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The Temperatures’ effect; In HPHT wells, the thickening time of the slurry is highly reduced when temperature is high

, making the cement set faster than in average temperature wells. The rheological properties of the cement slurry is affected by temperature .When the temperature increased the plastic viscosity (PV) and yield viscosity (YV) is decreased. . Due to the 5 oC temperature change resulting in cements thickening time , the accurate prediction of BHCT is very crucial There are two temperatures of importance in the well and they are:   Bottomhole Circulating Temperature; the thickening time is affected by the temperature the slurry confronts as it is being pumped into the well. Bottomhole Static Temperature; this temperature of the formation and it is the temperature the slurry will be exposed to after circulation has stopped for a period of time. The Pressure’s Effect; Pressure also has an effects on the design of the well, cement slurry and the drilling fluid. In certain instances the pressure is not estimated properly leading to the collapse in the casing of the well because it is inability to withstand the pressure from the pressure of the formation and therefore a kick occurs. To create the minimum overbalance weighting agents are used. They also reduce the pump ability of the cement thus accelerating the development of premature compressive strength. Small Equivalent Circulating Density Window; Simultaneously, the depth of the well and the hydrostatic head increases resulting in an increase in ECD due to both the compression and increase in temperature there is a decrease in ECD because of thermal expansion .

3.4.3 Remedy
a. Accurate estimation of temperature and monitoring of downhole conditions To estimate bottom hole circulating and static temperature, computer based temperature simulators are now being used. The simulators are run in the casing with the slurry and it measures the immediate temperature as the slurry moves from surface to bottomhole. A computer software program which is the cement simulator calculates and shows all job parameters, such as flow behavior, Flow rate/ annular velocity and differential pressure. It predicts the Equivalent Circulating Density (ECD), displacement efficiency (achieving the

cement slurry design testing. because of the more severe well conditions and higher complexity of the casing programs. as well as protect the exterior. silica. the software is used by recommending the best displacement rate and density of slurry (based on ECD behavior between fracture and pore density line) the simulator ensures that during the cementing job the downhole pressure doesnt exceed the fracturing pressure of the formation or drop below the pore pressure. The addition of 30 to 40% silica is usually sufficient to create a set cement with low permeability (<0. and caused by the construction of large crystals of alpha-dicalcium silicate hydrate. Cementing of a HPHT well successfully. an occurrence that occurs naturally with all Portland cements at temperatures of 230 to 248°F (110 to 120°C). To optimize the cementing operation. The three steps involve:    engineering analysis. b.maximum mud displacement out of the wellbore). nevertheless.1millidarcy) that . involving an elaborate array of retarders. such wells are generally considered serious. standoff value (percentage of casing centralization in the wellbore). The slurry should develop the required aspects and separate the zones. is regularly escorted by a loss in impermeability. Consequently. c. and cement slurry placement and monitoring . fluid-loss additives. job operation time for proper thickening. dispersants. and weighting materials. Efficient Design of Slurry. A three step design process to ensure construction of a well that ensures a means of safe and economic production of hydrocarbons is imperative. Cement Systems Stabilization and Strength Retrogression Stopping Strength retrogression. As those for shallower wells. For cementing deep wells. the procedures are basically the same. the cement system design can be complex. major consideration should be given to design of slurry and slurry placement techniques. Commonly used to prevent strength retrogression by modifying the hydration chemistry is is silica flour or silica sand and it can be used with all classes of Portland cement. Certain characteristics of a particular well state the slurry assets and performance.

Of the main problems for achieving this aim is the migration of fluid in the annular space after well cementing. according to studies. From 100 lb/100 ft2 to 500 lb/100 ft2 . Slurry design for HPHT wells by Antigas Migration 25% of the primary cement jobs failures is caused by gas migration. that length of time is referred to as the “zero gel” time. This pressure must be greater than pore pressure of gas-bearing formation to prevent fluid invasion into cement column. but the “transition” time must be as short as possible. The value of shear bond strength and compressive strength are reduced . Silica causes the reaction with cement and water to produce xonotlite at high temperatures instead of tobermorite. Burnt Magnesium Oxide (MgO).overcomes the problems of strength retrogression. is a function of the cement slurry gel strength. Xonotlite is stronger and results in a significantly smaller increase in permeability d. Conclusion can be drawn that the addition of additives as such increases shear bond strength but reduces compressive strength even though it might be still higher than the recommended minimum value. e. the fluid no longer transmits hydrostatic pressure from the fluid (or the fluid above it). When the SGS value reaches 500 lb/100 ft2. From the point at which the fluid goes static until the SGS (Static Gel Strength) reaches 100 lb/100 ft2 . The annular cement provides an effective zonal isolation for the life of the well in order that oil and gas can be produced safely and economically and that’s its major purpose. The main factor thwarting the fluid from entering the cement is cement hydrostatic pressure column and the mud above it. is referred to as the “transition” time. the required time for the SGS fluid’s value to increase. though additions can range from 30 to 100%. In attempt to control gas migration. the lower is the transmissibility of the annular hydrostatic pressure. It must not exceed fracturing pressure of the formation to avoid losses. Using Expansion additive for improved cement bond. When the (SGS) value reaches 100 lb/100 ft2 it starts to lose its ability to transport hydrostatic pressure. The ability of the cement slurry to spread hydrostatic pressure affecting the total hydrostatic pressure of the annular column. The higher the gel strength. Used as an expansion additive. the “zero gel” time can be long.

1 Flow of Salt Formation Salt sections exhibit plastic-flow characteristics under adequate temperature and pressure. This additive burnt at 1200 oC is only of benefit at temperatures higher than 140oF. Assuming sufficient bulk displacement has taken place.1. but for low conditioning temperature. 100 oC-135 oC. Coatings from mud additives (polymers. Compatibility test of the fluids mixture with the spacer must be performed to ensure there will be no incompatibility problems when pumped into the well bore. which can lead to inter-zonal communication and casing decay. Done to slow down their hydration process when in contact with water is the burning of Magnesium Oxide. the harder the MgO gets and the harder it is for the MgO to react with cement. which allows them to supply exceptional extension at curing temperature up to 550 oF. Efficient Mud Displacement Properly displacing the drilling fluid is the most vital factor in obtaining a good primary cement job is. Thus. Effective displacement aids are Spacers and flushes because they separate unlike fluid such as cement and drilling fluid. 4. and boost the removal of gelled mud allowing a better cement bond. bonding of the cement to the pipe can be less than wanted should said surfaces not be beneficial to cement bonding. an appropriate effect of the expansion additive will be obtained. Channels and/or pockets of mud may be left in the cemented annulus if the mud is not correctly displaced. if the MgO reacts at the same time as the process of hydration of the cement. Bonding of the cement to the formation and wellbore surfaces is one of the features of ensuring an annular seal during a cementing operation after achieving bulk displacement of the drilling mud. generally. corrosion inhibitors. Poor bonding as such is typically reported as a microannulus as viewed by a cement evaluation log and is often blamed for poor zonal isolation either via immediate inter-zonal communication. the MgO burnt at 1000oC is reliable. It is a known fact that a salt section tends to be more sensitive to temperature and pressure than . f. Using the MgO at temperatures below what it was specified for will not be helpful because the hydration will be too slow to offer the required expansion.proportional to the increment of burning temperature of MgO. the higher the burning the temperature. etc) and non-aqueous mud systems can hinder the bonding between the cement sheath and the pipe surface. These additives are fully hydrated after setting of the cement.

Good drilling practices can also minimize salt-deformation problems. . but it can be controlled to an acceptable level during the interval of time it takes to drill the section. Generally speaking. In some cases. This means that mud weights can be very high. Also helping to ensure the hole has remained open. When a well is drilled through a salt section.1% per hour can be anticipated from the formation temperature and depth. High-strength casing and a good cement job after drilling a nearly gauge wellbore tend to distribute the salt loading more evenly over the interval. the higher the mud weight.the adjacent formations even though it is intricate to associate the enormities required to initiate plastic salt flow because of the diversity of environments if they are at depths of less than 5.000 ft. salt formations are rarely plastic or problematic. Drilling each joint or stand and wiping over that section prior to making the next connection will help guarantee the salt has been opened sufficiently and has been stabilized.0 psi/ft collapse.0 lb/gal (2.4 SG). Freshwater sweeps can be used to dissolve the salt that is creeping and to release stuck pipe. The closure may never be eradicate. the greater the depth of burial. In the case of a completed well. Experience has shown that it is a good practice to use a high-compressive-strength. salt can flow satisfactorily to collapse casing. thereby reducing the potential for casing collapse. The mud weight required to reduce salt creep to less than 0. saltsaturated-resistant cement and high-strength casing designed for 1. The deformation can be much less apparent in the case of salt beds. Mud weights required for drilling salts can be excessive as in 20. at temperatures below 200°F (93°C) or less than 1. regular wiper trips back through the salt to casing escalating the mud weight is the only practical way to control the rate at which the wellbore closes. The force extruding the salt is equal to the weight of overburden. the movement of the salt is so slow. stress within the salt is relieved and the salt flows toward the wellbore. it takes years before this problem is apparent. Salt sections should be short-tripped and reamed on a regular basis for this reason. A salt can flow (“creep”) suitably to close off the wellbore and stick the drillstring. A freshwater pill of 25 to 50 bbl is usually satisfactory to free stuck pipe.000 ft thick.

Porosity and permeability of salt formations result in slink behavior. experiments in laboratories show that halite salts confirm that NaCl is ionic and soluble in polar liquids such as water.3 porosity and permeability : These are the essence features of geologic materials.4. Ca. Fe . We face a problem in measuring porosity and permeability . Some examples of those are Na .1. Porosity is the ratio of the volume of voids to the total volume of material. Permeability is a measure of the affluence with which fluids will flow though a spongy rock medium. It’s when formations of salt dissolve. . which are named generically as halite and anhydrite.0%) which in some cases may be less than 0. the homogeneous form 99% halite. Rock salts are composed also of alkaline metals and alkaline earth metals. and brine. 4. The expected flow system donates to the choice of drilling fluids. Virgin rock salt is usually depict by very low porosity (<0. Porosity is the storage capacity of the geologic material.2 Solubility To begin with we have to define what solubility is. . that problem is the solubility of rocks salt in the liquids. therefore . Drilling fluids is chosen on predicted responses with salt formation.1. This property is the result of fluid dynamics and chemical outcome on salt formations which lead to the dissolution of rock salt. It shows that we can use these rocks in storing gases and wastes. In order to measure salt formations we use the value 10-20 m squared.5. Formations of salt dissolve in water by various salt formations have relative different in their solubility in water due to their varying compositions. Samples of salt are tested on solubility property.solubility in water is limited by the salt content of the water.the diameters of wellbore can be enlarged due to salt dissolution and mud flushing. The solubility of salt creations is the property that controls the connections of the formation with fluids such as penetrating fluid (mud) and cements.1. They are major features that control the storage and movement of fluids in rocks. It is not soluble in non-polar liquids like alcohol . rock salts are composed of homogenous and heterogeneous minerals .1% a part of of pore volume takes place as closed voids of gas.

In fundamental nature. Note that casing elimination should be done only if hole troubles will not occur within the salt formation. Salt deposits do not allow pore fluids to escape.0 psi/ft while some salt sections can endure . Proven to be relatively higher than the surrounding non-salt formations at a comparable depth are the fracture gradients in shallow salt formations. Fracture gradient is the pressure gradient (in psi/ft)or density (in ppg) that gives a pressure equivalent to the fracture pressure. Also. geophysical and mechanical processes .It is the most pressure a formation can give before it fails or breaks. This leads to the increase of horizontal stress to values greater than or equal to the overburden stress. this instance of stress system requires casings set across salt sections to have higher collapse strength. diapirism) into overlying sediment s creates a lateral seal which inhibits pore water expulsion. the movement of salts (i. Pore fluids are rapt and pressured. salt formation is its tectonic stress diffusion during its flow or response to an applied stress. Abnormal formation of pore pressures take place when joining geochemical . Salt formations absorb tectonic (surrounding) stresses therefore. formation pressure tests in salts are frequently restricted to a greatest value of 1. We must define the meaning of Fracture pressure. In piercing salt formations the fracture gradients are estimated and incorporated into the mud and casing design.4 Formation (Pore) and Fracture Pressures: What is pore pressure? It’s the pressure performed on fluids inside the pores of rocks. well planners must estimate the fracture gradient of the salt section to be drilled and the mud weight that will be required when exiting the massive salt section. the mud weight used for the shallow salt sections should be carefully selected considering the exit formations which are likely to be relatively weak and possible zones of lost returns. abnormal. Information like this provides the basis for the casing depths within or out of the salt formation and permits the choice of an optimum location of salt exit.4. thus.or subnormal. The rather higher fracture gradients permits casing point extension and casing strings elimination which reduces well costs and rig time. Because the density of salt does not change with burial depth compared to other clastic sediments and salt transmits stresses which contribute to the fracture pressure in the deeper non-salt formations.1. Pore pressure can be normal.e. deep salt formations may have moderately lower or approximate stress values with the non-salt formations at deeper depths. in shallow formations. though. the overburden stress from above and transmit equal stresses in all three directions in order to achieve stress equilibrium or isotropy.

Hardness is the measure of the resistance of a rock to breakage and is measured on the Mohr Hardness Scale (Softest = 1. The hardness for sodium chloride.8ppg). Layers of salt formation become harder and more consolidated hence.7 and the bit designs are steadily improving. frictiongenerated torsional vibrations or stick-slip generated are very prominent in salt formations and limits the penetration rates and hole quality. The most complimentary extent of wellbore section in salt is LB though longer than LA.mud weights larger than this pressure gradient. Experience demonstrates that cement squeeze will raise the fracture EMW at the casing shoe if there is need to set casing in the salt. 4. the drilling tools must be able to withstand the abrasiveness and toughness of the formation.5 and 3 varies. With interfaces the layers are separated from each such that the acquaintances are weaker between the top and stronger layers between the bottom layers. hence the mud weight required to exit the should be less than the fracture EMW of the exit zone and lower than the lowest fracture EMW within the salt.5 Other Salt Properties From hard to (at the bottom) to soft (at the top) the layers of sediments graduated. in terms of temperature reactions.8ppg and the best option of salt exit is option B because the formation has a fracture EMW of approximately 13ppg (close to 12. poor directional control and lateral quivering. NaCl (the chief component in halite) is between 2. In salt formations friction and hardness are high and can cause several damaging issues including severe stick-slip. The alternatives of salt exit depend on variation between the lowest fracture pressure or equivalent mud weight (EMW) in the salt (at the top of the salt) and the fracture pressure of the closest non-salt formation below the salt. Particularly. Geophysically.1. and at higher temperatures and higher pressures. Anisotropic constants are included into equations and models for . Yet. the coefficient of friction in a typical rock salt is 0. Rock salt (halite) melts at 800oC and 1 atmosphere pressure. As we drill deeper relatively to other clastic formation. To mitigate these issues. Hardest = 10). fracture in salt formations are feared because it is supposed that the fracture will evolve to non-salt areas or that salt will trickle away due to drilling fluids moving along the fracture path. observing how the diverse types of salt cause seismic waves to act in another way while the waves spread through the salt units is the standard for classifying anisotropy in salt formations. The fracture EMW at the top of the salt is 12. formation integrity tests are rarely run to fracture pressure.

DUO- . nonstandard oilfield salts. the undersaturated option is sometimes difficult to manage and can easily lead to excessive hole enlargement causing further complications in obtaining a collapse-resistant. to obtain good properties. Prehydrated bentonite is frequently valuable for sweeps and for obtaining good filter-cake value. When the salt is first penetrated.2. Once the chlorides are greater than 10. Polymers like Hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC). even if its benefit is somewhat diminished with time.2 Drilling Fluid Solution 4. SALT GELT (attapulgite) or DUROGELT (sepiolite) can be used to provide viscosity in saltwaters. cemented casing.000 mg/l. For mixed salt formations like carnalite.1 Saturated-saltwater-base systems.1.1 Water-Base Systems One of two approaches is used with water-base fluids:   the use of a saturated salt system the use of a slightly undersaturated system to encourage hole enlargement which keeps deformation of the salt from causing stuck pipe.calculating the three dimensional stress and strains in salt formations. rock salt models from the field of interest should be recovered to surface for anisotropic analysis and tests. Depending on the actual conditions. The system will stay mostly saturated while the salt is being drilled. Bentonite-generated viscosity will diminish with time after this initial flocculation. increasing rheology and fluid loss when prehydrated freshwater bentonite slurry is added to a saturated salt fluid.2. dry bentonite will not yield. it is vital to have the system completely saturated to prevent excessive hole enlargement in the top of the salt. these saturated salt systems are unlike from other water-base muds. this can be intricate. would be required and may not be readily available. Water-base drilling fluids should be designed to be compatible with the salt to be drilled. In their relying mainly on polymers. The clays will flocculate. 4. 4. but magnesium chloride. not clays.

Special-application. even though the oil wetting ability and lower water content reduce salt dissolution and control hole enlargement.or synthetic-base muds.loss/rheology control under hightemperature (>275°F or 135°C) conditions.2. Some precipitates can be formed depending on the type of salt drilled which can be salt or hydroxide compounds.g. Salts will still dissolve into the water phase.2 Invert-Emulsion Systems Also used to drill salt sections are oil. That the performance of many polymers is reduced in the presence of highhardness brines. The shared presence of high pH (e.1. high-temperature-stable and calcium/magnesium-tolerant polymers can be used for fluid. There are several reactions that can arise due to the overload lime concentration and high chlorides which can be unpredictable and vary depending on salt composition and temperature.2 etc. super-low viscosity Polyanionic Cellulose (PAC) additives like POLYPACT SUPREME UL. Critical for suspension HEC will not provide low-shear-rate viscosity. These systems can be formulated with a variety . 4. POLYPACT UL.T XCDT or FLO-VIST will yield to provide rheological properties. For long salt sections. fluid-loss control can be obtained. The discussion of mutual solubility of salts is covered in the holeenlargement section. Magnesium chloride can precipitate magnesium hydroxide in a high lime or high pH mud. particularly anionic polymers such as PACs and Partially Hydrolyzed Poly Acrylamides (PHPA) should be noted. POLY-SALE. and the mud in the annulus may become saturated at the bit (from salt cuttings) so that it cannot dissolve any more salt as it circulates up the annulus which is one difficulty with this approach.VIS. This method should only be used in areas where the salt section is short and where it is a common practice on offset wells.2. MY-LO-JELE or FLO-TROLT starch or ultra-low. 4..2 Undersaturated water-base systems. the rate of creep can vary widely from top to bottom. The use of undersaturated salt systems has been perfected so that the rate of salt dissolution is matched to the rate of salt creep in some areas. With HEC. keeping it saturated. after drilling cement) and high hardness can also reduce the performance of xanthan viscosifying polymers.

The most harmful characteristics are recrystallization of salt and magnesium hydroxide precipitation. Consuming the emulsifiers and wetting agents results in water-wetting of solids. although oil-base systems are preferred for drilling salt so that a gauge hole can be preserved. .of salts in the water phase as an alternative to calcium chloride. both reactions produce extremely fine particles with a tremendous surface area leading to a rapid depletion of emulsifiers and oil-wetting agents. Sodium-chloride and magnesium-chloride internal-phase systems have been used successfully. Salts can actually be more detrimental to invert emulsion muds than to water-base muds.