M.Bahrami ENSC 283 Assignment # 7
ENSC283
Assignment #7
Assignment date: Monday Mar. 9, 2009
Due date: Monday Mar. 16, 2009
Problem1: (Fully developed laminar flow down an inclined plane surface)
A liquid flows down an inclined plane surface in a steady, fully developed laminar
film of thickness h. Simplify the continuity and NavierStokes equations to model
this flow field. Obtain expressions for the liquid velocity profile, the shear stress
distribution, the volume flow rate, and the average velocity. Relate the liquid film
thickness to the volume flow rate per unit depth of surface normal to the flow.
Calculate the volume flow rate in a film of water b = 1 mm thick, flowing on a
surface b = 1 m wide, inclined at 0 = 1S° to the horizontal.
Page2
M.Bahrami ENSC 283 Assignment # 7
Solution:
Assumptions:
1. Steady flow.
2. Incompressible flow.
3. No flow or variation of properties in the z direction; w = u and
ð
ðz
= u.
4. Fully developed flow, so no properties vary in the x direction;
ð
ðx
= u.
Using assumptions (1) to (4) and continuity equation
o:
oy
= u
Since : = u at the solid surface (noslip condition), it should be zero everywhere.
The fact that : = u, reduces the NavierStokes equation as follows:
u = pg
x
+p
o
2
u
oy
2
(1)
u = pg
¡

op
oy
(2)
And all terms of momentum equation in zdirection cancel. Since u is only a
function of y (why?), Equation (1) can be written as

pgsin0
p
=
o
2
u
oy
2
(3)
By integrating twice
u = 
pgsin0
p
y
2
2
+ c
1
y + c
2
(4)
Applying the boundary conditions, i.e. noslip
u = u ot y = u
and zero shear stress at the free surface (why?)
Page3
M.Bahrami ENSC 283 Assignment # 7
Ju
Jy
= u ot y = b
gives
u =
pgsin0
p
y [b 
y
2
¸ (5)
and the shear stress would be
¡
x¡
= p
Ju
Jy
= pgsin0(b y) (6)
which gives the maximum shear at the wall surface and zero shear at the free
surface.
To find the volumetric flow rate
µ = _ uJy
h
0
=
pgsin0b
p
b
3
S
(7)
The average velocity can then be found from the following equation
u
u¡c
=
µ
bb
=
pgsin0
p
b
2
S
(8)
Solving for the film thickness gives
b = _
Spµ
pgsin0b
]
1
3
(9)
A film of water b = 1mm thick on a plane with b = 1m width, inclined at
0 = 1S°, would carry
µ = u.846 _
Iit
s
_
Page4
M.Bahrami ENSC 283 Assignment # 7
Problem2: (analysis of laminar volumetric flow between coaxial cylinders)
A viscous liquid fills the annular gap between vertical concentric cylinders. The
inner cylinder is stationary, and the outer cylinder rotates at constant speed. The
flow is laminar. Simplify the continuity, NavierStokes, and tangential shear stress
equations to model this flow field. Obtain rxpressions for the liquid velocity profile
and the shear stress distribution. Compare the shear stress at the surface of the
inner cylinder with that computed from a planar approximation obtained by
”unwrapping” the annulus into a plane and assuming linear velocity profile across
the gap. Determine the ratio of cylinder radii for which the planar approximation
predicts the correct shear stress at the surface of the inner cylinder within 1
percent.
Solution:
Assumptions:
1. Steady flow.
2. Incompressible flow.
3. No flow or variation of properties in the z direction;:
z
= u and
ð
ðz
= u.
4. Axisymmetric flow, so no properties vary in the 0 direction;
ð
ð0
= u.
NavierStokes equation in cylindrical coordinate should be solved for this problem.
Considering the coordinate system as shown, g
¡
= g
0
= u and g
z
= g.
Page5
M.Bahrami ENSC 283 Assignment # 7
With the assumptions we made and continuity equation (why we can use J¡Jr
instead of o¡or?)
1
r
J(r:
¡
)
Jr
= u
which gives r:
¡
= constont. Since velocity is zero at the rigid wall the constant
should be zero and thus :
¡
= u everywhere.
The fact that :
¡
= u reduces the NavierStokes equation as follows:
p
:
0
2
r
= 
op
or
; r momcntum
(1)
u = p _
J
Jr
_
1
r
J
Jr
r:
0
]]_ ; 0 momcntum
(2)
Integrating twice with respect to r gives
:
0
= c
1
r
2
2
+
c
2
r
(3)
Applying noslip boundary conditions at inner and outer cylinders i.e.
:
0
= æR
2
ot r = R
2
and :
0
= u ot r = R
1
gives
R
1
R
2
r
z
Page6
M.Bahrami ENSC 283 Assignment # 7
:
0
=
æR
1
1 [
R
1
R
2
¸
2
_
r
R
1

R
1
r
_
(4)
Shear stress can be obtained from the following equation
¡
¡0
= pr
J
Jr
[
:
0
r
¸
(5)
Substituting :
0
from Eq. (4) into Eq. (5) at r = R
1
gives
¡
su¡]ucc
= p
2æ
1 [
R
1
R
2
¸
2
(6)
For a “planar” gap,
¡
pIunu¡
= p
∆:
∆y
= p
æR
2
R
2
R
1
=
pæ
1 
R
1
R
2
(7)
Thus
¡
su¡]ucc
¡
pIunu¡
=
2
1 +
R
1
R
2
(8)
For 1% accuracy
2
1 +
R
1
R
2
= 1.u1 or
R
1
R
2
= u.98
As a result the planar assumption is accurate for very narrow gaps between two
rotating cylinders.