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Session – 1

Session Name: Automotive Starting System Author Name: Satyajit R. Patil

Write requirements of starting system. Teaching Learning Material White Board and Markers Overhead projector Page 2 Ver 1:.01 Automotive Starting System Satyajit R. Identify probable faults in the starting system. Draw schematic of the same. Patil. List various components of starting system.Session Objectives At the end of this session. Understand working of the same. KESRIT . Justify type of motor used. the learner will be able to: Understand need of automotive starting system.

Session Plan Time (in min) Content Learning Aid and Methodology Faculty Approach Typical Student Activity Skill and Competency Developed 05 Introduction: Automotive Starting System Chalk & Talk Explains Comprehends Knowledge Intrapersonal 15 Need for Automotive Starting System Chalk & Talk Numerical Examples Facilitates Explains Comprehends Participates Comprehension Intrapersonal Linguistic Application Knowledge Intrapersonal Spatial 20 Starting System: Layout and Components OHP Facilitates Explains Observes Comprehends 06 Types of Motors Chalk & Talk Explains Comprehends Knowledge Intrapersonal 10 Probable Faults Group Discussion Facilitates Moderates Participates Observes Comprehends Application Intrapersonal Interpersonal Linguistic 04 Conclusion Question and Answer Questions Answers Comprehension Intrapersonal Linguistic Automotive Starting System Satyajit R. Patil. KESRIT Page 3 .

We can explain the need with the help of a numerical demonstration. one out of which is the starting system. the engine would get started and then he would come and occupy his seat to drive the vehicle. Patil. However. The electric energy is stored in the battery and generated using a generator or alternator. used in the earlier days. demand of electrical load will be met by this current. initial cranking was provided by using hands. The system should be convenient to the driver and efficient. KESRIT . The driver would crank the engine shaft by revolving the handle. The Automotive Electrical systems are classified as follows: Automotive storage and generation system Automotive starting system Automotive lighting system Automotive ignition system Automotive Auxiliaries We have already learnt about storage and generation system. Ultimately. the generator will not be operational and the current will be extracted from the battery. if the vehicle is not moving or moving at very low speed. Then we may tell the learners about ‘hand crank method’.01 Automotive Starting System Satyajit R. the need for Automotive Starting System should be explained.Session Inputs Introduction: Automotive Starting System We may recall the classification of automotive electrical systems that we learnt in earlier session. Earlier days. we will see how a vehicle gets started. and the battery will be drained. Today. This is called hand cranking and was very inconvenient and time consuming. When the generator is generating the current. Page 4 Ver 1:. the need was felt for more sophisticated means to start the vehicle. Need for Automotive Starting System Before going into the system.

This speed reduction also helps to provide the torque at the flywheel which is mounted on an engine crankshaft. This shall also help in providing the torque at the flywheel which will help starting the engine. Here. As the crankshaft starts rotating. We know that the torque is inversely proportional to the speed. Hence the reduction of the order of 16:1 is required. The cranking motor speed will be 1600 rpm. Let’s take a minimum cranking speed of an engine to be 100 rpm. while the motor speed can be taken as 1600 rpm. This example will illustrate the need for a starting system required in a vehicle. i. engine cannot be started on its own. These facts are to be explained to the learners. an electric motor uses current to produce the mechanical energy. However. an electric motor will be required for cranking the engine. It uses an electric motor. in order to start the engine. This torque is much more than the torque required to keep the engine running. in order to get a heavy torque. Thus.e. called the cranking motor or the starting motor which provides the initial drive to the crankshaft of an engine. Patil. Let’s try to understand the need for a starting system with the help of an illustration. Automotive Starting System Satyajit R. If we apply this relationship to our motor engine case. the engine will start running and combustion of the air fuel mixture will take place in the combustion chamber. Thus. This is made possible by a gear pair whose reduction ratio generally varies from 8:1 to 16:1. the engine can be cranked at 100 rpm or more than that. a heavy torque is required. the speed should be low. since the motor speed is 1600 rpm and the engine cranking minimum speed is 100rpm. C. Also.Suggested Activity: Numerical Examples The need can be demonstrated with the help of a numerical example. we will have to have a speed reduction mechanism. The minimum cranking speed required to crank a petrol engine can be taken as 100 rpm. An I. Finally the learners can be asked to come up with more examples on similar lines. KESRIT Page 5 . This will further provide power to the engine. we should have a provision for reduction of the order of 16:1 so that the motor speed of 1600 rpm can be converted to 100 rpm of engine. in our case it has to be 16:1.

Thus. it will be essential to bring these gears in mesh when we want to start the engine. the circuit is broken. KESRIT . When the switch is closed. Page 6 Ver 1:. its speed will go on increasing and then it will try to drive the motor. will not be able to withstand this high rpm owing to the resulting high centrifugal forces and will fail. At the same time. the current from the battery will be delivered to the motor. if the engine has reached upto 2000 rpm. off course. Thus. it will try to drive the cranking motor at 2000*16=32000 rpm. Starting System: Layout and Components The layout of the starting system components can be shown with the help of a transparency or diagram on blackboard. Patil. the starting mechanism connects and disconnects the engine from the cranking motor when required. The role of the individual components and overall functioning of the system is then explained. The components of a typical automotive starting system are: Battery Starter switch Electric motor Pinion on motor shaft Flywheel ring gear Solenoid switch Battery The battery provides the heavy current required for the cranking motor. Starter Switch It has two positions. open and closed. there has to be a mechanism with the help of which we should be able to disengage the gears mounted on the engine shaft and the motor output shaft when the engine speeds up. the circuit is made and when it is open. Thus. One battery terminal is connected to the motor terminal and the other is earthed. Heavy current of the order of 200-400 amperes can be extracted from the battery when the starter switch is closed.But when the engine starts running. now speed increment will occur. The important thing to be understood here is that. instead of speed reduction. When the switch is closed.01 Automotive Starting System Satyajit R. The motor.

Solenoid Switch This will look after the engagement and disengagement of the motor pinion with the ring gear. the cranking motor should be of dc type. KESRIT Page 7 . Generally a four pole. Flywheel Ring Gear This ring gear is mounted on the engine crankshaft and aside to the flywheel. series motor is used for engine cranking. It takes drive from the pinion gear and makes the crankshaft revolve. Patil. (The details of the driving mechanisms are out of scope of this lecture. it de-energizes and the pinion will be brought out of the mesh with the ring gear due to the spring pressure. Pinion on Motor Shaft This is a small gear mounted on the motor output shaft and revolves with the motor speed. As the current stops flowing.Electric Motor The function of a motor is to convert electrical energy into mechanical energy.) Automotive Starting System Satyajit R. As the current flows through the solenoid. As the current stored in the battery is dc. it energizes so as to push the pinion into mesh with a ring gear.

whatever amount of current flows through the field winding. Since the battery is being used as an energy storage device.e. KESRIT . Page 8 Ver 1:. the shunt or the compound motor types. the motor to be used will also be of dc type. In this segment the reasons for the use of the series motor as the cranking motor is explained. the series and the parallel connections for field and armature windings. The choice to be made is dc or ac motor. Part of the current flows through the field windings and part of the current flows through the armature windings. In the shunt motor.Starting system: layout and components Type of Motors The types of motors. the field windings and the armature windings are in series with each other. The next choice is to be made between the series. The sketches showing the series shunt and compound type of motors may be drawn on the blackboard. these windings are parallel to each other. which provides dc. In the series motor.01 Automotive Starting System Satyajit R. The compound motor uses both i. usually preferred for automotive starting purposes are to be explained. the same amount of current flows through the armature windings. Patil.

Patil. This motor may be a two pole motor or a four pole motor. Since. Suggested Activity: Group Discussion Two groups of learners will be formed and they will be given a situation. a set of contacts causes the main supply to be passed through the series winding and armature giving full torque. When the pinion of the starter is fully in mesh with the ring gear =. KESRIT Page 9 . permanent magnet motors (PMDC) motors are also used in vehicles as cranking motors. The compound motor is widely used for industrial applications. The shunt winding will now be connected in parallel and will act in such a way as to limit the maximum speed of the motor. Since the armature and the field windings are wound in series. Last 2 minutes are meant for conclusion of discussion. they already know the various components and their functions. With the four pole motor. the large starter motors are often compound wound and operated in two stages. Automotive Starting System Satyajit R. Nowadays. owing to their simple construction and compactness. may be of the order of 200-400 amps. the distribution of magnetic flux will be more uniform. However. The first stage involves the shunt winding being connected in series with the armature.The series motor. This connection allows for low meshing torque due to the resistance of the shunt winding. The learners will need to list out various causes due to which it is not getting started. owing to its highest cranking torque is usually preferred for the motor vehicles. it draws maximum current. Group formation will take around 3 minutes and 5 minutes would be given for discussion. which results in more torque as compared to the shunt motor. we would expect them to come up with reasons behind the cause of the faults. The situation is as follows: The vehicle is not getting started though sufficient fuel is available and there is no problem with the ignition system. Probable Faults We want the learners to come up with the probable faults that may appear in the starting system. hence these are preferred over the two pole motors.

Suggested Activity: Question and Answer The following questions can be asked to the learners: 1. Which type of motor is preferred and why? Page 10 Ver 1:.The group of learners will deliberate on the situation. Patil. the motor will not run and thus will be unable to start the engine. The battery voltage and terminals need to be checked. At least one of the learners is expected to come up with reasons/faults due to which the vehicle is not getting started. The starter switch also needs inspection. If the battery is drained. If the meshing doesn’t take place. KESRIT .01 Automotive Starting System Satyajit R. What is the range of the minimum cranking speed for SI and CI engines? 2. the voltage would have reduced and it may not be sending current to the motor. If the windings of the motor get short circuited. the starting switch or the cranking motor itself. a question-answer session will be conducted to seek the correct answers from the learners. The problem may be attributed to the battery. Why pinion flywheel reduction is arranged in the starting system? 3. The motor terminals also should be checked for proper contact. The faculty may require to refine and reinforce the answers given by the learners. the drive from motor will not get transmitted to the engine and it will not start. Also. Conclusion For conclusion. The drive mechanism also should be checked for open circuit or engagement of pinion and flywheel ring gear. the terminals should be cleaned as unclean terminals may not establish proper contact.

Identify probable faults in the starting system. Draw schematic of the same.Summary In this session. Write requirements of starting system. Justify type of motor used. List various components of starting system. Understand working of the same. KESRIT Page 11 . we learnt to: Understand need of automotive starting system. Patil. Automotive Starting System Satyajit R.

Page 12 Ver 1:. KESRIT . List elements of typical automotive starting system and write role of the same in overall functioning of the system.Assignment 1. 3. 2. They are also required to write the specifications of the stating system of the said vehicles.01 Automotive Starting System Satyajit R. Patil. The learners can be divided in groups of 5 each. They are supposed to visit any garage/service station nearby and observe starting system of any three vehicles of preferably different categories. Draw the schematic of typical automotive starting system.

Tata McGrawHill Tom Denton. SAE International Automotive Starting System Satyajit R.References P. Automobile Electrical and Electronics Systems. L. Kohli. KESRIT Page 13 . Automotive Electrical Equipment. Patil.