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SANDWICH CONCEPT

DIAB SANDWICH HANDBOOK
Jan-01

DESIGN
SANDWICH Whenever new materials or production methods appear there is a resistance to use them. Mostly the resistance originates in conservatism and ignorance. The only way to overcome the resistance is to try to teach and convince the opponents. This handbook has been written to spread knowledge about sandwich and understanding of its behaviour.
upper face

MAIN PRINCIPLES Sandwich is built up of three elements, see Fig. 1.1. * two faces * core * joints

HISTORY Historically, the principal of using two cooperating faces with a distance between them was introduced by Delau about 1820. The first extensive use of sandwich panels was during World War II. In the ”Mosquito” aircraft sandwich was used, mainly because of the shortage of other materials in England during the war. The faces were made of veneer and the core of balsa wood. During World War II the first theoretical writings about sandwich appeared. In the 50’s the development was mainly concentrated on honeycomb materials. Honeycomb was mainly used as core material in the aircraft industry. However, it had some limitations, for example there were big problems with corrosion. At the end of the 50’s and during the 60’s different cellular plastics were produced, suitable as core materials. In the beginning rather soft materials were used because of their insulation properties, for example polystyrene and polyurethane. Later it was possible to produce harder cellular plastics with higher densities and by that time sandwich became a very useful and flexible concept. Today there is an enormous number of different qualities of cellular plastics as core materials.

co re

lower face

joints

Fig. 1.1 Sandwich

Every part has its specific function to make it work as a unit. The aim is to use the material with a maximum of efficiency. The two faces are placed at a distance from each other to increase the moment of inertia, and thereby the flexural rigidity, about the neutral axis of the structure. A comparison could be made with a solid beam. A Sandwich beam of the same width and weight as a solid beam has a remarkably higher stiffness because of its higher moment of inertia.

DIAB SANDWICH HANDBOOK

DESIGN
Fig. 1.2 demonstrates, as a simple example, the difference in flexural rigidity for a solid beam versus a sandwich beam.
d/ 2

The lower case shows, as a comparison, a sandwich beam which is not very rigid in shear. Here the faces do not cooperate and the faces work as plates in bending, independent of each other. The local flexural rigidities for the faces can in most cases be ignored. Accordingly, the result of a core that is weak in shear is a loss of the sandwich effect.

weight 1
b d/ 4
dd

flexural rigidity 1

1 (+ core)

12

d/ 4 b
Fig. 1.2 Comparison of stiffness in bending between solid beam and sandwich beam

An important difference in comparing an ,-beam with a sandwich beam is the possibility for each to bear transverse loads. For an ,beam the web is stiff enough to give Navier’s assumption validity, (i.e. plane cross sections remain plane). In a sandwich beam the core material is usually not rigid in shear and the assumption is not fullfilled. In bending the shear deflection in the core is not negligible in most cases. There is also shear deflection in the faces but this can be ignored. The effect of shear rigidity in the core is shown in fig. 1.3. The upper case shows an ideal sandwich beam which is relatively stiff in shear. It is obvious how the faces cooperate without sliding over each other.
Fig 1.3 Comparison between cores that are rigid or weak in shear

DIAB SANDWICH HANDBOOK

DESIGN
Each of the parts in sandwich have their particular functions and will be described. a/ The faces The faces carry the tensile and compressive stresses in the sandwich. The local flexural rigidity is so small that it can often be ignored. Conventional materials such as steel, stainless steel and aluminium are often used for face material. In many cases it is also suitable to choose fibre- or glass- reinforced plastics as face materials. These materials are very easy to apply. Reinforced plastics can be tailored to fulfill a range of demands like anisotrophic mechanical properties, freedom of design, excellent surface finish etc. Faces also carry local pressure. When the local pressure is high the faces should be dimensioned for the shear forces connected to it. b/ The core The core has several important functions. It has to be stiff enough to keep the distance between the faces constant. It must also be so rigid in shear that the faces do not slide over each other. The shear rigidity forces the faces to cooperate with each other. If the core is weak in shear the faces do not cooperate and the sandwich will lose its stiffness. (See fig. 1.3).

This presentation demonstrates that it is the sandwich structure as a whole that gives the positive effects. However, it should be mentioned that the core has to fulfill the most complex demands. Strength in different directions and low density are not the only properties that the core has to have. Often there are special demands for buckling, insulation, absorption of moisture, ageing resistence, etc. c/ Adhesive (Bonding layer) To keep the faces and the core co-operating with each other the adhesive between the faces and the core,must be able to transfer the shear forces between the faces and the core. The adhesive must be able to carry shear and tensile stresses. It is hard to specify the demands on the joints. A simple rule is that the adhesive should be able to take up the same shear stress as the core.

DIAB SANDWICH HANDBOOK

BEAMS AND STRUTS
ASSUMPTIONS In this chapter it is assumed that the faces are thin and of the same thickness. Shear and bending strains in the faces are small and can be ignored. The shear stress is assumed to be constant throughout the thickness of the core at any given section. For a beam with faces on the sides, the shear and bending strains in the side faces cannot be ignored. In this chapter the beams are considered narrow. The conditions and directions for when a beam is to be considered narrow or wide are found in the chapter ”Beams considered narrow or wide”. SIGN CONVENTION FOR BENDING OF BEAMS The sign conventions to be adopted for deflection, slope, curvature, bending moment and shear forces are illustrated in fig 2.1.

Loads and deflections (w) are measured positive downwards, in the direction of the z-axis. As a result of the choice of sign convention it is necessary to introduce negative signs in some of the relationships between distributed load (q), shear force (Q), bending moment (M), slope (dw/dx), and deflection (w). For reference, the full set of relationships, with the correct signs, is given:

Deflection Slope Curvature –M

w + dw/dx = w’ + w’’ (2.1) + Dw’’ + Dw’’’ + Dw (4)

x

–Q +q

y

z
Fig. 2.1. Sign conventions. Left, positive deflection, slope and curvature; negative bending moment. Right, positive shear force, shear stress and shear strain.

DIAB SANDWICH HANDBOOK

2.OPEN BEAMS (FREE SIDES) FLEXURAL RIGIDITY The theory for engineering stresses in beams is easily adapted to sandwich beams with some modifications.3) At a ratio of d/t > 11.7 (2.25% and since we have assumed that the faces are thin the first term can for the present be ignored.4) c3 In many practical sandwich beams this condition is fulfilled but.1. considering the many combination possibilities of Divinycell. this term must be checked. 2.2) is local flexural rigidity of the faces about their own centroidal axes.77 t (2. The second term is the first term transposed for bending about the centroidal axis of the entire cross section. In an ordinary beam D would be the product of the modulus of elasticity. To obtain the bending stress at the same point the strain may be multiplied with the appropriate modulus of elasticity. the stresses in the faces and core are respectively: The first term in equation (2. DIAB SANDWICH HANDBOOK .2) Ef and Ec are the moduli of elasticity of the faces (index f) and the core (index c) respectively. with a few modifications. For instance. The third term amounts to less than 1% of the second (and may consequently be ignored) when: > 16. Fig. (E) and the second moment of area (I). 2. Dimensions of sandwich beam.4) is fulfilled this expression will be reduced to: b A x c/ 2 C L/ 2 z L/ 2 A t z y c/ 2 d/ 2 d/ 2 h/ 2 C h/ 2 t D = Ef btd 2 2 (2.3) the expression for the flexural rigidity is: Ec Ef ⋅ td 2 (2. Dimensions according to fig. Section AA on right.6) STRESSES The stresses in a sandwich beam may also be determined by the use of theory for engineering stresses in beams. measured about the centroidal axis of the entire section: bc3 btd2 bt3 D = Ef + Ef + Ec 12 2 6 The first term amounts to less than 1% of the second when: d > 5. To use ordinary beam theory we should first find a simple way to calculate the flexural rigidity.55 the proportion is less than 0. here denoted D. The error may be too big to be acceptable. of the beam.5) If condition (2. Effects caused by shear deflections in the core must be added and certain terms may be neglected when calculating flexural rigidity. Due to assumptions (sections remain plane and perpendicular to the centroidal axis) the strain at a point the distance z below the centroidal axis cc is Mz/D. which is the same as for the entire cross section. The third term is flexural rigidity of the core about its own centroidal axis. D = Ef W btd 2 bc 3 + Ec 2 12 (2. With condition (2. In a sandwich beam D is the sum of the flexural rigidities of the different parts.

2.1. − σf = ≤ z ≤ − ¸ D 2 2 2¹ ©2 (2.10).9) is used to determine the shear stress at a level z in the core of the sandwich in fig. c· Mz § c σc = ≤ z ≤ ¸ Ec ¨ − (2.11) The ratio of the maximum core shear stress (at z = 0) to the minimum core shear stress (at z = ± c/2) is 2 § ¨1 + E c t c ¨ E f 4 td © b z1 z> z 1 τ · ¸ ¸ ¹ The second term amounts to less than 1% of the expression provided 4 Fig.7b) 2¹ D © 2 The maximum stresses are obtained with the maximum value of z within the interval. The familiar distribution of such shear stress in an Ι-beam is illustrated in Fig 2. and the complete shear stress distribution across the depth of the sandwich is illustrated in fig. For example. 2. Ef t d > 100 Ec c c (2.10) ¸» 2 ¨ 4 D« f 2 © ¹¼ ¬ An analogous expression may be obtained for the shear stress in the faces.The maximum shear stress in the core is obtained by inserting z = 0 in (2.8) must be modified to take into account the moduli of elasticity of the different elements of the cross section: Q Σ (SE ) (2. 2. Shear stress distribution in an Ι-beam. if equation (2. τ= Σ = (SE) = E f E b §c btd · + c ¨ − z¸ 2 2 ©2 ¹ §c · ¨ + z¸ ©2 ¹ The shear stress in the core is therefore 2 ·º Q ª td E c § ¨ c − z 2 ¸» «E + (2. I is the second moment of area of the entire section about the centroid.8) Ib Here Q is the shear force at the section under consideration. b is the width at level z1 and S is the first moment of area of the part of the section for which z > z1. The ratio of the maximum membrane stress in the faces and the maximum core stress is (Ef /Ec ) .9) Db In this expression D is the flexural rigidity of the entire section and Σ (SE) represents the sum of the products of S and E of all parts of the section for which z < z1.3. The assumptions of the theory of bending lead to the common expression for the shear stress (τ) in a homogeneous beam at depth z.3. (h/c). τ= τ= τ = Q D 2 § E ¨ E td + c c ¨ f 2 2 4 © · ¸ ¸ ¹ (2.12) DIAB SANDWICH HANDBOOK .OPEN BEAMS (FREE SIDES) Mz h h c· §c Ef ¨ ≤ z ≤ . below the centroid of the cross section: QS (2.7a) For a sandwich beam.4a. equation (2.

i. DEFLECTIONS t c Q D τ= Ej td 2 d τ= Q bd t a) b) c) Fig. In this case the flexural rigidity of the sandwich and the shear stress in the core are defined by equations (2.3c is that in the latter the principle stress in each face is assumed to be uniform (because the local bending stress is ignored).9) are automatically satisfied and the shear distribution is similar to that shown in fig.10) for the shear stress in the core is reduced to the simplest possible form: Q τ = (2. if condition (2. An antiplane core is an idealised core in which the modulus of elasticity in planes parallel with the faces in zero but the shear modulus in planes perpendicular to the faces is finite. Shear stress distribution in a sandwich beam.14) and (2.4. the load is symmetrical with respect to the geometry of the beam and/or a relative horizontal displacement of the faces is prevented somewhere (for example at a clamped end). in addition.b. conditions (2.15). 2.3).12) is satisfied. it is therefore permissible to write Ec = 0 in equations (2.12) satisfied).12) are similar in effect.15) bd D = Ef τ = (2. leaving: btd 2 (2.2) and (2. (c) Effect of weak core. ignoring the local flexural rigidity of the faces (conditions (2.4) and (2. Because d ≈ c. the flexural rigidities of the faces about their own separate axes is small (i. the shear stress may be assumed constant over the depth of the core. DIAB SANDWICH HANDBOOK .4c. the shear stress can be assumed constant over the thickness of the core. It is often convenient to invoke the concept of an ”antiplane” core (σx = σy = τxy = 0).e. By this definition Ec = 0 and the antiplane core makes no contribution to the flexural rigidity of the beam.3c. a/ Symmetrical loads The loads considered here are symmetrical. 2.13) The way the shear stresses are distributed across the section is illustrated in fig.3b.4) and (2.4.2) may be ignored as well as the third.12) satisfied). For a weak core.3) is fulfilled).8). 2. 2.4) and (2.OPEN BEAMS (FREE SIDES) If condition (2.4) and (2. The shear stress distribution appears in fig. 2. not a parabolic one. The difference between fig. (2. the constant shear stress in the core is then given by: Q E f td D 2 If. then the first term on the right-hand side of equation (2.e. Conditions (2.14) 2 In this case equation (2. (b) Effect of weak core (conditions (2. (a) True shear stress distribution.Therefore it may be concluded that where a core is too weak to provide a significant contribution to the flexural rigidity of the sandwich. The corresponding shear stress distribution is illustrated in fig.3b and 2. It follows from this that the shear stress in the faces varies with depth in a linear fashion. 2.

. 2. (The product also contains a factor called β but because of its rectangular shape..16b) AG V The product V is often referred to as the shear stiffness of the sandwich. For example. c. They are not moved horizontally but in a vertical direction w2 due to shear strain. in this case it is 1. d ' w2 . which shows a deformation of a short length of the sandwich.b. the distance d e is equal to d(dw2 /dx).. . while the lower face is loaded in tension. . b. a) a b c d e x a b c L z d e w 1 a b c d e b) a b W d e c . .5b shows the bending deformation of a simply supported beam with a central point load W. and the core shear strain γ may be obtained from fig. w 2′ = On the centrelines of the faces lie the points a. . This is associated with a shear strain γ = Q/Gbd which like τ. and the relationship between the slope of the beam. Q Q = (2. For example..16a) with Q = + W/2 provides the displacement: w2 = W x + constant 2V 0 ≤ x ≤ L/2 DIAB SANDWICH HANDBOOK . 2.c. e f ϒ b c d a Shear deformation of a beam.. 2. Integration of equation (2. fig. The faces and the longitudinal centreline of the beam tilt. These shear strains lead to a new kind of deformation illustrated in fig.. lie on the centrelines of the faces and the cross sections aa.. The shear stress in the core at any section is τ = Q/bd (equation (2. . It is also equal to c f. .OPEN BEAMS (FREE SIDES) In the first instance the transverse displacements (w1) of the beam may be calculated by the theory of bending.6.) The displacement w2.5c. in the simply supported beam with a central point load W. dw2 /dx...5. associated with shear deformation on the core. using the relationship (2. move closer together. In this figure. c. c is about the same as d which means that w2' = γ and W a w 2 a ' w2 b d w' 2 d) W c) b c d e Fig. 2. Deflection of sandwich beam. 2. G is the shear modulus of the core material. may be obtained by integration of equation (2. It is obvious that the upper face is compressed as the points a. rotate but nevertheless remain perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the deflected beam. b. .1). The points a. is constant through the depth of the core. bb. Hence dw 2 dx =γ c Q c Q c = = d Gbd d AG d (2. .6.16a) in any particular problem. which in turn is equal to γ c. Fig. the transverse force Q in the left-hand half of the beam is + W/2.15b) ).16a) Since the faces are assumed to be thin. cc.

as in fig. ∆ = ∆1 + ∆2 = 5qL4 qL2 + 384 D 8V (2. b/ Unsymmetrical load In the previous section it was assumed that during shear deformation all points on the centrelines of the faces moved only in the vertical direction. The bending moment at the centre is + qL2/8 and the central shear deflection ∆2 is therefore + qL2/8V. Effect of γ0 on shear deformation. so that the points cdef in figs.16b) in general terms with the following result: M w 2 = + constant (2. it is possible for one face as a whole to move horizontally with respect to the other. d' .6 and 2. The bending deflections are found in the usual way and the shear deflections by integrating equation (2. cf = c ′f − c ′c = (γ − γ 0 ) ⋅ c = de = w2′ ⋅ d Hence c w 2′ = (γ − γ 0 ) d (2. the upper face has also been displaced to the left.It may be convenient to integrate equation (2. Consequently the shear displacement diagram is the same as the bending moment diagram. However. and is equal to: ∆2 = WL 4V For other cases an elementary table of load cases can be used.5c.19a) DIAB SANDWICH HANDBOOK . 2. At the end of this chapter a few of the most usual load cases are presented. In general. The maximum values of bending moment and shear forces are presented and may be used to give the stresses in the core and in the faces. 2. The angle cbc’ is denoted by γ0 and the following relationships exist: In the same way expressions for total deflections are obtained for other cases.7.18) The effect is illustrated in fig. The total central deflection ∆ is therefore the ordinary bending displacement ∆1 with the displacement ∆2 superimposed: ∆ = ∆1 + ∆2 = WL3 WL + 48D 4V In general the displacement of any symetrically loaded sandwich beam with an antiplane core and thin faces may be found by similarly superimposing the bending and shear deflections w1 and w2. c 0 c' .16a). 2. x = L/2. 2. . a simply supported beam of span L with a uniformly distributed load q has a central bending deflection ∆1 equal to + 5qL4/384 D. 2. with a factor 1/V applied to it.7 now appear in new positions at c’d’ e’ f’. The total deflection ∆ at the centre is given by: Fig.6 in showing the axis of the beam at an angle w2' to the horizontal as a result of pure shear deformation of the core.OPEN BEAMS (FREE SIDES) The constant vanishes because w2 = 0 at x = 0.7. d e' f' .16a) and use boundary conditions to integrate the whole expression.17) V For a simply supported beam with the origin at one support the constant is always zero. The maximum value of w2 occurs at the centre of the beam. Insert the appropriate value for Q in (2. a b c d For example. γ e f ' w2 γ . . which is similar to fig.

When the axial thrust P reaches a critical value Pcr. The Euler load is here presented in four different cases. The buckled strut is shown in fig. 2.OPEN BEAMS (FREE SIDES) BUCKLING OF SANDWICH STRUTS Standard analysis of uniform beams and struts has shown that instability appears when the axial load p reaches the value of the Euler load PE. The boundary condition w2 = 0 at x = 0. a simply-supported beam with a moment M0 applied at one end (fig. The Euler load for different cases x The Euler load represents the smallest value for an axial load P at which the strut will not return to straight condition after being displaced in lateral direction.5 M0 L M0 L PE = (βL)2 π 2D Fig.20) DIAB SANDWICH HANDBOOK . The shear strain γ at all points in the core is given by equation (2.699 β = 0.8.19c). Substitution for γ0 in equation (2. Consider. The bending moment at x is – M0x/L.8. for example. In the case of a sandwich strut the occurring shear deformations reduce the stiffness of the strut and the buckling load will be smaller than the corresponding Euler load. 2.5). 2.9. However. At a section x the bending moment M is.19b) and 2. the displacement consists of two superimposed displacements: w1 (bending displacement) and w2 (displacement associated with shear deformation of core). L shows that the constant vanishes and γ0 is equal to – M0d/AGLc. 2.16a) and (2. referring to equation (2. A pin-ended sandwich strut will be considered here.19c) c M − γ 0 x + constant Or w 2 = d AG Equations (2. which value may be inserted in equation (2.19c) shows that the transverse shear displacement w2 is zero everywhere. or when the relative horizontal displacement of the faces is prevented.10. all the sections through the core have rotated through an angle γ0 as in fig.8).19c): w2 = − M0 x c − γ x + constant AGL 0 d β=2 M0 β=1 β = 0.17) are merely special cases of (2. The flexural rigidity is given by equation (2.1): Fig. the elementary Euler cases. for example at a clamped end.19b) (2. P P P P Or w2′ = c Q −γ 0 d AG (2. γ = d M = P w1 + w 2 = − D1 w1 ( ) ″ (2. 2.19a) as M0 d ′ w2 + γ0 = γ = − 0 AGL c c The rotation γ0 is always zero when the beam is loaded in a symmetrical manner.

10 Buckled strut with hinged ends. 2.25) Equation (2.9) with the appropriate Euler load inserted.21) w2 = © V The term w2' may be eliminated from equations (2. (2.OPEN BEAMS (FREE SIDES) a) x P c w1 w2 M P P b) c P By differentiating (2.P/V) (2. (2.16a) the shear force is related to w2 by: ′· § ′ P¨ w 1 + w 2 ¸ ′ ¹ (2. (2.21) to yield a differential equation for w1. (2. P= PE 1+ PE /V where : PE = π 2D1 L2 (2.22b) now yields: Fig.23) and inserting in the right-hand term of (2.21) the total deflection w1 + w2 will be obtained from w1 + w 2 = − =+ − c 1α 2 sin αx − C 2 α 2 cosαx P C1sinαx + C 2 cos αx 1 + (P/V ) D1 [ ] (2.27) w 1″′ +α 2 w 1′ =0 (2. Pcr is less than the Euler load when G is infinite.24) Boundary conditions provide that C2 = 0 and if (w1 + w2) = 0 for x = 0 and x = L.22b) These formulas can be used for all cases in fig.10 shows that P has a component P(w1' + w2') acting perpendicular to the axis of the strut. 2.22a) has a solution in the form: w 1 = C 1sin αx + C 2 cos αx + C 3 (2.26) Where P represents the critical load P cr of the sandwich strut. Pcr approaches the value of AG. This yields: αL = n(PI) n = 1. The expression is often given in this equal form: 1 1 1 + = Pcr PE V In which is easily seen (V = AG): * * * when G is finite.22a) where α2 = P ________ D1 (1 .23) DIAB SANDWICH HANDBOOK .20) (differentiated once) and (2. Corresponding to equation (2. This represents the transverse force. 2. 3 w1′ + w2′ Fig. Pcr is equal to the Euler load when G is small.

though not negligible. The normal stress in the core is then approximately zero and in the faces the stresses are calculated by: σf = Mz D ⋅Ef The second term is of no importance. b R e h c d Fig. Practically this is usually the case. To evaluate an expression for the distribution of the bending moment a short beam section can be studied. This means if: Mf = κEfIf Mc = κEcIc ö ç − 1÷ > 100 3 ÷ Ec ç ø è ec E f æ bh 3 (2. a fact that leads to the assumption that the bending moment is taken up in the face material only. 2.BEAMS WITH FACES ON FOUR SIDES BOXED BEAMS FLEXURAL RIGIDITY To get a really strong sandwich beam a ”boxed” section can be chosen.31) DIAB SANDWICH HANDBOOK . In practical cases the ratio will be even smaller. first the bending moment distribution between faces and core must be found out. Terms are the flexural rigidity of the box and the core respectively. (2. STRESSES IN BEAMS WITH FACES ON ALL FOUR SIDES The stresses will in this case be calculated in the same way as before.29) is fullfilled.11.29) It is easy to see that Mc amounts to less than 1% of Mf when condition (2. If the second term amounts to less than 1% of the first it can be ignored. Boxed beam The curvature is the same for the core and the face throughout the whole beam. With faces on all four sides the shear stiffness will be higher and the shear deflection will be smaller. 2. However. κ = 1 R Fig.28) M D (2.12. Due to the theory of engineering stress in beams the curvature (κ) is given by the expression: The expression for flexural rigidity in this case is: D = Ef (bh 3 − ec 3 ) 12 ec 3 +E c 12 κ = (2.30) Hence This is the flexural rigidity for bending about the centroidal axis of the cross section.

i. are obtained with maximum values for z. in the same way as the bending moment.32) b' where V contains a form factor β (see 2.BEAMS WITH FACES ON FOUR SIDES BOXED BEAMS The maximum values for σf. The shear deformation γ is the same for face and core. Example: A simple supported beam with faces on four sides is loaded by a concentrated load on the mid point of the beam. which means that Qc amounts to less than 1% of Qf if Vc Vf < 1 100 (2.1. This gives (2b ′ + d)d ⋅ Q Q f = Vf ⋅ γ Q c = Vc ⋅ γ Fig 2.28) and with the length L = 1 m the bending deflection BD amounts to 3.e on the top and bottom.13) DIAB SANDWICH HANDBOOK .35) . The flexural rigidity is given by (2. related to each part of the beam. In some case the shear deflection can be neglected. For the core. They are. t τ1 τ2 Tp y t z τ2 τ2 τ1 τ1 d τ3 Q τ1 τ2 τ3 The shear stresses depend on transverse forces.34) The condition will in most practical cases be fulfilled and Qc can be ignored.18).P. 2. Face material is FRP (Fibre Reinforced Plastic) and the core is of Divinycell H 60.33) where Aweb is the cross-section area of the sides.13 Shear stress distribution in a ”box” where the total shear force is: Q = Q f + Qc DEFLECTIONS OF BEAMS WITH FACES ON ALL FOUR SIDES Also in this kind of beam the deflection consists of two parts. taken up in both the core and the faces.10–6. A study of a thin boxed beam section show that the ability for the core to take up shear forces can be ignored. The first term is the bending deflection. (See fig. β is assumed to be 1 and for the faces it is given by: β= Af A web τ1 = τ2 = τ3 = ⋅ b ′d ⋅Q 4l y b ′d ⋅Q = τ1 4l y 8l y (2. and is given by: γi = Qi Vi (2. bending deflection and shear deflection. but the following example shows that this is not always the case. Thus we have expressions for the different shear stresses in the faces. The deflection is given by expression (2.

Here the shear stiffness AG is denoted V. The ratio SD/BD is 0.94.35) where β is a factor mentioned earlier by (2. The shear stiffness was calculated: V = Vc + Vf = Gc A c βc + Gf A f βf BUCKLING BEAMS WITH FACES ON ALL FOUR SIDES In the case of sandwich struts with faces on all four sides (”boxed struts”) the calculations will be made in the same way as for ordinary sandwich struts. usually close to Euler load.35) can be ignored. the critical load is higher.26) and (2.36).34) the first term in (2. leaving: V = Vf = Gf A f βf (2.33).36) DIAB SANDWICH HANDBOOK .10–7. here denoted V.BEAMS WITH FACES ON FOUR SIDES BOXED BEAMS The deflection caused by shear deformation is given by the second term. To calculate V we have to consider the shear stiffness of both the core and the side faces. but with D calculating according to (2. The formulas (2. (2.064.33). according to (2. Since the shear stiffness is highly increased compared with an open strut. When this is done the shear deflection SD amounts to 1.27) can be used.P . With a very long and slender beam the shear deflection can be ignored but in other cases the shear deflection must be considered. Due to equation (2. For the core βc is assumed to be 1 but for the faces βf is given by (2. which means that the shear deflection is about 6% of the bending deflection and should not be ignored.28) and the shear stiffness AG.

BEAMS IN WHICH THE CONTRIBUTION TO THE FLEXURAL RIGIDITY FROM THE CORE IS NOT SMALL When Ec is not small.15) for the core shear stress is unaltered.4) is fulfilled and the contribution from the core to the flexural rigidity is negligible. and the ratio of stress to strain is equal to E. For example the expression (2. 2.12) is not fulfilled. Since condition (2.37) can also be ignored. If the local flexural rigidities for the faces are negligible. This has been assumed in the analysis of beams in this chapter. A beam is considered wide when the width b >> the core depth c. It is here assumed that condition (2. d represents as usual the distance between the centroids of the upper and the lower faces. the shear stress τ and the shear strain γ are not to be considered constant throughout the depth of the core. for instance if it is permitted to lift off its support. This value should be used in place of E in all equations of this chapter when a beam is considered wide. when condition (2. the second term in (2. The means equation (2.2) must be used fully for flexural rigidity D. then E should be used in preference to E/(1–ν2). i.37) where the suffixes 1 and 2 refer to the upper and lower faces respectively. some modification must be made to use chapter ”Open beams (free sides)”.13) is not. However. i.BEAMS WITH ODD PROPERTIES BEAMS CONSIDERED NARROW OR WIDE A beam is considered narrow when the width b is less than the core dept c.e. The stresses in the faces are therefore mainly in one direction. Note that if a wide beam can curve freely in the yz-plane.e. DIAB SANDWICH HANDBOOK . The principal beam equations are unchanged provided that the flexural rigidity is written as follows: bd E 1E 2 t 1 t 2 b 3 3 ⋅ E 1t1 + E 2 t 2 + D= 12 E 1t1 + E 2 t 2 2 Then (which is assumed in the analysis in chapter ”Analysis method for sandwich beams”) the flexural rigidity should be written as follows: t1 a b dt 2 t1 + t 2 d centroid c d t2 dt 1 t1 + t 2 Fig. D = bd E 1E 2 t 1 t 2 E 1t1 + E 2 t 2 (2. The ratio of stress to strain in the x-direction is therefore E/ (1–ν2) for both the membrane stresses and the local bending stresses.14. Then lateral expansions and contractions of the faces in the y-direction are restricted by the inability of the core to undergo indefinitely large shear deformations in the yzplane. these stresses and strains are of secondary importance and it seems reasonable to adopt E throughout in order to avoid complications.10) is valid but (2.38) It is useful to note that equation (2. Each face is a thin plate in bending and the ratio of stress to strain is strictly E/ (1–ν2). if the condition (2. associated with the membrane stress in the x-direction. BEAMS WITH DISSIMILAR FACES If the faces are not of the same material or of unequal thickness the results in chapters ”Flexural Rigidity” and ”Stresses” have to be modified. may take place freely without causing large shear strains in the core in the yz-plane.12) is not satisfied.3) is fulfilled for each of the faces. The same argument does not apply to the local bending stresses in the faces. ( ) (2. Then the lateral expansions and contractions of the faces in the y-direction. 2 Dimensions of sandwich with faces of unequal thickness. In this case it is more reasonable to assume that the strains in the ydirection are zero.

39) and (2. 2. BB’ and do not depend on the shape of the distorted section A’CB’. (2.10) and (2. These analyses deal only with the core-edge displacements AA’.2) G is replaced with G’. different from Gx.15. To obtain the shear stress in the core equation (2.The section ACB has distorted into the curve A’CB’. Therefore the equivalent antiplane core has a shear modulus as follows: G 1+ Ec 6E f In fig. G′ = ⋅ t (c + t ) c 2 (2.41) give the same results for BB’.10) ((or (2. but keep the former D. 2. τ max = æ E td E c 2 Qç f + c Dç 2 8 è ö ÷ ÷ ø (2. As the core is antiplane.39) may be combined and integrated to yield and expression for u. u= Q é E f tdz E c ê + GD ê 2 2 ë 3 æ 2 çc z −z ç 4 3 è öù ÷ú ÷ú øû (2. the antiplane core (G’) is exactly equivalent to the real core permitting us to use the analyses in chapter ”Analysis method for sandwich beams”.42) DIAB SANDWICH HANDBOOK .44) The procedure is now to use the analysis in chapter ”Analysis method for sandwich beams”. p BB ′ = æ E tdc ç f ç G ′D è 4 Q ö ÷ ÷ ø (2. a short length of a sandwich beam is shown undergoing shear deformation of the core. The value of G’ is chosen so that the section ACB is deformed to the straight line A’CB’. Shear deformation of sandwich with stiff core Since G’ has been chosen so that equations (2. At p the strain is γ = du/dz which gives the stress τ: du τ =G (2. . except that: * * D should be written as in equation (2.40) For example the displacements AA’ and BB’ are obtained by writing z = ± c/2. A .40)) should be used. B' Fig.BEAMS WITH ODD PROPERTIES A' . The typical point p has moved a distance u to the right.10).41) The maximum shear stress is obtained by writing z = 0 in equation (2. z Now suppose that the core is replaced by a true antiplane (σx = σy = τxy = 0) core with a shear modulus G’. . B B ′= æ E c3 Q çEf tdc + c ç 24 GD ç 4 è ö ÷ ÷ ÷ ø This procedure yields the correct deflections and stresses in the faces.15. Ec vanishes and the horizontal displacement becomes: centroid c u .39) dz Equation (2.43) B .

17) with current rigidities according to point 4 and 5 above. Boxed beam: use (2.4) for ignoring terms.7b) τc from (2.10) and check condition(2. Open beam: σf from (2.35) 6 2 Stresses a.31) τf from Fig.12) for ignoring the second term. 2. 3 Boxed beam Open beams: DIAB SANDWICH HANDBOOK .goto chapter ”Beams in which the contribution to the flexural rigidity from the core is not small” for proper adjustments. Boxed beams: Deflections Boxed beam: 5 Shear stiffness Open beam: Boxed beam: use (2.37).28) and check condition (2. 7 4 Flexural rigidity Open beam: use (2.16b) and (2. If the faces are of unequal thickness the flexural rigidity is to be written as in equation (2. σf from (2. In most cases Gf >> Gc and the shear stresses are taken up in the faces and are notconstant throughout the beam.16) and (2.CALCULATIONS ANALYSIS METHOD FOR SANDWICH BEAMS 1 Check out in chapter ”Beams considered narrow or wide” if the beam is to be considered wide or narrow.29) for ignoring the second term. In the following calculations the valid stress to strain ratio must be used.12) is fulfilled for the core to be considered weak. Look in the elementary table for the moment and the transverse force.16) use (2. b.3) and (2. Open beam Check if condition (2.2) and check condition (2.14 see elementary table or use (2.17) use elementary table or (2.7a) σc from (2. and if not.

Nxy. Sign conventions for plates z Because the faces are thin compared to the core it is assumed that c ≈ d and that the local flexural rigidity of the faces is negligible. σy = εy = σx = εx = 0 for z = 0. The figure shows positive directions of bending and torsion moment (Mx. ordinary bending theory is valid and there is no strain in the middle plane of the panel form transverse displacements. Myx). Mxy. SIGN CONVENTIONS The sign convention that will be used for plates is shown in fig. Accordingly.2: x a 0 b x y z dx = 1 dy = 1 Nx Qz Qy M x M xy My q t c/ 2 c/ 2 y Fig.2. Ny. the core is assumed to be considerably less stiff than the faces. Consequently Ec ~ 0 in the xy-plane which leads to the fact that they do not contribute to the flexural rigidity. 3. Nyx). DIAB SANDWICH HANDBOOK . The faces and the core are isotropic. 3.1.SANDWICH PANELS ASSUMPTIONS The faces are assumed to be thin and of equal thickness. This means that the normal stress is constant throughout the faces. Further. The core shear stresses are assumed to be constant throughout the depth of the core.e. It is assumed that there are no stresses worth considering in the z-direction. My. 3. the deflections are assumed to be small. i. Qy) and membrane forces (Nx.and zx-planes. Ny N yx N xy M yx t Dimensions of sandwich panel with equal faces Fig. The faces are assumed to be rigid in shear in yz. For the flexural rigidity of the panel. shear forces (Qx.

BENDING AND BUCKLING OF SANDWICH PANELS BENDING AND BUCKLING OF SANDWICH PANELS SUPPORTED ON TWO SIDES For sandwich panels supported on two opposite sides the theory and the formulas are the same as for open sandwich beams provided the load is a uniform pressure.. and the potential energy H because of movement of loads when deforming the panel. Because of shear deformation the line AF has rotated a smaller angle λðw/ðx. Section through deflected sandwich panel in zx-plane γ zx = (1 − λ ) ∂w ∂x (3. Therefore. . λ = 1 means that the panel is rigid in shear and λ = 0 that there is no shear stiffness in the panel. The conditions used in chapter ”Open beams (free sides)” for ignoring terms when calculating flexural rigidity are the same.2) DIAB SANDWICH HANDBOOK . Assumptions are made similarly. it must be noted that the panel is considered as a wide beam due to chapter ”Beams considered narrow or wide”. Accordingly the total energy (U + H) will be minimized with respect to deflection due to bending and shear to find the critical load. in the analysis E should be replaced by E/(1–ν2). In fig. BENDING AND BUCKLING OF PANELS SUPPORTED ON FOUR SIDES For obtaining useful formulas. Fig. 3. The energy consists of two main parts: the strain energy U because of strain in core and faces of the deformed material. γ zx x z ∂w ∂x a A z d = c 2 2 E .3 a part of a deflected panel is shown. The centre line AG and the normal AE have both rotated an angle ðw/ðx. From this is obtained the shear strain in the section (the angle EAF).3. However.1) Since deformations are assumed to be small the displacement of F in the xdirection is: u = − zλ ∂w ∂x 3. From this it follows that in case of a sandwich panel supported on only two sides the reader is recommended to use chapter ”Open beams (free sides)” and the theory for open beams with E replaced by E/(1–ν2). energy methods are applied to sandwich panels supported on all four edges. where λ may take any value between + 1 and 0. stresses and deflections. 3. The method is also based on the fact that the total energy (U + H) will have a minimum value when the deflected plate is in equilibrium. F λ D ∂w ∂x d = c 2 2 The method aims to find expressions for the total potential energy in the material as a function of assumed displacements.

the strain energy from terms containing ex.and y-direction are given by the displacements: ∂2w ∂u ex = = − zλ ∂x ∂x 2 ³ v b 0 0 ª «(1 − µ )2 « ¬ § ∂w · ¨ ¨ ∂y ¸ ¸ © ¹ 2 § ∂w · + (1− λ ) 2 ¨ ¸ © ∂x ¹ 2 2 º » dV = » ¼ 2 (3.8) ³ v d2 (λ + µ ) 2 4 § ∂2w · ¸ ¨ ¨ ∂x∂y ¸ ¹ © 2 dV (3. STRAIN ENERGY OF CORE.1) and (3. UC According to the assumptions.3) (3. STRAIN ENERGY The strain energy of an isotropic solid is given by integrating the strain energy over the volume: Ulower = Gf 2 E 2g ³ v + U= E (e x 2g ³ v 2 + ey 2 + 2ν e x e y ) dV + (3.6) ª «(1− µ )2 « ¬ § ∂w · ¨ ¨ ∂y ¸ ¸ © ¹ § ∂w · + (1− λ ) 2 ¨ ¸ © ∂x ¹ º » dy dx » ¼ (3. (3.5) = ∂v ∂ 2w ey = = −zµ 2 ∂y ∂y Gc d 2 ³³ (3. Uc = Gc 2 a γ yz = (1− µ ) v = − zµ ∂w ∂y ∂w ∂y Where µ is the term corresponding to λ and v is the displacement in y-direction.BENDING AND BUCKLING OF SANDWICH PANELS In the same way where g = 1–ν2.8) For the lower face z is + d/2 and the strain energy here is: 2 2 ª 2 2 2 2 § 2 ·º § 2 · § 2 · « d λ 2 ¨ ∂ w ¸ + d µ 2 ¨ ∂ w ¸ + 2ν d λµ ¨ ∂ w ⋅ ∂ w ¸ » d V + ¨ ∂x 2 ¸ ¨ ∂x 2 ¸ ¨ ∂x « 4 4 4 ∂y 2 ¸ © ¹ © ¹ © 2 ¹» ¬ ¼ It must be added that λ and µ are treated as being independent of x and y during differentiation. The strains in x. This leaves terms ex. Uf According to assumptions γyz and γzx are zero.10) G 2 ³ (γ v 2 xy 2 2 + γ yz + γ zx ) dV DIAB SANDWICH HANDBOOK .3) to be inserted in (3. (3. This leaves only shear strains γzx and γyz from (3.8).z (λ + µ ) ∂y ∂x ∂x∂y where dV = dx dy dz.7) STRAIN ENERGY OF FACES. ey and γxy to be inserted in (3.9) The shear strain in the xy-plane is: γ xy = ∂u ∂v ∂2w + = .4) This expression is to be used for core and faces respectively. ey and γxy will be zero.

then the force on the strip Nxdy and the change in potential energy as the plate bends is: 2 N dy a § ∂w · − x ¸ dx ³¨ 2 0 © dx ¹ Fig. δ ds − dx = 1 § dw · ¨ ¸ dx 2 © dx ¹ 2 The total approach δ will be obtained by integrating over the length of the beam..BENDING AND BUCKLING OF SANDWICH PANELS The total strain energy of both faces.. ª § 2 ·2 «λ 2 ¨ ∂ w ¸ + µ 2 2 ¸ « ¨ © ∂x ¹ « « § 1− ν · 2 f «+ ¨ ¨ 2 ¸ ¸ (λ + µ ) « ¹ ¬ © 2 º 2 2 § ∂2w · ¨ ¸ + 2ν f λµ ∂ w ⋅ ∂ w + » ¨ ∂y 2 ¸ » ∂x 2 ∂y 2 © ¹ » dy dx 2 » § ∂2w · ¨ ¸ » ¨ ∂x∂y ¸ » © ¹ ¼ ds in fig.11) POTENTIAL ENERGY OF APPLIED LOADS When a beam of length L is given a transverse deformation w. In the same way the ends of this strip approach each other as the plate bends by an amount: ∂= P P ds .. 3. 3.4. Serial development yields: ª 1 dw 2 º § · dx 1+ ( dw/dx) 2 = dx «1+ ¨ ¸ + .dx dx 2 1 a § ∂w · ¸ dx ³ ¨ 2 0 © ∂x ¹ dw ds If a compressive force Nx is applied at the edge (x = 0 and x = a) in the plane of the plate. Uf.» « 2 © dx ¹ » ¬ ¼ For a beam element with the length ds the ends approach each other by an amount ds – dx. the ends of the beam approach each other by an amount δ. (3. The equation above gives: (3. It is also convenient to write G = E/{2(1+ν)}.4 can be written: ds = dx 2 + dw 2 = dx 1+ (dw/dx ) 2 Uf = Ed 2 t 4g ³³ 0 0 a b and then developed in a series. Deformed beam and deformed element with length ds DIAB SANDWICH HANDBOOK . is obtained by integrating over the thickness t and doubling.1) parallel with the x-axis and of width dy. 2 1 L § dw · ¸ dx ³ ¨ 2 0 © dx ¹ Consider now a narrow strip of the plate in fig.

In this process it is useful to have knowledge about the following relationships. the decrease in potential energy V2 for the load is: (3. N V1 = − x 2 ³³ 0 0 a b § ∂w · ¨ ¸ dx dy © ∂x ¹ 2 When the series is squared the integrals of the cross-product terms vanish because of the ortogonal properties of the chosen functions for w. The following integral is equal to ab/ 4 for all values of m and n.15) The series may be integrated term by term. n)th mode of deformation.16) ¦ ¦a m =1 n =1 ∞ mn sin nπy m πx sin a b (3. is obtained by integrating from y = 0 to y = b. ³³ 0 a b 2 ª § ∂w · º «(1 − µ )¨ ¸ » dy dx © ∂x ¹ ¼ » « 0¬ ³³ 0 0 a b a b (3. Uc 1 = Gd a 2 m =1 ¦ ∞ ¦ (1− µ mn ) n =1 ∞ 2 2 a mn n 2π 2 b 2 ⋅ ab 4 (3. derived from equation (5.17) All the energy terms are to be treated in the same way.13) § ∂2w · ¨ ¸ dy dx = ¨ ∂x 2 ¸ © ¹ § ∂2w · ¨ ¸ dy dx = ¨ ∂y 2 ¸ © ¹ 2 2 ¦¦ a ¦¦ a 2 mn m 4π 4 ab ⋅ 4 a4 n 4 π 4 ab ⋅ 4 a4 Substituting w according to (3. This expression satisfies the boundary conditions of a simply-supported plate. V2 = − ³³ 0 0 ∞ a b wg dy dx The displacement w for a simply-supported rectangular plate may be expressed by sums of trigonometric functions: W= ³ ³ sin 0 0 a b 2 nπ y ab m πx dy dx = cos 2 b 4 a (3. is obtained by adding the expressions for U and V respectively and substituting w by the series (3. Consider for example the first term of Uc. The total energy of the system. Gd Uc 1 = 2 ³ ³ ¦ ¦ (1− µ ) 0 n =1 a b ª ∞ « « 0 ¬ m =1 ∞ 2 § nπ 2 a mn ¨ ¨ b © º · ¸ sin 2 m πx cos 2 nπy » dy dx ¸ a b » ¹ ¼ If the plate also supports a uniform transverse pressure q in the z-direction.14) DIAB SANDWICH HANDBOOK .12).12) Hence Uc 1 = Gd 2 Where amn is the amplitude of the (m.12).BENDING AND BUCKLING OF SANDWICH PANELS The total decrease in potential energy for the force Nx.12) gives: Gd Uc 1 = 2 ³³ 0 0 2 mn ³³ ¦ 0 a b ª ∞ « « m =1 0¬ ¦ (1− µ )mn a mn n =1 ∞ nπy º nπ m πx sin cos » dy dx b a b ¼ » ³³ 0 0 a b § ∂2w · ¨ ¸ ¨ ∂x 2 ¸ © ¹ § ∂2w · ¨ ¸ ¨ ∂y ¸dy dx = 2 © ¹ ¦¦ a 2 mn m 2 n 2π 2 ab ⋅ 4 a 2b 2 (3. (U + V). Only the squared terms are left.

(Uc )mn § n2 · 2 m2 = GA 1 ¨ (1− λ )2 2 + (1− µ )2 2 ¸a mn ¨ b ¸ a © ¹ § © 4 (3. n)th mode. It is easier to see the connections and follow the line of equations if the total energy is written in the form: (U + V) mn = B xx λ 2 + B yy µ 2 + 2B xy λµ + 2B x λ + 2B y µ + B 0 By substituting these values in the former expressions for Uc.21a) (3. e) DIAB SANDWICH HANDBOOK . λ and µ. n)th mode is shown above and there are no suffixes on λ and µ.BENDING AND BUCKLING OF SANDWICH PANELS ³³ 0 0 a b § ∂2w ¨ ¨ ∂x∂y © 2 · ¸ dy dx = ¸ ¹ 2 ¦¦ a 2 mn 2 mn m 2n 2π 2 ab ⋅ 4 a 2b 2 Evidently (U + V) is a function of amn. From this it follows that for each mode the following conditions must be fulfilled. ∂ (U + V ) = ∂ (U + V ) = ∂ (U + V ) =0 ∂λ ∂µ ∂a mn ³³ 0 0 a b § ∂w · ¨ ¨ ∂y ¸ ¸ dy dx = © ¹ ¦¦ a n 2π 2 ab ⋅ 4 b2 (3. λ and µ.18b) (V1 )mn N ab m 2 2 = x π 2 a mn ⋅ 2 2 4 a (3.19) ³ ³ w dy dx = ¦¦ 0 0 a b 4a mn ab ⋅ π 2 mn =0 (m. (U + V) in equation (3.19) could be replaced by (U +V)mn only.18d) ª § n 4 1 − ν m 2 n 2 ·º 2 n2 ¸ a mn B γγ = «GA 1 2 + EA 2 ¨ ¨ b 4 + 2 ⋅ a 2 b 2 ¸» b « » © ¹¼ ¬ (3. n both odd) (otherwise) These equations can be used to determine the values of amn.21d. Uf. n. λ and µ only appears in the (m.18c) (3. If the plate is to be in equilibrium. (U + V) has to be stationary with respect to each of these variables. only the (m.18a) Where: ª § m 4 1−ν m 2 n 2 m2 B xx = «GA 1 2 + EA 2 ¨ ¨ a 4 + 2 ⋅ a 2b 2 a « © ¬ ·º 2 ¸»a mn ¸» ¹¼ m (U f )mn = EA 2 ¨ λ2 4 ¨ a + µ2 n 4 b4 + 2νλµ m n 2 2 a 2b 2 + · 2 1−ν (λ − µ )2 m2 n2 ¸ a mn 2 a b ¸ ¹ 2 2 (3. n)tn value of amn. Since the (m.20) (3. V1 and V2 the following expressions are obtained for the energy terms.21c) n2 b2 2 amn and A2 = For simplicity.21b) (V2 ) = − 4q Where: a mn π 2 ⋅ ab mn td π 4 ab 16g 2 A1 = d 2 π ab 8 2 2 § 1+ ν · m n 2 B xy = EA 2 ¨ ¸ 2 2 a mn © 2 ¹a b (3. There are different values for each mode m. B x = − GA1 m2 a2 2 amn By = − GA1 (3.

26) B xx λ 2 + B yy µ 2 + 2B xy λµ + B x λ + B y µ = 0 (3. If the panel buckles in the (m. (3.19) then gives: 1 ∂ (U + V ) = 1 ∂(U + V ) = B xx λ + B xy µ + B x = 0 2 ∂λ 2 ∂λ 1 ∂ (U + V ) = 1 ∂(U + V ) = Byyµ + B xy λ + B y = 0 2 ∂µ 2 ∂µ The variables λ.27) is then satisfied only when: Nx = Gd § a · ρΩ 2 = Pxmn ¨ ¸ m 2 © b ¹ 1 + ρΩ 2 λ= Bx 1 = + Bx x + Bx y 1 + ρΩ m b a2 2 2 (3. Ω and ρ are non-dimensional. then: (U +V) mn = N a ab m 2 ab Gd 2 2 a ρΩ 2 2 π a mn − x π 2 a mn − 4q mn 2 mn 8 b 1+ ρΩ 2 4 a2 π (3. (3.22b) it is possible to show that in this particular problem the solution of equations (3.24) an expression for (U + V) as function of amn is given. ρ is constant and represents the ratio of the flexural rigidity Etd2/ 2g and the shear stiffness Gd. For any given m the lowest critical load is obtained for n = 1. Substitution for µ by λ in equation (3. n)th mode.23) inserted in (3.22 are multiplied by λ and µ respectively and then added.25b) Pxmn is defined as the critical edge load per length unit which causes buckling in the (m. The critical load is then the value of Nx which causes the panel to buckle.26) must be stationary with respect to amn.28) (3.22) gives the following result for λ: (3.22) is such that µ = λ.22b) When the expression for λ is inserted in (3. Nx Suppose that the transverse pressure q is zero. n)th mode amn is non-zero.20) leaves only: ( 3.24) (U + V)mn = B x λ + B y µ + B 0 § Gdπ 2 a ρΩ 2 ∂ ab m 2 − N xπ 2 (U + V) mn = ¨ ¨ 4 b 1+ ρΩ ∂a mn 4 a2 © · ¸ a mn − 4q ab = 0 ¸ π 2 mn ¹ By solving (3.28) can then be written as follows: DIAB SANDWICH HANDBOOK . λ and Ω take different values for different modes. Equation (3.22a) (3.25c) Equation (3.21f) ρ = π 2 E td 2g G b 2 (3. If equations 3.23) For equilibrium (3.25a) where Ω = + n2 (3.BENDING AND BUCKLING OF SANDWICH PANELS § m2 n2 + 2 B 0 = GA 1 ¨ 2 ¨a b © · 2 ¸ a mn + (V1 + V2 )mn ¸ ¹ (3.27) EDGE LOAD. Equation (3.22) and (3.

3..1.31) 0 0 1 2 a/b 3 4 5 Notice the factor g = (1–ν2) in the expression for the flexural rigidity of the plate.5 and then insert the value in equation (3.5 and for higher values the lowest value in the diagram can be used. 5 Buckling coefficient K1 plotted against a/b for m = 1.4 and ρ = 0. Fig. Buckling coefficient K1 plotted against a/b for m = 1.. It is observed that if shear rigidity is infinite..5a. DIAB SANDWICH HANDBOOK . 0.4) it should be noticed that when a/b >> 1 the lower envelope of the curves get close to a straight horizontal line. only the lower envelopes of K1 for m = 1. 3. Simply supported isotropic sandwich with thin faces. The procedure is to read K1 from fig.30) is identical with the result for buckling of a plate not subjected to shear deformations... It originates from the conditions for a beam to be considered narrow or wide in ”Beams with odd properties” (see chapter ”Beams considered narrow or wide” and is always to be in the expressions in this chapter because panels are naturally considered wide.5 shows the value of K1 plotted against a/b for m = 1. 0.4 and ρ = 0.2 and 0.29) to determine the buckling load. Since only the lowest value of K1 is of interest. Since the figure only shows four curves (m = 1.BENDING AND BUCKLING OF SANDWICH PANELS 5 Pxmn = π 2 D2 b2 K1 (3.4 are to be used.5b.. Simply supported isotropic sandwich with thin faces.5.4). 4 3 Fig. 3... 2 1 0 0 1 2 a/b 3 4 5 Fig. 3..1.. The diagrams are valid for 0 < a/b < ~ 3.30).30) 2 And D2 is the flexural rigidity of the sandwich: D2 = E 1 f 2g td 2 = Eftd 2 2æ ç 1− ν 2 è ö ÷ ø (3. the value for K1 has to be calculated with (3. If a value of ρ is obtained that it does not fit with the diagrams in fig.... ρ vanishes and equation (5. 3.29) 4 where: K1 = [(mb/a ) + (a/mb )]2 (mb/a ) 2 + 1ù 1+ ρ é ê ú ë û 3 (3.4 and four different values of ρ (0.

x = a/2.34) DIAB SANDWICH HANDBOOK . W max = 16qb 4 m −1 n −1 º ª 1 + ρΩ » « (− 1) 2 (− 1) 2 ΣΣ « ⋅ » mn π6 D2 Ω2 » « ¼ ¬ (3. an infinite shear rigidity in the core causes ρ to vanish and then equation (3.5c. a mn = 16qb 4 π 6 mnD ⋅ 2 3 2 1 + ρΩ Ω2 if m. The ratio of the shear deformation to the bending deformation is 2 1 π 2 D2 1− λ .BENDING AND BUCKLING OF SANDWICH PANELS 5 4 UNIFORM PRESSURE. otherwise 3 The terms on the right side represent bending and shear deformations respectively. Simply supported isotropic sandwich with thin faces.4.2. or ρΩ . 5 Buckling coefficient K1 plotted against a/b for m = 1.. Simply supported isotropic sandwich with thin faces. 3. Equation (3.4 and ρ = 0.32) =0 1 . . n) th mode. if m. a uniform pressure.32) may also be written in the form: a mn = 16qb 4 π 6 mnD 2 Ω 2 ⋅ 16qb 2 π 4 mnGd Ω Fig. and is obtained by summation: 0 1 2 a/b 3 4 5 0 Fig. The maximum deflection wmax is at the centre of the panel. g Now suppose that the edge load Nx is zero and that the load is q. n are both odd (3.33) 4 =0 . y = b/2.32) corresponds to the standard result for bending of a plate not subjected to shear deformation.12).25c) provides an expression for the amplitude of the (m. or ⋅Ω λ b 2 Gd To obtain the deflection w the value amn must be inserted in equation (3. 3. Substitution of ρ from equation (3. 0 0 1 2 a/b 3 4 5 In this case too. n are both odd (3. otherwise. Buckling coefficient K1 plotted against a/b for m = 1.4 and ρ = 0..5d.

Simply supported isotropic sandwich with thin faces. y = 0).37) The shear stress τzx in the core is equal to Gγzx.10-2 1. The shear stress in the faces is the highest at a corner (x = 0. y = 0). For z = ± d/2 the shear stress is: β1 and β2 can be read from fig.5) and (3.8 ß1 0.0 0 1 2 a/b 3 4 5 Fig. By inserting z = ± d/2 the stresses in the x.38a) 0.6). It can be shown that the normal stresses in the faces are maximum at the centre of the panel (x = a/2. m. The results may be summarized in the following forms: DIAB SANDWICH HANDBOOK . ß2 1. Coefficients β1 and β2.BENDING AND BUCKLING OF SANDWICH PANELS For practical use this expression may be written: w max = qb 4 (β + ρβ 2 ) D2 1 m−1 2 n−1 2 (3.36b) β2 = 16 π 6 ΣΣ (− 1) m−1 2 (− 1) n−1 2 mnΩ .4 0. n odd σy = ± β1 = 16 π 6 ΣΣ (− 1) (− 1) Edλ 2g Edλ 2g § ∂2w ∂2w · ¸ ¨ +ν f 2 ¸ ¨ ∂x 2 y ∂ ¹ © § ∂2w ∂2w · ¨ ¸ +ν f 2 ¸ ¨ ∂y 2 x ∂ © ¹ (3. The strains ex and ey are defined in (3.6 ∂w (3.35) The stresses in the faces and the core may also be obtained from (3. n odd The shear stress τxy in the faces is equal to[E/(2(1+ν))] gxy where the strain γxy is given by (3.1).and y-direction are where: σx = ± .4 τ xy = ± Edλ ∂ 2 w ⋅ 2(1+ ν ) ∂x∂y (3.(ex+νey). When the strain γzx is given by (3. y = b/2) and the core shear stress τyz is highest in the middle of the sides of length a (x = a/2.2 0. For practical use it is convenient to write the expressions in the same way as equation (3. For example the normal stresses in the face (in x-direction) are equal to (E/g). . y = b/2).6.38b) ∂x Usually the maximum stresses are of interest.0 ∂w ∂x (3. the core shear stress τzx is highest in the middle of the sides of length b (x = 0.35). 3.32).6 for panels with various a/b ratios. m.7). 3. τ yz = G(1 − λ ) 0.2 τ zx = G(1 − λ ) and similarly 1.36a) mnΩ 2 (3.

Simply supported isotropic sandwich with thin faces.4 τ zx qb = β d 6 qb β d 7 (3.6 β 4 = ΣΣ 16 π 4 (− 1) ⋅ m −1 2 0.40) are the same as when the core shear deformation is ignored.4 (− 1) 2 Ω ⋅ n m (3.39b) τ xy = qb 2 (1 − ν f )β 5 dt (3.39a) Fig.0 0. 3.40b) 0.7a.39e) 1. Results for a simply-supported rectangular panel can therefore also be used to calculate the stresses in a sandwich panel. β 7 = ΣΣ 16 π 3 ⋅ mΩ (3.39c) 1. 3. Constants β3 – β5.1) n-1 2 nΩ m-1 2 ⋅ b a (3.40a) 0.40c) 0.7 shows β3 – β7 plotted against a/b.40e) DIAB SANDWICH HANDBOOK .39) and (3.8 β 3 = ΣΣ 16 π 4 (− 1) m−1 2 (− 1) 2 n−1 2 ß5 Ω ⋅ n −1 2 m b ⋅ n a2 2 (3. σy = (3.39d) 1. All the stresses are independent of shear stiffness of the core and it is possible to show that the results in equation (3.0 0 1 2 a/b 3 4 5 β 6 = ΣΣ 16 π 3 ⋅ (.40d) Fig.BENDING AND BUCKLING OF SANDWICH PANELS σ = qb 2 (β 3 + ν f β 4 ) dt qb 2 (β 4 + ν f β 3 ) dt x (3.2 ß6 β 5 = ΣΣ 16 π 4 b aΩ 2 (3.1) (.2 ß4 τ yz = where (3.

41) 0. given by equation (3.5 ß7 EDGE LOAD AND UNIFORM PRESSURE ACTING SIMULTANEOUSLY When the uniform transverse pressure and the compressive edge load ρ per unit length act simultaneously.3 amn = 0.2 (amn ) 0 1 − P / Pxmn (3. Of course the expression is for the (m. Simply supported isotropic sandwich with thin faces.0 0 1 2 a/b 3 4 5 Fig. the value of amn can again be obtained from equation (3.29).BENDING AND BUCKLING OF SANDWICH PANELS 0.27). DIAB SANDWICH HANDBOOK .32) and Pxmn the critical load given by equation (3. n)th critical load. Constants β6 and β7.1 where (amn)0 is the amplitude when P is zero. The expression for amn is: 0. 0. The practical effect of this load arrangement is to multiply each term in the series for the β -functions by a factor (1 – P/Pxmn)–1. Because Pxmn depends on the ratio ρ.4 ß6 0. stresses in the panel are no longer independent of the shear stiffness. 3.7b.

q. Edge load.29) with flexural rigidity from (3.7 as a function of a/b.39a-e) with the constants β3 – β7 from fig.29) and (3. 3: Uniform pressure. (Deflection and stresses) Maximum deflection wmax is given by (3. 4: Edge load and uniform pressure acting simultaneously.25c).6 as a function of a/b and r from (3. a few modifications have to be made.PANELS WITH ODD PROPERTIES PANELS WITH DISSIMILAR FACES When the panels have faces of unequal thickness.43) DIAB SANDWICH HANDBOOK . Nx.31). The buckling and bending equations (3. the constants β1 and β2 from fig.35) with flexural rigidity from (3. K1 from fig. The stresses are given by (3.31). 2: D2 = (1−ν ) ⋅ (E t 2 f E1E 2 t1t 2 d2 1 1 + E2 t 2 ) (3. 3.25c).42) ρ= b 2 1− ν 2 f ( π2 ) ⋅ G (E1t1 + E 2 t 2 ) E1E 2 t1t 2c (3. 3. or are of different materials. (buckling load) The buckling load is given by (3. Instructions written in chapter ”Edge loading and uniform pressure acting simultaneously”.5 as a function of a/b and ρ from (3. 3.35) are unchanged provided both faces have the same Poisson’s ratio νf and the following alterations are made: CALCULATIONS ANALYSIS METHOD FOR PANELS SIMPLY SUPPORTED ON FOUR SIDES 1: If the faces are of unequal thickness then modifications according to chapter ”Panels with dissimilar faces” have to be made.

L ≥ a. 4.12) is checked: 4⋅ = 254 > 100 40 ⋅ 10 6 50 ⋅ 10 −3 50 ⋅ 10 −3 The condition is fulfilled Ec is considered small.33 Nm L 0. DIAB SANDWICH HANDBOOK .2) only the expression (2.054 m tf = 2 mm The faces are of equal thickness and are made of aluminium 4054-7 with Ef = 61 GPa.EXAMPLES INTRODUCTION In this section a few calculations are made to exemplify the use of the analysis methods presented in chapters ”Analysis method for sandwich beams” and "Analysis method for panels simply supported on four sides”. The expressions referred to are easy to find due to their numbering. Conditions (2.25 m.25 ⋅ 0. Find out σ f. (2.125 m (see fig. Example 1: Beam with concentrated load and simply supported ends An open beam have the following measurements: L = 0.2 Nm 2 Shear stiffness. 4.3) is fulfilled.16) Ÿ V = bdG = 50 ⋅ 10 -3 ⋅ 52 ⋅ 10 −3 ⋅ 15 ⋅ 10 6 = 39 ⋅10 3 N Fig. ⋅ 2 ⋅ 10 -3 ⋅ 52 ⋅ 10 −3 (50 ⋅10 ) ( −3 2 ) 2 = 66. 1: 2: 6: a/Elementary table gives: M (L/2) = Wa (L − L/2) ) 245.25 ) = = 15. D = 61⋅ 10 5: 9 50 ⋅ 10 -3 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 10 -3 ⋅ 52 ⋅ 10 −3 2 ( ) 2 = 8247.77 condition (2.4) are checked: 61⋅ 10 9 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 10 −3 ⋅ 52 ⋅ 10 −3 4: 52 ⋅ 10 −3 2 ⋅ 10 −3 61⋅ 10 9 40 ⋅ 10 6 = 26 > 5. τc and the deflection at L/2 = 0. The faces are of equal thickness. W a L-a 3: Condition (2. L = 0. Flexural rigidity.1).25 . This leaves from equation (2.3) and (2.05 m h = 0.5 m b = 0. The core is made of DIVINYCELL H 45 with the following properties: Ec = 45 MPa Gc = 18 MPa The beam is simply supported at both ends and the load is a point load W = 25 kg at a = 0.5 − 0. Solution according to chapter ”Analysis method for sandwich beams”.4) if fulfilled.0 > 16.6) fo the flexural rigidity D.7 condition (2.5 _c b< The beam is considered to be narrow.125 ⋅ (0.1.

42 Nm 245.)61.054/2 8247. Flexural rigidity.33 ⋅ 54 ⋅ 10 8247.EXAMPLES Example 2: Beam with uniform pressure and clamped ends = .5 24 2 w 1 (L/2 ) = = w 2 Wa 48D ⋅ 3L ( 2 − 4a 2 2 )= 2 6: = 10.25 ⋅ 0.45 mm (2.053 mm Q(L/2) = 0 b/Stresses.25 m.61.31 8247.7a) with z = h/2. Shear stiffness. b/Stresses σf. σf = 10.58 kPa ⋅ 2 (see example 1) (see example 1) Deflection. Elementary table 1 gives: 5: (see example 1) ⋅ 0. Find out σf.25 ⋅ 0.04 MPa Total deflection w w = w 1 + w 2 = 0.7a) : σf = ( −3 /2 ) ⋅ 61 ⋅ 10 Solution according to chapter "Analysis method for sandwich beams". DIAB SANDWICH HANDBOOK .103 N a/Elementary table gives: M (L/2 ) = 10 3 τc is constant throughout the core as the condition (2.06 MPa 1: 2: 3: 4: b ≤ c Þ The beam is considered to be narrow.max is obtained with z = h/2 15. Condition (2.31N Q (L/2) = (− ) Wa L = (− ) 245.125 2 ⋅ 39 ⋅ 10 3 = 0.2 61 ⋅ 10 9 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 10 − 3 ⋅ 52 ⋅ 10 − 3 = 23.2 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 0. V = 39.25 ⋅ 0. σf. (2.2 (L/2 ) = Wa 2V 245.2 Nm2.5 The same beam as in example 1 is here loaded by a uniform load q = 1 kN/m and the ends are clamped. The faces are of equal thickness.125 48 ⋅ 8247.2 (2.13) : τ c = 7: (.125 ) = 0.5 = ( − 4 ⋅ 0. 9 = 3.12) is fulfilled (Ec is small).125 0. max from (2. D = 8247.393 mm ) ⋅ 61 ⋅ 10 9 = 2.24 ⋅ (0.12) is fulfilled. τc and deflection at L/2 = 0.13) gives τc(L/2) = 0 as Q(L/2) = 0.

046 m tf = 2 mm The faces are of equal thickness and are made of FRP with the following properties: Ef = 12 GPa Gf = 4. max.5 m b = 0. Gf >> Gc.046 ⋅ 0.052 2 = 96.046 ⋅ 0.002 ⋅ ( 2 ⋅ 0. D = 12 ⋅ 10 9 Total deflection w.5 2 3 8 ⋅ 39 ⋅ 10 = 0.050 1 = 34.2 10 3 = 0.046 2 ) = 960 ⋅ 10 3 N DIAB SANDWICH HANDBOOK .002 (2.002 ⋅ 0.054 ç 0.2 Nm 2 ÷ ø Shear stiffness.5 2 384 ⋅ 8247. which with Find out σf. = 250 N .EXAMPLES 3 At the ends Q = ± qL 2 = 10 ⋅ 0.5 2 Load and support are the same as in example 1.22 mm Example 3: Boxed beam with concentrated load and simply supported ends A boxed beam has the following measurements: L = 0. max and the deflection at L/2 = 0.05 m h = 0.29) is checked: 12 ⋅ 10 40 ⋅ 10 9 6 )= 10 3 ⋅ 0.8 GPa 5: æ 0.046 ⋅ 0.35) gives: Vc = GfA βf =2 Gc A c βc = 15 ⋅ 10 6 ⋅ 0. Flexural rigidity. 7: Deflection.05 ⋅ 0.05 12 3 ö ÷ = 2123.15 kPa 1: 2: 3: 4: b<c The beam is considered to be narrow. w = w1 + w 2 = 0. Solution according to chapter ”Flexural rigidity”.2 ⋅ 61 ⋅ 10 9 ⋅ 0. (2.25 m. Condition (2.05 m c = 0.8 ⋅ 10 9 ⋅ 0.054 ç ç è 3 − 0.28) with the second term ignored can be used for the flexural rigidity.05 è 3 3 − 1÷ = 111 > 100 ö ÷ ø Which means that the expression (2.5 ⋅ 10 N 3 Vf = f = 4. Elementary table gives: w 1 (L/2 The faces are of equal thickness.002 then (2.801 mm æ 0.05 ⋅ 0. τc. 4 ⋅ 0.054 + 2 ⋅ 0.13) gives τ c (L = 0 ) = 250 8247.05 ⋅ 0.05 ⋅ 0. Conclusion: it is important to study the shear force.020 mm ⋅ç w2 (L/2 ) = ⋅ 0.33) gives: βc = 2 ⋅ 0.054 m e = 0.

035 > 1 100 The condition is not fulfilled.0 ⋅ 10 15.1769 ⋅ 10 τmax is given by fig.405 ⋅ 10 = 0.5 ⋅ 10 960 ⋅ 10 = 0.2 ⋅ 10 3 Nm 2 7: Deflection Elementary table 1 gives: Wa æ 2 w1(L/2 ) = ⋅ ç 3L − 4a 2 ö ÷= ø 48D è 245.065 = 0. 2.048 + 0.10–2 β1 = 0.1769.34 MPa −6 0.25 2 ö ÷ ⋅ 80 ⋅ 10 6 ⋅ 3 2 è ø β1 and b2 are given in fig.052 ⋅ −61.005 ⋅ 0.0371 β4 = 0.052 ) 8 ⋅ 0.125 2 ⋅ 994. The panel is simply supported at all edges and the load is a uniform pressure q = 10 kPa. which means that the whole of expression (2.029 ⋅ 0.25 ⋅ 0.30. Flexural rigidity from (3.0385 which gives σx = σy 10 ⋅ 10 3 w = w1 + w 2 = 0.22 mm ⋅3 2 0. β3 = 0.35) gives w max = 10 ⋅ 10 ⋅3 3 135.10–2 Then (3.1769 ⋅ 10 − 6 =τ3 = (2b′ + d) d⋅Q = 2 ⋅ 1 − 0.005 ⋅ 0.34): Vc V f = 34.31 = 0.207 mm ø 48 ⋅ 2123.2 ⋅ 10 3 4 )= Wa 2V = 245.015 ( −2 + 0.6 with a/b = 1 β2 = 0.0 GPa and νf = 0.5 2 − 4 ⋅ 0.31 N b/ (2.2 è w 2 (L/2 ρ from (3.94 MPa DIAB SANDWICH HANDBOOK .054 / 2 = 2.25 ⋅ 0. 3.25 0.25 ⋅ 0.125 2 ö ÷ = 0.13.065 2 ) = 135. 1: 3: The faces are of equal thickness.5.0285 2⋅æ ç1− 0.005 (0.73.33 MPa ( 9 ⋅ 0.0371 + 0. Solution according to chapter ”Analysis method for panels simply supported on four sides”.a.33 Nm Q(L/2) = -61.103 6: Stresses a/ M(L/2) = 15.25c) ρ= π 2 ⋅ 12 ⋅ 109 ⋅ 0.7.31). V = Vc + Vf = 994.5 ⋅ 10 3 ⋅ 0.EXAMPLES 3 3 (2.125 æ = ⋅ ç 3 ⋅ 0.35) must be used.33 ⋅ 0. Gc = 80 MPa and νc = 0.42.065 ⋅ 0. 3. D2 = 12.10–6 σ = f Example 4: Panel with uniform pressure and simply supported edges A panel has the following dimensions: a=b=3m h = 70 mm t = 5 mm c = 60 mm The faces are of equal thickness and are made of FRP with Ef = 12.25.0385 ) = 12.6 mm mm Total deflection w: σf from (3. The core has the following properties: Ec = 200 MPa.31) gives with z = h/2 and I = Iy = D/Ef = 0. τ = max 81y (2 ⋅ 0. Find out the maximum deflection and σf.74 ⋅ 10 −2 ) = 25.39a) with β3 and β4 from fig.

05 ⋅ 0.08 < 100 The condition is not fulfilled. Condition (2.0 Nm 5: Shear stiffness according to (2.05 12 3 3 + 61 ⋅ 10 9 ⋅ 0. Flexural rigidity from (3.05 ⋅ 0.002 0. τc and deflection at L/2 = 0 .33 Nm (see example 1) Q(L/2) = – 61.25c) ρ = 0.5a and 3.7a) gives with z = h/2: 6: DIAB SANDWICH HANDBOOK . 1: b < c Þ The beam is considered to be narrow.052 0.78 The critical load is then given by (2. 106 = 129.31 N (see example 1) b/ (2.78 = 560 kN/m 32 0. 3.05 ) = 49.12) is checked.052 2 2 2 + Example 6: Beam with concentrated load.002 6 0.05 m Gc = 50 MPa h = 0.EXAMPLES Example 5: Panel with edge load Nx and simply supported edges The same panel as in example 4 but in this case the load is an edge load.25 L = 0.052 .Solution according to chapter ”Flexural rigidity”.054 m tf = 2 mm The load is a concentrated load W = 25 kg (245.05 2 ⋅ 0.2. The face material is the same but the core is made of Divinycell H 130.16). D = 61 ⋅ 10 ⋅ + 130 ⋅ 10 6 9 π 2 ⋅ 135.002 + 0.31) D2 = 135.0 .05 ⋅ 0. 103 N Stresses a/ Elementary table gives: M(L/2) = 15. Find out the buckling load.44). L = 0. Solution according to chapter ”Analysis method for panels simply supported on four sides”. 49. 50 ⋅ 10 6 130 ⋅ 10 6 6 ⋅ 61⋅ 109 0. Find out σ f.2 ⋅103 ⋅ = 3. 0.05 .29): Pxmn 2: 3: The faces are of equal thickness.002 ⋅ 0.6 . 1: 2: The faces are of equal thickness.0285 (see example 4) Then K1 is obtained from an interpolation between fig.125 m.002 ⋅ (0. a/b = 1 K1 = 3. ⋅ = 8319. G′ = 1+ 4.5b.means that G has to be replaced with G’ according to (2.103 Nm2 (see example 4) ρ is given from (3.05 = 78. 4 ⋅ 61 ⋅ 10 9 130 ⋅ 10 6 ⋅ 0. simply supported ends and stiff core The same beam as in example 1 and with the same dimensions.2) should be used when calculating the flexural rigidity. σc.05 ⋅ 0.5 m Ef = 61 GPa Ec = 130 MPa b = 0.24N) at a = 0.25 m.6 MPa Chapter ”Beams in which the contribution to the flexural rigidity from the core is not small” means that the whole expression (2. Chapter ”Beams in which the contribution to the flexural rigidity from the core is not small” . V = bgG’ = 0.

002 + 61⋅ 10 ⋅ 0.7b) gives with z = c/2: 15.056 m tf2 = 4 mm c = 0.125 m. = 68.053 ⋅ 15 ⋅ 10 6 = 39. D= 0.053 = 13.37).75 ⋅ 10 3 N DIAB SANDWICH HANDBOOK .002 τc = 3: 4: w1 (L/2 ) = 245.77 0.33 ⋅ (0. but now the faces are of unequal thicknesses.31 æ ÷ = 23. The faces are made of aluminium 4054-7 and the core is made of Divinycell H 40.04 MPa 8319.053 m Here the suffixes 1 and 2 represent the upper and the lower face respectively. (2. 0. The faces are of unequal thicknesses and therefore the flexural rigidity shall be written as in (2.5 N) at a = L/4 = 0.053 2 Example 7: Beam with concentrated load. simply supported ends and faces of unequal thicknesses The same load case as in example 1.25 ⋅ 0. Condition (2.0 σf = The beam is simply supported at both ends and the load is a concentrated load W = 25 kg (245.053 mm è ø 48 ⋅ 8319. 1: 2: (2.05 ⋅ 0.7 0.17 mm w2 (L/2 ) = 245.00 kPa 8319.054/2 ) ⋅ 61 ⋅ 10 9 = 3.5 m Ef = 61 GPa Ec = 40 MPa b = 0.004 ç 61⋅ 10 9 ö è ø 61⋅ 10 ⋅ 0.119 mm 2 ⋅ 129 ⋅ 10 3 Total deflection: w = w1 + w2 = 0.05 3 40 ⋅ 10 6 which means that the condition is fulfilled for both of the faces.05 2 ö − 61. Measurements and properties: L = 0.002 ⋅ 0.Condition (2.05 m d = 0.25 > 5.052 130 ⋅ 10 6 0.0 ç è ø Deflection Elementary table gives: b ≤ c Þ The beam is considered to be narrow.42 ⋅ 10 3 Nm 2 5: Shear stiffness.25 ⋅ 0.002 ⋅ 0. Solution according to chapter ”Flexural Rigidity”. The thickness of the upper face is still 2 mm but the lower is 4 mm. Then the flexural rigidity is given by (2.77 0.3) is checked for both of the faces.125 2 ö ÷ = 0.68 kPa ⋅ ç 61⋅ 10 9 ⋅ + ⋅ 4 ÷ 2 2 8319.0 = 0.125 æ ⋅ ç 3 ⋅ 0.004 0.002 ⋅ 0. Condition (2. Find out tc and deflection at L/2 = 0.50 > 5.053 2 ⋅ æ ÷ ⋅ 0.05/2 ) ⋅ 130 ⋅ 10 6 = 6.05 ⋅ 0.25 m.33 ⋅ (0.12) is checked (for the thinner face) in example 1and is fulfil led.16) gives: V = bdG c = 0.10) gives with z = 0: σc = 7: 0.38): 61⋅ 10 9 ⋅ 0.4) is checked.0 (2. Flexural rigidity.125 The condition is fulfilled.54 > 16.5 2 − 4 ⋅ 0.05 m tf1 = 2 mm Gc = 15 MPa h = 0.053 = 26.004 9 9 2 = 11.EXAMPLES 15.

038 mm w2 (L/2 ) = 245.31 0. DIAB SANDWICH HANDBOOK .75 ⋅ 10 3 = 0.125 2 ) = 0.386 mm Total deflection w: w = w1 + w2 = 0.42 ⋅ 10 3 ⋅ (3 ⋅ 0.14 kPa Deflection.5 2 − 4 ⋅ 0.05 ⋅ 0. Elementary table gives: w 1 (L/2 )= 245.053 = − 23.25 ⋅ 0.125 48 ⋅ 11.15): τc = 7: − 61.EXAMPLES 6: a/Elementary table gives: Q(L/2) = – 61.31 N (see example 1) b/τc is according to chapter ”Beams with dissimilar faces” given by (2.42 mm.25 ⋅ 0.125 2 ⋅ 39.

5. t Fig. 5. The stresses perpendicular to the plane of the panel are negligible both in the core and in the faces. There the following assumptions are made: 1. There are also verifying examples corresponding to the analytical examples in the chapter ”Examples”. Consequently the FE-model will have a great number of degrees of freedom and the calculation time will be unacceptable. DIAB SANDWICH HANDBOOK . These are shown in fig. meaning that the theory of bending is valid. c d 4. as the faces are thin.FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR ANALYSIS OF SANDWICH ANALYSIS OF SANDWICH BY FEM In this chapter a metod to analyse sandwich stryctures by the Finite Element Method (FEM) is presented. The faces are modelled of shell elements and the core of solid elements. t PRESENTATION OF METHOD In principle a FEM-model of a sandwich structure can be built up in three different ways. Consequently a very large number of elements is required if the sandwich has thin faces. 3. However. Shell element with math model off shore. all sides have about the same length.1 Different ways of modelling sandwich by FEM. The material in both the core and the faces is isotropic. the solid elements give a better result if they are cubic. 2.e. To the left with solid elements and to the right with a combination of solid elements and shell elements.1).1. The faces are thin compared to the core. This means that the local flexural rigidity can be ignored and that c ≈ d (see fig. The method is general and can be peformed using any of the commercially available FE-codes. i. If only solid elements are used the elements will have the same thickness as the faces and the core respectively. The method has been verified by comparing the results of a FEM-model of a panel to analytical calculated displacements. To obtain the right stiffness in shear in the FEM-model the material properties of the core have been modified according to the geometry of the sandwich. stresses and buckling loads. The displacements are small. a/ b/ c/ Both faces and core are modelled of solid elements. Sandwich panels have been treated in detail in chapter ”Sandwich panels”. In most cases the modulus of elasticity in the core is so low that the contribution to bending stiffness is negligible. 5. 5. The elements modelling the faces will be very extended.

The corrected shear modulus is given by the following expression: G c.FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR ANALYSIS OF SANDWICH To avoid this problem and to reduce the number of degrees of freedom the model can be built up of shell elements representing the faces and of solids representing the core.2) (5. Poisson’s ratios for faces and core respectively are assumed to be unaffected. it must be noted that if the modulus of elasticity and the shear modulus are corrected.corr = c + (d − c)/2 d+c ⋅ Gc = ⋅ Gc c 2c The stiffness in tension will be increased when the thickness of the core is increased. The shear stiffness of the core will be reduced as the thickness of the core has increased by (d – c)/2 in the model. As the nodes of a shell element are located in a plane in the middle of the element they should be placed at distance (c + d)/2 from each other. DIAB SANDWICH HANDBOOK .corr = 2c d+c ⋅ Ec (5. the core material has to be modelled as orthotropic ((the expression G = E/(2 (1+ν)) is not valid)). This is in accordance with assumption no 5 in chapter ”Analysis of sandwich by FEM”. To compensate for this the shear modulus of the core can be increased to obtain the right stiffness in shear.1) In reality the modulus of elasticity has a very small influence on the deflections of a sandwich structure. the modulus of elasticity should be corrected in the same way which gives: E c. However.

x ) L Mmax = M1 = Wab L W a b Q (x ) 1−2 = − M (x ) 1−2 = 1 0 2 w 1 (x )0−1 = WLbx 6D § b2 x 2 · ¸ ¨1− − ¨ L2 L2 ¸ ¹ © § 2x a2 x2 · ¸ ¨ − − 2 2 ¸ ¨ L L L ¹ © w 2 (x )0 −1 = Wbx LV + w 1 (x )1−2 = WLa (L .x ) w 2 (x )1−2 = LV x Q - w 1 (a ) = Wa b 3DL 2 2 w 2 (a ) = Wba LV M w 1 (L / 2) = Wa 3L2 − 4a 2 48D ( ) w 2 (L / 2 ) = Wa 2V + DIAB SANDWICH HANDBOOK .x ) 6D Wa (L .ELEMENTARY TABLES BEAM WITH CONCENTRATED LOAD AND SIMPLY SUPPORTED ENDS Q (x ) 0−1 = Wb L Wa L M (x ) 0−1 = Wbx L Wa (L .

max = 8V x M + DIAB SANDWICH HANDBOOK .max = 384D qL2 w 2.ELEMENTARY TABLES BEAM WITH UNIFORM PRESSURE AND SIMPLY SUPPORTED ENDS §L · Q (x ) = q ¨ − x ¸ 2 © ¹ qL2 8 M (x ) = qLx qx 2 − 2 2 q M (L/ 2) = Mmax = x qL3 x w 1 (x ) = 24D 2 3· § ¨1 − 2 x + x ¸ ¨ L2 L3 ¸ ¹ © w 2 (x ) = q Lx − x 2 2V ( ) + Q - 5qL4 w 1.

max appears at x = 0.577 L x w 1 (x ) = qL3 x 360D 2 4· § ¨ 7 − 10 x + 3 x ¸ ¨ L2 L4 ¸ ¹ © w2 (x ) = qLx 6V 2 § ¨1 − x ¨ L2 © · ¸ ¸ ¹ + Q - w 1 (1 /2) = 5qL 768D 4 w 2.max = 0.519 L D M + DIAB SANDWICH HANDBOOK .064 qL2 when x = 0.577 L x w 1.00652 qL4 at x = 0.ELEMENTARY TABLES BEAM WITH TRIANGLE LOAD AND SIMPLY SUPPORTED ENDS Q (x ) = qL qx 2 − 6 2L M (x ) = qLx 6 2· § ¨1 − x ¸ ¨ L2 ¸ ¹ © M (1 /2) = qL2 16 M max = 0.

max = w 2 (a) DIAB SANDWICH HANDBOOK .ELEMENTARY TABLES BEAM WITH CONCENTRATED LOAD. ONE SIMPLY SUPPORTED AND ONE CLAMPED END W Q (x ) 0−1 b· Wb 2 § = ¨3 − ¸ 2L2 © L¹ § ¨3 − a ¨ L2 © 2 Wb 2 a § a· M (a ) = ¨2 + ¸ 2 © L¹ 2L · ¸ ¸ ¹ § · ¨1 − a ¸ ¨ L2 ¸ © ¹ 2 a b 1 Q (x ) 1− 2 = Wa − 2L Wa M (L ) = − 2 0 2 + w 1 (x ) 0 −1 Wb 2 x ª a § a · x2 º = «3 − ¨ 2 + ¸ 2 » 12D ¬ L¹ L ¼ « L © » Q - w 2 (x )0−1 = w 1 (x ) 1− 2 b· Wb 2 x § ¨3 − ¸ 2 L ¹ 2L V © x M + 2 · § Wa (L .x )2 ª § a2 · x ·º ¸ − ¨3 − a ¸ § «3 ¨1 − 1 − ¸» = ¨ ¨ ¨ 12D L ¹» « L2 ¸ L2 ¸ ¹ © © ¹ ¬ © ¼ w 2 .

375 L 128 2 3· § ¨1 − 3 x + 2 x ¸ ¨ L2 L3 ¸ © ¹ − Mmax = M(L ) = − 0 1 x w 1 (x ) = qL3 x 48D w 2 (x ) = 3qLx qx 2 − 8V 2V + - Q x qL w 1.max = at x = 0.ELEMENTARY TABLES BEAM WITH UNIFORM PRESSURE.42 L 185D + 4 M - w 1 (L / 2) = qL4 192D DIAB SANDWICH HANDBOOK . ONE SIMPLY SUPPORTED AND ONE CLAMPED END Q (x ) = 3qL 8 − qx M (x ) = gLx § 3 x · ¨ − ¸ 2 ©4 L¹ qL2 8 q + Mmax = 9 qL2 at x = 0.

max at x = 0.0298 qL2 at x = 0.447 L qL2 15 1 − Mmax = M (L ) = − + Q - w 1 (x ) = qL3 x 120D 2 4 § ¨1 − 2x + x ¨ L2 L4 © · ¸ ¸ ¹ w 2 (x ) = qL § ¨ x 2V ¨ 5 © + x3 · ¸ 3L2 ¸ ¹ x M + w 1.ELEMENTARY TABLES BEAM WITH TRIANGLE LOAD. ONE SIMPLY SUPPORTED AND ONE CLAMPED END qL Q (x ) = 2 2 · §1 ¨ − x ¸ ¨ 5 L2 ¸ ¹ © qLx M (x ) = 2 2 §1 ¨ − x ¨5 3L2 © · ¸ ¸ ¹ 0 x q + Mmax = 0.447 L DIAB SANDWICH HANDBOOK .

BEAM WITH CONCENTRATED LOAD AND CLAMPED ENDS Q (x ) 0−1 = 2a · Wb 2 § ¸ ¨1 + 2 © L ¹ L 2b · Wa 2 § ¸ ¨1 + 2 © L ¹ L M (x ) 0−1 = − Wab 2 L2 + 2a · Wb 2 x § ¸ ¨1 + 2 © L ¹ L a W b Q (x ) 1−2 = − 0 1 2 x M (x ) 1−2 = − Wab 2 L2 + 2a · Wb 2 x § ¸ − W (x − a ) ¨1 + 2 L ¹ © L ·º ¸» ¸» ¹¼ x + Q w 1 (x ) 0 −1 = a3 a2 x § a2 a Wax 2 ª «3 − 6 + 2 − ¨1 − 3 +3 ¨ a © L 6D « L3 L2 L2 ¬ - w 1 (L/2) = Wa 2L 48D 4a · § ¸ ¨3 − L ¹ © when a ≤ L/2 M + w 2 (x )0 −1 = 2a · Wb 2 x § ¸ ¨1 + L ¹ VL2 © DIAB SANDWICH HANDBOOK .

21 L qL2 x 2 § x· ¨1 − ¸ 24D © L¹ 2 w 1 (x ) = w 2 (x ) = q (Lx − x 2 ) 2V x qL4 w 1.ELEMENTARY TABLES BEAM WITH UNIFORM PRESSURE AND CLAMPED ENDS q Q (x ) = qL 2 − qx q § L2 · ¸ M (x ) = ¨ Lx − x 2 − ¸ 2 ¨ 6 ¹ © 0 x 1 M (0 ) = M (L ) = − qL2 12 M (L / 2) = qL2 24 + Q - M = 0 at x = 0.max = w1 (L/2 ) = 384D qL2 w 2 (L/2 ) = 8V + M - DIAB SANDWICH HANDBOOK .

6 qL2 20 0 x 1 − Mmax = M (L ) = − + Q - M = 0 at x = 0.237 L and 0.548 L 46.ELEMENTARY TABLES BEAM WITH TRIANGLE LOAD AND CLAMPED ENDS Q (x ) = qL 20 2· § ¨ 3 − 10 x ¸ ¨ L2 ¸ ¹ © M (x ) = − qL2 60 3· § ¨ .808 L x w 1 (x ) = qxL3 120D § 2x 3x 2 x4 · ¸ ¨ − + 4 ¸ ¨ L L2 L ¹ © w 2 (x ) = qL 20V 3· § ¨ 3x − 10 x ¸ ¨ 3 L2 ¸ ¹ © M + - DIAB SANDWICH HANDBOOK .2 + 9 x − 10 x ¸ ¨ L L3 ¸ ¹ © q + Mmax = qL2 at x = 0.

n Length of panel Width of beam/panel Core thickness Distance between centrelines of opposite faces Width of core Tensile strains 1–uxuy Overall thickness of beam/panel Suffixes denoting mode of deformation m.ij Ci D E G H I K L Mi Mij DIAB SANDWICH HANDBOOK . half-vawes in x-direction n. y. half-vawes in y-direction Distributed load (panels: uniform pressure) Face thickness Used as a temporary variable in definition of equations Deflection Rectangular coordinates Area of cross-section Cross-section coefficients for strain energies Modified shear stiffnesses Constants in derivation of equations Flexural rigidity Moduli of elasticity Moduli of rigidity (shear moduli) Potential energy Second moment of area Buckling coefficient Span Bending moment Twisting moment N Ni.ij P Q S U V Vi W α β βι γ κ λ µ ν ρ σ τ ϑ ∆ Ω Edge load for panels Membrane forces Axial load Transverse force First moment of area Strain energy Shear stiffness Potential energies Point load Factor in buckling equations Constants for different Euler cases Coefficients for calculating stresses and deflection in a sandwich panel Shear strain Curvature Coefficient for magnitude of angle of deflection Coefficient for magnitude of angle of deflection Poisson´s ratio Stiffness constant for panel Tensile/compressive stress Shear stress Used in angle definitions in derivation of equations Displacement at a certain point Quantity for panel bending equations q t v w x.NOTATIONS a b c d e ei g h m. z A Ai Bi.

K-A Olsson. Instutionen för Marin Konstruktionsteknik. Weissman-Berman: ”Preliminary design method for FRP sandwichcored panels”. Fortsättningskurs i hållfasthetslära”. K-A Olsson. 1989. H. report 132. FPL report 1583-B. DIAB AB: ”Divinycell. shear forces and lateral pressure”. Pergamon press. Nordstedts förlag. AIAA Journal v 25.B. 1977. Instutionen för Marin Konstruktionstek nik och Avdelningen för Hållfasthetslära CTH. publikation 111. C. v 7. Norris: ”Effects of shear deformation in the core of a flat rectangular sandwich panel. Stockholm 1986.G. K-A Olsson: ”DP-Sandwich – The utilization of thin highstrength steel sheets in compression”. 1989. Stålbyggnadsinstitutet. Utdrag ur ”Handboken Bygg 1B”. nr. FPL report 1583-A. Ingenjörsförlaget AB.B. (januari 1986) J Hult: ”Bära brista.S Ericksen. FPL report 1854. Stiffness of flat panels of sandwich construction subjected to uniformly distributed loads normal to their surfaces – simply supported edges.REFERENCES 1 H. 1980. May 1985. Grundkurs i hållfasthetslära”. 2 10 3 11 4 12 5 13 6 14 15 7 16 17 8 18 DIAB SANDWICH HANDBOOK . revised January 1958. Ingenjörsförlaget AB. V. Informationsmaterial. C.M Rao: ”Buckling coefficients for fiber-reinforced plastics-faced sand wich plates under combined loading”. E Ahlenius: ”Sandwichkonstruktioner”. SNAME Spring meeting/STAR Symposium. D. augusti 1984. 5. 1988. S Sörelius: ”Fiberarmerad härdplast 2”. 1969. W. Almqvist & Wiksell förlag AB. J Hult: ”Bära brista. 1979. (januari 1986). L Å Samuelsson: ”Buckling of sandwich panels subjected to axial compression. KTH 1980. J-F Jansson. W. K. Compressive buckling of sandwich panels having dissimilar facings of unequal thickness”. Stockholm 1975 (1979). Thin-Walled structures p 99-117. Allen ”Analysis and design of structural sandwich panels”. May 1987. revised November 1958. Gamziukas.W March: ”Effects of shear deformation in the core of a flat rectangular sandwich panel. Utdrag ur ”Handboken Bygg 1A”. Norris: ”Compressive buckling curves for sandwich panels with isotropic facings and isotropic or othotropic cores”. konstruktionscellplast”. Zenkert. M Heder: ”Analys av sandwich med finit elementmetod”. revised 1962. A Ulfvarsson: ”Buckling och knäckning”.J. FFA. Kommers. augusti 1984. Instutionen för Marin Konstruktionstek nik och Avdelningen för Hållfasthetslära CTH. J-F Jansson. 9 D. S Sörelius: ”Fiberarmerad härdplast 1”.