cell measurements by broadcasting the command to all MSs or by commanding individual MSs during TBF.1. which send neighbour cell measurement reports.g. Further there is a possibility to switch the NCCR off on 3GPP release basis (Release 97. and decide whether NCCR to WCDMA FDD cells is allowed. MS sends neighbour cell measurements in MM ready state. Cell attractiveness can be defined neighbour cell specifically also taking into account each neighbour cell’s capacities (e. Some cells have EGPRS TRXs and some will not. NCCR can be enabled for Release97 mobiles onward. which has been commanded. Operator can set the feature on/off on BSC level. PBCCH is not needed for NCCR. to NCO when first TBF is set for such MS or when first measurement report from such MS is received. EGPRS resources will be scarce and will need to be allocated efficiently. CS-3/CS-4 or EQoS support).73/169 Managed Services. o o o o NCCR is an optional feature. All rights reserved. Service based NCCR is possible (SGSN UTRAN CCO BSSGP procedure) Possibility to select WCDMA network as soon as it is available or when GSM coverage ends.1.3. PCU will monitor only MSs. depending on operator choice. It means that EQoS can trigger NCCR to make cell selection. 6. 04). 6. However. RR packet transfer and packet idle modes.1 NCCR Benefits Benefits that S11.

In this figure it is shown the algorithm that the BSC would apply for an EGPRS MS. Service based ISNCCR Target cell selection The target cell evaluation is based on an RXLEV threshold algorithm. All rights reserved. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. depicted in Figure 43.74/169 Managed Services.5 includes following NCCR criteria: • Power budget NCCR (NCCR EGPRS PBGT margin. this criterion cannot be used before the MS EGPRS capability is known. NCCR streaming TBF offset.1. NCCR may be tried to offer better service. Target cell selection is performed when the QC NCCR trigger comes and always when new PACKET (ENHANCED) MEASUREMENT REPORT message is received until: • • • • 6. NCCR other PCU cell offset) • • Quality Controlled NCCR Coverage reason ISNCCR The later BSS releases will introduce the following NCCR types: • EQoS Quality Control When serving cell cannot provide the guaranteed throughput or the transmission quality is below operator set threshold.5 EQoS feature implementation. .3 MS NCCR context is deleted TBF is released. The Quality Control (QC) NCCR triggering is described in EQoS planning materials.3. S11. or QC cancels the NCCR trigger. The radio link quality based NCCR is required even irrespective of S11. For GPRS MSs the algorithm is the same except for the Rx level margin comparison. Due to separate thresholds for EGPRS capable and non-capable MSs. NCCR GPRS PBGT margin. which is: AV_RXLEV_NCELL(N) > AV_RXLEV_SERV + CellReselMarginQualforGPRSMS(n) for GPRS MS.

1.75/169 Managed Services. Measurement report processing Is reported BLER over BLER_THRESHOLD? NO YES Search for the neighbouring cell with highest AV_RXLEV_NCELL(n) AV_RXLEV_NCELL(n) > RxLevMinCell(n) + Max(0. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks.3. Pa) NO YES YES Trigger NCCR to cell (n) AV_RXLEV_NCELL(n) > AV_RXLEV_SERV + CellReselMarginQualforEGPRSMS(n) NO NCCR successful YES NO Erase the cell where the failure occurred from target candidate cell list until timer T_NCELL_PENALTY expires Figure 43 Target cell selection 6.4 Signaling Flow The signaling flow of NCCR can be seen below: . All rights reserved.

5 BLER Limits are Needed for the Quality Control Function in PCU2 The maximum block error rate (BLER) limit is set with different parameters in PCU1 and PCU2.The BLER parameter values are not directly comparable though. so they are not converted in the upgrade. For PCU1: • • MAXIMUM BLER IN ACKNOWLEDGED MODE (BLA) MAXIMUM BLER IN UNACKNOWLEDGED MODE (BLU) For PCU2: • • PFC ACK BLER LIMIT FOR TRANSFER DELAY 1 (ABL1) PFC UNACK BLER LIMIT FOR SDU ERROR RATIO 1 (UBL1) The EQoS specific packet flow context (PFC) feature is not applicable with BSC SW release S11. All BLER limit parameters are visible regardless of the EQoS feature’s state. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks.5 and PCU2 Only the ABL1 and UBL1 parameters are used.1. All rights reserved.5 sec Target cell PBCCH of target cell is received Current TBF on serving cell is aborted! PBCCH Waits until PSI1 ocurrence in B0 PBCCH PRACH PAGCH T3174 stops PSI messages Packet Channel Request Packet Uplink Assignment Figure 44 NCCR signaling flow 6. .76/169 Managed Services. although all ABL1-5 and UBL 1-6 parameters are visible. In Quality Control function the above corresponding parameters are used similarly in both PCU1 and PCU2.3. MS Serving cell Uplink Packet Data transfer Packet (Enhanced) Measurement Report Packet Cell Change Order Measurement and NCCR information regarding target cell PACCH • data transmission is resumed in target cell after all the relevant PSI messages have been received PACCH T3174 starts PBCCH • The service outage is 2.

For dual band solution common BCCH has to be applied. which can also support GPRS. The affect on GPRS is that there may be more than one BTS under one segment.2. the RAC is not known at the establishment. which are indicated in Radio Access Capability (RAC) of the (E) GPRS MS.60). Therefore at the TBF establishment and also later for reallocations of the TBF (if necessary) a BTS selection procedure will be utilized. Therefore for a DL TBF the SGSN most probably has the RAC of the (E)GPRS MS. If RX_level is not known then Direct access BTS is selected. The main steps of initial BTS selection is listed below: • BTSs supporting the frequency bands. The main principle of BTS selection is primarily to allocate GPRS TBF to a GPRS BTS and EGPRS TBF to an EGPRS BTS. are selected. (For more on RAC refer to 3GPP 04.1 Initial BTS Selection Initial BTS from SEG is selected in CHM (Channel Management) when new TBF is created. Direct_GPRS_access_threshold parameter is used to compare BTS objects relative preference: when the value of Direct_GPRS_access_threshold parameter is higher than the value of the parameter non BCCH layer offset then the BTS is valid for allocation.BTS's non_bcch_layer_offset > BTS's GPRS_non_BCCH_layer_rxlev_upper_limit. and EGPRS capable BTS. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. • The signal level must be good enough on the selected BTS: If RX_level (C-value) is known then the BTS selected for allocation has to satisfy the following: RX_Lev . - At the TBF establishment phase there may not be any Rx-lev measurement results yet because of that RX-Lev criteria cannot be used. 6. TBF is initially . 6.77/169 Managed Services. It is more likely that for the UL TBF. under the same segment. For example there is one Talk family BTS. If the RAC is not known then BTSs supporting the same frequency band as BCCH BTS are selected. All rights reserved.2 BTS Selection The Common BCCH/Multi BCF features are bringing the new Segment (SEG) concept into planning. Also the operating frequency of the BTSs under one segment can be different for example the BTS which carries BCCH/PBCCH operates in 900 MHz and the other BTS(s) operates in 1800 MHz. RAC may not be known at the time of TBF initiation (RAC information is delivered to the SGSN during the GPRS attach). which supports GPRS. Multi BCF feature can be used in single band environment and this feature will allow also having only one BCCH in the segment. Common BCCH is an optional feature while multi BCF is standard. Therefore there must be GPRS territory in the BCCH band. which supports GPRS.

So if the DirectGPRSaccessBTS = 2 in this segment this means that BTSs with 2 dB less coverage than the BCCH BTS to be allocated as an initial BTS for a TBF. If there is no possible BTS then BTS is not selected and TBF is not created. These measurements are averaged in PCU and the average is used by the allocation algorithm.08. • An EGPRS capable BTS will be selected for a GPRS TBF only if: The segment doesn’t have GPRS capable BTS. It is possible to indicate the preferred BTSs for allocation if the Rx_lev is not known at the TBF establishment.78/169 Managed Services. Preferred GPRS BTS has nonBCCHlayerOffset parameter set so that it is smaller than DirectGPRSaccessBTS. • *DirectGPRSaccessBTS concept has basically been developed for selecting the appropriate BTS at the initial BTS selection. DirectGPRSaccessBTS indicates the risk that can be allowed when allocating a non BCCH BTS in case of no Rx_Lev measurement. allocated to a BTS where DirectGPRSAccessBTS is set on (in practice it means that DirectGPRSaccessBTS > nonBCCHlayerOffset)*. or TBF/TSL > MaxTBFinTSL in every TSL in every GPRS capable BTS (i. The UL Rx. And if compare the nonBCCHlayerOffset with this parameter it is checked whether the BTS fulfils this requirement. All rights reserved.e. of course BCCH BTS is also included. the GPRS territory is totally full) AND average TBF/TSL < MaxTBFinTSL in every EGPRS capable BTS. However it is possible that the RAC of the MS is unknown during initial TBF selection. • If there are several possible BTSs then the BTS in segment with minimum downlink TBF/TSL QoS load is selected. when available. Rx-Lev Measurements are used as BTS selection criteria. Operator may want to direct all the GPRS traffic to the non BCCH BTS(s). The receiving frequency of these measurements depends on how often the uplink TBF gets a transmission turn. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. . In order to do that the GPRSenabledTRX parameter on all the TRXs in the BCCH BTS must be set to OFF. The smaller the value is. In that case the non-BCCH BTS must be from the same band as BCCH band. Actually the Rx-lev reported is averaged by the MS during the polling period. For more information on measurements done by MS please check 3GPP 05. the closer the coverage of the BTS is to the BCCH BTS. This parameter (nonBCCHlayerOffset) indicates coverage area of a BTS in the segment compared to the BCCH BTS. The DL Rx_Lev measurements (C_value) are sent to the PCU in the DL ACK/NACK messages. Then list the BTSs that are appropriate for initial BTS selection. The receiving frequency of these measurements depends on the polling frequency of the TBF.Lev measurement is included to each PCU frame by the BTS. The following figure shows the block diagram of initial BTS selection.

Note3. Note4 BTS_LIST_1 RX-level ? RX-level is known Select from BTS_LIST_1 the BTSs for whom (RX-level . NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks.79/169 Managed Services. Note3: UL: BTSs whose average TBF/TSL is not less than MaximumNumberOfULTBF are not selected Note4: DL: BTSs whose average TBF/TSL is not less than MaximumNumberOfDLTBF are not selected .non_bcch_layer_offset) is bigger than GPRS_non_BCCH_ layer_rxlev_upper_limit and save them in BTS_LIST_2 RX-level is not known Select from BTS_LIST_1 the BTSs whose non_bcch_layer_offset is less than direct_gprs_access_ threshold and save them in BTS_LIST_2 BTS_LIST_2 empty ? No MS is EGPRS capable Is there any EGPRS BTS in the BTS_LIST_2 ? Yes Remove GPRS BTSs from BTS_LIST_2 No MS RAC ? Yes Select from BTS_LIST_1 the BTS whose non_bcch_layer_offset is lowest READY MS is only GPRS capable Is there any GPRS BTS in the BTS_LIST_2 ? No Yes Select the BTS who has the lowest QoS load among the BTSs in the BTS_LIST_2 Remove EGPRS BTSs from BTS_LIST_2 READY Figure 45 Initial BTS selection Note1: If MS RAC band is not known then BCCH band BTSs are selected Note2: BTSs that don’t have PSW territory or channels for PSW are not selected. All rights reserved. START READY TBF type ? concurrent Select the BTS that is already serving the MS UL and DL Select BTSs whose frequency band is included in the MS RAC band information and save them in Note1. Note2.

6.2 BTS Selection for Reallocating TBF TBF reallocation processing can take place if better quality data transfer is expected (related to Rx_level) or BTS packet traffic load is unevenly spread in a segment or between supported frequency bands in a segment. BTS Load reallocation 2. Uplink Rx level reallocation 3. 1. The same algorithm is used for both uplink and downlink reallocation. For example. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks.80/169 Managed Services. Reallocation request to MAC shall be activated in any of the procedures at once (1-4). The mode of the TBF is not changed during reallocation. PCU2 does periodic reallocation check for all non-streaming TBFs to check and reallocate if there are better resources that could be allocated to an MS. The CHM should take care that when it has requested a reallocation for a TBF. If there is not suitable GPRS BTS then EGPRS BTS can be used. It can happen that there are several simultaneous reasons for reallocation. Reallocation check is triggered on transmission of TBF_LOAD_GUARD_THRSHLD RLC data blocks to the MS. . PCU1 triggers periodic reallocation check after TBF_LOAD_GUARD_THRSHLD RLC block periods. if there are heavy traffic and an MS get transmission turns not so often. Selection algorithm for BTS reallocation is quite similar to the case of BTS initial selection but more information is available: Rx-level measurement data is normally available as well as MS RAC information. A certain amount of data blocks are transmitted before PCU2 triggers periodic reallocation check. Downlink Rx level reallocation 4. When better acceptable BTS is not found. PCU1 does periodic reallocation check for an MS once in second. GPRS TBF is reallocated primarily to GPRS BTS. Procedures used to check TBF reallocation activation need in Channel Management (CHM) are in order below. It means that EGPRS TBF cannot be reallocated to GPRS BTS. the TBF is not reallocated. not to time as in PCU1. With TBF_LOAD_GUARD_THRSHLD parameter’s default value. time between periodic reallocation checks for the MS in PCU2 is longer.2. Downlink RX level received first time reallocation Periodical checks are done every time TBF_LOAD_GUARD_THRSHLD amount of block periods are used by the TBF after the last reallocation. Periodic reallocation check in PCU2 is tied to the amount of transmitted data. All rights reserved. it will not anymore request reallocations for the same TBF. If the result of checking is that reallocation is needed then the CHM requests for a reallocation from MAC.

81/169 Managed Services. Note3 : BTSs whose average TBF/TSL is not less than MaximumNumberOfULTBF are not selected (special case: current BTS) Note4 : BTSs whose average TBF/TSL is not less than MaximumNumberOfDLTBF are not selected (special case: current BTS) START Select BTSs whose frequency band is included in the MS RAC band information and save them in BTS_LIST_1 Note1 . either EGPRS or GPRS.non_bcch_layer_offset) is bigger than GPRS_non_BCCH_ layer_rxlev_upper_limit and save them in BTS_LIST_2 RX-level ? RX-level is not known Select from BTS_LIST_1 the BTSs whose non_bcch_layer_offset is less than or equal to the value of current BTS and save them in BTS_LIST_2 READY Select the BTS that is already serving the TBF Yes BTS_LIST_2 empty ? No EGPRS TBF No Is there any EGPRS BTS in the BTS_LIST_2 ? TBF mode ? GPRS TBF Is there any GPRS BTS in the BTS_LIST_2? No Yes Remove GPRS BTSs from BTS_LIST_2 Select the BTS who has the lowest QoS load among the BTSs in the BTS_LIST_2 Yes Remove EGPRS BTSs from BTS_LIST_2 READY Figure 46 TBF reallocation process BTS Load Reallocation The load checking is based on QoS load. The BTS. Note3 for UL and concurrent TBF. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. Note4 for DL and concurrent TBF UL signal level is too low Reason for other reallocation? (UL or concurrent TBF) RX-level is known Select from BTS_LIST_1 the BTSs whose non_bcch_layer_offset is lower than the value of current BTS and save them in BTS_LIST_2 Select from BTS_LIST_1 the BTSs for whom (RX-level . Note2. . Both TBFs are of same mode. The following figure shows the block diagram of TBF reallocation process: Note1 : If MS RAC band is not known then BCCH band BTSs are selected Note2 : BTSs that don’t have PSW territory or channels for PSW are not selected. Concurrent TBF means that the MS has uplink TBF and downlink TBF. All rights reserved. TSL and TBF QoS load is described below: • BTS_QoS_load: Average QoS load in the BTS.

7. For GPRS TBF: if there is a GPRS BTS with 30% lower QoS load and with suitable MS RAC band and with proper signal levels then CHM requests for a reallocation from MAC (or a concurrent reallocation if a concurrent TBF exist). . If BTS_QoS_load / (average QoS load of timeslots where the TBF is allocated) is less than 0. • There are three load checks: 1. BTS QoS load is too high when compared to other BTS The target is to balance BTS_QoS_load between BTSs. 3. GPRS TBF in EGPRS territory This check is done for GPRS TBF in EGPRS BTS. Target is to reallocate TBF to BTS with lower non_bcch_layer_offset value. 6. BTS timeslot load too high when compared to BTS load The target is to balance TSL_QoS_load inside the BTS. then CHM requests for a reallocation from MAC (or a concurrent reallocation if a concurrent TBF exist). All rights reserved.1 Uplink Rx Lev Reallocation The TBF uplink Rx-lev Reallocation check is triggered always when uplink block with signal level value is received. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. For EGPRS TBF: if there is an EGPRS BTS with 30% lower QoS load and with suitable MS RAC band and with proper signal levels then CHM requests for a reallocation from MAC (or a concurrent reallocation if a concurrent RAT exist). ∑ TSL_QoS_lo ad of BTS' s all timeslot number of BTS' s timeslots allocated for PS • TSL_QoS_load: Sum of TBF_QoS_load of TSL’s all TBF TBF_QoS_load: Calculated value for load that TBF creates on a TSL.2. 2. The calculated value is weighted with QoS class of the TBF.2. If the average uplink value gets too low: Uplink_Lev < BTS's GPRS_non_BCCH_layer_rxlev_lower_limit and the segment has ms_supported bands (as indicated in RAC) with lower non_bcch_layer_offset values than the BTS of the current allocation. The target is to reallocate a GPRS TBF away from EGPRS territory. If there is GPRS BTS with proper UL/DL signal levels and the average TBF/TSL of the GPRS BTS is less than maximum_number_of_UL_TBF / maximum_number_of_DL_TBF then CHM requests for a reallocation from MAC (or a concurrent reallocation if a concurrent TBF exist).82/169 Managed Services. then the CHM requests reallocation from the MAC. This is done for uplink TBFs and concurrent TBFs.

If RX_Lev(BCCH) is too low: RX_Lev(BCCH) BTS's non_bcch_layer_offset GPRS_non_BCCH_layer_rxlev_lower_limit < BTS's and the segment has ms_supported bands with lower non_bcch_layer_offset values than the BTS of the current allocation. 1800 band by doing a reallocation as soon as possible.2.110 T ime Figure 47 Level based TBF reallocation 6. 6.2 Downlink Rx Lev Reallocation The TBF Rx-lev Reallocation check is triggered always when Rx_lev value is received. . If received RX_Lev allows reallocation into a different ms_supported band and that BTS has 30% lower load than the BTS currently used by the mobile.2. Segment 1 BTS 1 -48 NBL (Offset). CHM checks if the TBF should be reallocated to BTS of another band.3 Downlink RX Lev Received First Time Reallocation When RX_Lev of a TBF had not been defined (its value is 0xFF) and a value is received for the first time. 6.60 GRPSNonBCCHlayerRxlevLowerLimit = -70 BTS 2 GRPSNonBCCHlayerRxlevLowerLimit = . NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks.2. Can be used for between Bands GRPSNonBCCHlayerRxlevUpperLimit = -48 GRPSNonBCCHlayerRxlevUpperLimit = .g. All rights reserved. This is done for downlink TBFs and concurrent TBFs. The purpose of this is to minimize the loss due to not being able to allocate directly into e. then CHM requests for a reallocation from MAC (or a concurrent reallocation if a concurrent TBF exist). CHM requests reallocation from MAC.4 BTS Selection in PCU2 In PCU1. The target is to find BTS with: RX_Lev(BCCH) BTS's non_bcch_layer_offset GPRS_non_BCCH_layer_rxlev_upper_limit > BTS's The next figure can help to understand the functionality of Rx Lev dependent TBF reallocation.2. BTS selection is made in a way that GPRS MSs are primarily allocated to GPRS BTS and EGPRS MSs to EGPRS BTSs.83/169 Managed Services.2.2.

but in PCU2 multiplexing is not considered as such problem since USF Granularity 4. the amount of channels and the usage of the channels.5 Territory Upgrade Request in PCU2 Moreover. if there are both GPRS and EGPRS TBFs multiplexed in same TSL in a territory. where the selected BTS is GPRS BTS (although the MS is EDGE capable). In that case TBF will be GPRS TBF to the end of the TBF. There can be situation.2. . PCU2 has not lower territory upgrade trigger for multiplexing situation. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks.2. All rights reserved. PCU2 has solution which selects the BTS that provides best calculated capacity for the MS. 6.84/169 Managed Services. PCU2 uses normal 1. PCU1 solution is done to avoid multiplexing. PCU1 triggers territory upgrade request when 1TBF/TSL is exceeded. So the TBF cannot be changed to EGPRS TBF before the TBF has ended.5 TBF/TSL triggering. because multiplexing is not considered as such problem in PCU2 since USF Granularity 4. The calculation is done by using throughput-factor parameters.

Thus. In this document we use the R99 attributes. The MS may request certain values for each attribute. They use the same resources equally. QoS is actually associated with the PDP context. The PCU scheduling algorithm. 6. With the Priority Based Scheduling in BSC the operator can assign different priorities to he users. The subscriber promised or perceived quality is a combination of the different attributes defined by the 3GPP. During the PDP context activation the Network and the MS negotiate the QoS. The PCU scheduling algorithm will make use of the priority information in the scheduling process.3 Channel Scheduling In the GPRS Rel1 the scheduling was done by giving equal amount of air time for each TBF sharing the same TSL.1 Priority based Quality of Service With the GPRS Rel1 all the users have the same priority.3.5. The service experienced (QoE) by high priority users and low priority users are different from each other. is used with S10. Network checks the resource situation and the subscriber QoS profile in the HLR. higher priority TBFs will have a bigger share of the shared TSLs compared to lower priority TBFs. This means that they experience the same level of service. In the scheduling in GPRS Rel2 priority is taken into account. Priority Based Scheduling is introduced as a first step towards QoS defined by 3GPP. 6. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. Eventually the Network sends the QoS to be used to the MS. Priority Based Scheduling. Every subscriber has a QoS profile in the operator’s HLR. a PDP Context . This way the TBFs on the same TSL would share the capacity of the channel equally. All rights reserved. Later on if the SGSN decides to change the QoS of an MS. This is the result of the scheduling algorithm in the PCU. Below is the table showing the QoS attributes in GPRS Release 97/98 and the correspondence to GPRS Release 99. Figure 48 QoS mapping An operator may support some combinations of those factors.85/169 Managed Services.

86/169 Managed Services. which Radio Priority it requires and the PCU will take it into account while scheduling on UL TSLs for that UL TBF. Bronze and Best Effort. Silver. Therefore new priority based scheduling does not affect the number of subscribers served as compared to the Nokia GPRS Rel1. which can be given to the TBF. which will also provide the best QoS for the TBF.2 Channel Allocation QoS is also taken into account during the channel allocation. In both UL and DL higher priority users will be given better service because the PCU will schedule their transmission more often thus they will be given chance to use the radio interface more often than lower priority subscribers. ch=1…A The estimation of the QoS capacity of a channel is affected by the below factors: . Silver. The allocation/retention priority values high. The QoS capacity will be used instead of the actual capacity in the allocation decisions. In the DL the allocation/retention priority in the PDP context profile is used. The reason is that high priority users will be scheduled more often because they are given higher promise to use the radio resources. They will be mapped to 3 scheduling priorities: Gold. will be calculated. meaning that no GPRS call will be rejected due to QoS. informing the new QoS. Depending on the QoS agreed with the SGSN the MS will request certain Radio Priority in accessing the network. Silver and Best Effort. taking all the available channels into account. The PCU will take this information into account while scheduling the DL data. The QoS capacity of all the possible combinations. If the MS does not accept the new QoS it can deactivate the PDP context. The algorithm. tries to distribute the high priority TBFs evenly equal to the available channels. Also the radio priority level to be used for user data transmission shall be determined by the SGSN based on the negotiated QoS profile and shall be delivered to the MS during the PDP Context Activation and PDP Context Modification procedures. Modification message is sent to the MS. This is a part of the 3GPP QoS description as mentioned above. The RLC/MAC layer supports four Radio Priority levels and an additional level for signaling messages.. Finally. configuration with the highest QoS capacity will be chosen. Lower priority subscribers will not experience more blocking than before. 6. QoS capacity will be calculated. Previously in S9. normal. the channel allocation used plainly chose the best combination of TSL for the data capacity. In the UL the MS uses the Radio Priority information in accessing the network. The MS will indicate the network. Best Effort Priority classes respectively.3. The new algorithm tries to find channel combination. but they will experience worse service. The QoS capacity of a number (A) of channels is estimated as the sum of the QoS capacity estimates of all the single channels: c(A)=∑ c(ch). low priorities are mapped to Gold. and whether the cause for the uplink access is user data or signaling message transmission. Upon uplink access the MS can indicate one of the four priority levels. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. All rights reserved. If they are collected onto the same TSLs they limit each other. The 4 Radio Priority will be mapped to 4 UL scheduling priorities in PCU: Gold. Here comes a new concept called the QoS capacity of the channel.

The current time is a TSL specific virtual time . Different scheduling priorities (QoS classes) have different SSS values. Periodically the scheduling algorithm checks the queue to find whose turn it is to use the TSL. That way different TBFs have different latest service times. before which a TBF must be served meaning that it should get a turn to use the TSL. A high priority TBF will be using a smaller SSS so it will have earlier latest service time. which are on that channel. by which the current time is increased each time the TBF is served. A TSL specific latest service time. QoS does not affect the scheduling of the control messages.The connection with the smallest latest service time uses the radio resource at a time. In S9 the step sizes are the same value for every TBF. This results in every user having the same priority because there is no way to differentiate any TBF from the others. The following figure tries to visualize the functionality of Priority based QoS feature with latest service time and SSS parameters. SSS are operator definable. This way it will take more turns than a low priority TBF on that TSL.3. For determining their turn in scheduling each TBF has the following parameters: • • SSS. After each time a TBF uses the channel it is given a new latest service time. they are handled as they are handled in the S9 (there is not prioritization among user data and signaling). The current implementation of the scheduling algorithm gives every TBF a so-called latest service time. Scheduling is done as follows: • • • • • TBFs are in a queue in the TSL In each TSL the first TBF with the smallest latest service time is selected. its latest service time is the virtual time of the TSL. All the TBFs which are assigned to that TSL wait in a queue for that TLS. every time after its service. After is it served the latest service time is increased with the SSS Virtual time is set equal to the smallest 'latest service time' that is found next and scheduling continues. All rights reserved. This time is acquired by adding the predefined Scheduling Step Size (SSS) to the current time.5 makes use of the priorities. It will wait less for its turn next. Every TBF equally uses the TSL. default channels are preferred to additional channels) 6.3 TBF Scheduling The scheduling is channels independent.87/169 Managed Services. . (More on the SSS later) Preference of channels (dedicated channels are preferred to default channels. The Scheduling Step Sizes (SSS) of the TBFs. The new algorithm in S10. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. Also there is a virtual time in the TSL. which is showing the current time as in the S9 algorithm. When a new TBF is added for scheduling. There are 4 SSS for UL and 3 SSS for DL.

The priority information will be passed to the SGSN too.88/169 Managed Services. Queue t i t i 52 TDMA frames = 240 ms= 12 blocks 1 ©NOKIA F ILENAMs. If the access is single block access (two phase access) on RACH. In case of Two Phase Access the following PACKET RESOURCE REQUEST on PACCH again has • • . What will happen in the BSC is that the UL priority for that TBF will be set in the RLC/MAC layer as indicated by the Radio Priority. PACKET CHANNEL REQUEST is used. In the CHANNEL REQUEST message there is no space for Radio Priority Information thus QoS information is not available. which is mapped into the scheduling priority.. If the access is on PRACH..P PT/ DATE / NN Figure 49 Priority based scheduling based on SSS parameters 6.4 QoS Information Delivery In the UL the Radio Priority Information is used to indicate the scheduling (user) priority. CHANNEL REQUEST is used. The scheduling will use the set SSS for that particular priority class for the scheduling of that TBF. it is always "best effort". The scheduling is done based on latest service time. RLC/MAC layer informs the scheduling of the priority of the UL TBF. one T BF at a time is served by the RT SL TBF1 with SSS=6 TBF2 with SSS=1 Latest Service Time = Current Time + Scheduling Step Size 1 2 6 1 Latest service time 3 6 3 4 6 4 5 6 5 6 7 6 6 7 8 12 12 7 8 (virtual time) 9 10 11 12 12 12 9 10 7 2 6 7 6 12 11 . Therefore the priority of the TBF in this case is fixed. in case of One Phase Access and Short Access Request. MS cannot declare the priority of the TBF. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. more details about the access can be given to the network with the PACKET RESOURCE REQUEST on PACCH later. All rights reserved. MS may start the UL TBF in different ways: • If the access is one phase access on RACH. The PACKET RESOURCE REQUEST has the two bits for Radio Priority information. PACKET CHANNEL REQUEST has two bits for Radio Priority information. The priority information will also be forwarded to the SGSN. The scheduling will use the set SSS for that particular priority class for the scheduling of that TBF. so that it is taken into account during the scheduling.3. Whenever there is one phase access on RACH what will happen in the BSC is that the UL priority for that TBF will be set as best effort in the RLC/MAC layer.

The Allocation/Retention priority values (high. Streaming traffic class (with admission control and guaranteed bit rates) will be available with PCU2 Release2 and EQoS combination. . The Interactive and Background traffic class must be used when considering BSS10. However. normal. Priorities (QoS) are then forwarded to the scheduler.89/169 Managed Services. Also in the DL the PCU may receive LLC PDUs with different priority class than the one. low) are mapped to three scheduling priorities (Gold. PCU stores the Allocation/Retention priority of each LLC PDU. 6. which is currently used. RLC/MAC layers inform the scheduler of the priority of the UL TBF. The set SSS for that particular priority class will be used.5 Nokia HLR QoS Settings The Basic feature Quality of Services (QoS) allows different priority levels based on the APNs configurations per user in HLR.The priority is delivered in the Allocation/Retention priority field in QoS Profile. The scheduler will schedule the blocks from this TBF according to the priority values. If the MS wants to change the priority of an existing TBF. Based on the attribute values the data can be marked and directed into different queues in the network elements and thus the packets are treated differently depending on their QoS attributes. Naturally it also affects the channel allocation of new TBFs. Thus. Silver.3. The scheduling will use the set SSS for that particular priority class for the scheduling of that TBF. The RLC/MAC informs the new priority to the scheduler. the Radio Priority information available. All rights reserved. Best effort). QoS change in UL or DL affects the scheduling. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. The QoS attributes are part of PDP context between the terminal and GGSN. TSL load may cause reallocations when periodic reallocation occurs. And the scheduler starts to use the new priority. What will happen in the BSC is that the UL priority for that TBF will be set in the RLC/MAC layer as indicated by the Radio Priority.5/SG3/PCU1. The scheduler has to adjust its scheduling for that TBF. so that it is taken into account during the scheduling. PACKET RESOURCE REQUEST message is used. QoS change doesn’t trigger any reallocations evaluation. Different application servers are connected to the dedicated APNs. The priority information will also be forwarded to the SGSN. On downlink direction every DL DataUnit from SGSN to BSC includes the QoS . In HLR there is defined the QoS profile per APN and subscriber.

Delivery of erroneous SDUs. there are two main parameters related to QoS: ARP and THP. Please refer to the item “TBF Scheduling” for details. The THP information will be used by the SGSN and GGSN to route the traffic to one of the three priority queues. All rights reserved. there is also the indication of a mapped QoS Profile. the THP information must have the same value of ARP.ARP=2 means Normal Priority.ARP=1 means High Priority. -ARP=3 means Low Priority.90/169 Managed Services. For each APN per user. . the priority of each APN is defined: . This QoS Profile contains the requirements for each traffic class (Delivery Order. For each APN configured for a user. • THP (Traffic Handling Priority). Another information contained in the QoS Profile is Traffic Handling Priority. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. The ARP information will be used by the BSS (PCU) to identify the traffic from priority APNs and the SSS parameters can be applied. To allow the usage of the QoS Feature. • ARP (Allocation/Retention Priority). Please refer to the previous figure. SDU error rate etc). . With this parameter. Residual BER. Figure 50 QoS Priority Queues Nokia HLR Parameters and Configuration: Each user has several APNs configured in the HLR user profile.

... N PDP CONTEXT ID ... XXXXXX103140304 SGSN ADDRESS ..RESIDUAL BER. 2 QUALITY OF SERVICES PROFILE ........ NORM UPMAX................. 7 DELAY.... ND SDUMAX................ 7 SDUERR..........COM PDP CHARGING CHARACTERISTIC . 1 PROFILE HANDLING COMMAND <MY_> PDP TYPE .... 6 VPLMN ALLOWED ........ POC ...... 10 Figure 51 Nokia QoS HLR Settings Example The most important HLR parameters are listed below: Delivery order ........ IPv4 PDP ADDRESS .... 50 UPBR.............. INDEX..OPERATOR...... INTERNET............MAXIMUM BIT RATE FOR UPLINK...........................DELIVERY OF ERRONEOUS SDU.. VPLMN ALLOWED .......................... All rights reserved................ N CELL UPDATE INFORMATION ... Y ALLOCATION CLASS ...................................... POCxxx CLASS............... 1 QUALITY OF SERVICES PROFILE ...........QOS PROFILE INDEX............................QOS PROFILE NAME.........MAXIMUM SDU SIZE................ NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks.....DELIVERY ORDER....16 PDP TYPE ..........indicates the undetected BER in the delivered SDU....... N DELERR....... 1 APN ................COM PDP CHARGING CHARACTERISTIC ................ 1 PDP CONTEXT ID ..... 16 PRIOR....... NORM NAME............ N NETWORK ACCESS ...GUARANTEED BIT RATE FOR UPLINK..... I ORDER...TRAFFIC CLASS............................. IPv4 QOS PROFILE INFORMATION: PDP ADDRESS .91/169 Managed Services.. BOTH CHARGING CHARACTERISTIC ....... Follow examples of a Nokia user profile (left) configured in HLR and a QoS profile (right): GPRS SUBSCRIBER DATA HANDLING COMMAND <MN_> GPRS DATA PARAMETERS IMSI .............. 6 APN .....TRAFFIC HANDLING PRIORITY...MAXIMUM BIT RATE FOR DOWNLINK.........................GUARANTEED BIT RATE FOR DOWNLINK..............indicates whether the UMTS bearer shall provide in-sequence SDU delivery or not....... 16 BER...SDU ERROR RATIO............... GPRS ROAMING PROFILE . 1500 DWNMAX..... Residual BER . N ALLOCATION CLASS .OPERATOR..... 16 DWNBR... . XXXXXX95035 MT-SMS VIA SGSN .... SDU error rate – indicates the fraction of SDUs lost or detected as erroneous Delivery of erroneous SDUs – whether or not error detection is needed and if the error messages should be forwarded or not...TRANSFER DELAY.

The channel allocation steps are listed below: • • • • • • • BTS selection o in single-BTS scenarios this step is omitted TRX selection o TRX pair providing the best DLDC capacity is determined o TRX providing the best Single Carrier capacity is selected Determination of the Rx/Tx-window size o the number of TSLs to be allocated to TBF(s) Determination of DLDC allocation candidates o all configurations which could be assigned to MS considering current resources availability Selection of the highest-capacity DLDC allocation Selection of the highest-capacity single carrier (SC) allocation Final allocation selection o the best one of the previously determined DLDC and SC allocations The following flow chart shows the way how the resources are allocated for DLDC connections: start Yes BTS selection needed? No BTS selection (including TRX selection) TRX(s) TRX(s) selection Rx/Tx Rx/Tx window determination DLDC allocation candidates determination DLDC allocation selection (capacity calculation and validity checks) Single Carrier allocation selection (capacity criterion) Final allocation selection (SC and DC comparison) ready 6.92/169 Managed Services.4 DL Dual Carrier DL Dual Carrier (DLDC) allows to allocated max 10 RTSLs allocated to one TBF. 6. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. All rights reserved.5 Flow Control on Gb . therefore the maximum throughput is around 500 kbps on RLC/MAC layer in practice.

. SGSN adjusts the transmission towards the PCU accordingly. The control is for each BVC (cell) separately and for each MS in each cell.93/169 Managed Services. The MS specific control is taking care of the cell specific control also. The capacity per FRBC is 1…31 TSL (1984 kbps). The purpose is to prevent the buffers in the PCU from overflowing. BSS 1 SGSN PAPU 1 NSEI_1 NS-VCI_7 NS-VCI_2 BVCI_0 BVCI_3 Bearer Channel_1 DLCI_16 NS-VCI_7 DLCI_17 NS-VCI_2 NSEI_1 PCU 1 LA RA 1 BVCI_0 BVCI_3 Bearer Channel_2 DLCI_16 DLCI_17 NSEI_2 NS-VCI_5 BVCI_0 NS-VCI_8 BVCI_6 NS-VCI_3 NSEI_2 NS-VCI_5 PCU 2 BTS_3 BTS_6 DLCI_18 BVCI_0 NS-VCI_8 NS-VCI_3 BVCI_6 Bearer Channel_3 DLCI_16 DLCI_17 RA 2 BTS_8 PAPU 2 Bearer Channel_4 NSEI_3 NS-VCI_4 NS-VCI_1 NS-VCI_11 DLCI_16 NSEI_3 NS-VCI_4 NS-VCI_1 NS-VCI_11 PCU 3 BTS_22 BVCI_8 BVCI_0 BVCI_22 BVCI_8 BVCI_0 BVCI_22 Bearer Channel_5 DLCI_16 BSS 2 NSEI_7 NS-VCI_6 PAPU 3 DLCI_17 NSEI_7 NS-VCI_6 NS-VCI_9 BVCI_0 BVCI_22 Bearer Channel_6 PCU 3 BVCI_0 BVCI_22 LA RA BTS_22 BSSGP NS FR Data Signal Data & Signal NS-VCI_9 Figure 52 Gb Interface logical structure 6. All rights reserved. it sends Flow Control messages to the SGSN. This information contains the new flow control parameters for the cell or the MS. BSS performs flow control for the data between SGSN and BSC. both user traffic and overheads) is 2 Mbps (32 TSL x 64 kbps).1 Gb interface capacity for PCU2-D and PCU2-E PCU2-D The max Gb throughput per logical PCU (incl.5 the cell flow control is implemented. In S10. The number of frame relay bearer channels (FRBC) per logical PCU is 4 FRL/NS-VC. When the BSS realizes these limits were exceeded. whichever had exceeded the limit. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks.6 6. SGSN takes these parameters and stores them. There is flow control only in the DL. BSS will indicate the maximum allowed throughput for a BVC(cell) and maximum allowed throughput for a TLLI (MS) to the SGSN. It adjusts the flow according to the new parameters for that particular cell or MS. The flow control mechanism manages the transfer of BSSGP UNITDATA PDUs sent by SGSN on the Gb interface to the BSC (PCU).6.

the capacity of the Gb interface remains the same. 6.6. DFCA layer is dedicated for Circuit Switched services only.94/169 Managed Services. The number of FRBC per logical PCU is 16 FRL/NS-VC.7 Gb over IP The increased demand for packet switched traffic transmission cost efficiency can be met by deploying IP in the transmission network. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. . respectively.2 PCU2-E The max Gb throughput per logical PCU (incl. regardless of whether IP or FR is used as the transport technology. 6.5 and up to BSS 14 DFCA requires its own layer.3 Applicable for both PCU2-E / PCU2-D The max Gb throughput can be reached with more than 1 FRBC. Gb over IP: PCU processing capacity is the limiting factor More information about Gb planning is available in Gb Detailed Planning Guide document in IMS. 6. so speech is allocated to regular or BCCH layer.6. IP offers an alternative way to configure the subnetwork of the Gb interface: • the subnetwork is IP-based and the physical layer is Ethernet The introduction of IP makes it possible to build an efficient transport network for the IP based multimedia services of the future. Gb over FR: capacity of the transport links may limit the throughput. 6. The capacity per FRBC: 1…31 TSL (1984 kbps). Regardless of how many FRBC are created within a PCU their total rate can not exceed 32 x 64 kbps and 128 x 64 kbps for PCU2-D and PCU2-E. IP transport can be used in parallel with FR under the same BSC and BCSU • Within one BCSU. both user traffic and overheads): 8 Mbps (128 TSL x 64 kbps). separate PCUs can use different transmission media In the BSC.8 (E)GPRS in DFCA DFCA was introduced in BSS 11. All rights reserved. while (E)GPRS must be allocated to BCCH or regular layers and PS territory cannot be extended into the DFCA layer. Both the IPv6 and IPv4 protocol versions are supported.

DFCA in S14 will support (E)GPRS on DFCA layer. so there is not any need for regular layer anymore. .95/169 Managed Services. All rights reserved. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks.

1 GSM Network Performance The (E)GPRS TSL data rate is characterized by signal level and C/I ratio of the GSM network. The impact of both of these items is described in the following subsections below: 7. Therefore the BSS network capacity is planned by RLC/MAC data rate and territory settings (see Chapter 8). The design provides the basis for Uplink and Downlink Budget calculations. moreover the network can be optimized by the same items. However the different coding schemes have different coverage area.com/Open/376269546 The physical layer of EGPRS is the existing GSM network.nokiasiemensnetworks. packet services can tolerate delay and throughput variations and maximize the capacity thanks to advanced features like LA and IR.inside. . NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks.96/169 Managed Services. However. unlike CS network planning. The link budget calculation in excel format can be downloaded from the following link: https://sharenet-ims. All rights reserved.1. 7. as it can be seen in Figure 53. 7. as well. (E)GPRS Timeslot Data Rate RLC/MAC timeslot data rate and the number of allocated TSLs to one user give the exact picture about (E)GPRS functionality in BSS network. Therefore the EGPRS coverage area is depending on GSM service area. The (E)GPRS TSL data rate is depending on the following items: • • • • • • • GSM network performance TSL Utilization TBF Release Delay BS_CV_MAX Link Adaptation Functionality Power Control (UL) Multiplexing All the items above are further described in the subsections below.1 Impact of Coverage Level The radio wave propagation formulas are the basis of coverage prediction.

The normal GSM voice coverage value is somewhere between MCS1 and MCS2.97/169 Managed Services. with C/N being Eb/No + 1. EGPRS Coverage Relative to MCS-5 (noise limited) 2. For schemes with 1bit/s/Hz.5 1 0. M .5 Relative range 2 1. All rights reserved.3dB.1 • • • • Figure 53 EGPRS Relative coverage to MCS5 The MCS-5 coverage is approx 50% of MCS-1. assuming the receiver noise bandwidth is matched to the channel bandwidth. Es/No = 3*Eb/No which is 10*log(3) = 4.35 bit/s/Hz for GMSK modulation. For 8-PSK. C/N and Eb/No are linked by the spectral efficiency of the modulation scheme. This represents on offset of 1. Signal Strength Requirements Signal-to-noise levels in digitally modulated systems are commonly expressed in terms of Eb/No. Es/No is the equivalent for the symbol case (1 bit = 1 symbol in GMSK.5 0 1 5 6 2 3 4 7 S S S S C S M C M C M C M C M C M C S M C M C S9 S8 S 7.1. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. Es/No or C/N. C/N is received power divided by the total noise in the relevant RF bandwidth. 3bits = 1 symbol in 8-PSK). In GSM the spectral efficiency is 271kbit/s/200kHz =1.3dB in log terms. Eb/No is the available bit energy (received power * bit duration) divided by the noise spectral density (-174dBm/Hz). The above can be summarized in the Table 19.77 in log terms.1. while MCS-8 coverage is approx 40% of MCS-5. Eb/No is equal to C/N.

98/169 Managed Services. as no handover scheme is implemented. a 16.07dB Table 19 Signal-to-noise measurement equivalence The required Es/No is based on the required Eb/No (bit energy divided by noise spectral density) from simulation results. However. however it is also possible to calculate for a given data rate. MHA Gain If the cable loss is that high that the signal level reaches or cross the noise floor at the input.1. All rights reserved.2 Receiving End The receiving end contains the following items: Sensitivity Base station sensitivity should be checked from appropriate marketing personnel before each dimensioning (or other) exercise. UltraSite sensitivity is found to be a bit better than the previous generation's BTSs (Talk family). depending on configurations lower antenna gains are found (14 dB in the GSM 900 bands).1. Moreover. Body loss As the next generation of data terminals is assumed to be hand-held in a PDA fashion.3dB = Eb/No + 6. Note that isotropic antenna will help in the Rx diversity schemes as the number of scatterers is increased (increased diversity and less subject to higher signal variation as well).77dB C/N = Eb/No +1. However. A 2 dB fast fading margin is assumed in the voice traffic case. antenna gain. This compares with an assumed loss of 3dB for a handset held near the head. the PDA type of configuration is assumed to have a 3dB advantage compared to MS near the head.5 dB antenna gain is assumed. GSM Modulation GMSK 8-PSK Es/No C/N Es/No=Eb/No Es/No = Eb/No + 4. At the MS. the link is based on retransmission and cell reselection. MHA gain if applicable. 7. This latter case will become more widely used as functionality such as link adaptation and incremental redundancy will tend to mask. the actual underlying channel performance. At the BS. the SNR will not be enough to guarantee the quality of the reception. no body loss is taken into account for (E)GPRS scenarios. etc. Cable loss + connector and Rx antenna gain The system sensitivity is depending on cable and connector loss. additional noise. Additional fast fading margin For packet transmission. to some extent. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks.3dB C/N = Es/No + 1. antenna gains may vary across a network. . Typically link budgets may consider a certain modulation and coding scheme at a certain block error rate.

5dB). Diversity Gain The diversity gain is depending on the separation of receiver antennas.5 dBm UltraSite EDGE BTS Mini: 47 dBm FlexiEDGE: • 47 dBm The MS Tx powers are listed below: GSM 850/900: GSM 1800/1900: 33 dBm (2W) 30 dBm (1W) Back-off for 8-PSK Pls. The difference between the SNR with MHA and without corresponds to the noise figure of the amplifier. Isolator+combiner+filter Particular attention should be given to the configurations (combiner by-passed. 2:1 WBC. The usage of MHA is directly depending of the sensitivity and the noise floor at the input of the receiver and the loss the cable or the feeder is causing. while UltraSite coverage for uplink MCS-5 4dB worse than Talk speech. Cable loss + connector and Tx antenna gain It is same as in case of Receiving End. Transmitting End Tx RF output peak power • The BS Tx powers are listed below: GSM 900 Talk family: 43dBm GSM 1800 Talk Family: 41.99/169 Managed Services. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. 4:1 WBC. the SNR without MHA will always be better if the noise floor is down enough.3. RTC) as it impacts on the actual radiated power at the antenna.5 dBm Ultrasite: 44. UltraSite coverage for downlink MCS-5 very similar to Talk speech (within 0. All rights reserved. 7. Refer to chapter 2.3 Measurement Results The following figure shows the impact of signal level on RLC/MAC data rate (without interference): .1. In case of horizontal separation 4 meters separation generate around 3 dB diversity gain.1.

RLC/MAC data rate .100/169 Managed Services. All rights reserved. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. RLC/MAC Data Rate (2 TSLs) 120 100 80 kbps 60 40 20 0 -74 -76 -78 -80 -82 -84 -86 -88 -90 -92 -94 -96 -98 -100 -102 -104 RxLev (dBm) RLC/MAC Data Rate (2M Download on 2 TSLs) Figure 54 Signal level vs.

caused by time-domain instabilities. an increase in C/I. however it is worth notice that if the existing GPRS traffic tends to convert to EGPRS. C/I can be degraded. and. (Phase noise: in an oscillator.1 Simulation Results The following figures show results of link-level simulations from RAS/Oulu. 7. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks.1.1. kbit/s C Figure 55 8-PSK TU3 non-hopping. At high load levels. in turn. impairments included / 8-PSK modulation is sensitive to distortion in the RF hardware. 7. short-term.) . They do give a good estimation of the data rates achievable with EDGE and the effect of channel environment and frequency hopping.101/169 Managed Services. the higher data rates will lead to reduced TCH occupancy. rapid. All rights reserved.2 Impact of Interference Level The C/I target values will determine the (E)GPRS coverage and it is likely that frequency planning will need reconsidering in order to meet the required values. So ther is tx/rx impairment because of phase noise and non-linearity.2. random fluctuations in the phase of a wave.

impairments NOT included Observing the maximum available data rates it can be seen that MCS-9 with incremental redundancy offers the highest throughputs at all but the lowest C/Is. on average.102/169 Managed Services. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. although for these the loss is closer to zero.5dB). A consequence of this is that there is no hopping gain (in fact there is a small hopping ‘loss’ of up to 1. it may be more appropriate in some C/I intervals to select MCS-7 or MCS-8 which. All rights reserved. frequency hopping can actually increase BLER due to the action of randomizing the error distribution. although having slightly worse C/I in the ‘ideal’ case might perform better in the situation with impairments. This is because MCS-9 has no Forward Error Correction (FEC) on the user data and. Figure 56 8-PSK TU3 ideal frequency hopping. The same applies to MCS-7 and MCS-8. Simulations have been performed that indicate typical data throughputs that might be achievable in practical networks. As a consequence of this. as there is no FEC to correct any errors that may occur. . MCS-9 is also the MCS with the highest susceptibility to errors due to impairments.

103/169 Managed Services. Figure 57 Data rates – re-use 1/3 load =50% The following simulation results show for static trials the throughput in a 3 sector site with 50% load and reuse 1/3. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. higher reuse factors decrease the spectrum efficiency. New C/I target values resulting coverage will be highly dependent on frequency reuse factors. It is of interest to compare it with EDGE simulation where a 3/9 reuse pattern is implemented. . All rights reserved. On the other hand. Smaller reuse factor will limit those higher data rates on smaller coverage near the Base Station (BS) and will reduce to best effort during peak hours.

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Figure 58 Data rates – re-use 3/9 load =50%

Expected real scenarios should demonstrate average data rates of nearly 3 times GPRS data rates (roughly the increase due to higher modulation scheme).

Throughput [kbps/slot] vs reuse factor and range
60 50 throughput 40 30 20 10 0 MCS8-IR reuse 1/3 MCS8-FEC reuse 1/3 MCS8-IR reuse 3/9 MCS8-FEC reuse 3/9 Whole cell range< 2km range< 1km

coding schemes combination

Figure 59 Data performance v re-use and range

In case of FEC the IR is not used, while in case of IR bars the incremental redundancy is under operation.

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The following figures show the throughput from static simulations for MCS1 and MCS5. The closer to the BS, the highest is the probability to achieve the maximum data rates. The system simulated is close to a 7/21 re-use.

Figure 60 MCS-1 performance

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Figure 61 MCS-5 performance

Control channel performance is also of primary concern as it conditions the traffic channels data rates. The following Figure shows the probability of error free reception of control blocks, e.g., access grants. From the results, for RLC block to work properly at BLER of 5%, indicates that reuse factors of at least 3/9 are needed. Depending on the real layout of Base stations, higher frequency reuse might be required.

Control channel performance
1.2 1 BLER < 5% 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 Whole cell range< 2km Range range< 1km 4/12 3/9 1/3

Figure 62 Control Channel performance vs. Range

In dense network environment the 1/3 reuse’s performance can be the same compared to 3/9 and 4/12. If the cell range is bigger than 2 km, the 1/3 reuse has the worse performance compared to 3/9 and 4/12. 7.1.2.2 Spectrum Efficiency and Frequency Reuse As it can be seen from the Figure 63 the 2/6 reuse brings the most effective spectral usage. The figure below shows the impact of reuse on spectral efficiency.

3 Mixture of Signal Level and Interference The following figure shows the impact of signal level and interference: .3 Measurement Results The Figure 64 below shows the impact of interference on RLC/MAC data rate (the signal level is high enough to measure the impact of C/I only).4 146. RLC/MAC data rate 7. Spectrum efficiency values with QoS criteria (IR + LA) 180 175 Spectrum efficiency [kbit/s/km /MHz] 170 165 160 155 150 145 140 Reuse 1/3 Reuse 2/6 Reuse 3/9 Reuse 4/12 174 177.1. 2 C/I dependency (FTP Download on 2 TSLs) 120 100 80 kbps 60 40 20 0 36 34 32 30 28 26 24 22 20 18 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 C/I RLC/MAC Data Rate (2M Download 2TSLs) Figure 64 C/I vs.107/169 Managed Services. spectral efficiency 7.3 Figure 63 Reuse vs. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. All rights reserved.2.1.5 175.

NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. All rights reserved. RLC/MAC Data Rate (FTP Download on 2 TSLs) 120 100 80 kbps 60 40 20 0 -65 -70 -75 -80 -85 -90 -95 -100 -105 Signal level (dBm) No Interference C/I 25 dB C/I 20 dB C/I 15 dB Figure 65 Impact of signal level and interference on RLC/MAC data rate .108/169 Managed Services.

GPRS Downlink Threshold is used in RLC to trigger a downlink acknowledge poll to the MS.2.2. • • • GPRS Uplink Threshold is used in RLC to trigger an uplink acknowledge message to the MS.2. 7. All rights reserved. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. • • • EGPRS Uplink Threshold is used in RLC to trigger an uplink acknowledge message to the MS.1. EGPRS Downlink Threshold is used in RLC to trigger a downlink acknowledge poll to the MS.2 TSL Utilization Improvement The timeslot should be fully utilized.1. .109/169 Managed Services.2 (E)GPRS DL/UL Penalty and Threshold • EGPRS Uplink Penalty is used in RLC to trigger an uplink acknowledge message to the MS. EGPRS Downlink Penalty is used in RLC to trigger a downlink acknowledge poll to the MS. The mobile station is polled when the counter exceeds the threshold value of (E)GPRS_DOWNLINK_THRESHOLD ((E)GPRS_UPLINK_PENALTY). The counter is incremented by (1 + (E)GPRS_DOWNLINK_PENALTY ((E)GPRS_UPLINK_PENALTY)) whenever a negatively acknowledged RLC data block is retransmitted. which is incremented by one whenever an RLC data block is transmitted for the first time or retransmitted pre-emptively. GPRS Downlink Penalty is used in RLC to trigger a downlink acknowledge poll to the MS.1 Acknowledge Request Parameters These parameters below are used by the RLC acknowledgement algorithm to determine how frequently the PCU polls the mobile station having a DL / UL TBF in EGPRS mode. The TSL utilization can be optimized by • • Acknowledge Request Pre-emptive Transmission 7. So the higher ratio of RLC/MAC data blocks compared to signaling on PACCH will lead to better user perception. The PCU has a counter. 7. 7.1 GPRS DL/UL Penalty and Threshold • GPRS Uplink Penalty is used in RLC to trigger an uplink acknowledge message to the MS.

5 ED) The TBF Release Delay parameters are used to avoid the unnecessary TBF establishments and hereby provide faster data rate. All rights reserved. 1) 2) The oldest NACKED state block is selected (In BSN order) If no NACKED state block exists then a new block is generated 3) If no NACKED state block exists and transmit window is stalled or there is not new data then the oldest PENDING_ACK state block is selected PRE_EMPTIVE_TRANSMISSION (1 bit field) bit informs the mobile station if it may or may not transmit the oldest RLC data block whose corresponding element in V(B) has the value PENDING_ACK when the protocol is stalled or has no more RLC data blocks to transmit. There are two modifiable parameters related to Delayed TBF feature among PRFILE parameters: • • DL_TBF_RELEASE_DELAY UL_TBF_RELEASE_DELAY 7.1.2 PRE_EMPTIVE_TRANSMISSIO If the pre-emptive transmission bit is set to '1' in the PACKET UPLINK ACK/NACK message and there are no further RLC data blocks available for transmission.3.3 TBF Release Delay Parameters (S10. def 1s). since the possibly following uplink TBF can be established faster or if the new data arrive to the PCU the transmission can be immediately resumed. See details from [04. the sending side shall transmit the oldest RLC data block which is in PENDING_ACK state.2. 7. it requests the establishment of an uplink TBF from the BSC.3. When the MS wants to send data or upper layer signaling messages to the network.2 Acknowledge State Array V(B) for EGPRS TBF Mode]. There are the following main alternatives for the TBF establishment: • on PACCH.60].60.1 DL_TBF_RELEASE_DELAY This parameter is used to adjust the delay in downlink TBF release (0. 9. The following principle is used. 7.110/169 Managed Services. An appropriate delay time increases the system performance. used when a concurrent DL TBF exists . When using delayed TBF frequent releases and re-establishments of downlink TBF can be avoided. The RLC selects RLC data blocks as specified in [04. 0 1 The mobile station shall not use pre-emptive transmission. The mobile station shall use pre-emptive transmission. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks.1-5sec.

Typical value is 220 ms (every 11 block periods).3. New poll is sent as soon as the MS has responded to previous poll.3. 7. at least one time every 360 ms). PCU1 Defined by RLC RTT. because it seems that some mobiles are not supporting the transmission of dummy blocks in the delayed period very well.5s). NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. used when there is no PCCCH in the cell and no concurrent DL TBF on PCCCH. There can be lot of “TBF lost due to no response from MS”. Probably.1-3sec. The UL TBF establishment is faster if there is a concurrent DL TBF. If more data will arrive from the upper layer during the delayed period they can not be sent within existing TBF. this situation is even more critical when the C/I conditions are bad and the MS has some problems in decoding USF.2 DL_TBF_RELEASE_DELAY in PCU2 Delayed downlink TBF polling rate is different for PCU1 and PCU2. How often the MS is polled during delayed downlink TBF release. In the delayed period. 7. used when a PCCCH exists in the cell and there is no concurrent DL TBF During the delayed period the TBF is kept alive based on sending DL RLC/MAC blocks (generated by dummy LLC frames) in DL TBF (Polling the mobile.3 UL_TBF_RELEASE_DELAY This parameter is used to adjust the delay in uplink TBF release (0. therefore the longer delay in DL TBF Release can help to have faster signaling and finally faster data rate. . All rights reserved. PCU2 Defined by PRFILE parameter: POLLING_INTERVAL_BG.111/169 Managed Services. since the possibly following downlink TBF can be established faster. Note: The first poll period may be longer (240 -280 ms) but after that the period is defined by POLLING_INTERVAL_BG. a DL dummy block with S/P = 1 is sent in order to poll the MS. In PCU2. in the sense that some MSs do not respond to the dummy block with S/P set to 1. Default value is 80 ms (every 4 block periods). This parameter is Nokia specific and is not linked to the Extended UL TBF Rel 4 feature. An appropriate delay time increases the system performance. • • on CCCH. POLLING_INTERVAL_BG defines the time in block periods how often the MS is polled during delayed downlink TBF release. In PCU1 the time is not adjustable by any parameter. def 0.

used when there is no PCCCH in the cell. 7. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. The RLC data block sent must have the highest BSN' (Block Sequence Number) of the downlink TBF. the TBF is kept alive based on sending PACKET UL ACK/NACK in UL TBF. the MS starts the timer T3192 and continues monitoring the PACCH of the released TBF until T3192 expires.60 9. 2. according to the algorithm defined in sub-clause 3GPP 04. No USF turns are scheduled during this delay. According to test measurement results. During the timer T3192 the PCU makes the establishment of a new DL TBF by sending a PACKET_DOWNLINK_ASSIGNMENT on the PACCH of the 'old' DL TBF. The mobile station shall continue to send RLC data blocks on each assigned uplink data block. it shall start timer T3182. The DL TBF establishment obviously takes time and done in one of the following ways: • on PACCH. But during the release phase. The establishment is done with a PACKET_DOWNLINK_ASSIGNMENT or PACKET_TIMESLOT_RECONFIGURE message.112/169 Managed Services. The network shall start timer T3191. When the mobile station has sent the RLC data block with CV = 0 and there are no elements in the V(B) array set to the value Nacked.3. For each retransmission the timer T3191 is restarted.) concurrent UL TBF exists or 2. used when a PCCCH exists in the cell. If the network has received all RLC data blocks when it detects the end of the TBF (when CV=0). and there is no concurrent UL TBF and T3192 is not running The faster DL TBF establishment can be achieved by using PACCH.5 Release of uplink Temporary Block Flow The mobile station initiates release of the uplink TBF by beginning the countdown process. no concurrent UL TBF. include a valid RRBP field in the RLC/MAC control block header and clear counter N3103.) The effect of UL TBF release delay is taken into account when there is no concurrent DL TBF for the same MS. it shall send the PACKET UPLINK ACK/NACK message with the Final Ack Indicator bit set to '1'. While timer T3191 is running the network may retransmit the RLC data block with the FBI bit set to the value '1'. and T3192 is not running on PCCCH.4 Release of downlink Temporary Block Flow The network initiates the release of a downlink TBF by sending an RLC data block with the Final Block Indicator (FBI) set to the value '1' and with a valid RRBP field.) When the DL TBF is released. HTTP likes it but PoC does not like TBF Release Delay.3. • • on CCCH. . 7.1.) when the timer T3192 is running in the MS 1.3. All rights reserved. The purpose of the delay is to speed up the possibly following DL TBF establishment. used when 1.

113/169 Managed Services. .4 TBF Release Delay Extended (S11 onwards) EUTM is Rel4 feature and both MS and NW-support are required (the network uses MS RAC to distinguish EUTM support). MS Radio Access Capability (RAC) received from SGSN or MS with Packet Resource Request (PRR) message (one or two-phase access).A.) 7. if it gets more data to send. Polling=NO) Schedule USF turn for MS UL dummy control block EUTM delay timer starts UL TBF Schedule Rate Ext Schedule USF turn for MS Data block with new BSN and CV EUTM delay timer stopped. MS Data block with CV = 0 BSC / PCU UL TBF extended state PACKET UL ACK/NACK (FAI=0. but acknowledging all received blocks. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks.1 TBF is Continued based on EUTM The following figure shows the flow chart when the TBF is continued based on EUTM. EUTM supporting mobile is allowed to recalculate Countdown value (CV) during procedure. PCU notices this by monitoring Block Sequence Number (BSN) and CV sent by MS.899. After receiving CV=0 block PCU starts UL extended state. It sends Packet Uplink Ack/Nack message to MS with no Final Ack Indicator (FAI) on. Extended UL TBF delay is used always when supported (with and without concurrent DL TBF) EUTM might need MML-activation and BCSU restart (ZWOA:2. 7.4. TBF continues Data block Figure 66 TBF is Continued based on EUTM Countdown procedure is ongoing. All rights reserved.

After receiving CV=0 block PCU starts UL extended state.4.114/169 Managed Services. If MS has no new data to send it sends UL dummy control blocks on its sending turn. 7. Polling=YES) PACKET CONTROL ACK UL TBF terminated EUTM delay timer expires Figure 67 TBF is not continued based on EUTM Countdown procedure is ongoing. PCU notices this by monitoring Block Sequence Number (BSN) and Countdown value (CV) sent by MS. EUTM supporting mobile is allowed to recalculate CV during procedure. according adjustable release delay parameter. but acknowledging all received blocks. PCU sends Packet Uplink Ack/Nack message to MS with FAI on. Polling=NO) EUTM delay timer starts UL TBF extended state Schedule USF turn for MS UL dummy control block UL TBF Schedule Rate Ext Schedule USF turn for MS UL dummy control block Schedule USF turn for MS UL dummy control block PACKET UL ACK/NACK (FAI=1.2 TBF is Not Continued based on EUTM The following figure shows the flow chart when the TBF is not continued based on EUTM. When UL extended state ends. . NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. All rights reserved. During UL extended state PCU schedules USFs for MS according adjustable scheduling rate parameter. if it gets more data to send. If MS has no new data to send it sends UL dummy control blocks on its sending turn. It sends Packet Uplink Ack/Nack message to MS with no Final Ack Indicator (FAI) on. During UL extended state PCU schedules USFs for MS according adjustable scheduling rate parameter. MS Data block with CV = 1 Data block with CV = 0 BSC / PCU PACKET UL ACK/NACK (FAI=0.

the RLC data block was recently retransmitted and thus can not be validly negatively acknowledged in this particular PACKET UPLINK ACK/NACK message).4. 7. TBF is returned to scheduling and is gets a transmission turn when scheduler decides so. In PCU1. according adjustable release delay parameter. After POLLING_INTERVAL is elapsed. How often a USF is scheduled for the MS during the inactivity period in Extended UL TBF Mode.1) – 1) (i. UL_TBF_SCHED_RATE_EXT defines the next block period when a TBF in extended mode is given a transmission turn. In PCU2. The mobile assumes that it takes at least BS_CV_MAX block period to: -Transmit the block to the network and -Transmit an acknowledgement message to the mobile. then the MS is not expecting to receive a nack for the transmitted block. Default value is 80 ms (every 4 block periods). PCU sends Packet Uplink Ack/Nack message to MS with Final Ack Indicator (FAI) on. a TBF in extended mode cannot have better residual capacity than it would in normal mode. POLLING_INTERVAL_BG defines the time in block periods that TBF in extended state cannot have transmission time.. All rights reserved. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. However. 2) T3200 The mobile station shall start an instance of timer T3200 following the receipt of an RLC/MAC control block whose RTI (Radio Transaction Identifier) value does not correspond to the RTI value of a partially received RLC/MAC control message or if . Default value is 80 ms (every 4 block periods). 7.5 BS_CV_MAX The most important functionalities of BS_CV_MAX parameter from network planning point of view: 1) If the number of RLC block periods between the end of the RLC block period used for the last transmission of the corresponding RLC data block and the beginning of the block period containing the PACKET UPLINK ACK/NACK message is less than (max(BS_CV_MAX.115/169 Managed Services. When UL extended state ends. PCU1 Defined by PRFILE parameter: UL_TBF_SCHED_R ATE_EXT PCU2 Defined by PRFILE parameter: POLLING_INTERVAL_BG.e.3 EUTM in PCU2 Extended Uplink TBF Scheduling rate parameters and usage of those parameters are different for PCU1 and PCU2.

3. In non-DRX mode the duration of timer T3200 shall be four BS_CV_MAX block periods. the RLC/MAC control blocks were received on different PDCHs. If the N3104 counter is equal to N3104_MAX and no correct PACKET UPLINK ACK/NACK message has been received. Upon successful change of PDCH allocation.3. the mobile station shall stop the corresponding instance of timer T3200.60 sub-clause 9.116/169 Managed Services. All rights reserved. Upon receipt of a PACKET TBF RELEASE message during a closedend TBF.3. • • • • 3) N3104 When the mobile station sends the first RLC/MAC block the counter N3104 shall be initialized to 1.3. the mobile station shall discard all partially received RLC/MAC control messages and stop the corresponding instances of timer T3200. the mobile station shall follow the procedure in 04. For each new RLC/MAC block the mobile station sends it shall increment N3104 by 1 until the first correct PACKET UPLINK ACK/NACK message is received. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. Then N3104 shall not be further incremented.1.3.3 or subclause 9.60 sub-clause 8.60 sub-clause 7.2.60 sub-clause 9. The mobile station shall discard any control message segment that contains an unknown TFI. the mobile station shall stop the corresponding instance of timer T3200. the mobile station shall attempt to establish a new uplink TBF for the transmission of the outstanding LLC frames following the end of the close-ended TBF.2. The mobile station and network shall then follow the appropriate procedure for release of TBF defined in 04. 4) Countdown procedure When the mobile station nears the end of the close-ended TBF.64). If the number of RLC data blocks granted is not sufficient to empty the mobile station's send buffer. it shall begin the count down procedure so that it sends the last RLC data block when CV = 0 (see 04. In DRX mode the duration of timer T3200 shall be four times the DRX period (see 3GPP TS 03. If the mobile station discards a partially received RLC/MAC control message while the corresponding instance of timer T3200 is running.1). . • On receipt of an RLC/MAC control block containing a segment of an RLC/MAC control message such that the mobile station now has the complete RLC/MAC control message.1. On expiry of an instance of timer T3200.1. the contention resolution fails and the mobile station behaves as specified in 04. the mobile station shall discard and ignore all segments of the corresponding partially received RLC/MAC control message.4.3. N3104_MAX shall have the value: N3104_MAX = 3 * (BS_CV_MAX + 3) * number of uplink timeslots assigned.

then the mobile may ignore some nacks that would require retransmissions. .0 60.7 23.0 10. then the mobile may ignore some negative acknowledgements that were received in the Packet UL ACK/NACK message.0 40. After a modification to this parameter it takes about 5 minutes for processes to get the new values. This may distort the ARQ procedure slightly.0 6 9 BS_CV_MAX RLC/MAC Data Rate (2M Download x2) RLC/MAC Data Rate (500K Upload x2) 11 13 23. BS_CV_MAX 70. if the BS_CV_MAX parameter is too large or if the mobile is not able to do accurate time stamping for the UL RLC blocks. The Figure 68 below shows the impact of BS_CV_MAX parameter (NTN results: RxLev –70 dBm.5 62.117/169 Managed Services. Basically the BS_CV_MAX parameter should define the RLC round-trip delay in block periods. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. This may reduce the performance slightly. On the other hand.7 66. 15).g.7 24.0 kbps 30. Recommended values: 9 Planning: If the BS_CV_MAX parameter has too high value (e. If the BS_CV_MAX parameter is lower than the actual round-trip delay or if the mobile is not able to do accurate time stamping for the UL RLC blocks. After 5 minutes disable and then re-enable GPRS in those cells where GPRS is active for the change to take effect. 2 TSLs).0 22.6 Figure 68 Impact of BS_CV_MAX on data rate There is slightly improvement both on DL and UL when the BS_CV_MAX value is increased. So in some cases a block has to be nacked twice before the mobile is willing to make the retransmission. All rights reserved. C/I 15 dB.7 62.0 20.0 50.0 0.2 61. then the mobile may transmit needless retransmissions after processing a Packet UL ACK/NACK message.

7.118/169 Managed Services. In unacknowledged RLC mode CS-1 is always used regardless of the parameter values. where the two coding schemes give the same bit rate. the network sends at least one radio block using CS-1 in the downlink direction every 360 milliseconds on every timeslot that has either uplink or downlink TBFs. The Link Adaptation (LA) algorithm is used to select the optimum channel coding scheme (CS-1 or CS-2) for a particular RLC connection and it is based on detecting the occurred RLC block errors. For synchronization purposes.BLER_CP_CS2) where: • • • • 8. MCSs. When the Link Adaptation algorithm is deployed. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. If CS-2 is used and if BLER is larger than BLER_CP_CS2. etc. then it would be advantageous to change to CS-1. BLER_CP_CS2 is larger than BLER_CP_CS1. In terms of block error rate (BLER) the following equation holds at the crosspoint: 8.) and also Nokia implementation. For this purpose the following BSC-level parameters are used by the LA algorithm: • • • UL BLER crosspoint for CS selection hop (ULBH) DL BLER crosspoint for CS selection hop (DLBH) UL BLER crosspoint for CS selection no hop (ULB) . 7. Since CS-1 is more robust than CS-2. The BSC level parameters coding scheme no hop (COD) and coding scheme hop (CODH) define whether the fixed CS value (CS-1/CS-2) is used or if the coding scheme is changed dynamically according to the Link Adaptation algorithm. then it would be advantageous to change to CS-2.6.6 GPRS and EGPRS Link Adaptation The RLC/MAC TSL data rate is depending on the 3GPP specifications (modulation. Essential for the LA algorithm is the crosspoint. then the initial value for the CS at the beginning of a TBF is CS-2.0 kbps is the theoretical maximum bit rate for CS-2 BLER_CP_CS1 is the block error rate at the crosspoint when CS-1 is used BLER_CP_CS2 is the block error rate at the crosspoint when CS-2 is used If CS-1 is used and if BLER is less than BLER_CP_CS1.1 GPRS Link Adaptation (S11) Currently the coding schemes CS-1 and CS-2 are supported.0 kbps is the theoretical maximum bit rate for CS-1 12. All rights reserved. The crosspoint can be determined separately for UL and DL directions as well as for frequency hopping (FH) and non-FH cases. The Link Adaptation (LA) and Incremental Redundancy (IR) are specified by 3GPP but the implementation is Nokia dependant as well.0 kbps * (1 . The following subsections describe the LA for GPRS and EGPRS.BLER_CP_CS1) = 12 kbps * (1 .

7. All rights reserved. if the CS3 and CS-4 support is enabled in the territory The Link Adaptation algorithm is applied to measure the signal quality for each TBF in terms of RXQUAL. When the Link Adaptation algorithm is deployed. • DL BLER crosspoint for CS selection no hop (DLB) The given parameters correspond to the BLER_CP_CS1 (see equation above). The new Link Adaptation algorithm can be used both in RLC acknowledged and in unacknowledged modes both in uplink and downlink direction. UL coding scheme in acknowledged mode (UCSA). The BTS level parameter adaptive LA algorithm (ALA) defines whether the Link Adaptation algorithm is adaptive or not. DL coding scheme in unacknowledged mode (DCSU) and UL coding scheme in unacknowledged mode (UCSU) define whether the fixed CS value (CS-1 .CS-4) is used or if the coding scheme is changed dynamically according to the Link Adaptation algorithm. The new Link Adaptation algorithm replaces the current LA algorithm in GPRS and covers the coding schemes: • • CS-1 and CS-2 if the CS-3 and CS-4 support is not enabled in the territory CS-1. based on BLER estimates the PCU can determine which coding scheme will give the best performance. RXQUAL describes the channel quality with the accuracy of eight levels. It is expressed with three bits. two counters are updated: N_Number gives the total number of RLC data blocks and K_Number gives the number of corrupted RLC data blocks that have been transmitted after the last link adaptation decision.CS-4 are supported. DL coding scheme in unacknowledged mode (DCSU) and UL coding scheme in unacknowledged mode (UCSU).6. CS-3 or CS-4 coding schemes were deployed for this particular TBF. The PCU determines internally the average BLER separately for each coding scheme and the reported RXQUAL value. CS-2. which refers to received signal quality. two 2-dimensional tables are created (ACKS and NACKS) for the territory (another set of ACKS and NACKS tables are . Link Adaptation Algorithm Used in Downlink Direction When a new territory is created for (E)GPRS. The BTS level parameters DL coding scheme in acknowledged mode (DCSA). CS-2. More information is available in NED. CS-3 and CS-4. RXQUAL is measured for each received RLC radio block being thus a more accurate estimate than the BLER. the initial values for the CS at the beginning of a TBF can also be defined with the parameters DL coding scheme in acknowledged mode (DCSA). NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. This is done separately for each segment by collecting continuously statistics from all the connections in the corresponding territory.2 GPRS Link Adaptation with CS1-4 (PCU2) In PCU2 the coding schemes CS-1 .119/169 Managed Services. During transmission. The PCU can estimate the BLER if CS-1. Moreover. ULcoding scheme in acknowledged mode (UCSA). which has two levels: 0 and 1.

needed for UL direction). • If the value of the parameter adaptive LA algorithm (ALA) is N (disabled). where CS indicates the coding scheme with which this RLC block was originally transmitted and RXQ refers to the RXQUAL value received in this particular Packet DL Ack/Nack message. the RLC does not update ACKS and NACKS tables but only the initial values of those tables will be used when the LA algorithm selects the optimal CS. All rights reserved. In the long run the figures would overflow resulting in erroneous behavior.120/169 Managed Services. for instance: • • ACKS [CS][RXQ] = ACKS [CS][RXQ] / 2 NACKS [CS][RXQ] = NACKS [CS][RXQ] / 2 Downlink Direction in RLC Acknowledged Mode . NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. on the average. The RXQUAL is averaged over the received RLC blocks and the averaged RXQUAL estimate is sent to the network in the Packet DL Ack/Nack messages. This is because the operation of the LA algorithm is initially based on the simulation results. if a positive acknowledgement is received. In this procedure. Separate initialization is needed for hopping and non-hopping BTSs. During the DL data transfer the mobile station measures the signal quality (RXQUAL) from the RLC radio blocks that are successfully decoded and addressed to the mobile station. or as NACKED. Based on this statistics it is possible to select a coding scheme that gives. To avoid the BLER estimation disturbance caused by the pending ack transmissions. There can be eight different values for the RXQUAL. the RLC updates the ACKS and NACKS tables as follows: • Whenever an RLC block is positively acknowledged. NACKS [CS] [RXQ] = NACKS [CS][RXQ] + 1. if a negative acknowledgement is received. In territory creation the ACKS and NACKS tables are initialized with values obtained from the simulations. both figures are divided by 2. In these tables. the PCU updates ACKS and NACKS tables based only on those RLC blocks that have never been transmitted as pending_ack blocks. When RLC receives a valid Packet DL Ack/Nack message for the DL TBF that operates in an RLC acknowledged mode. the received bitmap is analyzed and the corresponding RLC blocks are marked as ACKED. whereas in case of traditional LA algorithms predefined threshold values are used. Note that ACKS and NACKS tables contain ever-increasing figures. Whenever an RLC block is negatively acknowledged. the highest throughput with respect to the specific channel quality estimate. the first index refers to the coding scheme and the second index refers to the RXQUAL value. To solve this. when the sum (ACKS [CS][RXQ] + NACKS [CS] [RXQ]) for CS and RXQ exceeds the threshold value. where CS indicates the coding scheme with which this RLC block was transmitted and RXQ refers to the RXQUAL value received in this particular Packet DL Ack/Nack message. With this mechanism the LA algorithm can collect statistics about the actual block error rate. ACKS [CS][RXQ] = ACKS [CS][RXQ] + 1.

CS-2. The coding scheme is selected based on the highest throughput with the condition of BLER (CS) < QC_ACK_BLER_LIMIT_T.4. The possible coding schemes are CS-1. two 2-dimensional tables ACKS and NACKS are created for the territory (another set of ACKS and NACKS tables is needed for DL direction). The PCU data frame used in the non-EDGE Abis interface reports the channel quality in terms of RXQUAL. All rights reserved. • • • K is a correction factor that takes into account the throughput reduction due to the RLC protocol stalling RXQ is the RXQUAL value that was received in the newly-processed Packet DL Ack/Nack message RATE[4] -table contains the theoretical maximum throughput values for the available channel coding schemes 2. the coding scheme CS-1 is selected. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. CS-3. otherwise CS = CS. CS-3 and CS-4. where: CS = CS-1. the first index refers to the coding scheme and the second index refers to the RXQUAL or GMSK BEP value. After the bitmap is processed by RLC. Downlink direction in RLC unacknowledged mode In unacknowledged mode RLC does not have to update the ACKS and NACKS tables but it can use the same ACKS and NACKS tables updated by the TBFs in acknowledged mode.121/169 Managed Services. the coding number will be decreased step-bystep. In this case the only possible coding schemes are CS-1 and CS-2. CS2. Whereas the PCU master data frame used in the EDGE Abis interface reports the channel quality in terms of GMSK_BEP. If no CS fulfills this condition. When a new territory is created for (E)GPRS. The coding schemes that are in an unacknowledged mode are selected by choosing the highest CS for which BLER (CS) < QC_UNACK_BLER_LIMIT_T.1 Link Adaptation Algorithm Used in Uplink Direction In UL direction the channel quality estimate can be either RXQUAL or GMSK_BEP depending on the Abis interface. In these tables. CS. where BLER (CS) = NACKS [CS] [RXQ] / (ACKS[CS] [RXQ] + NACKS [CS] [RXQ]). In territory creation .1.6. 7. If the MS does not answer to polling. which is expressed with three bits. the LA algorithm selects the optimal coding scheme for this particular link as follows: 1.2. If these conditions are not fulfilled the coding scheme CS-1 is selected. Its value has been determined by simulations. The correction factor K depends on the BLER and on the number of RLC radio blocks scheduled to the TBF within the RLC acknowledgement delay. The throughput of the link is estimated for each coding scheme separately as follows: throughput [CS] = K * ACKS [CS][RXQ] / (ACKS [CS][RXQ] + NACKS [CS][RXQ]) * RATE[CS]. where BLER (CS) = NACKS [CS] [RXQ] / (ACKS[CS] [RXQ] + NACKS [CS] [RXQ]) and RXQ is the RXQUAL estimate that is received in the Packet DL Ack/Nack message. if CS-3 and CS-4 support is enabled in the territory. which is expressed with four bits. CS-2.

In case of RXQUAL. if CS-3 and . the LA algorithm selects the commanded coding scheme for the UL TBF as follows: Uplink direction in RLC acknowledged mode 1. the ACKS and NACKS tables are initialized to the values obtained from the simulations. After the bitmap for the Packet UL Ack/Nack message is constructed by the RLC. This is done for each UL TBF. where CS indicates the coding scheme with which this RLC block was transmitted and RXQ refers to the RXQUAL value is the current RXQUAL or GMSK BEP estimate for this UL TBF. The GMSK_BEP estimate should also be made from the bad frames because the GMSK_BEP estimate for successfully received CS-4 blocks alone approaches zero in all radio conditions (there is no error correction in CS. There can be a separate initialization for hopping and non-hopping BTSs. where CS runs through the available coding schemes and RXQ is the current RXQUAL or GMSK BEP estimate for this UL TBF (RXQUAL is derived from the averaged BER estimate and GMSK BEP is derived from the averaged BEP estimate). During the UL data transfer the RLC can estimate the number of successfully and unsuccessfully received RLC radio blocks for BLER estimation purposes as follows (this needs to be done only in RLC acknowledged mode): Whenever RLC receives a new RLC block successfully. CS. both figures are divided by 2. When RLC constructs a Packet UL Ack/Nack message for an UL TBF that operates in RLC acknowledged mode.4). • • As in the DL case the figures in the ACKS and NACKS tables are restricted so that when the sum (ACKS [CS][RXQ] + NACKS [CS][RXQ]) for certain CS and RXQ exceeds a certain threshold value. the RLC averages the GMSK_BEP estimates sent by the BTS for both correctly and erroneously received RLC radio blocks. In case of GMSK_BEP.4. CS-2. CS-3. All rights reserved. ACKS [CS][RXQ] = ACKS [CS][RXQ] + 1. the RLC averages the RXQUAL estimates sent by the BTS for the correctly received RLC radio blocks. After the ACKS and NACKS tables have been updated the counters N_acks[CS] and N_nacks[CS] are reset to zero. NACKS [CS][RXQ] = NACKS [CS][RXQ] + 1. This is done for each uplink TBF. Whenever RLC receives a RLC block unsuccessfully. for instance: • • ACKS [CS][RXQ] = ACKS [CS][RXQ] / 2 NACKS [CS][RXQ] = NACKS [CS][RXQ] / 2. where CS indicates the coding scheme with which this RLC block was transmitted and RXQ refers to the RXQUAL value is the current RXQUAL or GMSK BEP estimate for this UL TBF. the RLC updates the ACKS and NACKS tables as follows: • ACKS [CS][RXQ] = ACKS [CS][RXQ] + N_acks[CS]. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. where CS runs through the available coding schemes and RXQ is the current RXQUAL or GMSK BEP estimate for this UL TBF (RXQUAL is derived from the averaged BER estimate and GMSK BEP is derived from the averaged BEP estimate) NACKS [CS][RXQ] = NACKS [CS][RXQ] + N_nacks[CS]. The throughput of the link is estimated for each coding scheme separately as follows: throughput [CS] = K * ACKS [CS][RXQ] / (ACKS [CS][RXQ] + NACKS [CS][RXQ]) * RATE [CS]. where: CS = CS-1.122/169 Managed Services.

The LA algorithm in PCU1 operates only in the RLC acknowledged mode. When an (E)GPRS territory is removed. the coding scheme CS-1 is selected. K is a correction factor that takes into account the throughput reduction due to the RLC protocol stalling. where BLER (CS) = NACKS [CS] [RXQ] / (ACKS [CS] [RXQ] + NACKS [CS] [RXQ]) and RXQ is the current RXQUAL or GMSK BEP estimate for this UL TBF. PCU1 uses always CS1. • The LA algorithm in PCU1 uses the following parameters: • • • • • • DL DL DL UL UL UL ADAPTATION PROBABILITY BLER CROSSPOINT FOR CS BLER CROSSPOINT FOR CS ADAPTATION PROBABILITY BLER CROSSPOINT FOR CS BLER CROSSPOINT FOR CS THRESHOLD SELECTION SELECTION THRESHOLD SELECTION SELECTION (DLA) HOP (DLBH) NO HOP (DLB) (ULA) HOP (ULBH) NO HOP (ULB) The LA algorithm in PCU2 uses the following parameters: • • DL CODING SCHEME IN ACKNOWLEDGED MODE (DCSA) DL CODING SCHEME IN ACKNOWLEDGED MODE (DCSA) . The coding scheme is selected based on the highest throughput with the condition of BLER (CS) <QC_ACK_BLER_LIMIT_T. The same correction factor table K can be used as in the DL case. The coding schemes are selected in unacknowledged mode as follows: The coding schemes that are in an unacknowledged mode are selected by choosing the highest CS for which BLER (CS) < QC_UNACK_BLER_LIMIT_T.1. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. otherwise CS = CS. If no CS fulfills this condition. All rights reserved. If these conditions are not fulfilled for any CS the coding scheme CS-1 is selected. the look-up tables have constant values that have been determined by means of simulations. Uplink direction in RLC unacknowledged mode In unacknowledged mode the RLC message does not have to update the ACKS and NACKS tables but it can use the same ACKS and NACKS tables that are updated by the TBFs in acknowledged mode. RXQ is the current RXQUAL or GMSK BEP estimate for this UL TBF and RATE [4] -table contains the theoretical maximum throughput values for the available channel coding schemes. The LA algorithm in PCU2 operates in both in the RLC acknowledged and RLC unacknowledged modes. CS-2. the look-up tables that are used for RXQUAL -> BLER mapping are updated automatically based on the statistics gathered from the TBF connections. 2. In the RLC unacknowledged mode. CS-4 support is enabled in the territory. In non-adaptive mode (ADAPTIVE LA ALGORITHM = FALSE). where BLER (CS) = NACKS [CS] [RXQ] / (ACKS [CS] [RXQ] + NACKS [CS] [RXQ]). The LA algorithm in PCU2 can be operated in two different modes: • In adaptive mode (ADAPTIVE LA ALGORITHM = TRUE).123/169 Managed Services. the corresponding ACKS and NACKS tables can be removed as well.

so the LA must take into account if IR combining is performed at the receiver and the effect of finite IR memory. too. LA adapts to path loss and shadowing but not fast fading. The retransmission process is using IR. LA is done independently for each UL TBF and DL TBF on RLC level.3.1 Link Adaptation Introduction RLC control blocks are transmitted with GPRS CS-1 coding. a particular modulation and coding scheme combination is selected.124/169 Managed Services. Link Adaptation Algorithm with Incremental Redundancy Normally. The increased data rate in GMSK and 8PSK modulations implies an increased sensitivity to noise in coverage-limited areas and to interference in interference limited cells.g. All rights reserved. Downlink acknowledges are polled from MS by RLC to keep up the status of the transmitted RLC data blocks (acked/nacked) and to monitor the quality of the radio link. monitoring of channel quality for downlink transfer). so the LA algorithm is used to adapt to situations where signal strength and/or C/I level is low and changing within time. The details are described below: • Downlink o Ack: Downlink EGPRS packet transfer is controlled by RLC by using acknowledges and retransmission. • Uplink o . Unack: The transfer of RLC data blocks in the RLC unacknowledged mode does not include any retransmissions. except during the release of a downlink TBF where the last transmitted downlink RLC data block may be retransmitted (max four times). • • • • UL CODING SCHEME IN ACKNOWLEDGED MODE (UCSA) DL CODING SCHEME IN UNACKNOWLEDGED MODE (DCSU) UL CODING SCHEME IN UNACKNOWLEDGED MODE (UCSU) ADAPTIVE LA ALGORITHM (ALA) 7. but the LA algorithm is the same for uplink and downlink direction. 7. while Incremental Redundancy (IR) is better suited to compensate fast fading. LA algorithm works differently for acknowledged mode and unacknowledged mode. It means that the MCS selection is not the same in case of initial transmission and retransmission. The MS sends Packet Ack/Nack messages in order to convey the necessary other control signaling (e. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. The task of the LA algorithm is to select the optimal MCS for each radio conditions to maximize RLC/MAC data rate.6.3 EGPRS Link Adaptation with Incremental Redundancy Link Adaptation (LA) means that in order to adjust to channel conditions.6. so the LA is not used in case of control blocks.

125/169 Managed Services. The BEPs from averaging are delivered to adaptation algorithm. i. timing advance correction for uplink transfers). All rights reserved. Link Adaptation algorithm Downlink case outputs: . o Unack: The transfer of RLC data blocks in the RLC unacknowledged mode does not include any retransmissions. timing advance correction for uplink transfers). NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. PCU decides to send Packet Uplink Ack/Nack message. The PRE_EMPTIVE_TRANSMISSIO PRFILE parameter defines if the MS is allowed to send unacknowledged ‘PENDING_ACK’ RLC data blocks.g.g. except during the release of an uplink TBF where the last transmitted uplink RLC data block may be retransmitted.e. The BEPs from the message are delivered to adaptation algorithm. The PCU sends Packet Ack/Nack messages also in order to update the necessary other control signaling (e. To allow MS to send unacknowledged ‘PENDING_ACK’ RLC data blocks the PRE_EMPTIVE_TRANSMISSION shall be allowed. The following figure shows the block diagram of MCS selection procedure: DOWNLINK UPLINK PCU receives Uplink radio block Uplink averaging Averaged BEPs PCU receives EGPRS Packet Downlink Ack/Nack message. The RLC sends uplink acknowledgements within PACKET UPLINK ACK/NACK messages to MS.MCS for initial transmission MCS for retransmission Uplink case output: MCS that is sent to MS in Packet Uplink Ack/Nack message Figure 69 Link Adaptation in PCU . o Ack: The RLC requests packet re-sending in uplink transfer from MS for the packets not received correctly. The PCU sends Packet Ack/Nack messages in order to update the necessary other control signaling (e. Value “0” shall be used in the Packet Uplink Ack/Nack field.

RLC uses the Channel Management (CHM) and Dynamic Abis Management (DAM) in the decision as well.6. All rights reserved. 7.126/169 Managed Services. In DL the MCS selection is based on using the BEP measurement data from MS (which is available there in EGPRS PACKET DOWNLINK ACK/NACK message) and it is done by RLC. The CHM has allocated the TSLs of one TRX to DL TBFs START Data block and MCS prediction by RLC MCS limiting by CHM Dynamic Abis allocation by DAM Data block and MCS selection by RLC READY Figure 71 MCS selection for TSLs of one TRX on DL . In DL case the MCS selection is based on EGPRS Channel Quality Report received in EGPRS PACKET DOWNLINK ACK/NACK message sent from the MS to network using PACCH to indicate the status of the downlink RLC data blocks received.3.2 MCS Selection The MCS selection process is described below on block diagram level. RLC / Downlink TBF LA write MCSs read MCS selection CHM Init MCS DAM Selected MCS for downlink radio block Figure 70 MCS selection on DL Downlink MCS selection is done every time when the RLC sends a RLC data block to the MS. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks.

If there are not enough slave channels available. Reasons for lower coding scheme: • • GPRS TBF and EGPRS TBF multiplexing MS synchronization Dynamic Abis Management: The DAM allocates Abis slave channels for the TRX’s TSLs based on the MCS that the RLC/CHM has selected. RLC / Uplink TBF Init MCS write MCS read CHM Commanded MCS selection Commanded MCS for uplink is sent to MS LA DAM MS MCS selection Figure 72 MCS selection on UL So the MCS selection is based on RLC estimation but for the final decision the Channel Management and Dynamic Abis Management have to give the permission as well. Channel Management: Generally the CHM accepts the MCS/CS from the RLC. Generally the MCS decided for initial transmission by LA algorithm is used. If the RLC asked 8PSK MCS but the returned MCS is MCS-4 then the RLC decreases it to MCS-3 . which are received within the UL PCU frames. as it is required by RLC and CHM. In UL case the MCS selection is based on the respective BEP values. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. Exceptions: • • • If MCS would be MCS-9 or MCS-8 but the RLC could generate only one data block (Note1) then the RLC selects MCS-6 If MCS would be MCS-7 but the RLC could generate only one data block (Note1) then the RLC selects MCS-5 The CHM or the DAM has required lower MCS. the DAM allocates fewer slaves and informs the RLC about next lower MCS that fits on the allocated Abis capacity.127/169 Managed Services. All rights reserved. but during scheduling the CHM checks if lower coding scheme must be used than the RLC has selected.

6. The rules of BEP measurements and calculations are described in the following three points: • Decoding L1 data and converting in RLC o The BEP values are based on the received signal quality and BTS reports the measurement data to the PCU in the Abis L1 frame (MEAN_BEP. 7. The BEP is measured at the receiver (both for UL and DL) before the decoding.3 Bit Error Probability The LA algorithm is mainly based on Bit Error Probability (BEP). but BEP does not take BLER into account (ACK/NACK information). MEAN_BEP_8psk. but it depends on the modulation though. BEP is invariant of the used coding scheme. All rights reserved.3. • • Operator defined initial MCS is used at the beginning of TBF Operator defined initial MCS is used after TBF reallocation to other BTS in the SEG Note1: The RLC can generate only one data block if there is no RLC data block to be used as the second block.128/169 Managed Services.25 1. This can happen if the next RLC data block to be transmitted has a status of NACKED or PENDING and cannot be retransmitted with the MCS selected for the first block. The BEP is a decision.75 o VAR_BEP received from BTS 0 1 2 3 Table 20 An incoming VAR_BEP value is converted into CV_BEP . which includes information about the reliability of the decision (i. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. Before the reported values can be used for averaging the RLC converts MEAN_BEP to MEAN_BEP_gmsk. there is a full support for BEP based LA algorithm. VAR_BEP to CV_BEP for the RLC/MAC block. Both in ack and unack mode the BEP is used to estimate the BLER for each MCS.e. which is the BEP. In GSM specification.75 1. The tables below show the conversions: CV_BEP 0. The receiver has to convert each symbol into bit(s) and during this process it estimates the bit error probability.25 0. The measurement element is one burst. The measurement element is one RLC block (four radio bursts). how sure the receiver is that the received bit is decided correctly) .BEP can be calculated from that certainty information. VAR_BEP). because the RLC selects MCS according to the BEP values.

2050 0.275 Table 21 An incoming MEAN_BEP value is converted for GMSK or 8-PSK depending on MCS used • Averaging of the decoded L1 data o The PCU averages the quality parameters of the block individually for each MS per TSL and per modulation type (Mean_BEP_TNn.0155 0.0515 0.0015 0.2.0050 0.0075 0.0025 0.0002 0.19 0.0915 0.0015 0.13 0.0130 0.08]: R is calculated for every block period.0565 0.155 0.2900 MEAN_BEP_8psk (if 8-PSK MCS used) 0.0815 0. 10.0035 0. The information element is the RLC/MAC blocks between two Ac/Nack messages. The PCU averages the quality parameters of the block individually per TBF and per modulation type as follows [05.0008 0.00075 0. For block periods carrying block for the TBF the R and BEP values of modulation of received packet are calculated as follows: . BEP values are calculated for block periods carrying block for the TBF.0325 0. All rights reserved.076 0.3). MEAN_BEP received from BTS 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 MEAN_BEP_gmsk (if GMSK MCS used) 0.0035 0.11 0.0325 0.0080 0.08.1300 0.00025 0. CV_BEP_TNn) (05.0205 0. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks.0005 0.23 0.129/169 Managed Services.

4867 1. R n = (1 − e) ⋅ R n −1 + e MEAN_BEP_TN n = (1 − e e ) ⋅ MEAN_BEP_TN n −1 + ⋅ MEAN_BEPblock. BEP values are not used in Link Adaptation algorithm for that modulation (instead conversion table is used. Value from DX BEP_PERIOD e 15 14 13 12 Reserved 11 10 25 0. These values are used in the BEP matrix tables (see chapter 0).6313 2.3438 3.130/169 Managed Services.8 0 1 1 When an R-value reduces under a limit.15 7 12 0. see table 8).3 4 5 0. incremented per each uplink radio block for TBF.08. n Rn Rn e e ) ⋅ CV_BEP_TN n −1 + ⋅ CV_BEPblock.024e 85e-1 84e-1 44e-1 42e-1 51e-2 52e-2 18e-3 25e-04 5e-5 -7 0 1 0 Table values are calculated from equation: R n = (1 − e) n Where: n is set to 101 • BEP value is calculating from the averaged data o If GMSK MCS was used then new GMSK_MEAN_BEP and GMSK_CV_BEP are defined from the averaged values using the table in [05.7585 1.2.5 2 3 0.5]. Limit is based on BEP_PERIOD as follows: Value from DX BEP_PERIOD 15 14 13 12 Reserved 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 25 20 15 12 10 7 5 4 3 2 4.2 6 10 0.0737 5.0466 9.8247 6. 1 .9687 1.08 9 20 0.1 8 15 0. 8. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. Note! Currently n value means number of block periods carrying data blocks after which BEP values are ignored in LA calculation.25 5 7 0.7656 2.65 1 2 0. n Rn Rn CV_BEP_TN n = (1 − and for the other modulation the R value is calculated as follows: R n = (1 − e) ⋅ R n −1 Where: n is the iteration index.4 3 4 0. All rights reserved.

1 < log <= -3.6 -0.3 < log <= -2.4 -2.5 < log <= -2.3 -1.1 < log <= -1.4 < log <= -1.9 -1.6 < log -0.8 -2.0 < log <= -2.7 -1.9 < log <= -2.0 < log <= -1.5 -1.0 GMSK_MEAN_BEP 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 .8 -2.5 -2.7 < log <= -2.0 -1. All rights reserved.8 -1.0 < log <= -0.6 < log <= -2.2 < log <= -1.8 < log <= -0.8 < log <= -1. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks.6 < log <= -1.3 -2.9 -3.9 < log <= -1.4 -1.1 < log <= -2.0 -2.4 < log <= -2.7 < log <= -1.8 < log <= -2.3 < log <= -1.7 -2.1 -1.131/169 Managed Services.2 < log <= -2.7 < log <= -0.1 -2.6 -2. Log10(MEAN_BEP_TN) -0.2 -1.7 -0.2 -2.5 < log <= -1.9 < log <= -0.6 -1.9 -2.

96 < log <= -0.08.2.4 -3.68 < log <= -0.5 log <= -3.16 < log <= -1.68 -0.92 -1.88 < log <= -0.2 -3.3 -3.72 -0.16 -1. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks.84 -0.76 -0.6 < log <= -3.76 < log <= -0.84 < log <= -0.36 < log <= -1.5 < log <= -3.60 -0. 8.96 -1.64 -0.6 Table 22 GMSK_MEAN_BEP [05.2 < log <= -3.08 < log <= -1.08] 26 27 28 29 30 31 o If 8-PSK MCS was used then new 8PSK _MEAN_BEP and 8PSK _CV_BEP are defined from the averaged values using the table in [05.5] 8-PSK _MEAN_BEP 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Log10(MEAN_BEP_TN) -0.12 < log <= -1.1 -3.4 < log <= -3.64 < log <= -0. All rights reserved.3 < log <= -3.80 -0.04 -1.80 < log <= -0.00 < log <= -0.72 < log <= -0.00 -1. -3.6 < log -0.12 -1.132/169 Managed Services.04 < log <= -1.92 < log <= -0.20 .08 -1.20 < log <= -1.88 -0.

00 < log <= -1.96 -3.133/169 Managed Services.75 < cv <= 2.52 < log <= -1.50 < cv <= 1.32 < log <= -2.44 log <= -3.64 -2.00 < cv <= 1.16 < log <= -2.6 Table 23 8-PSK_MEANBEP [05.28 -3.84 < log <= -1.75 1.08] 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 CV_BEP_TN 1.25 Table 24 CV_BEP [05.12 -3.50 < cv <= 0.52 -1.36 -1.80 -3.00 < cv <= 0.48 < log <= -2.25 < cv <= 0.16 -2.48 -2.50 1. All rights reserved.80 < log <= -2.28 < log <= -3.75 0.50 0.64 < log <= -2.25 0. -1.44 < log <= -3.08] 8-PSK/GMSK CV_BEP 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 .12 < log <= -2.00 0.32 -2.00 -2.00 1.6 < log <= -3.25 < cv <= 1.68 < log <= -1.75 < cv <= 1.84 -2. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks.96 < log <= -2.68 -2.

• • EGPRS Channel Coding Command. operator setting for initial MCS is used RESEGMENT. If no BEPs have arrived during the entire TBF. a MCS for initial transmission and a MCS for retransmission. Uplink Link Adaptation algorithm produces one MCS value that is sent to MS in the Packet Uplink Ack/Nack message. 8PSK_MEAN_BEP. Input parameters for uplink link adaptation algorithm are the BEP values from averaging as follows: GMSK_MEAN_BEP.3.134/169 Managed Services. GMSK_CV_BEP. The RLC activates Link adaptation for uplink TBF when the RLC decides to send ack to the MS (no polling on UL). always 0 = Retransmitted RLC data blocks shall not be resegmented (IR) or Operator setting for Initial MCS is used until the first Packet Uplink Ack/Nack is sent after the first uplink measurement has become available. Downlink Link Adaptation algorithm produces two MCS values. 8-PSK_MEAN_BEP. GMSK_CV_BEP. 8PSK_CV_BEP. Usage of BEP on DL BEP measurements are initiated to MS in downlink using IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT. LA is controlled with EGPRS Link adaptation enabled parameter that has three values: 0 = EGPRS link adaptation is disabled 1 = EGPRS link adaptation is enabled for RLC acknowledged mode 2 = EGPRS link adaptation is enabled for both RLC acknowledged and RLC unacknowledged modes .6. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. Input parameters for downlink link adaptation algorithm are the BEP values in the EGPRS Packet Downlink Ack/Nack message (GMSK_MEAN_BEP. Operator setting for Initial MCS is used until first BEPs measured by MS are received in EGPRS Packet Downlink Ack/Nack message. All rights reserved. 8-PSK_CV_BEP). 7.4 Link Adaptation Procedure If the operator has disabled EGPRS link adaptation then the LA algorithm does not change the output MCS values. Usage of BEP on UL When uplink TBF is created PACKET UPLINK ASSIGNMENT PACKET_TIMESLOT_RECONFIGURE is used to set TBF properties. PACKET_TIMESLOT_RECONFIGURE or PACKET DOWNLINK ASSIGNMENT messages when TBF is created. the MCS from parameter initial MCS is used.

BSC non directly modifiable). If the operator setting for Initial MCS is bigger than max_MCS then Initial MCS is replaced with max_MCS (parameter in DX 200. The BEPs from Uplink averaging are delivered to adaptation algorithm. All rights reserved. In the Figure 73 below the LA algorithm flowchart in PCU is shown.2 only: Change MCS8/9 to MCS7 Downlink only: If MS IR memory full then restrict MCSs READY Downlink case outputs: .135/169 Managed Services. Adaptation algorithm START Handle missing modulation data Add user defined mean_bep_offsets Define MCS candidate A basing on BLER limits ack *) RLC mode? unack Define MCS basing on BLER limits *) Define MCS candidate B using optimal MCS method *) *) when defining uplink MCS the output of these phases is a GMSK MCS if the MS is not 8-PSK capable in uplink Select the smaller of the candidates A and B Downlink only: Define retransmission MCS For CX3. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. DOWNLINK UPLINK The BEPs from the EGPRS Packet Downlink Ack/Nack message are delivered to adaptation algorithm.MCS for initial transmission .MCS for retransmission Uplink case output: MCS for initial transmission Figure 73 Flowchart of link adaptation algorithm .

MCS to be used for retransmissions Remember that. If MS does not support 8-PSK in the uplink.136/169 Managed Services. All rights reserved. GMSK shall be chosen in the uplink algorithm. Initial MCS to be used when entering the packet transfer mode 2. The LA procedure is based on static MCS selection tables in the PCU. Once the information is exchanged to the network then LA algorithm will select the proper MCS using so called look-up tables whose values is hard-coded and whose entries consist of mean BEP levels and CV BEP level. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. The initial MCS selection is set by means of the following BTS level parameters: InitMcsAckMode set by default to the highest value (=9 which correspond to MCS9) InitMcsUnackMode set by default to value 6 (MCS=6) In reliability class 3 (RLC/MAC acknowledged mode and LLC not acknowledged) we can set the initial MCS via initMcsAckMode to be used on first transmission before the MS start measuring the air interface and reporting to the network via ACK/NACK messages. MCS Selection with BEP Matrix Tables MCS selection can be divided in four classes: 1. Initial MCS to be used when entering the packet transfer mode. Modulation selection is based on 8-PSK MEAN_BEP. The algorithm is activated on uplink whenever the channel coding command is to be transmitted from network to the MS. MCS selection for initial transmissions of each RLC block in ACK mode 4. . 1. Modulation selection Even before the real coding scheme selection. the algorithm is activated on downlink whenever a measurement report from MS is received. 8-PSK CV_BEP and GMSK_MEAN BEP according to the table below (Table 25). the modulation needs to be selected. Modulation selection 3. 2.

If the measured value is larger modulation GMSK is chosen. The table is used as follows: the algorithm locates an entry in the table based on measured 8PSK MEAN_BEP and CV_BEP values. otherwise 8PSK is chosen.137/169 Managed Services. the other one missing. the previous ones shall be used. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. the Table 26 shall be used to convert the MEAN_BEP value to the other modulation. If both reports are missing. the MCS from parameter initial MCS shall be used. All rights reserved. 8PSK CV_BEP-class 0 8PSKMEAN_BEP-class 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 – 31 1 4 6 9 – – – – 2 4 6 9 – – – – 3 4 6 9 – – – – 4 4 6 9 21 – – – 5 4 6 9 12 20 24 – 6 4 5 7 11 13 21 – 7 4 5 6 8 12 21 – Table 25 Modulation selection table (BEP limits for modulation selection) The items in the table above are the 8PSK MEAN_BEP and CV_BEP values. If BEP for only one modulation is reported. . The same CV_BEP value can be used for both modulations. This entry is compared to the measured GMSK MEAN_BEP value. If no reports have arrived during the entire TBF.

All rights reserved. 3. the MS shall calculate the following values for each radio block (4 bursts meaning Burst Period) addressed to it: MEAN_BEPblock = mean(BEP) Mean Bit Error Probability (BEP) of a radio block CV_BEPblock = std(BEP)/mean(BEP) Coefficient of variation of the Bit Error Probability of a radio block (a normalized standard deviation) .138/169 Managed Services. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. 8-PSK_MEAN_BEP = 8-PSK_MEAN_BEP + MEAN_BEP_OFFSET_8-PSK. Reported GMSK MEAN_BEP 0–7 8–9 10 – 11 12 – 13 14 – 15 16 – 18 19 – 20 21 – 23 24 – 25 26 – 28 29 – 30 31 Estimation for 8-PSK MEAN_BEP 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 Reported 8-PSK MEAN_BEP 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11-31 Estimation for GMSK MEAN_BEP 3 8 10 12 14 17 19 22 24 27 29 31 Table 26 Conversion from GMSK to 8-PSK and vice versa With parameter meanBepOffsetGMSK and meanBepOffset8PSK an offset is introduced that will affect one of the two entries (mean bit error probability level range) of the look-up table in such a way to modify the commanded MCS to be used. For EGPRS. MCS selection for transmissions of each RLC block in ACK mode Following is the optimal MCS selection. Final values is the following: GMSK_MEAN_BEP = GMSK_MEAN_BEP + MEAN_BEP_OFFSET_GMSK. In this way the modification of the offset could lead to a MCS higher or lower than the one which should have been commanded according to the C/I status of the air interface.

139/169 Managed Services. calculated in a linear scale. GMSK_CV_BEP 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 GMSK_MEAN_BEP 0–3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 5 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 6 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 7–9 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 10 – 19 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 20 – 31 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 Table 27 MCS selection for GMSK 8-PSK_CV_BEP 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8-PSK_MEAN_BEP 0–3 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 6 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 5 5 5 5 5 7 6 6 6 5 5 5 5 5 8 6 6 6 6 5 5 5 5 9 6 6 6 6 6 5 5 5 10 – 16 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 17 – 21 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 22 – 25 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 26 – 31 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 . Here. The appropriate table below is consulted for MCS selection for GMSK and 8PSK (Table 27 and Table 28). NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. mean(BEP) and std(BEP) are the mean and the standard deviation respectively of the measured BEP values of the four bursts in the radio block. All rights reserved.

7.3. Value 0 deactivates algorithm use. MCS selection downlink for retransmissions in ACK mode If modulation selection has selected to GMSK. The RLC reduces MCSs using the tables below. The MEMORY_OUT_FLAG_SUM PRFILE parameter is used to activate the MS Out of Memory exception procedure in RLC to reduce the number of MCSs used. If the LA has given bigger MCS than the max_MCS (set in DX200 not operator definable) then the RLC replaces the MCS with max_MCS. Table 28 MCS selection for 8-BSK MCS limiting for CX3. MS may report MS Out of Memory condition in EGPRS PACKET DOWNLINK ACK/NACK Message. otherwise to MCS-9. and makes the decision based on that. 4. All rights reserved. If there has been such report in MEMORY_OUT_FLAG_SUM or more consecutive EGPRS PACKET DOWNLINK ACK/NACK Message the RLC reduces the MCSs given by link adaptation. ack mode The MCS selected in retransmission (as well as in transmission) can also be affected by the memory size of the MS and the fact that such size can be running out not allowing the highest MCS. The DX 200 SW informs the PCU about maximum MCS that the RLC is allowed to use in a cell. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. In the case of UltraSite CX3.2 software does not support MCS-8 and MCS-9. the table below shows the maximum MCS used for retransmissions. If the operator setting for Initial MCS is bigger than max_MCS then Initial MCS is replaced with max_MCS. During IR operation in downlink packet transfer.2 BTS software The CX3. There is a PRFILE parameter that controls this function. The system checks the UltraSite SW level from the BTS SW package. Max_MCS parameter is not used from CX3. The BSC internal parameter max_MCS is used for this purpose. The reduction is done until MS reports it has enough memory.2 the system sets maximum MCS to MCS7. CV_BEP-class 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 MEAN_BEP-class 0–3 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 4 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 5 – 31 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 Table 29 Adaptation and retransmission with re-segment bit to 0 MCS reducing for downlink transmission if MS out of memory (IR).140/169 Managed Services. GMSK will also be used for retransmissions of 8-PSK blocks by splitting the block (TBC) For 8-PSK modulation. The RLC does it for both initial transmission MCS and retransmission MCS. Allowed values for MEMORY_OUT_FLAG_SUM are 0 . .

6. See Figure 74 below. If the first transmission of the radio block is unsuccessful. In the IR mode (available when the selected reliability class in SGSN allows RLC acknowledged mode). P2.141/169 Managed Services. retransmission is done with another puncturing storing the bits previously sent with a different puncturing to be used later for soft combination in order to recover the data block. MCS from LA algorithm 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Reduced MCS 1 1 2 3 5 5 6 7 7 Table 30 MCS for initial downlink transmission (MS Out of Memory) MCS from LA algorithm 6 7 9 Reduced MCS 6 6 7 Table 31 MCS for downlink retransmission (MS Out of Memory) Nokia implementation will select MCS3 as preferential GMSK coding scheme to be selected when downgraded from 8-PSK to GMSK. The IR algorithm use a low rate convolutional code and puncture the code to get higher rate transmissions.3. redundancy is increased gradually (Type II Hybrid ARQ). All rights reserved. .5 Incremental Redundancy in EGPRS Incremental Redundancy (IR) matches the code rate to the channel conditions. If the first transmission of radio block fails. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. 7. it is retransmitted with a different puncturing scheme (P1. P3 depending on the starting MCS) and soft combined with the old data.

Actually the RLC sets resegmentation according to EGPRS_RE_SEGMENTATION PRFILE parameter but the parameter value is always non-active by default. and then the received block will again be discarded. supporting Incremental Redundancy in the BTS. IR can offer significant gains in system throughput. In UL data transfer the MS is either allowed or forbidden to use resegmentation for retransmissions. Data Block One MCS P1 P2 P3 Transmitter P3 2nd retransmission upon reception failure P1 1st transmission P2 1st retransmission upon reception failure P1 Protection Level 1 P1 Stored Combination : Protection Level x 2 P1 Stored Combination : Protection Level x 3 P2 Stored No data recovered Receiver No data recovered P3 P2 Figure 74 Incremental redundancy processes It should be noted that IR combining functionality is mandatory in EDGE MSs (as specified by ETSI. There is therefore no attempt to store those portions of the block that have been received correctly. being the MS the receiving side). All rights reserved. IR is not mandatory on the BSS side. Should the retransmission fail. Note that the throughput is affected differently depending on the coding scheme . Note then that for DL data retransmission the RLC selects MCS using the same or another in the MCS family in such a way that Incremental Redundancy is possible in the MS.IR could nearly double the throughput for the higher coding schemes (MCS7-9) (especially true . that is to say depending if the BSS side is set to store and combine the data or not. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. but there are implications for the memory storage requirements in the MS/BTS. For GPRS.142/169 Managed Services. The RLC sets resegmentation always to non-active in the MS. since storage of several versions of a number of RLC blocks may be required. This process is quite different to GPRS operation. In RLC acknowledged mode a retransmission will be requested. The IR performance (based on Nokia simulations) is shown in Figure 75. then the block is discarded. if it is not be possible to correct for all introduces errors. but Nokia provides such functionality also from the BTS side.

at lower Es/No value corresponding to lower C/I) as retransmission helps to correct errors in the block.143/169 Managed Services. All rights reserved. Note that the gain introduced by IR is less at higher C/I values. in a normal network the average C/I corresponds range between 10 and 15 dB where the IR gain is around 2. as opposed to situations where redundancy is of no help. original data Gain [dB] 1/3 coded data 1st xmission r = 1/1 r = 1/1 1st decoding attempt 2nd xmission r = 1/1 r = 1/2 2nd decoding attempt 3rd xmission r = 1/1 r = 1/3 3rd decoding attempt IR: Increasing redundancy Figure 76 IR Procedures . the IR process can be thought of as a means of increasing the redundancy contained within the data transmission where required. (See on this regard more about MEMORY_OUT_FLAG_SUM PRFILE parameter and its relation with IR in Chapter 0).5 1 0.5.5 0 0 5 10 15 C/I [dB] 20 25 30 Figure 75 Incremental Redundancy gain The implication of this is that the 8-PSK schemes actually become the optimal schemes to use over practically the entire range of C/I where IR is implemented. provided that MS memory capabilities are sufficient to allow the highest MCS.5 2 1.5 3 2. The below figure illustrates this. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. Overall. Gain of IR vs C/I (TU3 iFH) 3.

The standards allow for a change in MCS between transmissions of the same source data. the only thinks that is checked is the re-segmentation bit based on which. different rules are followed in retransmission.60. and this is based on the concept of MCS families. The uplink ARQ II mode (incremental redundancy) decoding is done in the BTS and RLC (BSC) receives full-encoded RLC data blocks together with information of MCS used in uplink for RLC header decoding purposes. In IR there is no measurements and averaging. The downlink retransmissions are done by the BTS and RLC informs the BTS only the data block and MCS class and puncturing scheme PS to be used (IR combining is done in the MS). The example in the figure assumes MCS-4 or MCS-9 where an initial code rate of 1/1 is used. NOTE that in DL the ARQII is mandatory (for MS). such as MCS–6-9 or MCS-5-7. The re-segment field is used to select acknowledge mode to ARQI or ARQII (incremental redundancy) for UL TBF direction. Because the retransmissions only occur where needed. ETSI 04. in effect. Typically the first transmission will be with the lowest MCS and then retransmissions will use the higher MCS. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. An MCS family is basically a set of possibilities of coding a block of source data into one or more RLC blocks for transmission over the air interface.144/169 Managed Services. This leads to hybrid MCSs. . IR is independent of LA. All rights reserved. Setting the retransmission to re-segment non-active "0" requires the MS to use MCS within initial family without payload split (IR possible). ½. if LA is selected. After the third transmission the code rate is 1/3. The re-segment field is determined by the network and indicated by the re-segment bit in messages PACKET UPLINK ACK/NACK. Figure 77 show how the MCSs are selected for retransmission depending on the re-segmentation bit (valid for the UL TBF only). IR is designed to optimize the code rate to the channel conditions. Therefore a block that is initially sent in MCS-6 may be retransmitted with MCS-9. PACKET UPLINK ASSIGNMENT or PACKET TIMESLOT RECONFIGURE Setting the retransmission to re-segment active "1" requires MS to use an MCS within the initial MCS family and the payload may be split (and in such a way IR not possible). and to be specific IR won’t take into consideration the condition of the network as it happens with LA. Upon reception of the second transmission the code rate is now.

7. T ables 2 and 3 Scheme to use for retransmissions after switching to a different MCS ARQ T ype II (Incremental Redundancy) Re.6 MCS Selection Based on BLER Limits At the end of decision of the MCS also the BLER limits are checked by RLC within PCU (ack/unack mode). TIMESLOT RECONFIGURE These messages are sent in the DL. There is a table per MCS that maps the pair (MEAN_BEP.segment bit to "0" . The BLER values for each MCS are searched and compared to the operator parameters . Redundancy) MCS-2 Comm anded MCS-3 MCS-3 pad) MCS-2 MCS-3 MCS-2 MCS-1 MCS-3 MCS-2 MCS-1 MCS-1 Comm anded MCS-3 MCS-3 (pad) MCS-2 MCS-3 MCS-2 MCS-1 MCS-3 MCS-2 MCS-1 MCS-8 Comm anded MCS-6 MCS-8 MCS-7 MCS-6 MCS-7 MCS-4 MCS-3 MCS-2 MCS-1 MCS-7 Comm anded MCS-6 MCS-6 (pad) MCS-7 MCS-6 MCS-7 MCS-4 MCS-3 MCS-2 MCS-1 MCS6-9 Comm anded MCS-6 MCS-6 (pad) MCS-5 MCS-9 MCS-5 MCS-4 MCS-3 MCS-2 MCS-1 MCS-6 Comm anded MCS-6 MCS-6 (pad) MCS-5 MCS-6 MCS-5 MCS-4 MCS-3 MCS-2 MCS-1 MCS5-7 Comm anded MCS-3 MCS-3 (pad) MCS-5 MCS-3 MCS-7 MCS-4 MCS-3 MCS-2 MCS-1 Scheme used for Initial transmi ssion MCS-5 Comm anded MCS-3 MCS-3 (pad) MCS-5 MCS-3 MCS-5 MCS-4 MCS-3 MCS-2 MCS-1 MCS-4 Comm anded MCS-3 MCS-3 (pad) MCS-2 MCS-3 MCS-2 MCS-4 MCS-3 MCS-2 MCS-1 MCS-3 Comm anded MCS-3 MCS-3 (pad) MCS-2 MCS-3 MCS-2 MCS-1 MCS-3 MCS-2 MCS-1 Re. Scheme used for initial transmi ssion MCS-9 Comm anded MCS-9 MCS-8 MCS-7 MCS-6 MCS-5 MCS-4 MCS-3 MCS-2 MCS-1 MCS-9 MCS-8 MCS-7 MCS-9 MCS-7 MCS-4 MCS-3 MCS-2 MCS-1 Scheme to use for retransmissions after switching to a different MCS ARQ T ype I (No Increm. NOTE: This bit is particularly useful for networks with uplink IR capability (IR possible in BTS side) since it allows combining on retransmissions.6. setting the resegment bit to ‘1’ (type I ARQ) requires the mobile station to use an MCS within the same family as the initial transmission and the payload may be split (refer to table 1).> re. For initial transmissions of new RLC blocks the channel coding commanded is applied. PACKET UPLINK ACK/NACK. The resegment bit is used to set the ARQ mode to type I or type II (incremental redundancy) for uplink TBFs (allowing soft combining on BTS side). For retransmissions. For retransmissions.segmentation active E T SI 04.60. MCS-2 or MCS-3 for subsequent RLC blocks.> re.segment bit to "1" . All rights reserved.segmentation non active MCS-9 Comm anded MCS-9 MCS-8 MCS-7 MCS-6 MCS-5 MCS-4 MCS-3 MCS-2 MCS-1 MCS-9 MCS-8 MCS-7 MCS-9 MCS-7 MCS-4 MCS-3 MCS-2 MCS-1 MCS-8 Comm anded MCS-6 MCS-8 MCS-7 MCS-6 MCS-7 MCS-4 MCS-3 MCS-2 MCS-1 MCS-7 Comm anded MCS-6 MCS-6 (pad) MCS-7 MCS-6 MCS-7 MCS-4 MCS-3 MCS-2 MCS-1 MCS6-9 Comm anded MCS-6 MCS-6 (pad) MCS-5 MCS-9 MCS-5 MCS-4 MCS-3 MCS-2 MCS-1 MCS-6 Comm anded MCS-6 MCS-6 (pad) MCS-5 MCS-6 MCS-5 MCS-4 MCS-3 MCS-2 MCS-1 MCS5-7 Comm anded MCS-6 MCS-6 (pad) MCS-5 MCS-6 MCS-7 MCS-4 MCS-3 MCS-2 MCS-1 MCS-5 Comm anded MCS-6 MCS-6 (pad) MCS-5 MCS-6 MCS-5 MCS-4 MCS-3 MCS-2 MCS-1 MCS-4 Comm anded MCS-6 MCS-6 (pad) MCS-5 MCS-6 MCS-5 MCS-4 MCS-3 MCS-2 MCS-1 MCS-3 Comm anded MCS-6 MCS-6 (pad) MCS-5 MCS-6 MCS-5 MCS-4 MCS-3 MCS-2 MCS-1 MCS-2 Comm anded MCS-6 MCS-6 (pad) MCS-5 MCS-6 MCS-5 MCS-4 MCS-3 MCS-2 MCS-1 MCS-1 Comm anded MCS-6 MCS-6 (pad) MCS-5 MCS-6 MCS-5 MCS-4 MCS-3 MCS-2 MCS-1 Figure 77 Tables for IR and adaptation behavior with the families A re-segment bit is included within each PACKET UPLINK ASSIGNMENT and PACKET messages.145/169 Managed Services. setting the resegment bit to ‘0’ (type II ARQ) requires the mobile station shall use an MCS within the same family as the initial transmission without splitting the payload even if the network has commanded it to use MCS-1. CV_BEP) to BLER.3. This is not the case for GPRS where it is necessary to retransmit in the original CS in which the RLC block was sent. It should be noted that in EGPRS it is possible to retransmit a given RLC block in a different MCS (but within the same MCS family). NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks.

. For ACKed mode. PCU2 provides about 20 ms shorter RLC RTT time. this is the selected MCS used for all transmissions. However. PCU1 uses always initial MCS value read from user parameter for new established TBF. For UNACKed mode. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. the LA in PCU2 may react faster to radio condition changes. the minimum of this value and the value from optimal MCS selection is the selected MCS for initial transmissions of each new RLC block. when compared to PCU1. and if no BTS re-selection was done for opposite direction of TBF.146/169 Managed Services. PCU2 instead uses last used MCS of previous TBF as initial MCS for new TBF in situation when opposite direction of TBF has been active from last TBF release to new TBF establishment (so the MS context has stayed stored in PCU2 memory). 7. that mean LA in PCU2 gets response from MS faster than in PCU1. So. "MaxBlerAckmode" or "MaxBlerunackmode” on whether the mode is ACKed or UNACKed. The GMSK _MEAN_BEP and GMSK _CV_BEP are used with GMSK BLER tables and 8-PSK _MEAN_BEP and 8-PSK _CV_BEP are used with 8-PSK BLER tables.6.7 EGPRS LA in PCU2 The EGPRS LA algorithm is same in both PCUs.3. The highest MCS that satisfies the BLER limit is chosen. PCU2 chooses initial MCS differently for sequential same direction TBF in certain situation. All rights reserved.

Timeslot scheduling algorithm in the CHM ensures that there is on each timeslot on downlink at least one Radio Block at least every 360 ms using MCS-1 (EGPRS TBF) or CS-1 (GPRS TBF) coding scheme. . S11. If there are GPRS TBFs as well.7 Multiplexing The TSL data rate can be decreased by multiplexing as well.147/169 Managed Services. as long as dynamic allocation is used by the network.7. the network sends at least one radio block every 360 milliseconds using a MCS or CS low enough that all mobiles can be expected to be able to decode the block.1 Synchronization 3GPP requires that for synchronization purpose. 7. 7.5 onwards: For synchronization purposes. if the DL RLC radio block is addressed to GPRS TBF (without PCU2). This function is implemented in the CHM. the synchronization block is sent using CS-1 or a low enough MCS. 7.7. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. that is MCS-1 to MCS-4 if the DL RLC radio block is addressed to EGPRS TBF or CS-1 to CS-2.7. it needs to listen to the downlink part of that timeslot to decode the USF (which tells which MS is allowed to use the uplink part of the timeslot). This then means that a class 12 MS (max 5 UL/DL timeslots) cannot use more than 2 timeslots for uplink.2 Dynamic Allocation on UL In (E)GPRS the scheduling of UL and DL resources are independent.2. The multiplexing has the following effects: • • • Synchronization (every 18th Radio Block) GPRS USF on DL EGPRS TBF TSL sharing – more than one TBF on a TSL 7.1 GPRS and EGPRS Dynamic Allocation In Nokia system GPRS and EGPRS TBFs can be multiplexed dynamically on the same timeslot (fixed allocation is not implemented). The current Nokia implementation uses dynamic allocation to allocate resources to uplink TBFs. dynamic allocation and extended dynamic allocation. If there are only EGPRS TBFs in the timeslot. So using 3 timeslots for uplink would mean that the MS should listen to the same 3 timeslots for downlink. All rights reserved. the synchronization block is sent using CS-coding. This means that in order for the MS to use a particular timeslot for uplink. In the UL there can be three different allocation modes (MAC modes): fixed allocation. the network shall ensure that each MS with an active TBF in uplink or downlink receives at least one block transmitted with a coding scheme and a modulation that can be decoded by that MS every 360 millisecond interval (78 TDMA frames) to be used for DL power control. When USF is addressed to GPRS TBF the downlink RLC radio block carrying the USF must use GMSK coding scheme.

If there are uplink GPRS TBF and downlink EGPRS TBF multiplexed on the same timeslot then the CHM restricts the EGPRS TBF to use MCS1-4 (MCS3 in Nokia implementation). 2. That leads to: 1. but now TSL 7 is GMSK modulated. An EGPRS mobile station cannot differentiate CS-4 blocks and EGPRS GMSK blocks by decoding the stealing bits.. . in order to determine if they were aimed for it. A standard GPRS mobile station is able to detect the USF in EGPRS GMSK blocks.2. 7.7.7. an EGPRS mobile station in EGPRS TBF mode needs only to decode GMSK blocks assuming either of MCS-1 to MCS-4. However.2. Using fixed allocation. there is no particular restriction for the multiplexing of GPRS and EGPRS mobile stations on the same PDCH.. because of USF is pointed to GPRS MS (request for UL transmission on TSL 7)) 0 Round 1 Round 2 Round 3 . The coding and interleaving of the USF is done as defined for CS-4. The risk that the rest of the block will be misinterpreted as valid information is low.3 GPRS and EGPRS Dynamic Allocation with USF4 The Dynamic Allocation on UL with USF4 is described below: 1 2 3 4 5 6 USF USF USF USF USF … 7 USF USF USF USF USF … 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 USF* USF USF USF USF … .. . because of USFs is pointed to GPRS MS (request for UL transmission on TSL 6 and 7)) 0 Round 1 Round 2 Round 3 .. . If fixed allocation is used. .. but now TSL6 and 7 are GMSK modulates..148/169 Managed Services.. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks... All rights reserved.. uplink blocks of the PDCH are reserved for only one mobile station at a time.. NOTE: The stealing bits in the EGPRS GMSK blocks to indicate CS-4.. *USF with GMSK modulation for all the USF cases in these tables DL TSLs (originally 4 DL 8-PSK TSLs (TSL 4-7). 7.2 GPRS and EGPRS Dynamic Allocation without USF4 DL TSLs (originally 4 DL 8-PSK TSLs (TSL 4-7).

but now TSL 7 is GMSK modulated.7.. On DL 4 TSLs are used by 8-PSK modulation (TSL 4-7). because of USF is pointed to GPRS MS (request for UL transmission on TSL 4.. . because of USF is pointed to GPRS MS (request for UL transmission on TSL 7)) 0 Round 1 Round 2 Round 3 .4 GPRS and EGPRS Extended Dynamic Allocation with/without USF4 Extended Dynamic Allocation functionality on UL is shown below: USF … USF … On DL 4 TSLs are used by 8-PSK modulation (TSL 4-7)... .. because of USF is pointed to GPRS MS (request for UL transmission on TSL 7)) 0 Round 1 Round 2 Round 3 .... but now TSL 7 is GMSK modulated. Dynamic Allocation (DA) will be used with USF4. All rights reserved. but now TSL 7 is GMSK modulated. because of USF is pointed to GPRS MS (request for UL transmission on TSL 6 and 7)) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 USF 7 USF Round 1 Round 2 Round 3 . .... 7. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 USF USF USF USF USF … On DL 4 TSLs are used by 8-PSK modulation (TSL 4-7). .... . 7 USF USF USF USF USF … *If max 2 TSLs are needed on UL for GMSK MS.. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks...2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 USF USF … On DL 4 TSLs are used by 8-PSK modulation (TSL 4-7). 5. 6 and 7)... but now TSL 7 is GMSK modulated... . .. .149/169 Managed Services.. but EDA is used) Round 1 Round 2 Round 3 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 ..

Figure 78 illustrates how traffic resource within a cell (2 TRX in this case) can be divided into CSW and (E)GPRS territories.1.1 PSW Territory The PSW territory divided to dedicated. Additionally to the territory settings the rate reduction due to territory occupancy is described as well. 8. (E)GPRS Territory Settings The following subchapters describe the territory definitions and allocations between CSW and PSW services. where a number of timeslots are allocated on a permanent basis to (E)GPRS. All rights reserved. thus offering optimized performance under a variety of load conditions. timeslots within a cell are dynamically divided into CSW and (E)GPRS territories. The drawback with this approach is that. This change in blocking decreases . These timeslots are always configured for (E)GPRS and cannot be used by circuit-switched traffic.1 Timeslot Allocation between Circuit Switched and (E)GPRS Services The primary technique for dividing resources between circuit-switched (CSW) and packet ((E)GPRS) traffic in Nokia GSM is known as the Territory Method. blocking levels for CSW traffic will increase since the number of available channels will be reduced. 8. 8.150/169 Managed Services. TRX 1 TRX 2 CCCH TS TS TS TS TS TS TS Circuit Switched Territory Packet Switched Territory TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS Additional (E)GPRS Capacity Default (E)GPRS Capacity Dedicated (E)GPRS Capacity Territory border moves Dynamically based on Circuit Switched traffic load Figure 78 Illustration of cell territories. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. In this. default and additional territories. Dynamic variation of the territory boundary (and hence number of timeslots in each territory) is controlled by territory parameters. This enables the system to adapt to different load levels.1 8. for a given cell configuration.1. This ensures that (E)GPRS capacity is always available in a cell. and traffic proportions. This means that a certain number of consecutive traffic timeslots are reserved for CSW GSM calls with the remainder being available for (E)GPRS traffic. Dedicated (E)GPRS Capacity It is possible to assign dedicated (E)GPRS capacity.1.

however. it is recommended that the default territory is set to a level just below the anticipated mean load level. The decision on whether to assign dedicated (E)GPRS territory is a trade-off between providing a minimum level of (E)GPRS service and increasing the blocking for CSW services. the system attempts to keep one or more timeslots free in the CSW territory. having previously occupied some of the (E)GPRS default territory.2 Default GPRS Capacity Another type of (E)GPRS capacity that can be defined is default (E)GPRS capacity. The default (E)GPRS territory is an area that will always be included in the instantaneous (E)GPRS territory provided that the current CSW traffic levels permit. The reason for this follows from the fact that if the CSW territory becomes fully occupied and further CSW connections need to be accommodated. and can be readily calculated using the Erlang-B formula. Setting a higher level of default (E)GPRS territory will tend to increase the level of service experienced by the (E)GPRS users. If there are lot of dedicated territory. default territory in the PCU. if circuit switched traffic levels dictate. circuit switched traffic will occupy as much (E)GPRS default territory as is needed. With the exception of the dedicated (E)GPRS area. Where circuit-switched traffic levels are falling.1. network performance and predicted (E)GPRS usage levels. then one or more timeslots from the (E)GPRS territory would be re- .2 CSW Territory In addition to the circuit-switched traffic load. The dedicated capacity can be set anywhere between zero and the full cell capacity. 8.1. The upgrade/downgrade sections describe when this capacity will be used. All rights reserved. Another issue with setting a high level for default (E)GPRS territory is that it will tend to increase the number of intra-cell handovers for CSW users with the aim of keeping the (E)GPRS default territory free for (E)GPRS. delay) for (E)GPRS users and high use of resources. CSW services always take priority over (E)GPRS services and so. ending on performance decrease.1. Initially. but outside the (E)GPRS default territory.3 Additional (E)GPRS Capacity Where additional (E)GPRS capacity is assigned in response to load demand beyond that given by the default capacity. a higher level for the number of default (E)GPRS territory timeslots may affect the overall (E)GPRS system capacity if a large number of (E)GPRS timeslots are taking up PCU connections without actually carrying (E)GPRS traffic. this capacity is termed additional (E)GPRS capacity. the DSP allocation may not be efficiency. The setting of the default (E)GPRS territory level is a trade-off between improving the level of service (data rate. If. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. This decision needs to take into account operator priorities. where possible.1. However. 3-timeslot-capable mobiles at maximum available data rate without having to negotiate resource allocation with the CSRRM. these timeslots will automatically be re-allocated back to (E)GPRS irrespective of the actual (E)GPRS load. 8.1.151/169 Managed Services. This will probably be with a minimum of three TCHs. the CSW level decreases. 8. allocation to (E)GPRS will only occur if the (E)GPRS load reaches a predefined condition (see later). with increasing cell capacity (TRX count). to accommodate.

NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. With S10. Therefore. that the free slots will be occupied when required by the circuit switched traffic load. . The values used for ‘after downgrade’ in table 1 are based on a 95% probability that a further downgrade would not be required while there is already a downgrade in process.2.1) The effect of the free timeslots is a decrease in overall cell capacity.1. No. of TRXs Free TSLs (after downgrade) Free TSLs (after upgrade) Mean free TSL in CSW 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 2 2 3 4 4 1 1. Default value for the period length is 4 seconds.152/169 Managed Services. this overhead must be taken into account. the system attempts to keep a number of timeslots free (spare CSW timeslot) for such CSW allocations. All rights reserved. allocated for CSW use. The operator can modify the period with the BSC parameter freeTSLsCsUpgrade. This re-allocation introduces a delay due to associated signaling requirements.1 Free Timeslots In order to avoid passing this delay onto the CSW user. The margin of idle TCH/Fs that is required as a condition for starting a GPRS territory upgrade is defined by the BSC parameter free TSL for CS upgrade freeTSLsCsUpgrade. In fact. Table 32 shows the values implemented initially (S9). When defining the margin.5 1. 8. when considering overall cell (or TRX) capacity. however.5 ED the number of free TSLs after a downgrade or an upgrade become operator modifiable parameters following the rules as explained below. the parameter defines how many traffic channel radio time slots have to be left free after the GPRS territory upgrade. The values used for ‘after upgrade’ have been chosen with the aim of providing a 95% probability that there will be no need for a subsequent (E)GPRS downgrade within 4 seconds of an upgrade having occurred.5 2. The rows indicate a selected time period (seconds) during which probability for an expected downgrade is no more than 5%. a two-dimensional table is used. In the two-dimensional table the columns are for different amounts of available resources (TRXs) in the BTS. It should be noted.5 3 3 Table 32 Free timeslots retained in CSW territory (valid for GPRS rel. The number of timeslots kept free is dependent on cell size and whether a downgrade or an upgrade has last occurred.

The definition of the margin involves a two-dimensional table. If the number of idle TCH resources in the circuit switched territory of the BTS decreases below the defined margin. TRXs Time0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 00 01 11 11 12 12 12 12 13 13 23 34567 00000 11222 22233 23334 23444 33455 34455 34556 44566 45567 45677 89 00 22 33 44 55 56 66 77 77 78 88 10 0 2 4 5 6 6 7 7 7 8 8 11 0 3 4 5 6 7 7 8 8 9 9 12 0 3 4 6 6 7 8 8 9 9 9 13 0 3 4 6 7 7 8 9 9 9 9 14 0 3 5 6 7 8 8 9 9 9 9 15 0 3 5 6 7 8 9 9 9 9 9 16 0 3 5 6 7 8 9 9 9 9 9 The operator defines the margin of idle TCHs that the BSC tries to maintain free in a BTS for the incoming circuit switched resource requests using parameter free TSL for CS downgrade freeTSLsCsDowngrade. Actual table items are percentage values indicating probability for TCH availability during a one-second downgrade operation with the selected resource criterion. Default probability 95% can be changed through the free TSL for CS downgrade parameter freeTSLsCsDowngrade. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. less than the threshold (95%). a GPRS territory downgrade is started if possible. All rights reserved. . that means that a GPRS downgrade will be started in such a way that the idle TSLs will be 3 where the probability for them of being free will be higher than said threshold. The values above are Nokia simulated values.153/169 Managed Services. There’s another parameter to include when talking about territory and that’s is maxGPRScapacity. With this parameter we limit the number of PSW channel per BTS which could be a problem especially when introducing the segment concept due to the possibility to have a GPRS capable BTS and a EGPRS capable BTS with their separated territory parameters defined and that would lead to a capacity problem due to PCU limitation. One index of the table is the number of TRXs in the BTS. Another index of the table is the needed amount of idle TCHs. TRXs 1 TCH0 94 1 99 2 100 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 2 84 98 99 100 3 76 96 99 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100% 100% 100% 100% 100 100 4 69 93 99 5 63 91 98 99 6 58 87 97 99 7 54 85 96 99 8 50 82 94 98 99 9 48 79 93 98 99 10 45 77 92 97 99 11 43 74 90 97 99 12 41 72 89 96 99 13 40 70 87 95 98 99 14 38 68 86 94 98 99 15 37 66 84 94 98 99 16 35 64 83 93 97 99 That means that if we have 4TRXs/cell and at a certain moment we have a decreased number of TSLs for example the number of idle TSLs falls to 2 the associated probability of being free is 93%.

1. More CSW resources are required and the PSW territory contains additional or default timeslots. The function of the above parameters is described in the following sections. CHM provides RRM with information on whether an upcoming downgrade should preferably be carried out on a GPRS PSW territory or on an EGPRS PSW territory.154/169 Managed Services. the values for these parameters are set to 1.5.3.3 Territory Upgrade/Downgrade – Dynamic Variation of Timeslots In order to facilitate dynamic variations in the CSW/(E)GPRS territories in response to changing load conditions. For RRM to initiate a PSW territory downgrade it is also required that the previous PSW territory operation in the BTS has been completed. o If the timeslot that is carrying the synchronization master channel is blocked. This territory balance information is sent to RRM if the following conditions are met: .0 and 0. The upgrade/downgrade procedures utilize three parameters . mechanisms have been introduced to enable upgrades/downgrades of the (E)GPRS territory to occur. CHM bases this preference on the BTS channel loads in the radio cell. X2 and X3.1. For (E)GPRS deployment.X1. The following figure shows the number of free TSLs in case of different parameter sets. CHM requests a PSW territory downgrade. 8. respectively (hard coded values in PCU).1.1 Downgrade A (E)GPRS downgrade is requested/initiated if. In radio cells with both GPRS and EGPRS BTSs. All rights reserved. downgrade in the territory with less channel load is preferred. These parameters are not user-configurable but are set at pre-defined values that have been identified through detailed simulations aimed at establishing the optimum values for mixed circuit-switched and (E)GPRS operation. o RRM attempts to upgrade and rearrange a PSW territory to the default configuration when timeslots in the original default territory become blocked. A TRX containing PSW territory timeslots is blocked. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. • • • • A PSW territory timeslot is blocked or it loses synchronization. RRM removes all PSW territory timeslots of the TRX. TSL number after CS downgrade TRX number 1 2 0 1 1 3 0 1 2 4 1 2 2 5 1 2 3 free TSL for CS downgrade (%) (CSD) TSL number after CS upgrade TRX number 70 95 99 0 1 1 free TSL for CS upgrade (sec) (CSU) 1 4 7 10 1 0 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 3 3 1 2 3 4 4 1 3 4 5 5 2 4 5 6 Figure 79 # of free TSLs with different setup 8.5. It should be noted that some refinements might be made to functionality prior to the deployment of EGPRS services to optimize performance.

1. CSW traffic situation and the operator parameter CMAX allow a PSW territory extension. RRM initiates an intra-cell handover to find a new channel allocation for the CSW connection. which is to be allocated to PSW. • • A blocked or out-of-synch timeslot inside a default PSW territory becomes serviceable again. In S10. • The ratio of aggregate GPRS and EGPRS BTS channel loads  the lower aggregate load divided by the higher  in the radio cell is less than TERRIT_BALANCE_THRSHLD. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. the amount of channels in a territory is limited by maxGPRScapacity given in the upgrade message. and either: o CHM requests a PSW territory upgrade.3 Territory Upgrade and Downgrade S10 Changes In S10 the segment concept has been added. 8. All rights reserved.155/169 Managed Services. Also RRM observes this guard time when it initiates BTS territory configuration updates.2 Upgrade A (E)GPRS upgrade is requested/initiated if. At least TERRIT_UPD_GTIME_GPRS has elapsed since the previous territory balance information message was sent. Operator parameter GTUGT (GPRS territory update guard time) defines an interval between successive territory upgrades. Segment ID has been added to upgrade and downgrade messages. This margin of idle timeslots is defined by operator parameters CSU (free TSL for CS upgrade) and CSD (free TSL for CS downgrade). o PSW territory has less timeslots than defined for the default territory.3. • • RRM takes the territory balance information into account when it removes PSW timeslots to accommodate new CSW connections. 8. The purpose of this interval is to prevent constant update request from channel management functions: while the timer is running.1. In CHM segment concept will be implemented either by adding segment ID into BTS structure or a separate segment structure is to be used. RRM allows PSW territory upgrades if the existing CSW connections will not be unfavorably affected and a predefined amount of idle timeslots will remain in the CSW territory as an instant reserve for new CSW connections.3. CHM does not send an upgrade request immediately after detecting an upgrade need but waits until the next expiry of the timer  and sends a request only if a territory update is still needed at that time. The preferred territory is not the same as that indicated in the previous territory balance information message. In CHM this is taken into account as follows: . If the requirements for a PSW territory upgrade are met but a CSW connection occupies a timeslot. For RRM to initiate a PSW territory upgrade it is also required that the previous territory operation in the BTS has been completed and idle GPRS capable resources are available in the BTS.

02 Annex B) shall be applied for measurements. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. If there are m timeslots allocated for reception and n timeslots allocated for transmission. • • If the territory contains the maximum amount of channels. psw_territory_downgrade_nack_s / psw_territory_downgrade_nack_s is sent.4 Multislot TSL Allocation for Using max Capability of Mobile PCU1 does not take TSL amount into account in TSl allocation. there shall be Min(m. In S10 in case of a failure. In this context allocation refers to the list of PDCH that may dynamically carry the PDTCHs for that specific MS.156/169 Managed Services. For multislot class Type 1 MS (Type 1 MS are not required to transmit and receive at the same time). If 4+1 is the wanted allocation and only 3 TSLs are available.02). . then PCU will reject the upgrade.n) reception and transmission timeslots with the same timeslot number. for multislot class 6 MSs.2 Multislot Usage An MS may be allocated several PDTCH/Us or PDTCH/Ds for one mobile originated or one mobile terminated communication respectively. If an upgrade would result in more channels than maxGPRScapacity. in such situation PCU1 allocates 2+1 allocation but PCU2 allocates 2+2 allocation to MS. if 3+1 allocation is the preferred allocation and there is only 2 TSLs available for allocation.1. Then the CHM sends in ack message to RMM the territory type with smaller TBF amount. the following table lists the number of slots that are possible to allocate (provided that it is supported by the MS according to its multislot class) for different medium access modes (see 3GPP TS 05. In S10 a new field is added to: psw_territory_downgrade_ack_s / psw_territory_upgrade_ack_s messages: • Egprs / Gprs territory suggestion for next downgrade When the CHM receives upgrade/downgrade request from the RRM the CHM counts TBF amount in GPRS territories in the segment and TBF amount in EGPRS territories in the segment. Same analogy can be found from multislot class 10 MSs. The PACCH may be mapped onto any of the allocated PDCHs. then PCU1 allocates 3+1 but PCU2 3+2. PCU will not request for more channels. When PCU requests for more channels. 8. it will limit the number of requested channels so that gprs_maximum_capa will not be exceeded. 8. For example. In territory upgrade in S9 implementation a response to DX 200 is sent only when the upgrade was successful. PCU2 does it. All rights reserved. if there are less channels available than preferred allocation requires. It also indicates if Tra or Tta (see 3GPP TS 05.3.

Dynamic 1-3 Yes Down + up. Fixed d+u = 2-5 Yes d+u = 6 No No Down + up. Dynamic d+u = 2-5 Yes Down + up.08). Note 2 Normal BSIC decoding is not possible (see 3GPP TS 05. All rights reserved. Tra Tta shall apply shall apply Downlink. Dynamic 1-2 Yes Uplink.157/169 Managed Services.2. Note 3 Normal PACCH reception not possible (see 3GPP TS 04. .08). Ext. In Nokia S11 and S11. Dynamic d+u = 2-4 Yes d+u = 5.2 3 1.2 Table 33 Possible allocations in multislot usage When an MS supports the use of multiple timeslots it shall belong to a multislot class as defined below: Multislot class 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 Maximum number of slots Rx 1 2 2 3 2 3 3 4 3 4 4 4 3 4 5 6 7 8 6 6 6 6 6 8 8 8 8 8 8 Tx 1 1 2 1 2 2 3 1 2 2 3 4 3 4 5 6 7 8 2 3 4 4 6 2 3 4 4 6 8 Sum 2 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA Tta 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 NA NA NA NA NA NA 3 3 3 2 2 3 3 3 2 2 2 Minimum number of slots Ttb 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 a) a) a) a) a) 0 b) b) b) b) b) b) b) b) b) b) b) Tra 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 2 1 0 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Trb 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 a) a) a) a) 0 0 c) c) c) c) c) c) c) c) c) c) c) Type 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Details can be found in 3GPP TS 05. Fixed 1-4 Yes 5-6 Yes 7-8 No Uplink.60) Medium access mode No of Slots Note 1.3 1.02 Annex B. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. any mode 1-6 Yes 7-8 No Uplink.5 max 4 tsl downlink. d > 1 Yes Note 1 Normal measurements are not possible (see 3GPP TS 05. Ext. max 2 tsl uplink are supported.

158/169 Managed Services. Once a window size is selected for a given MS. multislot usage The window size may be set independently on uplink and downlink. 3GPP release 5 (TS 45.3 High Multislot Class (HMC) High Multislot Classes increases GPRS/EDGE peak downlink throughput to 296 kbit/s.002) introduces new MS multislot classes which allow sum of downlink and uplink timeslots of 6 . NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. All rights reserved. Preferably. 3GPP release 4 or earlier MSs are limited to combined downlink and uplink timeslot sum of 5.2.1 Average Window Size For EGPRS the window size (WS) shall be set by the network according to the number of timeslots allocated in the direction of the TBF (uplink or downlink). If the MS multislot class is not indicated during the packet data connection establishment (short access. in order to prevent dropping data blocks from the window. 8. The allowed window sizes are shown in Table 34. Window size 64 96 128 160 192 224 256 288 320 352 384 416 448 480 512 544 576 608 640 672 704 736 768 800 832 864 896 928 960 992 1024 Reserved Coding 1 00000 00001 00010 00011 00100 00101 00110 00111 01000 01001 01010 01011 01100 01101 01110 01111 10000 10001 10010 10011 10100 10101 10110 10111 11000 11001 11010 11011 11100 11101 11110 11111 Timeslots allocated (Multislot capability) 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Max Max Max Max Max Max Max x x x x x x x Max X Table 34 Max Window Size vs. access request for signaling message transfer). MS shall support the maximum window size corresponding to its multislot capability. it may be changed to a larger size but not to a smaller size. 8. The selected WS shall be indicated within PACKET UL/DL ASSIGNMENT and PACKET TIMESLOT RECONFIGURE using the coding defined in the Table 34. the selected window size should be the maximum. then a default window size (corresponding to the minimum window size for 1 timeslot) shall be selected.

All rights reserved. .159/169 Managed Services. if both of the DLDC TRXs are nonBCCH TRXs. The detailed information about DLDC planning will be described in DLDC planning guidelines. which will be published in the second half of 2009.4 DLDC DLDC needs two TRXs involved in PS territory. The CDEF recommendation for DLDC territory is 11 RTSLs if one of the TRXs is BCCH TRX and 13. • New maximum allocation configurations • Downlink + uplink: 5+1 and 4+2 • With Extended Dynamic Allocation Application Software • Downlink + uplink: 3+3 and 2+4 8. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks.

1 BSS and Data Outage The cell-reselection events without LA/RA Update are listed below: 1. PCU responds with an immediate assignment message and packet uplink assignment message respectively. Mobility The aim of mobility optimization is to reduce the cell-outage time during cellreselection. 9. 8. it asks for a channel and resources by sending CHANNEL REQUEST message for cell update and packet resource request message (Note: 2phase access for EDGE phone on CCCH) 5. . 6.1. It can be: o o o intra-PCU / inter-PCU RAU cell-reselection Inter PAPU and Inter SGSN This chapter below contains the description of cell-reselection types. SGSN sends an LLC PDU to the PCU.160/169 Managed Services. SGSN recognizes TLLI (in the packet resource request message) and understands that a cell reselection occurred and it sends Flush LLC packet data unit to the PCU. Mobile station (MS) is camped on Cell A and it notices a better Cell B 2. PCU sends an acknowledgement (FLUSH-LLC-ACK) to the SGSN. Note: The MS data stored in Cell A buffer is kept in the PCU buffer if Cell A and Cell B belong to the same PCU otherwise it is deleted and has to be retransmitted. 7. MS camps on the new Cell B and reads system information (SI) messages 4. Data transfer resumes In the analysis we separated the BSS cell-reselection outage from data outage. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. 9.1 Intra/Inter PCU Cell Re-selection The intra and inter PCU cell-reselection events and measurements are described below. 9. Cell-reselect Hysteresis and Network Assisted Cell Change (NACC) as well. MS abnormally stops all the temporary block flow sessions (TBFs) from Cell A. PCU sends downlink assignment message for DL TBF establishment on PACCH. 9. The cell-outage time depends on the type of cell-reselection. All rights reserved. (The network has no idea what is happening. When MS has successfully read the SI messages.) 3. 10.

1. MS BT S BSC First System information message [1]. o In the measurements the first time stamp is taken for the first system information message after the last RCL/MAC block o The last time is the time stamp from the packet uplink assignment 9. The last time is the time stamp from the packet downlink assignment. All rights reserved.1 BSS Cell-reselection outage It is the time it takes a mobile phone to synchronize to the target cell and establish an UL TBF in that target cell during cell reselection.1.2 Data outage The cell reselection outage is the period after the last RLC/MAC block transmission in the old cell and the first payload DL RLC block transmission at the target cell. SGSN First System information message(BCCH) Cell Reselection BSS Outage UL TBF ASSIGNMENT. 9. o First time stamp is taken from the first system information message after the last RCL/MAC block transmitted. MS ON CCCH.161/169 Managed Services. 2 phase access [2]. o The following figures show the cell-reselection process on signaling in case of FTP download.1.1. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. Channel Request (RACH) P_Channel Required P-Immediate Assignment Cmd Cell reselection data Outage Immediate Assignment (CCCH) Packet Resource Request (PACCH) Including TLLI for contention resolution Packet Uplink Assignment (PACCH) Including TLLI for contention resolution Packet downlink dummy control blocks Packet Resource Request Packet Uplink Assignment Packet downlink dummy control blocks DL TBF Establishment when UL TBF is ongoing [3] Packet Downlink Assignment (PACCH) RLC Data blocks (PDTCH) Packet Downlink Assignment RLC Data blocks LLC PDU Downlink Data Packets Packet Downlink Ack/Nack (PACCH) Packet Downlink Ack/Nack Figure 80 Cell-selection procedures for download .

8 20:44. MS ON CCCH. 2 phase access. UL TBF ASSIGNMENT. 2 phase access [2].2 PACCH "PACKET_DOWNLINK_DUMMY_CONTROL_BLOCK" RLC/MAC Downlink 20:44.0 20:44.1 20:43.2 PACCH "PACKET_DOWNLINK_ASSIGNMENT" RLC/MAC Uplink 20:44.3 20:43. BT S BSC SGSN First System information message(BCCH) … … … First System information message [1]. MS ON CCCH.3 PACCH "EGPRS_PACKET_DOWNLINK_ACK/NACK" Table 35 Layer3 and RLC/MAC messages from Nemo TOM for download The following figures show the cell-reselection process on signaling in case of FTP upload.8 20:43.0 20:44.162/169 Managed Services. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks.2 20:43.8 20:43.0 … … … … BCCH "SYSTEM_INFORMATION_TYPE_4" from CI 5032 to CI 5033 BCCH "SYSTEM_INFORMATION_TYPE_2" BCCH RACH CCCH CCCH CCCH CCCH BCCH BCCH PACCH PACCH PACCH PACCH … … … "SYSTEM_INFORMATION_TYPE_13" "CHANNEL_REQUEST" "IMMEDIATE_ASSIGNMENT" "PAGING_REQUEST_TYPE_1" "PAGING_REQUEST_TYPE_1" "PAGING_REQUEST_TYPE_1" "SYSTEM_INFORMATION_TYPE_2" "SYSTEM_INFORMATION_TYPE_13" "PACKET_RESOURCE_REQUEST" "PACKET_UPLINK_ASSIGNMENT" "PACKET_DOWNLINK_DUMMY_CONTROL_BLOCK" "PACKET_DOWNLINK_DUMMY_CONTROL_BLOCK" … … … … … RLC/MAC Downlink 20:44. Channel Request (RACH) P_Channel Required P-Immediate Assignment Cmd NOTE: BTS does not send Imm Ass Ack for Single block Immediate Assignment Packet Resource Request (PACCH) Including TLLI for contention resolution Immediate Assignment (CCCH) Packet Resource Request Packet Uplink Assignment (PACCH) Including TLLI for contention resolution Packet Uplink Assignment RLC Data block (PDCH) RLC Data Block Packet Uplink Ack/Nack (specs) Packet Uplink Ack/Nack Uplink Data Packets .0 BCCH "SYSTEM_INFORMATION_TYPE_2" 20:42.2 20:43. BSS/Data Cell Reselection Outage UL TBF ASSIGNMENT. All rights reserved.0 BCCH "SYSTEM_INFORMATION_TYPE_1" 20:42. Event name RLC/MAC Uplink Layer 3 Downlink Layer 3 Downlink Layer 3 Downlink Layer 3 Downlink Layer 3 Downlink Cell Reselection Layer 3 Downlink Layer 3 Downlink Layer 3 Uplink Layer 3 Downlink Layer 3 Downlink Layer 3 Downlink Layer 3 Downlink Layer 3 Downlink Layer 3 Downlink RLC/MAC Uplink RLC/MAC Downlink RLC/MAC Downlink RLC/MAC Downlink … MS Time Channel Message 20:42.1 20:43.2 20:43.0 PACCH "EGPRS_PACKET_DOWNLINK_ACK/NACK" 20:42.0 BCCH "SYSTEM_INFORMATION_TYPE_4" 20:42.0 BCCH "SYSTEM_INFORMATION_TYPE_3" 20:42.8 20:42.6 20:42.3 20:43.

38 6.011 2.28 0.28 0.385 2.26 0.54 0.0 PACCH "EGPRS_PACKET_DOWNLINK_ACK/NACK" 20:42.3 … … … BCCH "SYSTEM_INFORMATION_TYPE_4" from CI 5032 to CI 5033 BCCH "SYSTEM_INFORMATION_TYPE_2" BCCH RACH CCCH CCCH CCCH CCCH BCCH … … "SYSTEM_INFORMATION_TYPE_13" "CHANNEL_REQUEST" "IMMEDIATE_ASSIGNMENT" "PAGING_REQUEST_TYPE_1" "PAGING_REQUEST_TYPE_1" "PAGING_REQUEST_TYPE_1" "SYSTEM_INFORMATION_TYPE_2" … … … … Layer 3 Downlink 20:43. From EGPRS PACKET DOWNLINK ACK/NACK till Packet Uplink Assign.10 2.07 4.26 0.254 2.8 BCCH "SYSTEM_INFORMATION_TYPE_13" RLC/MAC Uplink 20:43.354 2.0 BCCH "SYSTEM_INFORMATION_TYPE_3" 20:42.14 2.94 0.375 2.28 0.0 PACCH "PACKET_DOWNLINK_DUMMY_CONTROL_BLOCK" Table 36 Layer3 and RLC/MAC messages from Nemo TOM for upload 9.8 PACCH "PACKET_RESOURCE_REQUEST" RLC/MAC Downlink 20:44.379 2.8 20:42.2 20:43.11 2.28 0.2 20:43.80 Diff.0 BCCH "SYSTEM_INFORMATION_TYPE_1" 20:42.379 2.09 2.393 2. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. (ms) 2.37 2.395 2.0 BCCH "SYSTEM_INFORMATION_TYPE_2" 20:42.12 2. (ms) till Packet Downlink Assign.26 0.629 2.1. Figure 81 Cell-selection procedures for upload Event name RLC/MAC Uplink Layer 3 Downlink Layer 3 Downlink Layer 3 Downlink Layer 3 Downlink Layer 3 Downlink Cell Reselection Layer 3 Downlink Layer 3 Downlink Layer 3 Uplink Layer 3 Downlink Layer 3 Downlink Layer 3 Downlink Layer 3 Downlink Layer 3 Downlink … … … Time Channel Message 20:42.09 2.094 2.56 1.09 2.26 0.28 0.631 2.163/169 Managed Services.8 20:43.6 20:42.07 2.28 0.43 average Table 37 Cell-reselection measurement results from Nemo TOM .56 0.355 2. All rights reserved.28 0.10 2.358 2.3 20:43.0 PACCH "PACKET_UPLINK_ASSIGNMENT" RLC/MAC Downlink 20:44.10 2.7 2.10 2.00 6.0 BCCH "SYSTEM_INFORMATION_TYPE_4" 20:42.2 20:43.1 20:43.09 2.26 0. Between BSS and full cell-outage (ms) 0.1 20:43.658 2.11 2.341 3.54 0.10 2.07 3.349 2.27 0.2 Benchmark Results The following table shows the BSS outage and Data Outage in case of intra and inter PCU cell-reselection.

3. An SDCCH channel is created for this purpose. When it has successfully read the SI messages. The results show that the BSS cell outage is almost same both in intra and inter PCU cells. where the Packet Downlink Assignment is needed based on LLC PDU from the SGSN. MS camps on the new Cell B and reads system information (SI) messages 4. but the data outage on downlink. A channel and resources are requested for routing area update (Note: 2phase access for EDGE phone on CCCH) 11.2 9. Data Outage The cell-reselection events without RA Update are listed below: 1.3 Data outage (LA/RA Update) . is half a ms longer. Routing Area Update and LA/RA Update BSS cell-reselection from each other. MS then sends location area update 7.1. 9.2. 6. 5.2. Security functions set by the operator take place. 8. MS sends CHANNEL REQUEST message for location area update. Routing area update request is sent to the network 10. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. All rights reserved.2 Routing Area Update o First time stamp is taken from the Routing_Area_Request o The last time is the time stamp from Routing_Area_Update_Complete 9.2.2.1. 9. o o First time stamp is taken from the Channel_Request for LAU The last time is the time stamp from Channel_Release after Location_Updating_Accept message. MS abnormally stops all the temporary block flow sessions (TBFs) from Cell A. MS is camped on Cell A and it notices a better Cell B 2.1 LA /RA Cell-reselection The RA cell-reselection events and measurements are described below.1 Location Area Update The LAU time is the period between Channel_Request and Channel_Release for LAU. When authentication is complete the SDCCH channel is released 9. When granted network sends routing area update accept to MS 12. 9.1. And the MS acknowledges receipt of this message by sending routing area update complete In the analysis we separated the Location Area Update.164/169 Managed Services.

Location update request SECURIT Y FUNCT IONS AS SE T BY THE OPE RATOR Location Update Accept Location Update Accept Caneel Release (SDCCH) Routing area Update [3]. The last time is the time stamp from Routing_Area_Update_Complete The following figures show the cell-reselection process with RAU on signaling. o o First time stamp is taken from the first system information message after the last RCL/MAC block transmitted. All rights reserved.165/169 Managed Services. P_Channel Required P-Immediate Assignment Cmd New SGSN Immediate Assignment (CCCH) Cell reselection data Outage Location update request (SDDCH) Location area Update [2]. Routing Area Update Request (PDTCH) Routing Area Update Request Routing Area Update Request Routeing Area Update Accept DL TBF ASSIGNME NT Routing Area Update Accept Routing Area Update Accept (PDCCH) Routing Area Update complete (PDCH) Routing Area Update complete Figure 82 LA / RA Cell-selection procedures . NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. MS BT S First System information message(BCCH) Channel Request (RACH) BSC First System information message [1].

401 PACCH "PACKET_RESOURCE_REQUEST" RLC/MAC Downlink 8:44:17. All rights reserved.119 PACCH "EGPRS_PACKET_DOWNLINK_ACK/NACK" Table 38 Layer3 and RLC/MAC messages from Nemo TOM 9.490 8:44:13. .697 8:44:13.799 8:44:14.797 BCCH 8:44:10.764 8:44:12.018 BCCH 8:44:16.020 8:44:13. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks.284 8:44:14.224 8:44:13. Event name Layer 3 Downlink Layer 3 Downlink Cell Reselection Layer 3 Downlink Layer 3 Uplink Layer 3 Downlink Layer 3 Uplink Layer 3 Downlink Layer 3 Uplink Layer 3 Uplink Layer 3 Downlink Layer 3 Uplink Layer 3 Uplink Layer 3 Downlink Layer 3 Uplink Layer 3 Uplink Layer 3 Downlink Layer 3 Uplink Layer 3 Downlink Layer 3 Uplink Layer 3 Downlink Layer 3 Uplink Layer 3 Uplink Layer 3 Downlink … Layer 3 Downlink Layer 3 Uplink RLC/MAC Uplink … … … … … … … … Time … 8:44:11.258 PDTCH "ROUTING_AREA_UPDATE_REQUEST" RLC/MAC Uplink 8:44:17.258 PDTCH "ROUTING_AREA_UPDATE_REQUEST" … 8:44:16.997 8:44:12.950 PDTCH "ROUTING_AREA_UPDATE_ACCEPT" 8:44:18.964 PDTCH "ROUTING_AREA_UPDATE_COMPLETE" 8:44:19.829 CCCH "CHANNEL_REQUEST" "IMMEDIATE_ASSIGNMENT" … … … … Layer 3 Uplink 8:44:16.801 BCCH 8:44:10.101 8:44:12.2.752 RACH 8:44:16.353 8:44:12.350 8:44:13.548 8:44:12.886 PACCH "PACKET_DOWNLINK_ASSIGNMENT" 8:44:18.388 8:44:12.906 8:44:11.607 PACCH "PACKET_UPLINK_ASSIGNMENT" RLC/MAC Downlink 8:44:17.313 8:44:12.784 8:44:13.168 8:44:14.166/169 Managed Services.399 … … … … … … … … Channel Message … RACH CCCH SDCCH SACCH SACCH SDCCH SDCCH SDCCH SDCCH SDCCH SACCH SDCCH SDCCH SACCH SDCCH SACCH SDCCH … … … … … … … … … "SYSTEM_INFORMATION_TYPE_1" … "SYSTEM_INFORMATION_TYPE_13" from 5691 to 5753 "SYSTEM_INFORMATION_TYPE_2" "CHANNEL_REQUEST" "IMMEDIATE_ASSIGNMENT" "LOCATION_UPDATING_REQUEST" "SYSTEM_INFORMATION_TYPE_6" "MEASUREMENT_REPORT" "CLASSMARK_CHANGE" "CIPHERING_MODE_COMMAND" "GPRS_SUSPENSION_REQUEST" "CIPHERING_MODE_COMPLETE" "IDENTITY_REQUEST" "MEASUREMENT_REPORT" "IDENTITY_RESPONSE" "LOCATION_UPDATING_ACCEPT" "MEASUREMENT_REPORT" "MM_INFORMATION" "MEASUREMENT_REPORT" "CHANNEL_RELEASE" … … 8:44:05.2 Benchmark Results The next table shows the RAU cell-reselection results.

00 Full LAU/RAU [sec.] 10.868 3.618 11.886 3. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. If valid RLA_C values are not available.6. . The MS shall then check whether: i) The path loss criterion (C1) for current serving cell falls below zero for a period of 5 seconds.22) shall take place immediately. a) in the case of the new cell being in a different location area or. This indicates that it is a better cell.042 2.14 Table 39 LA / RA Cell-reselection measurement results from Nemo TOM 9.048 3.088 8. the MS shall wait until these values are available and then perform the cell reselection if it is still required.045 2. This indicates that the path loss to the cell has become too high.637 2.3 Cell-reselect Hysteresis Path loss criteria and timings for cell reselection: The MS is required to perform the following measurements (see 3GPP TS 03.811 1.] 3.227 8.146 8.53 2. average Time to LAC [sec. for a period of 5 seconds.95 3.8 8. in a different routing area or always for a GPRS MS in ready state in which case the C2 value for the new cell shall exceed the C2 value of the serving cell by at least CELL_RESELECT_HYSTERESIS dB as defined by the BCCH data from the current serving cell.37 3.617 8.15 2.056 2.82 2.832 8.301 2. All rights reserved.865 2.99 2. Cell reselection for any other reason (see 3GPP TS 03.618 8.925 2. but the cell that the MS was camped on shall not be returned to within 5 seconds if another suitable cell can be found.814 2. or b) in case of a cell reselection occurring within the previous 15 seconds in which case the C2 value for the new cell shall exceed the C2 value of the serving cell by at least 5 dB for a period of 5 seconds.] 4.616 9.1 to minimize the cell reselection delay.635 8.813 3.10 3. The MS may accelerate the measurement procedure within the requirements in sub clause 6.955 2.167/169 Managed Services.918 3.22) to ensure that the path loss criterion to the serving cell is acceptable.11 Time for RAC [sec.573 10.61 9. except.888 2. for a GPRS MS.953 3.922 3.602 8.96 3. At least every 5 s the MS shall calculate the value of C1 and C2 for the serving cell and re-calculate C1 and C2 values for non-serving cells (if necessary). ii) The calculated value of C2 for a non-serving suitable cell exceeds the value of C2 for the serving cell for a period of 5 seconds.32 2.953 2.949 2.785 9.808 3.326 8.

All rights reserved. When NCCR has triggered and NACC has been applied. and omit repeated measurements on the known ones. The procedures in the MS and in the target PCU continue as if the cell reselection would have been triggered the MS. NACC specifies procedures for network to send target cell system information prior to actual cell change. Assistance is given by sending the specific set of neighbour cell (target cell) system information to certain MS during the cell change procedure while it’s still locating the serving cell. This reduces the data transmission break time during the cell change procedure. It can modify the results of this test.4 Network Assisted Cell Change 3GPP specified Network Assisted Cell Change (NACC) procedure is enhancement to NCCR (NACC can work also without NCCR). 9. the cell selection algorithm of 3GPP TS 03. NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks. The following figure shows the signaling flow of NACC: . PCU commands MS to target cell. A GPRS MS in Ready state applies the READY_STATE CELL RESELECTION HYSTERESIS together with the path loss criterion when reselecting the cell within the registration area.168/169 Managed Services. Since information concerning a number of channels is already known to the MS. then the cell reselect hysteresis is used only between RAUs. depending on the other features used.22 shall be performed. If no suitable cell is found within 10 seconds. NACC aims at reducing this packet data transfer outage time from seconds down to 300 msec – 1 sec. NACC feature aims on reduce of service outage time for all QoS classes when a GPRS MS in packet transfer mode moves between GSM cells. So if the terminal is not in ready state. it may assign high priority to measurements on the strongest carriers from which it has not previously made attempts to obtain BCCH information. The GPRS MS in Ready state shall inform the network about cell reselection within the registration area by the cell update procedure.

NPO Capability Management 02/06/2009 Copyright 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks.700 ms Figure 83 NACC signaling flow The PCU that commanded the cell reselection determines the success of the cell reselection from the MS and SGSN behavior. All rights reserved.169/169 Managed Services. Reserved resources are released when flush is received from SGSN or packet cell change timer expires. Existing abnormal release procedure with NCCR specific counters is used to stop TBF scheduling. If the MS fails to connect to the commanded cell it will send failure message and the operation will continue in the old cell. . MS S erving cell Uplink P acket Data transfer P acket E nhanced Measurement R eport P AC C H P acket Neighbour C ell Data 1 P AC C H P acket Neighbour C ell Data n P AC C H P acket C ell C hange O rder P AC C H Measurement and NC C Rinformation regarding target cell Network does not order the cell change until: •P S I information regarding target cell is provided in serving cell •P S IS T AT USis supported in the target cell T 3174 starts C urrent TB F on s erving cell is aborted! T arget cell P R AC H P AG C H T 3174 stops P acket C hannel R equest P acket Uplink Assignment PACKET SI STATUS •T heservice outage is only 300 .