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BRANCH-ME/2009 BATCH R OLL NO- 90691163358

NAHAR is a subsidiary of Nahar group and was establish in 1983.The company is involved both, in manufacture and export of cotton and woolen products.NAHAR SPINNING MILLS is a subsidiary of Nahar group and was establish in 1983.The company is involved both, in manufacture and export of cotton and woolen products. Nahar Industrial Enterprises Ltd is a vertically-integrated textile manufacturer, with operations ranging from spinning, weaving & processing to finished readymade garments. NIEL’s strategic objective is to capitalize on the growth opportunities that it believes are availed in the domestic and global textile industry .at the same time the company recognizes the competitive nature of the industry, especially with established pressure from Asia, and that to maintain growth it must continue to improve production process and reduce cost. From 1949 when small hosiery factory was incorporated into a public limited company, to the present day, constants upward growth has symbolized the charter of a company called oswal woolen mills limited.Oswald woolen mills , established in 1949 surges ahead to establish itself as a reputed industrial conglomerate with a wide ranging portfolio from wool combing , spinning, kitting , fabric, hosiery garments etc.From starting out with 800spindles today, from simple hosiery items to high value – added items like designer knitwear (Monte Carlo &Canterbury) all these are no mean achievements and what

made them possible in so short a time is nothing but a miracle that combined brilliant market insight with diversification. As the company progressively increased spindlier to 2000 in the year 1960, it had already established a market for itself in the areas of hosiery knitwear & textile fabrics like blankets and shawls etc. Very soon , it becomes the Indian exporter of woolen garments to Russia and shortly after in 1972, the company set up its own wool combing unit – the first of several backward integration measures .Soon began the in – house processing for the woolen division .With increasing capacity 7b demand for it’s processing for the woolen division.With increasing capacity & demand for its products, oswal woolen mills limit’s soon became a name e to reckon with, both in the domestic & international markets Research & developments also received focused attention & international market. Research & developments also received focused attention & today the company boats of north India’s most sophisticated laboratory, approved by the international wool secretariat (iws) & is even authorized to act as a quality checking center for other manufacturers. For the domestic market the company launched ‘Monte Carlo’, the first truly international range of designer knitwear followed b another prestigious brand “Canterbury” Later on an ultra modern lamb’s wool & angora spinning plant has been set up, of which more than 50% manufacturer is for captive consumption .The balance meets the requirements of other hosiery knitwear exporters in India. This in turn means immense saving in foreign exchange for India.

expanding it through the turbines and coupling the turbines to the generators which convert mechanical energy to electrical energy as shown in fig. This is achieved by raising the steam. gas) into mechanical/electrical energy. Electrical Energy Generator Waste gases Water Fuel Boil er T u r b i n e ~ Grid system . in the boilers. oil.PROJECT REPORT PROJECT : TO STUDY THE WORKING OF STEAM POWER PLANT Introduction A steam power plant converts the energy of the fossil fuel (coal.

. paper mills. The steam may be used for varying purposes in the industries such as textiles. • • • To produce electric power.1 Production of electrical energy by steam power plant The following two purposes can be served by a steam power plant.Fig. To produce steam for industrial purposes besides producing electric Power. food manufacturer. sugar mills and refineries etc.

Crusher house . Generator 4. Cooling tower 6. Steam turbine 3. Boiler feed pump 8. Circulating water pump 7. Condenser 5. Boiler a. Wagon tippler 9. Economizer d.Components of modern steam power plant A modern steam power plant comprises of the following components: 1. Super heater b. Air pre-heater 2. Re-heater c.

Forced draught fans 15. . Low cost of energy supplied to the consumers 7.10. Essential requirements of steam power station design The essential requirements of steam power station design are:1. Minimum capital cost 3. Induced draft fan 12. Minimum operating and maintenance cost 4. Boiler chimney 14. Capacity to meet peak load effectively 5. Reserve capacity to meet future demands. Coal mill 11. Ash precipitators 13. Switch yard. Control room 17. Minimum losses of energy in transmission 6. Water treatment plant 16. Reliability 2.

Layout of a modern steam power plant The layout of modern steam power plant comprises of the following four circuits: • • • • Coal and ash circuit Air and gas circuit. Cooling water circuit To chimney Flue gases Air Air Feed water Economis er Main valve Flue gases Steam CE pump Ash Ash handlin Superheated storage g plant steam BFP HP heater Boil er Exhaust steam ~ Super heater Flue gases Coal handlin g plant T u r b i n e Condens er Coal storage Air prehea Generato r . Feed water and steam flow circuit.

2 Coal and ash circuit Coal arrives at the storage yards and after necessary handling. Air and gas circuit Air is taken in form atmosphere through the action of a forced or induced draught fan and passes on to the furnace through the air pre-heater where it has been heated by the heat of flue gases which pass to the chimney via the preheater. Ash resulting from combustion of coal collects at the back of the boiler and is removed to the ash storage yard through handling equipment. passes on to the furnaces through the fuel feeding devices. .LP heater Circulating water pump River or canal Cooling tower ~ Layout of a steam power plant Fig. The flue gases after passing around boiler tubes and super heater tubes in the furnace pass through a dust catching device or precipitator then through the economizer and finally through the air pre-heater before being exhausted to the atmosphere.

This feed water should be purified before hand. A part of steam and water is lost while passing through different components and this is compensated by supplying additional feed water. From there it is exhausted through the condenser into the got well. Cooling water circuit . The condensate is heated on the feed heaters using the steam trapped from different points of turbine. After expanding in high pressure turbine steam is taken to the reheat boiler and brought to its original dryness or superheat before being passed on to the low pressure turbine. to avoid the scaling of the tubes of the boiler. Wet steam from the drum is further heated up in the super heater before being supplied to the prime mover. In the boiler drum and tubes eater circulates due to the difference between the density of water in the lower temperature and the higher temperature section of the boiler.Feed water and steam flow circuit In the water and steam circuit condensate leaving the condenser is first heated in a closed feed water heater through extracted steam from the lowest pressure extraction point of the turbine. It then passes through the deaerator and a few more water heaters before going into the boiler through economizer.

001 115 Dissolved maximum dust contents in the flue gas leaving mg/Nm³ . Steam pressure at main steam stop valve. Lake or sea or the same water may be cooled and circulated over again. Steam temperature control range. Design basis of steam power plant Rice husk. coal. Boiler design pressure.5 ºC ºC ppm 115 150 0.The cooling water supply to the condenser helps in maintaining a low pressure in it. De-aerator operating temperature. De-aerator design pressure. In the later case the cooling arrangement is made through spray pond or cooling tower. economizer inlet. De-aerator operating pressure. and Barmer lignite Kg/hr ºC % 55000 515±5 60-100 170 Kg/cm²(g) 86 Kg/cm²(g) 103 Feed water temperature at de-aerator outlet and ºC Kg/cm²(a) 1. Steam temperature at super heater outlet. Indian Contents Net steaming capacity at MCR for bagasse firing. Dissolved oxygen in the outlet water (max). The water may be taken from a natural source such as River. De-aerator design temperature.75 Kg/cm²(a) 3.

45 6.14 0.37 0. Fuel moisture.4 19.04 4.58 81 4 5.42 0.49 0. Heat losses and thermal efficiency (%) Fuel name Losses: Un-burnt carbon.45 5.83 0.47 Rice husk Indian coal Barmer coal Woodchips+ rice husk .5 18. 4 4.68 85 3 5.45 3.the dust collection system.31 0.28 1.14 0.17 0.45 5.53 0.05 0. Unaccounted.5 4 4. Radiation.72 thermal 82.57 0. Boiler efficiency.19 2.78 0.21 0.37 0. Total losses. Dry gas. Manufacture margin.5 14.4 16.42 2 0. Air moisture. Hydrogen moisture.17 0.

Economizer I/L. Economizer O/L. Air I/L. pre-heater 792 507 236 236 pre-heater 140 801 500 499 229 229 140 810 523 513 238 238 140 794 522 512 240 240 140 Primary SH O/L. 468 SH 453 515 . Air O/L.Gas temperature profile (ºC) Primary SH I/L. Secondary SH 317 317 461 446 515 317 473 452 515 317 472 453 515 Primary SH O/L. Secondary I/L. 511 Steam temperature profile (ºC) Primary SH I/L.

2.4 Average air velocity in bed zone.56 Average gas velocity in primary 5. 170 279 170 268 170 281 170 284 Air temperature profile (ºC) Air header I/L.4 Barme Wood chips r lignite 2.78 13.4 0. Water temperature profile (ºC) Economizer I/L.18 7.62 0.7 0. 35 157 35 139 35 132 35 163 Velocity profile (m/s) Fuel name Rice husk Indian coal 2.7 SH.47 6.2 6.5 .78 13.43 5.9 7.7 28 to (60 %) + rice husk (40%) 2.56 5.52 7.O/L. Average water velocity in 7.78 Average gas velocity in air 13.4 0. heater.65 6 7. Economizer O/L.1 in 7.78 13. Average gas velocity economizer. Air header O/L.

Furnace front wall. Furnace side wall. Average steam velocity in primary/secondary super-heater. Flue gas flow rate. Average steam velocity in bed super-heater. 44 Flow data (kg/hr) Fuel name Rice husk Indian coal 55000 850 74349 11108 67981 Barmer lignite 55000 1150 80608 11574 72167 Wood chips (60 %) + rice husk (40%) 55000 1100 83802 12715 72770 Steam flow at MS line at 55000 MCR. N. Combustion air flow. Fuel flow rate. flow.A 123 426 . 850 13742 69793 Attemperator spray water 80847 Heat transfer area (IBR) Drums.economizer.

after degassing (max) in µppm ppm ppm ppm ppm ppm ppm ppm ppm ppm ppm ppm ppm Feed water nil 8.5 Water quality requirement Quality of water Total hardness pH at 25ºC.01 0.50 nil nil 100.00 20.50 0.00 5. Permaganate.Furnace rear wall. . Total CO2 (max).02 nil nil 0.007 0.5-10.00 Specific electrical conductivity at 25ºC ppm siemens/centimeters.01 0. Total dissolved solids (max).02 - Boiler water 9.5 957. Air heater II. Copper (max). Iron (max). 158 1108 super 90 549 super 957. Oil (max). Silica (max). Secondary heater. Total suspended solids (max). Primary heater. Economizer. Air heater I. Oxygen (max).5 nil nil 2.00 nil 200.2 0. Residual hydrazine (max). Residual phosphate (max).5-9.25 nil nil 0.

280ºC level for the existing textile plant in being met existing one no. the total power for the entitle textile mill complex will be met from the proposal one no.WORKING: • The 12. . after installation of the proposed cogeneration program.0 MW extraction cum condensing turbo generator set and one no.5 km back side of the existing textile mill complex. of 40 TPH AFBC boiler and small capacity of fired boilers as stand by boilers. the total process steam requirement of around 25 TPH at 9 atm.0 MW cogeneration power plants are located adjacent to the proposed Denim plant in the new site. Level for the proposed new expansion of plant will be met from the proposed new 55 TPH AFBC boiler and the new 12.0 MW extraction cum condensing turbo generator set.0 MW cogeneration plant in addition to the available diesel generator set in the factory and from PSEB grid. around 1.0 MW existing DG set. 4. • Under the present arrangement. the total power requirement of the textile plant complex is being met by the existing 5. The process steam requirement of the existing textile units will be met from the existing boilers and the process steam requirement of around 12 TPH at 9 atm. one no.0 MW condensing cum extraction turbine. new 12. existing 5.

transformer for meeting the in house power requirement. extraction cum condensing turbo generator. LT distribution panels.generation plant. The deaerator will be operating at 3.0 MW cogeneration plant is planed adjacent to the proposed denim mill plant. etc. Having considered the present co generation technology level. water treatment system. both in India and abroad. • The power plant cycle will we provided with a deaerator serving the dual purpose of deaerating the feed water as well as heating the feed water with the extraction steam drawn through the uncontrolled extraction. The co-generation program envisages a new AFBC boiler and a single extraction single bleed cum condensing turbo generator.0 atm.• As the new 12. • The plant and equipment for the co-generation program will consist of a high pressure boiler. The feed water will be further heated to improve the cycle efficiency in the HP heater that will be operating with the 9 atm extraction steam and the condensate of the heating steam from the feed water heater will be taken to the deaerator. cooling water system. condensate system. with a deaerated feed water temperature at 115ºC. . the power from the 12. the management has decided to adopt 87 atm and 515ºC cycles for the cogeneration project at their proposed co-generation plant. • The management has decided to go in boiler and turbo generator in the proposed co. compressed air system and electrical system consisting of switchgears.0 MW cogeneration plant will be fed to the existing common NIEL substation on the textile complex and distributed to NIEL the entire textile mill complex from the substation.

• The water requirement of the cogeneration plant is proposed to be meeting from the bore wells proposed in the new cogeneration plant site. existing 5MW cogeneration turbo generator and 4 MV D. • Under the present arrangement. the total power requirement of the textile plant complex is being meet by the existing 5. . the entire power requirement for the entire textile mill complex will be distributed from the existing common substation available in the textile mill complex by operating the new 12 MW cogeneration turbo generator. However.5 TPH at 9 atm level for the proposed new denim plant will be meet from the 12 MW cogeneration and turbo generator. provision will be made in the cogeneration plant for firing other fuels like Indian coal and Barmer lignite.G set. After the cogeneration program. The internal consumption requirement will be meeting by steeping down the voltage level to 415 Volts.• The power generation in the cogeneration plant will be at 11 KV level. with rice husk as the main fuel and other biomass fuels as standby fuels.0 MW cogeneration plant in addition to the available diesel Generator set in the factory and from PSEB grid. Only the process steam requirement of around 12. The factory expects that there will not be any difficulty in meeting with the water requirement of the cogeneration plant. • The proposed cogeneration plant will be working for a minimum of 330 days for a year.

24 TPH including the heating steam required for the deaerator and HP heater with the following breakup. atmospheric fluidized boiler suitable for outdoor installation with electrostatic precipitators for dust collection. 3.0 atm. • The total process steam requirement for the plant is taken as 24.58 TPH 6. 4. The boiler will have facility to have uninterrupted flow of rice husk and other biomass fuels enabled by twin .06 TPH 1.• All steam calculations are done based on the plant operation of 24 hours for a minimum of 330 days in a year. • The boiler being proposed for the cogeneration plant shall be with the steam parameter of 87 atm and 515ºC at the boiler outlet.1 TPH The process steam requirement at the consumption points for the proposed denim mill is consider as 8 atm at process plant inlet terminal point and for deaeration is 3. • Process requirement Deaerator steam requirement HP heater Ejector and gland sealing requirement 12. The exhaust steam from the turbine will be condensed in the condenser and used as the boiler feed water.5 TPH 4. Accordingly the turbine extraction pressure is selected as 9 atm at terminal point. 1. The process requirement and for the requirement of ejector and gland sealing system and HP heater of boiler. The boiler proposed is of modern design with membrane furnace wall. 2.

bunker system located in the side of the boiler. There will be deaerator which deaerates the feed water and supply the feed water to the feed water pumps at about 115ºC and this feed water will be further heated in the high pressure HP heater to improve the cycle efficiency. The new boiler and cogeneration ill have DCS based control system for operation. There will be a ash handling system to handled all the ash generated in the boiler in dry form and transported to the nearby area in own specified land for land filling in low lying area and will also be tried for the other industries for using the same in cement manufacturing brices manufacturing of possible. • The proposed boiler will operate with balance draft conditions with the help of forced and induced draft fans. The ash handling system will be insured that the denim plant near and clean. • The cogeneration steam envisages extraction cum condensing turbo generator of 12 MW nominal capacities. The proposed boiler will have the electrostatic precipitator as the dust collection system for reducing the outlet flue gases dust concentration level of 115 mg/Nm³. operating with the steam inlet . • Fuel will be stored in the storage yard and feed into the boiler bunker system through conveyors. • With the outlet steam parameters of the boiler at 87kgf/cm² and 515ºC the main steam line from the boiler is connected to the turbo generator and supply steam to the pressure reducing and de-superheating station.

The quantum power required for meeting the entire NIEL textile mills complex requirement as well as the co-generation plant in house requirement meet by the new turbo generator in addition to the existing TG. DG sets and PSEB power and stand by for NIEL. • The plant and equipments for the co-generation plant will consist of the following auxiliary equipments. • The steam turbo generator will generate power at 11 KV. • There will be raw storage water tank and from the raw water storage tank the raw water will be pumped to the water treatment plant through centrifugal pumps.parameters of 84 atm and 510ºC. • There will be a three cell cooling tower which pumps for condensing the exhaust steam from the turbine. The turbo generator will be installed with all necessary auxiliary plants and system required for efficient operation of co-generation plant. The condensate will be circulated to the boiler as feed water through the condensate extraction pumps and deaerator. • The water treatment plant will treat the raw water to the required quality level of boiler feed water. .

• The proposed cogeneration plant will have the necessary plant communication system.3 . fire protection system and lightning arrestor system for safety and efficient operation of the plant. BOILER Fig. The co-generation plant will be CCS-SCADA based control system ensuring the maximum automation of the plant.

Safety valves An important boiler fitting is the safety valve. steel. The source of heat for a boiler is combustion of any of several fuels. and cast iron. Construction of boilers is mainly limited to copper. or natural gas. Heat recovery steam generators (HRSGs) use the heat rejected from other processes such as gas turbines Boiler fitting and Mountings 1. stainless steel. oil. Nuclear fission is also used as a heat source for generating steam. Many different types of safety valves are fitted to steam boiler plant.Boiler A boiler is a closed vessel in which water or other fluid is heated under pressure. brass is often used. coal. Electric boilers use resistance or immersion type heating elements. The fluid is then circulated out of the boiler for use in various processes or heating applications. but they must all meet the following criteria: . Its function is to protect the boiler shell from over pressure and subsequent explosion. In live steam toys. such as wood.

2. these valves have often been manufactured from cast iron. Boiler stop valves A steam boiler must be fitted with a stop valve (also known as a crown valve) which isolates the steam boiler and its pressure from the process or plant.The total discharge capacity of the safety valve(s) must be at least equal to the 'from and at 100°C' capacity of the boiler. The stop valve is not . Fig. It is generally an angle pattern globe valve of the screw-down variety. with steel and bronze being used for higher pressure applications.4 In the past. Figure shows a typical stop valve of this type. the safety valve capacity will always be higher than the actual maximum evaporative boiler capacity. If the 'from and at' evaporation is used to size the safety valve.

Fig. and to help restrict the fall in boiler pressure and any possibleassociated_priming. The check valve includes a spring equivalent to the head of water in the elevated feedtank when there is no pressure in the boiler. Feedwater check valves The feedwater check valve is installed in the boiler feedwater line between the feedpump and boiler. 3.designed as a throttling valve. It should always be opened slowly to prevent any sudden rise in downstream pressure and associated waterhammer. and should be fully open or closed. This prevents the boiler being flooded by the static head from the boiler feedtank.5 . A boiler feed stop valve is fitted at the boiler shell.

Boiler check valve Under normal steaming conditions the check valve operates in a conventional manner to stop return flow from the boiler entering the feedline when the feedpump is not running. its pressure overcomes the spring to feed the boiler as normal. Because a good seal is required. .4. When the feedpump is running. and the temperatures involved are relatively low (usually less than 100°C) a check valve with a EPDM (Ethylene Propylene) soft seat is generally the best option.

and is sometimes also referred to as 'continuous blowdown'. the boiler water would be sampled every shift. TDS control This controls the amount of Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) in the boiler water. This has the effect of diluting the water in the boiler.6 5. if the TDS level is too high. The objective of the next few Sections is simply to identify the fittings to be seen on a boiler. Whatever system is used.Fig. The measurement and control of the various parameters is a complex topic. which is also covered by a number of regulations. a quantity of boiler water is released to be replaced by feedwater with a much lower TDS level. the TDS in a sample of boiler water is compared with a set point. Boiler water quality control The maintenance of water quality is essential to the safe and efficient operation of a steam boiler. It is therefore covered in detail later in this Block. 6. The system may be manual or automatic. On a manually controlled TDS system. and reducing the TDS level. A typical automatic TDS control system is shown in Figure . The boiler connection is typically DN15 or 20.

7. Figures illustrate a bottom blowdown valve and its typical position in a blowdown system. once per shift. The control is a large (usually 25 to 50 mm) key operated valve. Bottom blowdown This ejects the sludge or sediment from the bottom of the boiler. . This valve might normally be opened for a period of about 5 seconds.

The dial should be at least 150 mm in diameter and of the Bourdon tube type. Pressure gauges may be fitted to other pressure containers such as blowdown vessels. Pressure gauges are connected to the steam space of the boiler and usually have a ring type siphon tube which fills with condensed steam and protects the dial mechanism from high temperatures.8 8.Fig. and will usually have smaller dials as shown in Figure. Pressure gauge All boilers must be fitted with at least one pressure indicator. it should be marked to indicate the normal working pressure and the maximum permissible working pressure / design pressure. .

Gauge glasses and fittings All steam boilers are fitted with at least one water level indicator. Gauge glasses are prone to damage from a number of sources.Fig.7 9. The indicators are usually referred to as gauge glasses complying with BS 3463. Gauge glasses should be installed so that their lowest reading will show the water level at 50 mm above the point where overheating will occur. regardless of the boiler's operating conditions. and erosion during blow down. particularly . such as corrosion from the chemicals in boiler water. but this should not hinder visibility of the water level. They should also be fitted with a protector around them. A gauge glass shows the current level of water in the boiler. but those with a rating of 100 kW or more should be fitted with two indicators.

The air can also give rise to corrosion in the condensate system. When testing the gauge glass water connections. Any sign of corrosion or erosion indicates that a new glass is required. An alternative to the cock is a balanced pressure air vent which not only relieves the boiler operator of the task of manually purging air (and hence ensures that it is actually done). The air may be purged from the steam space using a simple cock. it is also much more accurate and will vent gases which may accumulate in the boiler. This air has no heat value. the steam in the steam space condenses and leaves a the steam end. Typical air vents are shown in Figure When a boiler is taken off-line. if not removed adequately. Air vents and vacuum breakers When a boiler is started from cold. the water cock should be closed. the steam space is full of air.5 bar is showing on the pressure gauge. When testing the gauge glass steam connection. and will adversely affect steam plant performance due to its effect of blanketing heat exchange surfaces. normally this would be left open until a pressure of about 0. This vacuum causes . the steam cock pipe should be closed 10.

The vacuum breaker consists of a spherical stainless steel ball that rests on its seat during normal operating conditions. This helps to ensure that the shut-off at near vacuum conditions remains bubble tight. the valve is lifted off its seat and air is drawn into the system. typically associated with cooling. a vacuum breaker (see Figure 3. At the point of vacuum.7. the valve may be spring loaded. When the vacuum is . 11. which means that the vacuum is only broken when there is a further pressure decrease.pressure to be exerted on the boiler from the outside. Vacuum breaker Vacuum breakers protect plant and process equipment against vacuum conditions.14) is required on the boiler shell. To avoid this. On smaller heat exchangers draining to atmosphere. In some cases. the stall condition can be avoided by installing a vacuum breaker on the steam inlet to the heat exchanger. and can result in boiler inspection doors leaking. A common application of vacuum breakers is on temperature-controlled heat exchangers that are likely to suffer from stall . damage to the boiler flat plates and the danger of overfilling a shutdown boiler.

Furthermore.reached in the steam space. if the condensate is lifted after the steam trap. where it is not advisable to use a vacuum breaker to overcome stall. since it acts as a barrier to heat transfer and reduces the effective steam temperature . into a raised condensate return main. . This becomes a problem on larger heat exchangers. for example. it is not desirable to introduce air into the steam space. the vacuum breaker opens to allow condensate to drain down to the steam trap.9 In general. the vacuum breaker cannot assist drainage. erosion and corrosion. Fig. including lower productivity. In both these cases. it is necessary to use an active method of condensate removal such as a pump-trap Separators 'Wet' steam is a major concern in a steam system as it can cause process and maintenance problems.

Baffle type Cyclonic type Coalescence type Deaerator .There are three types of separator in common use in steam systems.Separators are designed to efficiently remove the moisture from steam flow. The application and selection of different types are considered here. Types of separators a. c. b.

10 Deaerator Oxygen is the main cause of corrosion in hotwell tanks. feedlines. although the metal loss may not be great.Fig. and the rate of corrosion will be increased. deep penetration andperforation can occur in a short period. the water will tend to be acidic. Typically the corrosion is of the pitting type where. feedpumps and boilers. If carbon dioxide is also present then the pH will be low. .

the lowest level at which carbon dioxide is absent. although the liquid must be strongly agitated or boiled to ensure it is completely deaerated. and surrounding these drops with an atmosphere . The return of condensate from the plant will have a significant impact on boiler feedwater treatment . hydrazine or tannin) will remove the remaining oxygen and prevent corrosion. consequently as more condensate is returned.condensate is hot and already chemically treated. Water exposed to air can become saturated with oxygen. Operating principles of a pressurised deaerator If a liquid is at its saturation temperature. the solubility of a gas in it is zero.5 to 9. Operation at higher temperatures than this at atmospheric pressure can be difficult due to the close proximity of saturation temperature and the probability of cavitation in the feedpump.This leaves an oxygen content of around 2 mg / litre (ppm). The addition of an oxygen scavenging chemical (sodium sulphite. and to remove all traces of oxygen. the lower the oxygen content. and the concentration will vary with temperature: the higher the temperature. The essential requirements to reduce corrosion are to maintain the feedwater at a pH of not less than 8. but more usually by a combination of both. This is achieved in the head section of a deaerator by breaking the water into as many small drops as possible. Typically a boiler feedtank should be operated at 85°C to 90°C.tideaerator. less feedwater treatment is required. The first step in feedwater treatment is to heat the water to drive off the oxygen.Elimination of the dissolved oxygen may be achieved by chemical or physical methods. unless the feedtank isInstalled at a very high level above the boiler feedpump.

Water distribution The incoming water must be broken down into small drops to maximise the water surface area to mass ratio. This gives a high surface area to mass ratio and allows rapid heat transfer from the steam to the water. which are then carried with the excess steam to be vented to atmosphere. and releasing the gases during the very short residence period in the deaerator dome (or head). The deaerated water then falls to the storage section of the vessel. This releases the dissolved gases. Breaking the water up into small drops can be achieved using one of the methods employed inside the dome's steam environment. which quickly attains steam saturation temperature. A blanket of steam is maintained above the stored water to ensure that gases are not re-absorbed.of steam. . This is essential to raising the water temperature. (This mixture of gases and steam is at a lower than saturation temperature and the vent will operate thermostatically).

Deaerator water inlet options


The major difficulties that may be encountered with a pressurised deaerator, and their possible causes.

Design data
Type. Deaerator capacity. I/L water temperature. I/L water pressure. O/L water temperature. O/L water pressure. Oxygen content in deaerator water. Heating steam quantity. Heating steam pressure. Heating steam temperature. Design pressure. Storage tank capacity. TPH ºC kg/cm²(g) ºC kg/cm²(g) ppm kg/hr kg/cm²(g) ºC kg/cm²(a) m³ Spray cum tray 66 74.78 -115 0.75 0.02 4777 2 135 3.5 18.5


steam at lower pressure is extracted from the steam turbine and used directly or is converted to other forms of thermal energy. A steam turbine is captive to a separate heat source and does not directly convert fuel to electric energy.13 Turbine Introduction and Summary heat is a byproduct of power generation. wood. Steam turbines offer a wide array of designs and complexity to Steam turbines are one of the . and rice hulls). wood waste. steam turbines normally generate electricity as a byproduct of heat (steam) generation. and agricultural byproducts (sugar cane bagasse. This separation of functions enables steam turbines to operate with an enormous variety of fuels. In CHP applications. The energy is transferred from the boiler to the turbine through high pressure steam that in turn powers the turbine and generator. from natural gas to solid waste.Fig. fruit pits. including all types of coal.

Steam turbines for utility service may have several pressure casings and elaborate design features. The capacity of steam turbines can range from 50 kW to several hundred MWs for large utility power plants. Conventional steam turbine power plants generate most of the electricity produced in the United States. Power generation using steam turbines has been in use for about 100 years. Unlike gas turbine and reciprocating engine CHP systems where match the desired application And/or performance specifications. when they replaced reciprocating steam engines due to their higher efficiencies and lower costs. CHP can be adapted to both utility and industrial steam turbine designs. For industrial applications. all designed to maximize the efficiency of the power plant. Turbine Turbine out put (At generator terminals) .most versatile and oldest prime mover technologies still in general production. Steam turbines are widely used for combined heat and power (CHP) applications. steam turbines are generally of simpler single casing design and less complicated for reliability and cost reasons.

2 micro S/cm 20 micro g/l Load point list Load point 1 .- Rated 12000KW Speeds Rated (turbine) Rated (generator) Resonance (turbine) 1.10 atm Steam purity Specific electric conductivity SiO2 < < 0. Critical speed .1 2.2 Direction of rotation Live steam Pressure rated Temperature rated 84 515 atm ºC 2800 min-1 5800 min-1 CCW 100% 100% 7500 min-1 1500 min-1 8250 min-1 Emergency trip (turbine) 110% Exhaust steam Rated 0. Critical speed .

8 T/h Exhaust to condenser Pressure Power output 0.10 atm 12000KW Extraction steam Pressure Temperature Flow 9.7 ºC T/h Turbine special instrumentation Over speed .8 atm ºC T/h Bleed steam Pressure Temperature Flow 2.0 atm 515 ºC 56.92 atm 179 4.0 262 18.Live steam Pressure Temperature Flow 84.

of pieces Probe tip dia.Manufacturer Probe type No.0 mm 2 mm 120 mm Predictech TM0180-A05-B05-C12-D05 Bearing vibration (absolute) Manufacturer Probe type Predictech TM0180-A05-B05-C12-D05 . of pieces Linearity range Air gap-min Speed Manufacturer Probe type No. USA Magnetic Pick –up type. Air gap-min Sensor length 1 8. 5430933 2 100 Hz-32 Hz Guardian 3 Magnetic Pick –up model 100 Hz-32 Hz Axial rotor position in the thrust bearing Manufacturer Probe type No. of pieces Linearity range Air gap-min 1 mm 1 mm Woodward.

duplex 2 0 to 200 deg C Condenser . of pieces: Radial bearing Measuring range 2 Turbine thrust bearing 4 2 10 -1000 Hz 2 8 2 Predictech 6-30 VDC 8.No. of pieces: Turbine front bearing pedestal Rear bearing pedestal Gear box Generator Key phaser Linearity range Hi 0-200µ Low 0-300µ Proximitor details Manufacturer Operating range Sensitivity Output Bearing metal temperature Manufacturer Element No.0 mv/µm 4-20 ma Masibus 2 x pt100.

. An air-cooled condenser is however significantly more expensive and cannot achieve as low a steam turbine exhaust pressure as a surface condenser. These condensers are heat exchangers which convert steam from its gaseous to its liquid state at a pressure below atmospheric pressure.14 Surface condenser Surface condenser is the commonly used term for a water cooled shell and tube heat exchanger installed on the exhaust steam from a steam turbine in thermal power stations. an air-cooled condenser is often used.Fig. Where cooling water is in short supply.

the steam pressure drop between the inlet and exhaust of the turbine is increased.Surface condensers are also used in applications and industries other than the condensing of steam turbine exhaust in power plants. Most of the heat liberated due to condensation of the exhaust steam is carried away by the cooling medium (water or air) used by the surface condenser. The steam turbine itself is a device to convert the heat in steam to mechanical power. the more the conversion of heat per pound or kilogram of steam to mechanical power in the turbine. Therefore. which increases the amount heat available for conversion to mechanical power. The difference between the heat of steam per unit weight at the inlet to the turbine and the heat of steam per unit weight at the outlet to the turbine represents the heat which is converted to mechanical power. The adjacent diagram depicts a typical water-cooled surface condenser as used in power stations to condense the exhaust steam from a steam turbine driving an electrical generator as well in other applications. the better is its efficiency. There are many fabrication . the primary purpose of a surface condenser is to condense the exhaust steam from a steam turbine to obtain maximum efficiency and also to convert the turbine exhaust steam into pure water (referred to as steam condensate) so that it may be reused in the steam generator or boiler as boiler feed water. Purpose In thermal power plants. By condensing the exhaust steam of a turbine at a pressure below atmospheric pressure.

Waterboxes . MAIN COMPONENT 1. Shell 2. Tube sheets 4. and other site-specific conditions. Vacuum system 3. the size of the steam turbine. Tubes variations depending on the manufacturer.

15 Cooling tower Cooling towers are evaporative coolers used for cooling water or other working medium to near the ambient wet-bulb air temperature. Cooling towers use evaporation of water to reject heat from processes such as cooling the circulating water used in oil refineries.Cooling Tower Fig. for example. or rectangular structures that can be over 40 metres tall and . power plants and building cooling. chemical plants. The towers vary in size from small roof-top units to very large hyperboloid structures that can be up to 200 metres tall and 100 metres in diameter.

Dry coolers operate by heat transmission through a surface that divides the working fluid from ambient air.80 metres long. As air is drawn past a flow of water. . with the advantage provided by a dry cooler of protecting the working fluid from environmental exposure. In a wet cooling tower. absorbs additional water vapor. With respect to the heat transfer mechanism employed. Wet cooling towers or simply cooling towers operate on the principle of evaporation. Splash fill consists of material placed to interrupt the water flow causing splashing. upon which clean water is sprayed and a fan-induced draft applied. They thus rely mainly on convection heat transfer to reject heat from the working fluid. Fluid coolers are hybrids that pass the working fluid through a tube bundle. if not saturated. leaving less heat in the remaining water flow. 2. while larger ones are constructed on site. Both methods create increased surface area. the main types are: 1. Smaller towers are normally factory-built. To achieve better performance (more cooling). the warm water can be cooled to a temperature lower than the ambient air dry-bulb temperature. The air. if the air is relatively dry. (see: dew point and psychrometrics). The resulting heat transfer performance is much closer to that of a wet cooling tower. 3. the two flows attempt to equalize. a media called fill is used to increase the surface area between the air and water flows. rather than evaporation. Film fill is composed of thin sheets of material upon which the water flows.

2. The forced draft benefit is its ability to work with high static pressure. This produces low entering and high exiting air velocities. which utilizes buoyancy via a tall chimney. Natural draft. which uses power driven fan motors to force or draw air through the tower. Mechanical draft. . creating high entering and low exiting air velocities. the fan is more susceptible to complications due to freezing conditions. o Forced draft: A mechanical draft tower with a blower type fan at the intake. Warm moist air is less dense than drier air at the same temperature and pressure. cooler outside air. The fan induces hot moist air out the discharge. Warm.Air flow generation methods With respect to drawing air through the tower. moist air naturally rises due to the density differential to the dry. With the fan on the air intake. This fan/fill geometry is also known as blow-through. This moist air buoyancy produces a current of air through the tower. They can be installed in more confined spaces and even in some indoor situations. This fan/fill arrangement is also known as draw-through. The low exiting velocity is much more susceptible to recirculation. reducing the possibility of recirculation in which discharged air flows back into the air intake. there are three types of cooling towers: 1. The fan forces air into the tower. o Induced draft: A mechanical draft tower with a fan at the discharge which pulls air through tower. Another disadvantage is that a forced draft design typically requires more motor horsepower than an equivalent induced draft design.

The air continues through the fill and thus past the water flow into an open plenum area.Categorization by air-to-water flow Crossflow Crossflow is a design in which the air flow is directed perpendicular to the water flow (see diagram below). Gravity distributes the water through the nozzles uniformly across the fill material Fig.16 Counterflow . Air flow enters one or more vertical faces of the cooling tower to meet the fill material. Water flows (perpendicular to the air) through the fill by gravity. A distribution or hot water basin consisting of a deep pan with holes or nozzles in the bottom is utilized in a crossflow tower.

The water is sprayed through pressurized nozzles and flows downward through the fill. Fig. Air flow first enters an open area beneath the fill media and is then drawn up vertically.In a counterflow design the air flow is directly opposite of the water flow (see diagram below).17 . opposite to the air flow.

including our own.Electrostatic precipitator Fig. fly ash emissions have received the greatest attention since they are easily seen leaving smokestacks. Ash is mineral matter present in the fuel. . For a pulverized coal unit. 60-80% of ash leaves with the flue gas. depend on coal and other fossil fuels to produce electricity. A natural result from the burning of fossil fuels. is the emission of fly ash.18 Electrostatic precipitator Many countries around the world. Historically. particularly coal.

which reduces the plant efficiency. but can be temporarily cleaned by shaking or back flushing with air). Electrostatic precipitators have collection efficiency of 99%. but do not work well for fly ash with a high electrical resistively (as commonly results from combustion of low-sulfur coal). Conventional electrostatic precipitator . In addition. These fabric filters are inherently large structures resulting in a large pressure drop. The fabric filters are large bughouse filters having a high maintenance cost (the cloth bags have a life of 18 to 36 months. the designer must avoid allowing unburned gas to enter the electrostatic precipitator since the gas could be ignited.Two emission control devices for fly ash are the traditional fabric filters and the more recent electrostatic precipitators.

which attract the now negatively-charged ash particles. The air that leaves the plates is then clean from harmful pollutants. This same principle is used to keep the environment clean today. The particles stick to the positive plates until they are collected. . or grounded plates. A description of a more elaborate demonstration of how an electrostatic precipitator works using a Van de Graff generator may be found at The flue gas laden with fly ash is sent through pipes having negatively charged plates which give the particles a negative charge. and repelling balloon experiments serve to illustrate the basis of an electrostatic precipitator.The salt & pepper collector/selector. In these experiments a type of electrostatic collector and electrostatic selector are created. Just as the spoon picked the salt and pepper up from the surface they were on. The particles are then routed past positively charged plates. the electrostatic precipitator extracts the pollutants out of the air. .owmnahar.