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# STKIP SURYA DIFFERENTIATED INSTRUCTION GUIDE

LaRaeAlcidor, Wenting (Kayla) Jiang, Robert Lengacher EME6631 Management of Instructional Development Instructional Systems Florida State University April 17, 2012

Introduction

## STKIP Surya Differentiated Instruction Guide

This guide features 25 teacher-tested strategies that have been shown to be effective for particular learner characteristics. The descriptions are purposefully short to give you a broad overview of the strategy so you can narrow your search very quickly. When you find a strategy you like, please utilize the links to learn more about the strategy before you implement it with your students. A section is included at the end of this document for you to add your own strategies.

## STKIP Surya Differentiated Instruction Guide

Targeted Student Teaching Characteristi Strategy cs R8. Mnemonics Memorizing Information Description A memory aid where a piece of information that must be memorized is associated with a short saying, sequence, action, or a visual image. First letter mnemonics: The first letter of each word in a memorable phrase stands for information in a sequence. Chunking mnemonics: Breaking a long sequence of numbers or words into smaller chunks. The chunks are then memorized. Before mobile phones had internal contact lists, phone numbers were often organized in this manner. Read more...
http://www.lpg.fsu.edu/charting/Instru ctionalStrategies/howto-tactics/htk1flmne.asp#Activities

Example English-speaking students may memorize the order of mathematical operations using the following Mnemonic: Please Excuse My Dear, Aunt Sally. The first letter of each word, PEMDAS, can be used to simplify mathematical expressions in the following order: 1. Parentheses 2. Exponents 3. Multiplication/Division 4. Addition/Subtraction More Examples:
http://www.learningassistance.com/2 006/january/mnemonics.html

## STKIP Surya Differentiated Instruction Guide

R8. Memorizing Information Elaborative Elaborative rehearsal is a Rehearsa memory technique where l students start with a term or a concept, and then they continue to describe the topic by adding more details and facts about the topic. Instead of simple repetition, they memorize the concept by building a complete mental model. Read More:
http://www.alleydog.com/glossary/def inition.php?term=Elaborative %20Rehearsal

Cat Poem I like cats I like when they purr I like their tails, their whiskers, their fur I like cats Theyre called a feline They nurse their young, which makes them a mammal I like cats

## Demonstrati on Application Integration

R9. Taking notes L3. Learning Style Preference Seeing and Watching

Flash Cards

A memory aid for definitions and facts using cards or small pieces of paper. On one side the student writes a vocabulary term for the concept; On the opposite side the concept is explained or defined. Students can then quiz themselves or each other by supplying the term or the definition and then checking the other side of the card.
Examples and explanations:
http://muskingum.edu/~cal/database/ content/anthropology3.html

## Activation Demonstrati on Application

Source:
http://learningcenter.unc.edu/service s/handouts/Note%20Cards

## STKIP Surya Differentiated Instruction Guide

R9. Taking notes Outlining A note-taking method based on organizing topics and subtopics using numerals, letters, bullets, and indentation. Outlines can be made from textbooks that include headings and subheadings. The general structure of an outline: 1) Main Topic a) Subtopic i) Examples, Definitions, and Details How To:
http://www.sas.calpoly.edu/asc/ssl/not etakingsystems.html#outline

Demonstrati on Application

Source:
http://www.bu.edu/aldolase/biochemi stry/html_docs/Lab3-1_Outline.GIF

## Another Example: (Scroll down to Written Outline)

http://muskingum.edu/~cal/database/ content/anthropology3.html

R9. Taking notes L3. Learning Style Preference Seeing and Watching

Matrices (Tables)

A table for organizing multiple examples for repeated categories. Learners may be able to see relationships and patterns among concepts more easily than other methods. Many uses in Science and Mathematics. How To:

Demonstrati on Application

## STKIP Surya Differentiated Instruction Guide

http://www.sas.calpoly.edu/asc/ssl/not etakingsystems.html http://www.sas.calpoly.edu/asc/ssl/not etakingsystems.html#charting

Source:

http://www.docstoc.com/docs/36971 505/Global-Warming-Note-TakingChart

## R9. Taking notes

Cornell Notes

An easy way to take notes by dividing the paper into two columns: a narrow column on the left, and a wide column on the right. Detailed notes are written on the right during class, and main points are added to the left column after class. How To:
http://lsc.sas.cornell.edu/Sidebars/Stu dy_Skills_Resources/cornellsystem.pdf http://www.umfk.edu/trio/study/notes/ default.cfm

## Demonstrati on Application Integration

Source:
http://www.umfk.edu/images/new/co ntent/trio/cornell_diag.jpg

R9. Taking notes L3. Learning Style Preference Seeing and Watching

Concept Mapping

Concept Mapping is a visual way of taking notes. The main topic is at the center of the diagram with key concepts branching out from the center. The use of color, thick or thin lines, and pictures in the diagram are encouraged to help students make sense of the information. This method is especially liked by visual and

Source:

## STKIP Surya Differentiated Instruction Guide

artistic students. How To:
http://www.sas.calpoly.edu/asc/ssl/not etakingsystems.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Mind MapGuidlines.svg

## R4. Physics R5. Chemistry R6. Using Computers

KWL Charts

K - what you Know W - what you Want to know L - what you Learned The teacher completes a threecolumn chart with the class to activate their prior knowledge and generate questions to investigate during the lesson. After the lesson, the class revisits the chart to record what was learned. These charts can be completed as a class or by individual students.

Activation Integration

So urce:
https://fc.mcla.edu/~km0752@mcla. edu/FOV1-0001C69E/%20Standard %20D%20Evidence %20Folder/007AEFF2-011EDEAF? Action=IBPicture8

## STKIP Surya Differentiated Instruction Guide

R1. Reading R2. Writing R3. Mathematics R4. Physics R5. Chemistry Tiered Assignm ents (Blooms Assessm ent Choice Chart) A chart containing six rows, one each for the different levels of cognitive processing in the Revised Blooms Taxonomy. On each row is an activity that requires students to demonstrate their learning at lower or higher levels of the taxonomy. Give students a choice in how to demonstrate their learning based on their readiness level and learning profile. All activities should take about the same level of effort. This strategy is time consuming to create and grade, so it can only practically be used once in a while. Fewer categories can be used to make management easier. Read more about the Revised Blooms Taxonomy
http://www.celt.iastate.edu/teaching/ RevisedBlooms1.html

Application Integration

## More ideas for tiered assignments

http://www.derry.k12.nh.us/dvs/differ entiation/tiered.pdf

## STKIP Surya Differentiated Instruction Guide

R4. Physics R5. Chemistry In3. Unique cultural aspects In4. Fun home activities In5. Problems to solve at home P.O.E. (Predict, Observe, Explain) An activation technique similar to KWL that works well with science inquiry. Predict: Students are told about or shown an interesting science phenomenon. Observe: Students carefully observe the phenomenon, and some may run tests to make observations. Explain: Students conduct research to help them explain their observations. P.O.E.s can relate to students personal lives or interests. The more unpredictable the phenomenon, the more students will learn as they investigate the unexpected observations. Read more
http://arb.nzcer.org.nz/strategies/poe. php

Famous P.O.E. Task: What do you predict will happen if I use a sledgehammer to hit the blocks on top of a person lying on a bed of nails?

Activation

Photo source:
http://www.physics.ucla.edu/demowe b/images/smashbrickssm.jpg

## STKIP Surya Differentiated Instruction Guide

Interests
Targeted Student Teaching Characteristi Strategy cs In3. Unique Inquiry cultural Question aspects s In4. Fun (Essentia home l activities Question In5. s) Problems to solve at home Description
Pose questions that will motivate your students to learn more about the topic. The key is to choose a question that is relevant and meaningful to your students and that is essential for them to learn in your class. Use information from the Learner Analysis Tool to ask about aspects of the students culture. When students attempt to answer inquiry questions, they often learn larger concepts within a discipline. Read more
http://www.authenticeducation.org/ae _bigideas/article.lasso?artid=53

Example For Papuan students in a physics class, your inquiry question might be: Why must an arrow be aimed above a target that is farther away? Concepts encountered: Newtons Laws of motion, Mass, Velocity, Acceleration, Gravity, Air resistance

## Lesson Plan Phase Activation Integration

In3. Unique cultural aspects In4. Fun home activities In5. Problems to solve at home

Analogies

When teaching complicated ideas, use simpler ideas from the students lives and experiences to illustrate the idea. A good strategy is to think of how you would explain a complicated idea to a small child. Read more
http://www.coe.uga.edu/twa/PDF/Glyn

In science class, challenge students to make childrens books with colorful pictures, analogies, and simple language to explain what they are studying. Sample challenge: Explain how an animal cell is like a factory.

## STKIP Surya Differentiated Instruction Guide

n_1995.pdf

In3. Unique cultural aspects In4. Fun home activities In5. Problems to solve at home

## In5. Problems to solve at home

Design Challeng e

Pose a real-world science or math related problem for groups of students to solve. Make this highly motivating by using problems from students actual lives and experiences. Students engage in the following: Conduct background research Make predictions about how to solve the problem. Test or study their predictions. Share their results. Similar to Problem-based Learning, but this has a physics/engineering focus. Pose a real-world problem that can potentially be solved through technology. Make this highly motivating by using problems from students actual lives and experiences. Students teams follow the engineering process to solve their problem: Conduct background research Plan a Design proposal. Create the design (on paper

Sample problem: Suggest inexpensive methods to protect houses from tsunamis near the coast. Online PBL Design Guide:
http://pbl-online.org/

## STKIP Surya Differentiated Instruction Guide

or the computer) Build the Design Test the design and collect data Revise the design and keep improving Share their results.

Photo source:

## STKIP Surya Differentiated Instruction Guide

Learning Profile
Targeted Student Characteristi cs L3. Learning Style Preference Writing L4. Learning Product Preference Teaching Strategy Journaling Description A daily writing activity where students write in a bound notebook in response to a prompt provided by the teacher. This is often used to review material from the previous lesson or to get students thinking about the topic of the lesson. Journaling usually only lasts for 5 minutes per day, and journals are checked about once per month. Example Sample prompt: Describe an example of acceleration that you observed yesterday? Lesson Plan Phase Activation Demonstrati on Application Integration

Photo Source:
http://www.sxc.hu/photo/732913

## Concentric Chat Circles

This strategy is designed to motivate and build community among students as they share their perspectives on various questions. The group is divided in two, with half of them forming a tight circle in the center of the room. The remaining people then pair up with someone in the circle. The facilitator then poses a

Example Questions What social problem touches you most right now and why? What is your favorite class at STKIP Surya? Why do you like it? Photos of Concentric Chat Circles:
http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_WcQVYTOJ

## STKIP Surya Differentiated Instruction Guide

question for each pair to answer in a few minutes. Then, either the inner or outer circle is asked to rotate "x" spaces to the right or left. Another question is asked for the new pair to discuss. Read more
http://www.uvm.edu/~dewey/reflectio n_manual/activities.html vdU/Sty40jF7uUI/AAAAAAAAC2E/79E JX9tI4SQ/s1600/1.JPG http://globallab.org/mt/BBFall09/Concentric %20Circle.JPG

## L14. Like to Exit Tickets receive help? L15. Help preferences

As students leave class, have them submit their answer to a closing question each day as their ticket out of the room. Half-sheets or scraps of paper can be used for this purpose. This can be used to check for understanding or see if they have additional questions. Questions should usually only require a one-sentence answer. Auditory learners prefer to hear information to help them learn. Often, students can remember information if they put it into a song or a chant. Playing songs or recordings of books and stories is also a great strategy.

Sample Questions (a different question each day): Explain how to calculate 74 What was the most interesting thing you learned today? What are you still confused about from todays lesson?

Application Integration

## Sing and Chant!

Choose a popular tune or wellknown childrens tune and challenge your students to create new lyrics that teach the math or science concept you are teaching. Allow students to share their songs in class. This usually results in lots of laughs, but a great deal

Application Integration

## STKIP Surya Differentiated Instruction Guide

of review takes place to write the song lyrics. L3. Learning Style Preference Seeing and Watching (Visual) L3. Learning Style Preference Moving and Acting it Out Hands-on Learning Show Me! Visual learners prefer to see information to help them learn. Add visual images to explain and illustrate what you are teaching. Color coding your notes may also be helpful for these students. In science classes, have students engage in hands-on labs. Many students enjoy handling and collecting data on concrete objects. When students are asked about an object, their writing may be more descriptive if they can touch the object in addition to looking at it. If a student has a hard time sitting still he or she may be a kinesthetic learner. They may like opportunities to move to help them learn a new concept. This may be done with simple hand motions or full-body motions of multiple students. As much as possible, draw pictures to accompany your science and math concepts. Visually work problems in front of the class. Video clips are always very popular, and can be used for motivation too. In physics class, teach inertia by having students attempt to accelerate an object of little mass and another object of much greater mass. Have them make inferences about the masses based on how they felt while pushing them. Follow this up with actual mass measurments. If appropriate, in chemistry class, illustrate the kinetic theory of motion by having students group tightly together to illustrate a solid, less tightly and moving to illustrate a liquid, and have them move quickly separated from each other to illustrate a gas. Activation Demonstrati on

Hands-on Learning

Act it out!

## STKIP Surya Differentiated Instruction Guide

L14. Like to Help receive help? wanted cards L15. Help preferences Use a two-sided card to help shy students ask for help. Give each student a blank card. On one side, have them write, I need help. On the other side, have the write, Im fine. It might be good to color-code each side. When a student needs help, have him or her turn the I need help side up. As you walk around you will know who needs extra help. Students who would not normally ask for help are more likely to ask for help in this manner.
Involves a three step cooperative activity. Step 1: Individuals think silently about a question posed by the instructor. Step 2: Students pair up and share their thoughts and find a common answer. Step 3: Pairs of students share their answers and thoughts with the rest of the class At the end of the activity, the teacher can summarize the

## Demonstrati on Application Integration

L1. Favorite Learning Activities Group activities L3. Learning Style Preference Talking

Think-PairShare

Activation Application

Photo source:

## STKIP Surya Differentiated Instruction Guide

activity by teaching the correct answer and pointing out positive group behavior.

L1. Favorite Learning Activities Group activities L3. Learning Style Preference Talking

## Cooperative Learning Groups

Students work in small groups to complete a task. All students contribute equally, but each person plays a specific role for a particular task. A list of possible roles: Materials manager: Collect group materials, distribute materials, and return materials when finished. Recorder: Keeps an official record of group work Timer: Keeps track of the time Manager: Encourages group members Makes sure everyone contributes to answering the questions Teaching Tip: Groups of 3 work best in these activities.

Application Integration

## An example from a science class

http://olc.spsd.sk.ca/DE/PD/instr/strats/co op/beaver.pdf

## Jigsaw Learning Groups

Another cooperative learning activity. 1. Divide the class into groups of 4-6 students. 2. Break a complicated lesson

Sample task: Mysteries are great tasks for the Jigsaw format. Each student is given one clue related to a case. Only by

Application

## STKIP Surya Differentiated Instruction Guide

L3. Learning Style Preference Talking into the same number of topics or parts. 3. Assign one member of each team to learn one of the lesson parts. Each student on a team will study and learn a different piece of the lesson. 4. Later in the class, group members share their part of the lesson with other teammates. 5. The teacher then does a whole-class wrap-up working together each person presenting what they have learned about their clue can the case be solved. Implementing Jigsaw in 10 steps

http://www.jigsaw.org/steps.htm