z
= u.
4. Fully developed flow, so no properties vary in the x direction;
x
= u.
Using assumptions (1) to (4) and continuity equation
o:
oy
= u
Since : = u at the solid surface (noslip condition), it should be zero everywhere.
The fact that : = u, reduces the NavierStokes equation as follows:
u = pg
x
+p
o
2
u
oy
2
(1)
u = pg

op
oy
(2)
And all terms of momentum equation in zdirection cancel. Since u is only a
function of y (why?), Equation (1) can be written as

pgsin0
p
=
o
2
u
oy
2
(3)
By integrating twice
u = 
pgsin0
p
y
2
2
+ c
1
y + c
2
(4)
Applying the boundary conditions, i.e. noslip
u = u ot y = u
and zero shear stress at the free surface (why?)
Page3
M.Bahrami ENSC 283 Assignment # 7
Ju
Jy
= u ot y = b
gives
u =
pgsin0
p
y [b 
y
2
(5)
and the shear stress would be
x
= p
Ju
Jy
= pgsin0(b y) (6)
which gives the maximum shear at the wall surface and zero shear at the free
surface.
To find the volumetric flow rate
= _ uJy
h
0
=
pgsin0b
p
b
3
S
(7)
The average velocity can then be found from the following equation
u
uc
=
bb
=
pgsin0
p
b
2
S
(8)
Solving for the film thickness gives
b = _
Sp
pgsin0b
]
1
3
(9)
A film of water b = 1mm thick on a plane with b = 1m width, inclined at
0 = 1S, would carry
= u.846 _
Iit
s
_
Page4
M.Bahrami ENSC 283 Assignment # 7
Problem2: (analysis of laminar volumetric flow between coaxial cylinders)
A viscous liquid fills the annular gap between vertical concentric cylinders. The
inner cylinder is stationary, and the outer cylinder rotates at constant speed. The
flow is laminar. Simplify the continuity, NavierStokes, and tangential shear stress
equations to model this flow field. Obtain rxpressions for the liquid velocity profile
and the shear stress distribution. Compare the shear stress at the surface of the
inner cylinder with that computed from a planar approximation obtained by
unwrapping the annulus into a plane and assuming linear velocity profile across
the gap. Determine the ratio of cylinder radii for which the planar approximation
predicts the correct shear stress at the surface of the inner cylinder within 1
percent.
Solution:
Assumptions:
1. Steady flow.
2. Incompressible flow.
3. No flow or variation of properties in the z direction;:
z
= u and
z
= u.
4. Axisymmetric flow, so no properties vary in the 0 direction;
0
= u.
NavierStokes equation in cylindrical coordinate should be solved for this problem.
Considering the coordinate system as shown, g
= g
0
= u and g
z
= g.
Page5
M.Bahrami ENSC 283 Assignment # 7
With the assumptions we made and continuity equation (why we can use JJr
instead of oor?)
1
r
J(r:
)
Jr
= u
which gives r:
= u everywhere.
The fact that :
r
z
Page6
M.Bahrami ENSC 283 Assignment # 7
:
0
=
R
1
1 [
R
1
R
2
2
_
r
R
1

R
1
r
_
(4)
Shear stress can be obtained from the following equation
0
= pr
J
Jr
[
:
0
r
(5)
Substituting :
0
from Eq. (4) into Eq. (5) at r = R
1
gives
su]ucc
= p
2
1 [
R
1
R
2
2
(6)
For a planar gap,
pIunu
= p
:
y
= p
R
2
R
2
R
1
=
p
1 
R
1
R
2
(7)
Thus
su]ucc
pIunu
=
2
1 +
R
1
R
2
(8)
For 1% accuracy
2
1 +
R
1
R
2
= 1.u1 or
R
1
R
2
= u.98
As a result the planar assumption is accurate for very narrow gaps between two
rotating cylinders.